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1

Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

2011-01-01

2

Combating the Epidemic of Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Perspectives from School-aged Children  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the obstacles to positive dietary practices and increased physical activity and to solicit the students’ recommendations for addressing and possibly reducing the negative practices that are associated with the rise in obesity and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Data for the study were obtained from the administration of the 2005 Project Health High School Survey (PHHSS) which measured the students’ perceptions regarding obstacles to eating more nutritious, healthier foods and obstacles to participating in daily physical activity. The reasons for students’ lack of interest in practicing more life-healthy behaviors are ranked and recorded. Some of the students indicated that they usually ate what they liked to eat, and the decision about what to eat was made because of the taste of the food without regard for any health consequence or negative health outcomes. Finding ways to reach these students at their young ages is the key to successfully combating the high prevalence of obesity and the development of other chronic diseases in childhood, as well as in adulthood. PMID:16968973

Addison, Clifton C.; White, Monique S.; Jenkins, Brenda W.; Young, Lavon

2006-01-01

3

Modelling Plant Disease Epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemic is the progress of disease in time and space. Each epidemic has a structure whose temporal dynamics and spatial patterns are jointly determined by the pathosystem characteristics and environmental conditions. One of the important objectives in epidemiology is to understand such spatio-temporal dynamics via mathematical and statistical modelling. In this paper, we outline common methodologies that are used

A. van Maanen; X.-M. Xu

2003-01-01

4

Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing, certain cancers, and major cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Because of its maladaptive effects on various CV risk factors and its adverse effects on CV structure and function, obesity has a

Carl J. Lavie; Richard V. Milani; Hector O. Ventura

2009-01-01

5

Ebola virus disease epidemic.  

PubMed

The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-11-01

6

Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.

2008-12-05

7

The Importance of Diabetes Mellitus in the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: The Case of the State of Qatar  

PubMed Central

As a manifestation of the epidemiologic transition being experienced throughout the developing world, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing. However, whether an individual's risk of cardiovascular diseases as a consequence of DM is also higher in these countries is unknown. We conducted a case-control study at the medical center in the state of Qatar comparing the prevalence of DM in 512 patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) and 262 cases of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) to 382 hospital and outpatient controls to calculate the odds ratios (OR) associated with DM for MI and CVA. The OR for MI was estimated to be 4.01 compared to 2.92 for other countries in the Middle East and 1.75 for North America. The OR was even higher for Qatari natives. Understanding the reasons for this increase, including genetic differences, lifestyle, and medical management issues, is critical for the design and prioritization of effective interventions. PMID:23303985

Mushlin, Alvin I.; Christos, Paul J.; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Deleu, Dirk; Gehani, Abdul Razak

2012-01-01

8

Mitochondrial cytopathies and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The global epidemic of cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA and across the world. Functional and structural integrity of mitochondria are essential for the physiological function of the cardiovascular system. The metabolic adaptation observed in normal heart is lost in the failing myocardium, which becomes progressively energy depleted leading to impaired myocardial contraction and relaxation. Uncoupling of electron transfer from ATP synthesis leads to excess generation of reactive species, leading to widespread cellular injury and cardiovascular disease. Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutation has been linked to ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Mitochondria are known to regulate apoptotic and autophagic pathways that have been shown to play an important role in the development of cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options have been explored in the management of mitochondrial diseases with variable success. PMID:24449718

Dominic, Elizabeth A; Ramezani, Ali; Anker, Stefan D; Verma, Mukesh; Mehta, Nehal; Rao, Madhumathi

2014-04-01

9

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes,

K Srinath Reddy; Martijn B Katan

2004-01-01

10

Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson

2002-01-01

11

Obesity and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a major contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, and yet has only recently\\u000a been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease. Obesity is a chronic metabolic\\u000a disorder associated with cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations\\/alterations\\u000a in cardiac

Paul Poirier; Robert H. Eckel

2002-01-01

12

Physical Activity, Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45–60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and

T. A. Lakka; C. Bouchard

13

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

14

Cardiovascular Disease in Developing Countries: Myths, Realities, and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially ischemic heart disease and stroke, varies remarkably between regions of the world, with declining rates in Europe, North America, and Australia\\/New Zealand, burgeoning epidemics in the former socialist economies and India, and relatively lower impact in developing regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. The basis for a prediction of a global CVD epidemic

Thomas A. Pearson

1999-01-01

15

Understanding cardiovascular disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

16

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

17

Cardiovascular disease prevention.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases remain the first killer in the Western countries. Equivalent contributions of prevention initiatives, pharmaceutical developments and technological improvements have led to an important success in the reduction of mortality related to cardiovascular diseases in some of the countries of the Western world. However, increase in life expectance, incomplete adherence to guidelines, difficulties in convincing governments and the population to support and adhere to prevention measures make that the burden of cardiovascular diseases is still extremely high. This review gives a restricted summary of the most important prevention guidelines supported by the European Society of Cardiology. It also illustrates the still very incomplete adherence to these guidelines in the different European countries as published in the EUROASPIRE surveys. PMID:25176558

Van Camp, G

2014-12-01

18

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and

Caren E. Smith; José M. Ordovás

2010-01-01

19

Tea and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A

2011-08-01

20

Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

Fares, Auda

2013-01-01

21

Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of testosterone (T) on cardiovascular disease in both men and women are summarized in this chapter. The epidemiologic\\u000a data suggest that hypogonadism is associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity,\\u000a asthma\\/COPD. Physiologically, androgen binding protein is expressed in the cardiac myocyte. Testosterone also affects basal\\u000a levels of intracellular calcium in the cardiac myocyte, as well

Allen D. Seftel; Spencer Land

22

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Coronary heart disease  

E-print Network

1 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) · Coronary heart disease · Cerebrovascular disease · Peripheral arterial disease · Rheuma7c heart disease · Congenital heart disease · Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism Atherosclerosis CVD is caused by damage caused

Dever, Jennifer A.

23

ENDEMIC DISEASES VS. ACUTE EPIDEMICS  

PubMed Central

Epidemics are cared for through the incident terror of the people, and there is always money to fight them and investigate, but the far more important insidious endemics attract little interest or popular support. Attention to reduction in morbidity, rather than mortality, rates is the “stitch in time” plea of Dr. Ravenel. PMID:18010377

Ravenel, Mazyck P.

1920-01-01

24

HDL and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The cholesterol contained within HDL is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and is a key component of predicting cardiovascular risk. However, despite its properties consistent with atheroprotection, the causal relation between HDL and atherosclerosis is uncertain. Human genetics and failed clinical trials have created scepticism about the HDL hypothesis. Nevertheless, drugs that raise HDL-C concentrations, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, are in late-stage clinical development, and other approaches that promote HDL function, including reverse cholesterol transport, are in early-stage clinical development. The final chapters regarding the effect of HDL-targeted therapeutic interventions on coronary heart disease events remain to be written. PMID:25131981

Rader, Daniel J; Hovingh, G Kees

2014-08-16

25

Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been intensively studied and described, the underlying events that initiate cardiovascular disease are not yet fully understood. A substantial number of studies suggest that altered levels of oxidative and nitrosoxidative stress within the cardiovascular environment are essential in the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the impact of such changes on the subcellular or organellar

Scott W. Ballinger

2005-01-01

26

Arsenic and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase–derived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure. PMID:19015167

States, J. Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron

2009-01-01

27

A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose–response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by

Chih-Hao Wang; Chuhsing Kate Hsiao; Chi-Ling Chen; Lin-I Hsu; Hung-Yi Chiou; Shu-Yuan Chen; Yu-Mei Hsueh; Meei-Maan Wu; Chien-Jen Chen

2007-01-01

28

Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death in North America. To improve outcomes, it will likely be necessary\\u000a to identify new potentially treatable conditions. Sleep apnea affects approximately 50% of patients with cardiovascular disease\\u000a and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Continuous positive airway pressure is currently the treatment of choice\\u000a and has many short-term favorable effects. The

Alexander G. Logan; T. Douglas Bradley

2010-01-01

29

Gene Therapy and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy is a promising new field in modern medicine and holds great potential for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.\\u000a This chapter will discuss the principles and methods of gene-based therapy and the use of gene transfer in research and in\\u000a treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Yi Chu; Neal L. Weintraub; Donald D. Heistad

30

Epidemic diseases at the New York Hospital.  

PubMed Central

The New York Hospital has enjoyed a long, rich history in the development of American health care. AIDS has made relevant an understanding of the failures and successes achieved during past epidemics. Innovations in disease prevention and patient care have been essential in the conquest of pestilence. However, public indifference toward the people at greatest risk for these diseases has traditionally delayed attempts to prevent significant loss of life and socioeconomic destruction. PMID:1933070

Klein, W. A.; Reader, G. G.

1991-01-01

31

Branching processes in disease epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a model of infectious diseases where a `reservoir' of infection exists that infects a susceptible host population at a constant rate. The final chapter of the thesis describes a general framework of modeling infectious diseases in a network of populations using multitype branching processes.

Singh, Sarabjeet

32

Spread of epidemic disease on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on networks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community. In this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models, the so-called susceptible/infective/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly on a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case of fixed infectiveness time and fixed and uncorrelated probability of transmission between all pairs of individuals, we solve cases in which times and probabilities are nonuniform and correlated. We also consider one simple case of an epidemic in a structured population, that of a sexually transmitted disease in a population divided into men and women. We confirm the correctness of our exact solutions with numerical simulations of SIR epidemics on networks.

Newman, M. E.

2002-07-01

33

Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine. PMID:24722571

Csanyi, Gabor; Miller, Francis J.

2014-01-01

34

Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease: FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... their physicians, dietitians and nutritionists. 5. Do high-carbohydrate diets increase triglycerides and risk for cardiovascular disease? ... ATP III), suggests that very high intakes of carbohydrates (CHO) (greater than 60 percent of total calories) ...

35

Cardiovascular disease and HIV infection.  

PubMed

The emergence of chronic disease complications in controlled HIV disease has changed the landscape of HIV clinical care. HIV infection confers an increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to be due to a complex interplay of mechanistic factors. While traditional cardiovascular risk factors likely play a role, recent evidence suggests that HIV-associated inflammation and immune activation are important mediators of cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether established preventative interventions for the general population are applicable to HIV-infected patients, and the need to translate mechanistic knowledge into HIV-specific clinical interventions represents an important priority. Developing strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals calls for a multidisciplinary approach and represents an opportunity to exert a major public health impact in an at-risk population. PMID:23793823

Triant, Virginia A

2013-09-01

36

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Oct 28,2014 Th is winter season will bring cooler temperatures and ice ... for some. It’s important to know how cold weather can affect your heart, especially if you have ...

37

Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

2000-01-01

38

Genetics of Human Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease encompasses a range of conditions extending from myocardial infarction to congenital heart disease most of which are heritable. Enormous effort has been invested in understanding the genes and specific DNA sequence variants responsible for this heritability. Here, we review the lessons learned for monogenic and common, complex forms of cardiovascular disease. We also discuss key challenges that remain for gene discovery and for moving from genomic localization to mechanistic insights with an emphasis on the impact of next generation sequencing and the use of pluripotent human cells to understand the mechanism by which genetic variation contributes to disease. PMID:22424232

Kathiresan, Sekar; Srivastava, Deepak

2012-01-01

39

Clot properties and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to fibrin, which provides the blood clot with its essential structural backbone. As an acute phase protein, the plasma levels of fibrinogen are increased in response to inflammatory conditions. In addition to fibrinogen levels, fibrin clot structure is altered by a number of factors. These include thrombin levels, treatment with common cardiovascular medications, such as aspirin, anticoagulants, statins and fibrates, as well as metabolic disease states such as diabetes mellitus and hyperhomocysteinaemia. In vitro studies of fibrin clot structure can provide information regarding fibre density, clot porosity, the mechanical strength of fibres and fibrinolysis. A change in fibrin clot structure, to a denser clot with smaller pores which is more resistant to lysis, is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. This pathological change is present in patients with arterial as well as venous diseases, and is also found in a moderate form in relatives of patients with cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological therapies, aimed at both the treatment and prophylaxis of cardiovascular disease, appear to result in positive changes to the fibrin clot structure. As such, therapies aimed at 'normalising' fibrin clot structure may be of benefit in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24899357

Bridge, K I; Philippou, H; Ariëns, R A S

2014-11-01

40

Commentary: environmental disease--a preventable epidemic  

SciTech Connect

Toxic environmental diseases are highly preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Toxic diseases in the work environment cause an estimated 50,000 to 70,000 deaths and 350,000 new cases of illness each year in the United States; the asbestos pandemic will ultimately claim at least 300,000 lives; pediatric lead poisoning is epidemic, and an estimated 3 to 4 million US preschool children have blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl and could suffer long-term neuropsychological impairment. Prevention of environmental diseases can be achieved through legislation and regulation that control common-source exposures to chemical toxins. Modification of personal behaviors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, complements but does not replace control of toxic environmental exposures.

Landrigan, P.J. (Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

1992-07-01

41

Pharmacogenomics and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established critical pathways and specific loci modulating therapeutic responses to commonly used drugs such as clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins. In addition, genomic approaches have defined mechanisms and genetic variants underlying important toxicities with these and other drugs. These findings have not only resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described to date might be deployed in clinical decision making. PMID:23689943

Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M.

2014-01-01

42

Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21403831

Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begona; Mallavia, Benat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

2011-01-01

43

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427119

Batuman, Vecihi

2014-11-27

44

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427122

Alderman, Michael H

2014-11-27

45

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427121

Graudal, Niels

2014-11-27

46

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427120

Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Gand, Elise; Hadjadj, Samy

2014-11-27

47

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427117

2014-11-27

48

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427118

Cook, Nancy R

2014-11-27

49

Cardiovascular Disease and Neurocognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiovascular (CV) diseases confer substantial increase in risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Yet, outside the context\\u000a of clinical stroke, the brain is an under-recognized target organ of a spectrum of CV diseases. Although it has long been\\u000a known that CV risk factors and diseases contribute to the development of vascular dementia, we now know that similar risk\\u000a is conferred

Shari R. Waldstein; Carrington Rice Wendell; Megan M. Hosey; Stephen L. Seliger; Leslie I. Katzel

50

Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Although cardiovascular disease has traditionally been viewed as a condition of aging individuals, increasing focus has turned to its developmental origins. Since birthweight has been related to cardiovascular disease risk, research into factors such as gravid conditions that affect fetal growth have grown. Associations between maternal diabetes and childhood obesity from sibling studies suggest a causal role but prospective studies of gestational diabetes remain mixed. Preeclampsia and increased offspring blood pressure has been consistently observed but evidence for other cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. While maternal obesity is associated with childhood obesity, causality remains unclear and paternal obesity should be investigated as an independent risk factor. Environmental chemical exposures in utero, particularly obesogens, are now emerging as another concern, as is conception by infertility treatment. Few studies have investigated subclinical measures of endothelial function or atherosclerosis and more research in these areas may help reveal the underlying pathogenesis.

Yeung, Edwina H.; Robledo, Candace; Boghossian, Nansi; Zhang, Cuilin; Mendola, Pauline

2014-01-01

51

Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify

M. H. Zafarmand

2008-01-01

52

Prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed Central

1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol), fibrates (eg bezafibrate and gemfibrozil) and more recently HMG CoA inhibitors (eg simvastatin). The HMG CoA inhibitors produce large falls in cholesterol and may become first line drugs in future. Because of the current controversy about the effect of lipid-lowering drugs on total mortality, many believe that they should be reserved for those at the highest risk, for example patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia or with pre-existing coronary heart disease and a high plasma cholesterol (> 7.8 mmol/L). 9. The special care group defined by the practice should be offered regular follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1345159

Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.

1992-01-01

53

Reproductive & Cardiovascular Disease Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Reproductive & Cardiovascular Disease Research Group is "based in the Department of Biochemistry and Immunology at St. George's, University of London." The Group's "research interests include a number of areas concerned with reproductive and cardiovascular diseases such as trophoblast biology, nitric oxide and apoptosis, with particular emphasis on the role of these subjects in diseases of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia." This website contains descriptions of protocols commonly utilized by the Research Group such as DNA laddering, Comet Assay, Immunoprecipitation, and Caspase Assay, to name a few. This site also contains informative sections concerning Nitric Oxide, Apoptosis, and Trophoblasts. The website includes a list of publications, and email addresses of group members as well.

Dash, Phil.

54

Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD. PMID:17120060

2006-01-01

55

[Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease].  

PubMed

Circadian blood pressure (BP) patterns are regulated mainly by autonomic nerve system. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) reveals that BP has circadian pattern over a 24 h period. The decline in nocturnal BP by 10-20% is considered to be normal (a dipper pattern). Non-dipper, riser, and extreme-dipper circadian patterns are considered to be abnormal because of their association with poor prognosis and end organ damage such as heart failure and cerebral vascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, end organ damage alters circadian BP patterns especially at night and people with CVD or heart failure have a high prevalence of abnormal circadian BP patterns. PMID:25167749

Kanda, Takeshi; Takeda, Ayano; Kawabe, Hiroshi

2014-08-01

56

Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

As men grow older, testosterone (T) levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD. PMID:24407188

Yeap, Bu Beng

2014-01-01

57

Functional foods and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic\\u000a nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic,\\u000a tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and

Clare M. Hasler; Susan Kundrat; Deborah Wool

2000-01-01

58

Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Recent findings Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. Summary The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing. PMID:24717670

Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A.

2014-01-01

59

Rare variants and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the Western world. Large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and dilated cardiomyopathy have identified a number of common genetic variants with modest effects on disease risk. Similarly, studies of important modifiable risk factors of CVD have identified a large number of predominantly common variant associations, for example, with blood pressure and blood lipid levels. In each case, despite the often large numbers of loci identified, only a small proportion of the phenotypic variance is explained. It has been hypothesised that rare variants with large effects may account for some of the missing variance but large-scale studies of rare variation are in their infancy for cardiovascular traits and have yet to produce fruitful results. Studies of monogenic CVDs, inherited disorders believed to be entirely driven by individual rare mutations, have highlighted genes that play a key role in disease aetiology. In this review, we discuss how findings from studies of rare variants in monogenic disease and GWAS of predominantly common variants are converging to provide further insight into biological disease mechanisms. PMID:24771349

Wain, Louise V

2014-09-01

60

Erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction is a highly prevalent disease, especially in cardiovascular-compromised men. Many of the well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also risk factors for erectile dysfunction. A correlation between erectile dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction is well established. It is postulated that erectile dysfunction with an arteriovascular aetiology can predate and be an indicator of potential coronary artery disease. In this paper we will attempt to increase awareness among cardiologists for the predictive value of erectile dysfunction for future cardiovascular disease in order to optimise cardiovascular risk management. The treatment of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular interactions is also discussed in detail. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1B

Ophuis, A.J.M. Oude; Nijeholt, A.A.B. Lycklama a

2006-01-01

61

Cardiovascular disease and depression in women.  

PubMed

Heart disease and depression are very common, frequently concomitant, conditions that were previously speculated by the World Health Organization to be the first and second leading causes of disability (respectively) by the year 2020. There have been no secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease trials that have shown treatment of depression reduces cardiovascular events. Women are different, all with diverse types of cardiovascular disease and depression, which likely respond to different treatments. More clinical trials are needed to further assess the association of cardiovascular disease and depression, investigate biomarkers and ways to treat depression, and evaluate if treatment of depression makes a positive impact on cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:21109206

Mehta, Laxmi S

2011-01-01

62

Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

It has long been known from case series that vitamin D excess can lead to atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in humans. In the 1980s, ecological studies provided data that deficient human vitamin D status may also increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assumption of a biphasic vitamin D effect on CVD is supported by experimental studies: Numerous studies have demonstrated positive effects of the vitamin D hormone (1,25-dihydroxyviramin D) on the cardiovascular system. However, the effects and mechanisms that lead to vascular calcification by vitamin D excess could also be confirmed. Large prospective observational studies support the hypothesis of a U-shaped association between vitamin D and CVD. These studies indicate that deficient circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (<30 nmol/l) are independently-associated with increased CVD morbidity and mortality. They also suggest that those circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, which have long been considered to be safe (100-150 nmol/l), are associated with an increased CVD risk. Meanwhile, numerous randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of vitamin D supplements or ultraviolet B radiation on biochemical cardiovascular risk markers, cardiovascular physiology, and cardiovascular outcomes. Overall, results are mixed with the majority of studies reporting neither beneficial nor adverse vitamin D effects. Several limitations in the study design, which may have prevented beneficial vitamin D effects, are discussed. In conclusion, it must be stated that the role of vitamin D in the prevention and management of CVD as well as the dose-response relationship of potentially harmful effects still remain to be established. PMID:25202039

Zittermann, Armin

2014-09-01

63

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is a well-recognized late-onset disease caused by a generalized fibrillopathy. It is linked to a broad spectrum of ocular complications including glaucoma and perioperative problems during cataract surgery. Apart from the long-known intraocular manifestations, PEX deposits have been found in a variety of extraocular locations and they appear to represent a systemic process associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, as published results are inconsistent, the clinical significance of the extraocular PEX deposits remains controversial. Identification of PEX deposits in the heart and the vessel wall, epidemiologic studies, as well as, similarities in pathogenetic mechanisms have led to the hypothesis of a possible relation between fibrillar material and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that PEX syndrome is frequently linked to impaired heart and blood vessels function. Systemic and ocular blood flow changes, altered parasympathetic vascular control and baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular resistance and decreased blood flow velocity, arterial endothelial dysfunction, high levels of plasma homocysteine and arterial hypertension have all been demonstrated in PEX subjects. Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process.

Andrikopoulos, Georgios K; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios K; Gartaganis, Sotirios P

2014-01-01

64

Neurovegetative regulation and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Heart period and arterial pressure short term variabilities contain rhythmic oscillations which might provide information on neural mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function. Continuous electrocardiographic and/or arterial pressure signals, after appropriate analogue to digital conversion, furnish the time series which constitute the basis for spectral analysis of their variabilities. Under stationary conditions, this methodology can be utilized to assess both total variability and the power and center frequency of each rhythmic component. Human physiological and animal studies support the hypothesis that the low frequency (LF) component, around 0.1 Hz, is a marker of sympathetic modulation of both R-R and arterial pressure variabilities, while the high frequency (HF) component, around 0.25 Hz, is a marker of vagal modulation of R-R variability. LF/HF ratio of R-R variability is a marker of sympatho-vagal balance. Spectral components when assessed for a 24-hour period evidence marked circadian rhythmicity with sympathetic predominance during the day and vagal predominance at night. Various pathophysiological conditions including arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac transplantation, congestive heart failure, Chagas' disease and diabetic neuropathy have been explored with this methodology, and a new quantitative evaluation of the alterations in sympatho-vagal balance which seem to characterize these abnormal states has been obtained. The study of cardiovascular rhythmicity, i.e. an analysis performed in the frequency domain, although based on indirect spectral markers, seems to offer a new clinical tool for the exploration of cardiovascular neural control in health and disease. PMID:1840813

Malliani, A; Pagani, M; Lombardi, F

1991-01-01

65

Hypoglycemia, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in people with diabetes, and the risk of CVD for adults with diabetes is at least two to four times the risk in adults without diabetes. Complications of diabetes, including not only CVD but also microvascular diseases such as retinopathy and nephropathy, are a major health and financial burden. Diabetes is a disease of glucose intolerance, and so much of the research on complications has focused on the role of hyperglycemia. Clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the role of hyperglycemia in microvascular complications of diabetes, but there appears to be less evidence for as strong of a relationship between hyperglycemia and CVD in people with diabetes. Hypoglycemia has become a more pressing health concern as intensive glycemic control has become the standard of care in diabetes. Clinical trials of intensive glucose lowering in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes populations has resulted in significantly increased hypoglycemia, with no decrease in CVD during the trial period, although several studies have shown a reduction in CVD with extended follow-up. There is evidence that hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, and this is one potential explanation for the lack of CVD prevention in trials of intensive glycemic control. Hypoglycemia causes a cascade of physiologic effects and may induce oxidative stress and cardiac arrhythmias, contribute to sudden cardiac death, and cause ischemic cerebral damage, presenting several potential mechanisms through which acute and chronic episodes of hypoglycemia may increase CVD risk. In this review, we examine the risk factors and prevalence of hypoglycemia in diabetes, review the evidence for an association of both acute and chronic hypoglycemia with CVD in adults with diabetes, and discuss potential mechanisms through which hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk. PMID:22650225

Wadwa, R. Paul

2012-01-01

66

Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

2000-01-01

67

Sleep, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In data from prospective cohort studies, self report of insufficient or disturbed sleep is related to increased overall and cardiovascular morbidity. Inflammation is established as a key mechanism in the development of arteriosclerotic heart and vascular disease. Inflammation has been considered a possible link between short sleep and cardiovascular disease and morbidity. Measures of inflammation are increased by experimental sleep deprivation, but in cohort studies a relationship of sleep duration to inflammatory markers is less clear. In these studies the association of self reported short sleep to cardiac morbidity is confounded by many psychological and socioeconomic variables. More studies are needed to explain the link between short sleep duration and cardiac morbidity. Experimental studies of sleep deprivation mimicking habitual shortened sleep over long time intervals, and studies employing sleep extension in habitual short sleepers will allow better characterization of the health benefits of adequate sleep duration. Prospective cohort studies should include objective measures of sleep duration and should to control for the known confounding variables. PMID:22652655

Solarz, David E; Mullington, Janet M; Meier-Ewert, Hans K

2012-01-01

68

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

69

Functional cardiovascular assessment in congenital heart disease.  

E-print Network

??abstractAdequate and serial functional cardiovascular assessment is important in patients with congenital heart disease because many show disruption of normal myocardial geometry, which may or… (more)

W.J.B.W. van den Berg

2007-01-01

70

Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels – or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux – contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future. PMID:21723289

Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

71

Personalized Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Personalized medicine is a novel medical model with all decisions and practices being tailored to individual patients in whatever ways possible. In the era of genomics, personalized medicine combines the genetic information for additional benefit in preventive and therapeutic strategies. Personalized medicine may allow the physician to provide a better therapy for patients in terms of efficiency, safety and treatment length to reduce the associated costs. There was a remarkable growth in scientific publication on personalized medicine within the past few years in the cardiovascular field. However, so far, only very few cardiologists in the USA are incorporating personalized medicine into clinical treatment. We review the concepts, strengths, limitations and challenges of personalized medicine with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There are many challenges from both scientific and policy perspectives to personalized medicine, which can overcome them by comprehensive concept and understanding, clinical application, and evidence based practices. Individualized medicine serves a pivotal role in the evolution of national and global healthcare reform, especially, in the CVDs fields. Ultimately, personalized medicine will affect the entire landscape of health care system in the near future. PMID:23091501

Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J.; Lerman, Lilach O.

2012-01-01

72

Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and intervention trials will be reviewed. Further identification of polyphenols in foods and accurate assessment of exposures through measurement of biomarkers (i.e., polyphenol metabolites) could provide the needed impetus to examine the impact of polyphenol-rich foods on CVD intermediate outcomes (especially those signifying chronic inflammation) and hard endpoints among high risk patients. Although we have mechanistic insight into how polyphenols may function in CVD risk reduction, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for consumption can be made. PMID:23512608

Tangney, Christy; Rasmussen, Heather E.

2013-01-01

73

Genes, environment, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In this essay, we call to attention what every medical researcher knows about the etiology of cardiovascular disease but most deny, or choose to ignore, when designing, carrying out, and reporting genetic studies. Medical research is entering an era of synthesis that will take advantage of the successes of reductionism over the past decade in defining and describing human genome variations. Meaningful insights into the role of such variation requires a biological model of genome-phenotype relationships that incorporates interactions between subsets of possible genetic and environmental agents as causations in particular contexts indexed by time and space. We make recommendations for what needs to be done to cope with these complexities. PMID:12730090

Sing, Charles F; Stengård, Jari H; Kardia, Sharon L R

2003-07-01

74

Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon ?-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase?I?in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in humans primarily by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Highly toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is formed solely in the presence of superoxide anion (O2 (-)). Neopterin and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), as an estimate of IDO enzyme activity, are robust markers of immune activation in vitro and in vivo. Both these diagnostic parameters are able to predict cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients at risk. Likewise, a significant association exists between increase of neopterin concentrations and Kyn/Trp ratio values and the lowering of plasma levels of vitamin-C, -E and -B. Vitamin-B deficiency is usually accompanied by increased plasma homoycsteine. Additional determination of NO metabolites, BH4 and plasma antioxidants in patients with CVD and related clinical settings can be helpful to improve the understanding of redox-regulation in health and disease and might provide a rationale for potential antioxidant therapies in CVD. PMID:24976919

Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

2014-06-26

75

Bayesian Analysis of Epidemics -Zombies, Influenza, and other Diseases  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis of Epidemics - Zombies, Influenza, and other Diseases Caitlyn Witkowski1, , Brian) on the application of disease dynamics to the so-called "zombie apocalypse", and then apply the identical methods to influenza dynamics. Unlike Munz et.al (2009), we include data taken from specific depictions of zombies

Blais, Brian

76

Gender differences in cardiovascular risk indicators and cardiovascular disease among veterans with PTSD.  

E-print Network

??Using the allostatic load model of disease processes, this study investigated gender differences on cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease among PTSD and MDD veterans. Cross-sectional… (more)

Frazier, Elizabeth C.

2008-01-01

77

Implications from and for food cultures for cardiovascular disease: diet, nutrition and cardiovascular diseases in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change of lifestyle of Chinese people, along with the development of the national economy, has caused significant changes of the disease pattern in China. This includes the shift from predominantly communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. This paper summarises epidemiology research results on the relationship between diet, nutrition and cardiovascular diseases (CVD)

Wenhua Zhao; Junshi Chen

2001-01-01

78

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous large epidemiological studies reporting on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases mainly focussed on prevalent diseases rather than on the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular\\u000a outcomes. We used the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to assess the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases in COPD patients aged 40–79 between 1995 and 2005, and

Cornelia Schneider; Ulrich Bothner; Susan S. Jick; Christoph R. Meier

2010-01-01

79

Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071915

Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

2014-01-01

80

Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters’ fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

2005-01-01

81

Cardiovascular disease in patients with hemophilia.  

PubMed

Mortality due to ischemic heart disease in hemophilia patients is lower as compared to the general male population. Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors cannot explain this finding. The hypocoagulable state of hemophilia patients might have a protective effect on thrombus formation, which precipitates infarction. It remains unclear whether the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII or IX exerts a protective effect on the development of atherosclerosis. Despite the relative protection against cardiovascular events, the incidence of ischemic cardiovascular disease in hemophilia patients is increasing, because life expectancy of these patients now approaches that of the general population. This review focuses on what is currently known about cardiovascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, arterial thrombosis and ischemic cardiovascular disease in hemophilia patients. PMID:18983484

Tuinenburg, A; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; Verhaar, M C; Biesma, D H; Schutgens, R E G

2009-02-01

82

Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Studies of chronic stressors are discussed in terms of job stress, marital unhappiness, and burden of caregiving. From all of these studies there are extensive data concerning stressors’ contributions to diverse pathophysiological changes including sudden death, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and wall motion abnormalities, as well as to alterations in cardiac regulation as indexed by changes in sympathetic nervous system activity and hemostasis. Although stressors trigger events, it is less clear that stress “causes” the events. There is nonetheless overwhelming evidence both for the deleterious effects of stress on the heart and for the fact that vulnerability and resilience factors play a role in amplifying or dampening those effects. Numerous approaches are available for stress management that can decrease patients’ suffering and enhance their quality of life. PMID:18371552

Dimsdale, Joel E.

2009-01-01

83

Orally active prostacyclin analogue for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Prostacyclin has vasoprotective effects such as vasodilation and antiplatelet aggregatory activity. A relative deficiency of prostacyclin contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease including pulmonary artery disease (PAH). Inconvenient intravenous dosing of prostacyclin led to the development of more stable, an orally active analogue: beraprost. It is a chemically stable prostacyclin analogue owing to its cyclo-pentabenzofuranyl structure and produces strong vasodilation and inhibition of platelet aggregation. To date, beraprost has been used in the treatment of PAH and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Recently, we have shown that beraprost induces neovascularization in ischemic myocardium by enhancement of bone marrow cell mobilization. Interestingly, meta-analysis of clinical studies for PAD has shown that repeated administration of beraprost decreases the number of cardiovascular events. These results suggest that oral administration of beraprost has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. Orally active prostacyclin analogues, are promising drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20357744

Nagaya, N

2010-04-01

84

Posttraumatic Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing literature indicates that posttraumatic stress is associated with cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Research on specific CVD risk factors and their prevalence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may improve understanding of CVD development in this population. The primary purpose of the present article is to outline the evidence relating posttraumatic stress to CVD risk, with an emphasis

Jeffrey L. Kibler

2009-01-01

85

Cadmium Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium is a widespread toxic metal with potential cardiovascular effects, but no studies have evaluated cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association of urine cadmium concentration with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in a large population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,348 American Indian adults aged 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Follow-up extended through 31 December 2008. Results The geometric mean cadmium level in the study population was 0.94 ?g/g (95% confidence interval= 0.92 – 0.93). We identified 1,084 cardiovascular events, including 400 deaths. After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios (comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations) was 1.43 for cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval=1.21 – 1.70), and 1.34 for coronary heart disease mortality (1.10 – 1.63). The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure were 1.24 (1.11 – 1.38), 1.22 (1.08 – 1.38), 1.75 (1.17 – 2.59) and 1.39 (1.01 – 1.94), respectively. The associations were similar in most study subgroups including never-smokers. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term exposure, was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. These findings support that cadmium exposure is a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23514838

Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

2014-01-01

86

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Cholesterol Lowering, Cardiovascular Diseases,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Cholesterol Lowering, Cardiovascular Diseases, and the Rosuvastatin Rabaeus, MD Background: Among the recently reported cholesterol- lowering drug trials, the JUPITER or low cholesterol levels. Methods: Careful review of both results and methods used in the trial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Disease1  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanins are a group of abundant and widely consumed flavonoid constituents that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors present in many fruit- and vegetable-based food products. Their intake has been estimated to be up to 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins have become increasingly important to the food industry as their use as natural alternatives to artificial colors has become widespread and knowledge of their health-promoting properties has become more evident. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of mortality among men and women. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals, exhibiting synergistic biological effects but making contributions from individual components difficult to decipher. Over the past 2 decades, many peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated that in addition to their noted in vitro antioxidant activity, anthocyanins may regulate different signaling pathways involved in the development of CVD. This review summarizes the latest developments on the bioavailability/bioactivity and CVD preventative activities of anthocyanins, including results from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model systems as related to their multiple proposed mechanisms of action. Limited yet promising data from epidemiological studies and human clinical trials are also presented. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and characterizing their metabolic and/or breakdown products are necessary to ultimately evaluate their use for protection/prevention against the development of CVD. PMID:22211184

Wallace, Taylor C.

2011-01-01

88

[Hypogonadism and cardiovascular diseases in men].  

PubMed

The article analyses correlation between low levels of sex hormones in men (male hypogonadism) and cardiovascular diseases. It was believed for a long time that androgens have adverse effect on cardiovascular system. It is shown that, on the contrary, hypogonadism indirectly raises the risk of cardiovascular diseases via various components of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, correction of male hypogonadism with testosterone preparations may have a positive effect on risk factors of vascular complications including fat reduction, normalization of blood pressure, correction of dyslipidemia. Pharmacologically, testosterone undecanoate for intramuscular injections (nebido) is a good form. This drug can provide a stable physiological testosterone level for about 12 weeks after injection. PMID:22185029

2011-01-01

89

Telomere biology in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Advanced age brings about significant changes to cardiovascular physiology, and is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The basis for this associa- tion remains unclear, but it has been suggested that atherogenesis may share common mech- anisms with the ageing process. Ageing at the cellular level leads to a condition known as replicative senescence, which is

David J. Kurz

2004-01-01

90

Spread of epidemic disease on networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on\\u000anetworks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community.\\u000aIn this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models,\\u000athe so-called susceptible\\/infective\\/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly\\u000aon a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case\\u000aof

M. E. J. Newman

2002-01-01

91

Prevention of cardiovascular disease in women.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women. In fact, the cardiovascular disease mortality rate among women exceeds the rate in men. Unfortunately, many minority women are still unaware of the importance of this disease. All women, including those with no history of cardiovascular disease, should have an accurate estimate of the probability of a cardiovascular disease event (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) usually within the next decade. Such an estimate will help determine if women are candidates for preventive measures and specific therapies such as aspirin. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to construct a risk score, which is now widely used; however, other risk scores are available. To prevent cardiovascular disease, women should refrain from smoking, maintain a healthy weight, eat a heart-healthy diet, be physically active, and have normal blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Aspirin can be considered for primary prevention, with expected benefit to prevent ischemic stroke; however, this needs to be balanced against potential bleeding risk. Hormone therapy is no longer recommended due to an increase in adverse events (most consistently seen as increased ischemic stroke risk). Folic acid is also no longer recommended due to lack of benefit. PMID:25321422

Bavry, Anthony A; Limacher, Marian C

2014-11-01

92

Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

2005-06-23

93

Hormones and cardiovascular disease in older men.  

PubMed

Older men have lower circulating testosterone (T) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) but higher levels of thyrotrophin (TSH) compared with younger men, and exhibit poorer health. Whether age-associated differences in hormone levels are causally related to cardiovascular disease, or are biomarkers reflecting accumulated ill-health remains under debate. Lower T levels are associated with aortic, peripheral vascular, and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and older men. In some but not all studies, lower levels of T predict increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Recently, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has also been identified as a predictor for peripheral vascular and ischemic heart disease. Small scale randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T supplementation suggest a protective effect against myocardial ischemia in men with coronary artery disease. There have been no RCTs with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or mortality. One RCT of T in older men with mobility limitations was stopped due to an excess of cardiovascular adverse events in men receiving T, but other RCTs have not raised similar concerns. Observational studies of testosterone supplementation have reported contrasting results. Levels of IGF-I and its binding proteins 1 and 3 have been variably associated with mortality in some but not all studies, and RCTs of interventions to modulate IGF-I levels are either lacking or lacking in power to examine outcomes of cardiovascular events or mortality. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism predict poorer outcomes, and emerging data implicate higher levels of free thyroxine with other outcomes such as dementia and mortality in older men. However, RCTs that manipulate free thyroxine levels within the normal range are lacking and would be challenging to perform. Further research is needed to clarify the role of these hormones as predictors of cardiovascular outcomes in aging men, and to test whether interventions that modulate levels of T, DHT, IGF-I or free thyroxine would reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24529874

Yeap, Bu B; Flicker, Leon

2014-05-01

94

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity. The interpretation of evidence needs to involve a critical appraisal of methodological issues related to measurement of exposures, nature of outcome variables, types of research design and careful separation of cause, consequence and confounding as the basis for observed associations. Adequate evidence is available, from studies conducted within and across populations, to link several nutrients, minerals, food groups and dietary patterns with an increased or decreased risk of CVD. Dietary fats associated with an increased risk of CHD include trans-fats and saturated fats, while polyunsaturated fats are known to be protective. Dietary sodium is associated with elevation of blood pressure, while dietary potassium lowers the risk of hypertension and stroke. Regular frequent intake of fruits and vegetables is protective against hypertension, CHD and stroke. Composite diets (such as DASH diets, Mediterranean diet, 'prudent' diet) have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of hypertension and CHD. Sufficient knowledge exists to recommend nutritional interventions, at both population and individual levels, to reduce cardiovascular risk. That knowledge should now be translated into policies which promote healthy diets and discourage unhealthy diets. This requires coordinated action at the level of governments, international organizations, civil society and responsible sections of the food industry. PMID:14972059

Srinath Reddy, K; Katan, Martijn B

2004-02-01

95

Fluctuations in epidemic modeling - disease extinction and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of infectious disease fluctuations has recently seen an increasing rise in the use of new tools and models from stochastic dynamics and statistical physics. Examples arise in modeling fluctuations of multi-strain diseases, in modeling adaptive social behavior and its impact on disease fluctuations, and in the analysis of disease extinction in finite population models. Proper stochastic model reduction [1] allows one to predict unobserved fluctuations from observed data in multi-strain models [2]. Degree alteration and power law behavior is predicted in adaptive network epidemic models [3,4]. And extinction rates derived from large fluctuation theory exhibit scaling with respect to distance to the bifurcation point of disease onset with an unusual exponent [5]. In addition to outbreak prediction, another main goal of epidemic modeling is one of eliminating the disease to extinction through various control mechanisms, such as vaccine implementation or quarantine. In this talk, a description will be presented of the fluctuational behavior of several epidemic models and their extinction rates. A general framework and analysis of the effect of non-Gaussian control actuations which enhance the rate to disease extinction will be described. In particular, in it is shown that even in the presence of a small Poisson distributed vaccination program, there is an exponentially enhanced rate to disease extinction. These ideas may lead to improved methods of controlling disease where random vaccinations are prevalent. [4pt] Recent papers:[0pt] [1] E. Forgoston and I. B. Schwartz, ``Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales,'' arXiv:0809.1345 2008.[0pt] [2] L. B. Shaw, L. Billings, I. B. Schwartz, ``Using dimension reduction to improve outbreak predictability of multi-strain diseases,'' J. Math. Bio. 55, 1 2007.[0pt] [3] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Fluctuating epidemics on adaptive networks,'' Physical Review E 77, 066101 2008.[0pt] [4] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Noise induced dynamics in adaptivenetworks with applications to epidemiology,'' arXiv:0807.3455 2008.[0pt] [5] M. I. Dykman, I. B. Schwartz, A. S. Landsman, ``Disease Extinction in the Presence of Random Vaccination,'' Phys. Rev. Letts. 101, 078101 2008.

Schwartz, Ira

2009-03-01

96

Cardiovascular disease in chronic renal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular illness is an important contributor to the morbidity of kidney disease. The spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) includes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and dilatation, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Both "traditional" and "uremia-specific" factors contribute to the occurrence and progression of cardiac disease in renal patients. A growing body of recent evidence indicates that the processes contributing to CVD commence early in CRI, leading to concentric LVH, left ventricular dilatation, congestive heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. Many of the coexisting conditions that have been identified consistently as contributing to the burden of cardiovascular illness in renal populations can be modified through medical interventions. Specific therapies exist for hypertension, anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and dyslipidemia. Studies to date have demonstrated that treatment of many of these factors-such as anemia and hypertension during end-stage renal disease-appear to benefit the cardiovascular system. Earlier intervention may offer the best opportunity to reduce the burden of illness in all groups of CRI patients. Identification of patients at the onset of kidney disease and attention to the known traditional and "uremic" risk factors are emerging as promising strategies. Long-term interventional studies are needed to determine costs, benefits, and risks of such strategies. PMID:11118155

Levin, A; Foley, R N

2000-12-01

97

[Epidemics and diseases during the Independence period in Mexico].  

PubMed

The epidemics and endemic diseases in Mexico were not a problem before the Independence period. Hunger was less than in the past. The 1806 Influenza epidemics had been forgotten. Measles was considered a benign illness. In 1810, there was an increase in the number of cases of black vomit in Veracruz. Sixty percent of 541 hospitalized patients die of the disease. In 1812, an outbreak of yellow fever spread from Veracruz to Jalapa accompanying the movement of troops and killing over 300 soldiers of the Castilla's Battalion. The appearance of petechial fever, maybe typhus marketed in 1813 the onset of the most important epidemics. The preceding was the indirect effect of war: diseases of prisons and military quarters which became overwhelming in times where the movements of troops and of important groups of populations along with crowing, loss homes, hunger and bad hygiene habits. There was also Influenza or "pestilent cold." Measures of detection and quarantine were taken. "Naranjate" mixed with tartaric cremor was used against fever. Fumigation with nitric acid and burners, where they incinerated gun powder were among the health protection policies. It is noteworthy the advance and relief provided by the introduction of smallpox vaccine, the only preventive mean useful against smallpox which was a breakthrough in public health. PMID:20696106

Viesca-Treviño, Carlos

2010-01-01

98

Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

It is accepted that oxidative stress and inflammation play an integral role in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The xanthophyll carotenoid dietary supplement astaxanthin has demonstrated potential as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent in models of cardiovascular disease. There have been at least eight clinical studies conducted in over 180 humans using astaxanthin to assess its safety, bioavailability and clinical aspects relevant to oxidative stress, inflammation or the cardiovascular system. There have been no adverse outcomes reported. Studies have demonstrated reduced markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and improved blood rheology. A larger number of experimental studies have been performed using astaxanthin. In particular, studies in a variety of animals using a model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion have demonstrated protective effects from prior administration of astaxanthin both intravenously and orally. Future clinical studies and trials will help determine the efficacy of antioxidants such as astaxanthin on vascular structure, function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a variety of patients at risk of, or with, established cardiovascular disease. These may lead to large intervention trials assessing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:19656058

Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

2009-07-01

99

The other epidemics. Sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

Around 70% of female infertility in developing countries is caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that can be traced back to husbands or partners. STDs and reproductive tract infections cause 750,000 deaths and 75 million illnesses among women each year worldwide, and these deaths may more than double by the year 2000. Death rates are rising fastest in Africa, followed by Asia and Latin America. About 450,000 cases of potentially fatal reproductive tract cancers are diagnosed annually: an estimated 354,000 occur in Third World women, virtually all of whom die. Worldwide, roughly 250 million new infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and the human papillomavirus are sexually transmitted each year. Chlamydia and the human papillomavirus account for 50 million and 30 million new cases per year, respectively. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected 1 million people worldwide between April and December 1991, according to the World Health Organization. A study in the Indian state of Maharashtra revealed that 92% of the 650 rural women examined had an average of 3.6 infections of gynecological type or sexually transmitted type per women. Another study in 2 rural Egyptian villages found that half of 509 nonpregnant women aged 20 to 60 years had infections. Only 2 facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of STDs exist in all of Kenya. In Ibadan, Nigeria, with a population of 2 million, there is only 1 recognized STD clinic. The physical consequences of several STDs have been linked to increased risks of AIDS transmission. Early recognition and treatment of STDs in pregnant women would cut infant mortality. Maternal infections with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or herpes are transferred to infants at birth 25% to 50% of the time. In Africa, infant blindness caused by gonorrhea infection is 50 times more common than in industrial countries. The International Women's Health Coalition's March 1992 meeting of more than 50 Third World scientists, health advocates, and policymakers made suggestions to make universally available simple, inexpensive, rapid diagnostic tests for STDs and to develop vaginal microbicides that protect women against STDs. PMID:12159277

Jacobson, J L

1993-01-01

100

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Anida Sarajlic1.  

E-print Network

involved in these diseases. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is a group of diseases of the heart and bloodNetwork Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajlic´1. , Vuk Janjic´1. , Neda, United Kingdom, 2 Institute for Cardiovascular Disease ``Dedinje,'' University of Belgrade, Belgrade

Przulj, Natasa

101

Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population  

PubMed Central

Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

Craft, Meggan E.; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2009-01-01

102

Endothelin ETA receptor antagonism in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of the endothelin system in 1988, it has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological phenomena. In the cardiovascular system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) acts through intracellular pathways of two endothelin receptors (ETA and ETB) located mainly on smooth muscle and endothelial cells to regulate vascular tone and provoke mitogenic and proinflammatory reactions. The endothelin ETA receptor is believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disease including systemic hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), dilated cardiomyopathy, and diabetic microvascular dysfunction. Growing evidence from recent experimental and clinical studies indicates that the blockade of endothelin receptors, particularly the ETA subtype, grasps promise in the treatment of major cardiovascular pathologies. The simultaneous blockade of endothelin ETB receptors might not be advantageous, leading possibly to vasoconstriction and salt and water retentions. This review summarizes the role of ET-1 in cardiovascular modulation and the therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism. PMID:24952955

Nasser, Suzanne A; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

2014-08-15

103

Cardiovascular disease in the antiphospholipid syndrome.  

PubMed

The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) varies from one series to another depending on the definition of CVD and tools used for its detection. Atherosclerosis, the usual cause of CVD, starts when the endothelium becomes damaged and is considered to be an autoimmune-inflammatory disease. The excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with APS are not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Therefore, several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature CVD and accelerated vascular damage in those patients. Herein, the significance and outcomes of CVD in APS are reviewed. PMID:25228729

Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2014-10-01

104

Optimal Sampling Strategies for Detecting Zoonotic Disease Epidemics  

PubMed Central

The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests. PMID:24968100

Ferguson, Jake M.; Langebrake, Jessica B.; Cannataro, Vincent L.; Garcia, Andres J.; Hamman, Elizabeth A.; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W.

2014-01-01

105

Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic  

PubMed Central

Emerging zoonotic pathogens are a constant threat to human health throughout the world. Control strategies to protect public health regularly fail, due in part to the tendency to focus on a single host species assumed to be the primary reservoir for a pathogen. Here, we present evidence that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using Lyme disease as a model. Host-targeted public health strategies to control the Lyme disease epidemic in North America have focused on interrupting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) transmission between blacklegged ticks and the putative dominant reservoir species, white-footed mice. However, B. burgdorferi ss infects more than a dozen vertebrate species, any of which could transmit the pathogen to feeding ticks and increase the density of infected ticks and Lyme disease risk. Using genetic and ecological data, we demonstrate that mice are neither the primary host for ticks nor the primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi ss, feeding 10% of all ticks and 25% of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks. Inconspicuous shrews feed 35% of all ticks and 55% of infected ticks. Because several important host species influence Lyme disease risk, interventions directed at a multiple host species will be required to control this epidemic. PMID:18029304

Brisson, Dustin; Dykhuizen, Daniel E; Ostfeld, Richard S

2007-01-01

106

Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently been investigated. In this article, we review the emerging role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease. Recent Advances: Changes in mitochondrial dynamics have been implicated in vascular smooth cell proliferation, cardiac development and differentiation, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, and heart failure. Critical Issues: Many of the experimental studies investigating mitochondrial dynamics in the cardiovascular system have been confined to cardiac cell lines, vascular cells, or neonatal cardiomyocytes, in which mitochondria are distributed throughout the cytoplasm and are free to move. However, in the adult heart where mitochondrial movements are restricted by their tightly-packed distribution along myofibrils or beneath the subsarcolemma, the relevance of mitochondrial dynamics is less obvious. The investigation of transgenic mice deficient in cardiac mitochondrial fission or fusion proteins should help elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the adult heart. Future Directions: Investigating the role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease should result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for treating patients with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability globally. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 400—414. PMID:22793879

Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

107

Genetic Predictors for Cardiovascular Disease in Hispanics  

PubMed Central

A less favorable cardiovascular risk factor profile, but paradoxically lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been observed in Hispanics, a pattern often referred to as the Hispanic Paradox. It was proposed the specific genetic susceptibility of this admixed population and gene-environment interactions may partly explain the paradox. The past few years have seen great advances in discovering genetic risk factors using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for cardiovascular disease especially in Caucasians. However, there is no GWAS of cardiovascular disease that have been reported in Hispanics. In the Costa Rican Heart Study we reported both the consistency and disparity of genetic effects on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) between Hispanics and other ethnic groups. We demonstrated the improvement in the identified genetic markers on discrimination of CHD in Hispanics was modest. Future genetic research in Hispanics would consider the diversities in genetic structure, lifestyle and socioeconomics among various sub-populations, and comprehensively evaluate potential gene-environment interactions in relation to cardiovascular risk. PMID:22498015

Qi, Lu; Campos, Hannia

2012-01-01

108

Cardiovascular disease in childhood: the role of obesity.  

PubMed

In recent years, childhood obesity is becoming an epidemic health problem. It is now evident from many studies that childhood obesity is correlated with adult excess weight status and the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. The exposure to obesity and to the above risk factors during childhood subsequently lead to atherosclerotic development, such as altered vascular structure and function, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Several non-invasive, and thus easy-to-obtain measures of arterial structure and function, have been shown to be clinically useful in providing information about vasculature early in the course of atherosclerosis, including measurement of endothelial function, carotid intima media thickness, and arterial stiffness. The early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities is essential because the control of the atherogenic process is more effective during its early stages. The present review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of obesity, on the mechanisms and the methods of measurement of endothelial dysfunction in obese children and adolescents, and on the ways of intervention for the improvement of vascular health. PMID:23340698

Herouvi, Despina; Karanasios, Evangelos; Karayianni, Christina; Karavanaki, Kyriaki

2013-06-01

109

Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukins-1, -6, and -17, C-reactive protein, coagulation molecules, cellular adhesion molecules, and visfatin. Finally, a discussion of the limitations of current studies and future directions is provided. PMID:23901303

Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

2013-01-01

110

Proteinuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated morbidity pose a worldwide health problem. As well as risk of endstage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death among the CKD population. Proteinuria is a marker of renal injury that can often be detected earlier than any tangible decline in glomerular filtration rate. As well as being a risk marker for decline in renal function, proteinuria is now widely accepted as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review will address the prognostic implications of proteinuria in the general population as well as other specific disease states including diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. A variety of pathophysiological mechanisms that may underlie the relationship between renal and cardiovascular disease have been proposed, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. As proteinuria has evolved into a therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction in the clinical setting we will also review therapeutic strategies that should be considered for patients with persistent proteinuria. PMID:24379690

Currie, Gemma; Delles, Christian

2014-01-01

111

Metabolic biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiac and peripheral vascular biomarkers are increasingly becoming targets of both research and clinical practice. As of 2008, cardiovascular-related medical care accounts for greater than 20% of all the economic costs of illness in the United States. In the age of burgeoning financial pressures on the entire health care system, never has it been more important to try to understand who is at risk for cardiovascular disease in order to prevent new events. In this paper, we will discuss the cost of cardiovascular disease to society, clarify the definition of and need for biomarkers, offer an example of a current biomarker, namely high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and finally examine the approval process for utilizing these in clinical practice. PMID:23386789

Montgomery, Jana E; Brown, Jeremiah R

2013-01-01

112

Primary care research and clinical practice: cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement in survival of patients with cardiovascular diseases and an ageing population mean that management of cardiovascular conditions remains an important challenge for primary care. Traditionally cardiovascular research has been based largely in secondary or tertiary care settings. The majority of care for people with cardiovascular diseases, however, takes place in the community and within primary care. In recent years,

N Mavaddat; J Mant

2010-01-01

113

OSA: the new cardiovascular disease: Part II: overview of cardiovascular diseases associated with obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), present in 5–15% of adults, is strongly associated with the incidence and poor outcome of hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke. Treatment of OSA completely reverses its cardiovascular consequences. In this review, we discuss the clinical evidence for the strong association between OSA and cardiovascular disease and present an argument for approaching OSA as a cardiovascular disease. We particularly focus on the causative relationship between OSA and hypertension, and on the increasingly recognized relationship between OSA and heart failure. PMID:18758946

Devulapally, Kiran; Pongonis, Raymond

2009-01-01

114

Visceral Obesity- The Link Among Inflammation, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The worldwide epidemic of obesity, fostered by the modern lifestyle characterized by the lack of physical activity and an energy-dense diet, has contributed to create an unprecedented condition in human history where a majority of overfed individuals will soon surpass the number of malnourished.1 Obesity-associated disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, an atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, have undoubtedly contributed to create an atherosclerosis-prone environment and thereby the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality in Westernized societies. A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution is closely associated with metabolic perturbations and, thus, with CVD risk.2 In this regard, accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is strongly associated with insulin resistance and with a typical atherogenic dyslipidemic state.3

Patrick Mathieu (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Surgery); Paul Poirier (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Center Pharmacy); Philippe Pibarot (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Medicine); Isabelle Lemieux (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Kinesiology, Social and Preventive Medicine); Jean-Pierre Despres (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Kinesiology, Social and Preventive Medicine)

2009-02-23

115

Understanding impacts of climatic extremes on diarrheal disease epidemics: Insights from mechanistic disease propagation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An epidemic outbreak of diarrheal diseases (primarily cholera) in Haiti in 2010 is a reminder that our understanding on disease triggers, transmission and spreading mechanisms is incomplete. Cholera can occur in two forms - epidemic (defined as sudden outbreak in a historically disease free region) and endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years). Examples of countries with epidemic cholera include Pakistan (2008), Congo (2008), and most recently Haiti (2010). A significant difference between endemic and epidemic regions is the mortality rate, i.e., 1% or lower in an endemic regions versus 3-7% during recent epidemic outbreaks. A fundamentally transformational approach - a warning system with several months prediction lead time - is needed to prevent disease outbreak and minimize its impact on population. Lack of information on spatial and temporal variability of disease incidence as well as transmission in human population continues to be significant challenge in the development of early-warning systems for cholera. Using satellite data on regional hydroclimatic processes, water and sanitation infrastructure indices, and biological pathogen growth information, here we present a Simple, Mechanistic, Adaptive, Remote sensing based Regional Transmission or SMART model to (i) identify regions of potential cholera outbreaks and (ii) quantify mechanism of spread of the disease in previously disease free region. Our results indicate that epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for the growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. We discuss the above findings in light of increased climatic variability, such as acceleration of hydrological cycle, hydroclimatic hazards, etc on diarrheal disease outbreaks.

Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

2013-12-01

116

Advanced Tracers in PET Imaging of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the noninvasive detection and characterization of biological changes at the molecular level, leading to earlier disease detection, objective monitoring of therapies, and better prognostication of cardiovascular diseases progression. Here we review, the current role of PET in cardiovascular disease, with emphasize on tracers developed for PET imaging of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25389529

Zhang, Wei; Wu, Hua; Liu, Gang

2014-01-01

117

AN SIR GRAPH GROWTH MODEL FOR THE EPIDEMICS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES  

E-print Network

AN SIR GRAPH GROWTH MODEL FOR THE EPIDEMICS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES CHARANPAL DHANJAL AND ST network on which the epidemics is taking place is not specified in advance but evolves through time, in a flexible and realistic manner, epidemic spread in non­uniformly mixing and possibly heterogeneous

Recanati, Catherine

118

AN SIR GRAPH GROWTH MODEL FOR THE EPIDEMICS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES  

E-print Network

AN SIR GRAPH GROWTH MODEL FOR THE EPIDEMICS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES CHARANPAL DHANJAL AND ST network on which the epidemics is taking place is not specified in advance but evolves through time, in a flexible and realistic manner, epidemic spread in non-uniformly mixing and possibly heterogeneous

Recanati, Catherine

119

Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also insulin resistance — the core feature of type 2 diabetes — as well as alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We are now

Luc F. Van Gaal; Ilse L. Mertens; Christophe E. De Block

2006-01-01

120

Astaxanthin in cardiovascular health and disease.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and ?-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail is one such agent. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Limited, short duration and small sample size studies have assessed the effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers and have investigated bioavailability and safety. So far no significant adverse events have been observed and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation are attenuated with astaxanthin supplementation. Experimental investigations in a range of species using a cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion model demonstrated cardiac muscle preservation when astaxanthin is administered either orally or intravenously prior to the induction of ischaemia. Human clinical cardiovascular studies using astaxanthin therapy have not yet been reported. On the basis of the promising results of experimental cardiovascular studies and the physicochemical and antioxidant properties and safety profile of astaxanthin, clinical trials should be undertaken. PMID:22349894

Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

2012-01-01

121

PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPAR? agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPAR? agonists, and more recently dual PPAR?/? coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPAR? receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:18288280

Calkin, Anna C.; Thomas, Merlin C.

2008-01-01

122

Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians  

SciTech Connect

An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

1987-06-01

123

Genetic Markers in Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For classic “Mendelian” genetic diseases, a single gene is responsible. A rare mutation in that gene causes a dramatic change\\u000a in protein concentration or function that is both necessary and sufficient to cause the disease, and environmental factors\\u000a play a small or nonexistent role. Examples in cardiology include familial hypercholesterolemia, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,\\u000a Marfan syndrome, and congenital long QT syndrome.

Marc S. Sabatine

124

Update: ebola virus disease epidemic - west Africa, november 2014.  

PubMed

CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to end the ongoing epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus and the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases, which are defined similarly by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all cases, and reporting delays that vary from country to country. PMID:25412064

System Ebola Epidemiology Team, Incident Management

2014-11-21

125

Modeling the spatial spread of infectious diseases: the GLobal Epidemic and Mobility computational model  

PubMed Central

Here we present the Global Epidemic and Mobility (GLEaM) model that integrates sociodemographic and population mobility data in a spatially structured stochastic disease approach to simulate the spread of epidemics at the worldwide scale. We discuss the flexible structure of the model that is open to the inclusion of different disease structures and local intervention policies. This makes GLEaM suitable for the computational modeling and anticipation of the spatio-temporal patterns of global epidemic spreading, the understanding of historical epidemics, the assessment of the role of human mobility in shaping global epidemics, and the analysis of mitigation and containment scenarios. PMID:21415939

Balcan, Duygu; Goncalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, Jose J.; Colizza, Vittoria

2010-01-01

126

Tetrahydrobiopterin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) functions as a cofactor for several important enzyme systems, and considerable evidence implicates BH4 as a key regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the setting of cardiovascular health and disease. BH4 bioavailability is determined by a balance of enzymatic de novo synthesis and recycling, versus degradation in the setting of oxidative stress. Augmenting vascular BH4 levels by pharmacological supplementation has been shown in experimental studies to enhance NO bioavailability. However, it has become more apparent that the role of BH4 in other enzymatic pathways, including other NOS isoforms and the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, may have a bearing on important aspects of vascular homeostasis, inflammation, and cardiac function. This article reviews the role of BH4 in cardiovascular development and homeostasis, as well as in pathophysiological processes such as endothelial and vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy. We discuss the therapeutic potential of BH4 in cardiovascular disease states and attempt to address how this modulator of intracellular NO-redox balance may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 3040–3077. PMID:24294830

Bendall, Jennifer K.; Douglas, Gillian; McNeill, Eileen; Channon, Keith M.

2014-01-01

127

Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

2014-01-01

128

Cardiovascular disease risk in youth with diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in adults with diabetes over age 30 years.\\u000a Studies in persons without diabetes have shown that atherosclerosis, a central factor in cardiovascular disease, begins in\\u000a childhood and the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth lead to increased cardiovascular disease risk in\\u000a adults. Therefore, youth with diabetes

R. Paul Wadwa

2006-01-01

129

Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update.  

PubMed

This paper provides an update for 2014 on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and in particular coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, across the countries of Europe. Cardiovascular disease causes more deaths among Europeans than any other condition, and in many countries still causes more than twice as many deaths as cancer. There is clear evidence in most countries with available data that mortality and case-fatality rates from CHD and stroke have decreased substantially over the last 5-10 years but at differing rates. The differing recent trends have therefore led to increasing inequalities in the burden of CVD between countries. For some Eastern European countries, including Russia and Ukraine, the mortality rate for CHD for 55-60 year olds is greater than the equivalent rate in France for people 20 years older. PMID:25139896

Nichols, Melanie; Townsend, Nick; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike

2014-11-01

130

Impact of defensive hostility in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Among the psychosocial factors that may influence the development, maintenance, and progression of cardiovascular disease, defensive hostility as a possible risk factor has received substantial empirical support in recent years. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between defensive hostility and cardiovascular response to stress situations, as a better predictor of cardiovascular functioning than hostility alone. The sample was composed of 130 female university students. The Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory (Ho) and the Spanish version (CRP) of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC) were used to measure defensive hostility. We used the registration system MP150 (Biopac) to measure the physiological variables throughout the 3 experimental phases (adaptation, task, and recovery). The stress task was a real exam. We expected cardiovascular responses, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure to be higher in subjects with high hostility and high defensiveness in all 3 phases. The results reflect that individuals with high hostility and high defensiveness present the highest values in the physiological variables, thus supporting the hypothesis that defensive hostility shows the greatest predictive power in relation to cardiovascular functioning in stressful situations. PMID:20801755

Guerrero, Cristina; Palmero, Francesc

2010-01-01

131

Preventing cardiovascular disease in women.  

PubMed

The Women's Healthy Heart Initiative clinic was launched in 2009 at the McGill University Health Centre to provide women with comprehensive primary prevention care. The mission of this nurse-led clinic is to increase awareness among women of their risk of heart disease and to empower them to be proactive in achieving heart health. In this article, the author discusses the findings from an analysis of clinical measures in the clinic's first three years of operation. The clinic has helped patients reduce their blood pressure, cholesterol levels and weight. The clinic's nurses have gained insights into the importance of self-referral and family history in preventive care. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this collaborative care model in heart disease prevention. PMID:24822465

Wray, Wendy

2014-04-01

132

Diterpenes: a therapeutic promise for cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

The research, development and use of natural products as therapeutic agents, especially those derived from plants, have been increasing in recent years. There has been great deal of focus on the naturally occurring antispasmodic phytochemicals as potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring diterpenes exert several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory action, antimicrobial and antispasmodic activities. Several diterpenes have been shown to have pronounced cardiovascular effects, for example, grayanotoxin I produces positive inotropic responses, forskolin is a well-known activator of adenylate cyclase, eleganolone and 14-deoxyandrographolide exhibit vasorelaxant properties and marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels. In the last few years, we have investigated the biological activity of kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes, which are the main secondary metabolites isolated from the roots of Viguiera robusta and V. arenaria, respectively. These diterpenoids exhibit vasorelaxant action and inhibit the vascular contractility mainly by blocking extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Moreover, kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes decreased mean arterial blood pressure in normotensive rats. Diterpenes likely fulfil the definition of a pharmacological preconditioning class of compounds and give hope for the therapeutic use in cardiovascular diseases. This article will review patents, structure-activity relationship, pharmacology, antihypertensive efficiency, and the vascular mechanisms underlying the effects of diterpenes. Careful examination of the cardiovascular effects exhibited by kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes will be provided. PMID:18221123

Tirapelli, Carlos R; Ambrosio, Sergio R; da Costa, Fernando B; de Oliveira, Ana M

2008-01-01

133

Cardiovascular Disease and the Endothelium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Millions of Americans are counting cholesterol, spending more time on the stairmaster and less in front of TV, and trading their burgers for broiled fishÃÂall in an effort to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Doctors and scientists are doing their part, too. Their biomedical research is unraveling the complex causes of these deadly disorders, which kill almost half the people who die every year in the United States,Japan, and Europe.Some of the most important progress has been in research on a disease called atherosclerosis. Doctors know atherosclerosis all too well as the main cause of heart attacks and strokes. In the last decade, researchers investigating what causes the disease have discovered that the endothelium, an extremely thin lining of the walls of the bodyÃÂs arteries, plays a crucial role. Recent discoveries about how that lining operates are providing doctors new tools for preventing atherosclerosis, diagnosing it if it occurs,and treating it effectively.

Jeffrey Porro (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)

1997-12-01

134

Exfoliation syndrome and systemic cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic condition. Intraocular alterations represent only a part of the exfoliation-related clinical signs. Exfoliation material has been identified in the visceral organs, skin, and vessel walls. This triggered several studies that investigated association between XFS and cardiovascular diseases. In many populations, significant associations between XFS and various systemic vascular diseases including elevated plasma homocysteine level, myocardial dysfunction, stroke, aortic aneurysm, and white matter lesions were found. Some of these XFS-associated vascular diseases are caused by elastosis of the vessel wall, which may be directly related to general extracellular dysfunction in XFS. Another part of the pathologic vascular alterations (reduced cutaneous capillary flow reactions, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, parasympathetic cardiovascular neuropathy, and pathologic heart rate variability indices), however, suggests that vascular dysregulation beyond the age-related normal decline may also play a role both in the development and worsening of the systemic cardiovascular diseases in XFS. The exact mechanism of the development of systemic vascular dysregulation associated with XFS is currently unknown. PMID:25275916

Holló, Gábor

2014-01-01

135

Cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease: Insights and an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity and mortality rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) related to cardiovascular disease, it remains vastly understudied. Most of the current practice recommendations come from small under-powered prospective studies, retrospective reviews, and assuming patients with CKD will similarly benefit from medications and treatments as patients with normal renal function. In addition, because of the

Patricia J. M. Best; Donal N. Reddan; Peter B. Berger; Lynda A. Szczech; Peter A. McCullough; Robert M. Califf

2004-01-01

136

Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in Western society today. There is a striking gender difference in CVD with men predisposed to earlier onset and more severe disease. Following the recent reevaluation and ongoing debate regarding the estrogen protection hypothesis, and given that androgen use and abuse is increasing in our society, the alternate view that androgens may promote CVD in men is assuming increasing importance. Whether androgens adversely affect CVD in either men or women remains a contentious issue within both the cardiovascular and endocrinological fraternities. This review draws from basic science, animal and clinical studies to outline our current understanding regarding androgen effects on atherosclerosis, the major CVD, and asks where future directions of atherosclerosis-related androgen research may lie. PMID:18629352

McGrath, K-CY; McRobb, LS; Heather, AK

2008-01-01

137

Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in Western society today. There is a striking gender difference in CVD with men predisposed to earlier onset and more severe disease. Following the recent reevaluation and ongoing debate regarding the estrogen protection hypothesis, and given that androgen use and abuse is increasing in our society, the alternate view that androgens may promote CVD in men is assuming increasing importance. Whether androgens adversely affect CVD in either men or women remains a contentious issue within both the cardiovascular and endocrinological fraternities. This review draws from basic science, animal and clinical studies to outline our current understanding regarding androgen effects on atherosclerosis, the major CVD, and asks where future directions of atherosclerosis-related androgen research may lie. PMID:18629352

McGrath, K-C Y; McRobb, L S; Heather, A K

2008-01-01

138

Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

2007-01-01

139

HIV, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals treated for HIV infection are at increased risk for accelerated cardiovascular disease. Treatment of HIV infection\\u000a confers the significant benefits of improved clinical outcomes, quality of life, and survival. However, a number of metabolic\\u000a complications have emerged as a consequence of treatment, including often severe, mixed hyperlipidemia, body fat partitioning\\u000a disorders, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Treatment-induced

Katherine Samaras

2009-01-01

140

Cardiovascular and endothelial disease in HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As combination antiretroviral therapy improves outcome for HIV-infected patients, more focus is directed on the durability\\u000a of these regimens and the prevention of long-term adverse events. Given the prevalence of metabolic complications associated\\u000a with combination therapy, namely insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and truncal adiposity, interest in whether these complications\\u000a predispose patients to cardiovascular disease prematurely is appropriate. This paper reviews the

Michelle S. Cespedes; Judith A. Aberg

2005-01-01

141

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However,\\u000a its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We\\u000a performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

142

Lycopene and cardiovascular diseases: an update.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Western societies and accounts for up to a third of all deaths worldwide. In comparison to the Northern European or other Western countries, the Mediterranean area has lower rates of mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and this is attributed, at least in part, to the so-called Mediterranean diet, which is rich in plantderived bioactive phytochemicals. Identification of the active constituents of the Mediterranean diet is therefore crucial to the formulation of appropriate dietary guidelines. Lycopene is a natural carotenoid found in tomato, an essential component of the Mediterranean diet, which, although belonging to the carotenoid family, does not have pro-vitamin A activity but many other biochemical functions as an antioxidant scavenger, hypolipaemic agent, inhibitor of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic factors, thus potentially of benefit in CVD. In particular, the review intends to conduct a systematic analysis of the literature (epidemiological studies and interventional trials) in order to critically evaluate the association between lycopene (or tomato products) supplementation and cardiovascular diseases and/or cardiovascular disease risk factors progression, and to prepare provision of evidence-based guidelines for patients and clinicians. Several reports have appeared in support of the role of lycopene in the prevention of CVD, mostly based on epidemiological studies showing a dose-response relationship between lycopene and CVD. A less clear and more complex picture emerges from the interventional trials, where several works have reported conflicting results. Although many aspects of lycopene in vivo metabolism, functions and clinical indications remain to be clarified, supplementation of low doses of lycopene has been already suggested as a preventive measure for contrasting and ameliorating many aspects of CVD. PMID:21291369

Mordente, A; Guantario, B; Meucci, E; Silvestrini, A; Lombardi, E; Martorana, G E; Giardina, B; Böhm, V

2011-01-01

143

Concise Review: Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developed countries. Various therapies for cardiovascular disease are investigated actively and are performed clinically. Recently, cell-based regenerative medicine using several cell sources has appeared as an alternative therapy for curing cardiovascular diseases. Scaffold-based or cell sheet-based tissue engineering is focused as a new generational cell-based regenerative therapy, and the clinical trials have also been started. Cell-based regenerative therapies have an enormous potential for treating cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the recent research of cell sources and cell-based-regenerative therapies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23197760

Haraguchi, Yuji; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki

2012-01-01

144

Correlation between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Several evidences have shown in the last years a possible correlation between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. Patients affected with osteoporosis, for example, have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than subjects with normal bone mass. However, the heterogeneous approaches and the different populations that have been studied so far have limited the strength of the findings. Studies conducted in animal models show that vascular calcification is a very complex mechanism that involves similar pathways described in the normal bone calcification. Proteins like BMP, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin play an important role at the bone level but are also highly expressed in the calcified vascular tissue. In particular, it seems that the OPG protect from vascular calcification and elevated levels have been found in patients with CVD. Other factors like oxidative stress, inflammation, free radicals, lipids metabolism are involved in this complex scenario. It is not a case that medications used for treating osteoporosis also inhibit the atherosclerotic process, acting on blood pressure and ventricular hypertrophy. Given the limited amount of available data, further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease which may be important in the future also for preventive and therapeutic approaches of both conditions.

Sprini, Delia; Rini, Giovam Battista; Di Stefano, Laura; Cianferotti, Luisella; Napoli, Nicola

2014-01-01

145

Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

2014-09-01

146

Reliability of questionnaire information on cardiovascular disease and diabetes: cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county, Norway, which was repeated after three years (1977), 12 694 men and women twice answered a questionnaire on myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, other heart diseases, atherosclerosis obliterans, stroke, and diabetes. The reliability of these data is studied by using different indicators. These indicators suggest that questionnaire information on myocardial infarction is reliable

Steinar Tretli; Per G Lund-Larsen; Olav Per Foss

1982-01-01

147

Calorie restriction and resveratrol in cardiovascular health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calorie restriction is one of the most effective nutritional interventions that reproducibly protects against obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence suggests that even when implemented over a short period, calorie restriction is a safe and effective treatment for cardiovascular disease. Herein, we review the effects of calorie restriction on the cardiovascular system as well as the biological effects of

Vernon W. Dolinsky; Jason R. B. Dyck

2011-01-01

148

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2011-09-01

149

Heavy metal poisoning and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

2011-01-01

150

Role of DNA damage in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Patients with some progeroid syndromes, such as Werner syndrome, exhibit atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) at a young age as a manifestation of premature aging. Recent studies have revealed that most progeroid syndromes are caused by genetic defects in specific molecules involved in the DNA damage response, a cornerstone of genome stability. Ionizing radiation is one of the most potent genotoxic stimuli and causes various kinds of DNA damage. Further, there is increasing evidence that therapeutic radiation treatments can cause cardiovascular complications. Here, we describe the DNA damage and subsequent response, review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of progeroid syndromes (especially those syndromes that involve CVD), review the pathological and epidemiological analysis of radiation-induced CVD, and discuss the possible role of DNA damage and the DNA damage response in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic CVD. PMID:24334614

Ishida, Takafumi; Ishida, Mari; Tashiro, Satoshi; Yoshizumi, Masao; Kihara, Yasuki

2014-01-01

151

Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease  

PubMed Central

Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signaling modulates the protein function, the various sources of increased oxidative stress in CVD, and the labyrinth of redox-sensitive molecular mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and ischemia–reperfusion injury. Advances in redox biology and pharmacology for inhibiting ROS production in specific cell types and subcellular organelles combined with the development of nanotechnology-based new in vivo imaging systems and targeted drug delivery mechanisms may enable fine-tuning of redox signaling for the treatment and prevention of CVD. PMID:23583330

Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

2013-01-01

152

Heat shock proteins and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the leading global cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a highly conserved family of proteins with diverse functions expressed by all cells exposed to environmental stress. Studies have reported that several HSPs may be potential risk markers of atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases, or may be directly involved in the atherogenic process itself. HSPs are expressed by cells in atherosclerotic plaque and anti-HSP has been reported to be increased in patients with vascular disease. Autoimmune responses may be generated against antigens present within the atherosclerotic plaque, including HSP and may lead to a cycle of ongoing vascular injury. It has been suggested that by inducing a state of tolerance to these antigens, the atherogenic process may be limited and thus provide a potential therapeutic approach. It has been suggested that anti-HSPs are independent predictors of risk of vascular disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of HSP in cardiovascular disease and highlight their potential role as diagnostic agents and therapeutic targets. PMID:24938017

Zilaee, Marzie; Ferns, Gordon A A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

2014-01-01

153

Cardiovascular disease risk reduction with sleep apnea treatment  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death among adults in developed countries. An increase in prevalent cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., obesity, hypertension and diabetes) has led to a concerted effort to raise awareness of the need to use evidence-based strategies to help patients at risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to reduce their likelihood of suffering a stroke. Sleep apnea has emerged as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic and clinical evidence has prompted the American Heart Association to issue a scientific statement describing the need to recognize sleep apnea as an important target for therapy in reducing cardiovascular disease risks. This article examines evidence supporting associations of sleep apnea with cardiovascular disease and considers evidence suggesting cardiovascular risk reductions through sleep apnea treatment. Perspectives on emerging therapeutic approaches and promising areas of clinical and experimental research are also discussed. PMID:20602560

Jean-Louis, Girardin; Brown, Clinton D; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Gorga, Joseph; McFarlane, Samy I

2014-01-01

154

The Emerging Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemic: Clinical Impact, Economic Burden, and Opportunities for Disease Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and economic impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is escalating worldwide and is projected to remain on a positive trajectory for many years to come. At some point in this escalation, COPD may be regarded as a true epidemic. Unfortunately, the incidence among women is escalating more rapidly than in men, reflecting the social anthropology of changing

Rick Carter; Brian L. Tiep; Rebecca E. Tiep

2008-01-01

155

Therapeutic implications of diabetes in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Insulin-resistant diabetes is becoming more prevalent among the general U.S. population. Approximately 20 million people had diabetes in 2005, of which one third of the population had impaired fasting glucose. The prevalence rate is 9%, a more alarming rate in the 20- to 39-year age group, which suggests a significant degree of how even the young are affected. We review how the prediabetic stage (impaired glucose tolerance-impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance-impaired glucose tolerance) plays a vital role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications with drug therapy reduces the cardiovascular risk of early diabetes and its complications. A lifestyle modification like effective weight loss and exercise, with or without antidiabetic drugs, prevents the proatherogenic effects of diabetes. Controlled, randomized studies have shown that progression to diabetes among those with prediabetes is not inevitable; people with prediabetes who lose weight and increase their physical activity can prevent or delay diabetes and could even return their blood glucose levels to normal. Although prevention of prediabetes is a huge challenge, a tight glycemic control with lifestyle modifications and antihyperglycemics like thiazolidinediones play a vital role in increasing the insulin sensitivity of tissues and decreasing the cardiovascular risk factor of diabetes. PMID:19940606

Cherian, Biju; Meka, Naga; Katragadda, Srikanth; Arora, Rohit

2009-01-01

156

Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here. PMID:25392110

Zhang, P-Y; Xu, X; Li, X-C

2014-10-01

157

Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

2010-05-07

158

Iron-Induced Fibrin in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence within the last two decades indicates the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic inflammatory state. Under normal conditions fibrin clots are gradually degraded by the fibrinolytic enzyme system, so no permanent insoluble deposits remain in the circulation. However, fibrinolytic therapy in coronary and cerebral thrombosis is ineffective unless it is installed within 3-5 hours of the onset. We have shown that trivalent iron (FeIII) initiates a hydroxyl radical-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into a fibrin-like polymer (parafibrin) that is remarkably resistant to the proteolytic dissolution and thus promotes its intravascular deposition. Here we suggest that the persistent presence of proteolysis-resistant fibrin clots causes chronic inflammation. We study the effects of certain amphiphilic substances on the iron- and thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization visualized using scanning electron microscopy. We argue that the culprit is an excessive accumulation of free iron in blood, known to be associated with CVD. The only way to prevent iron overload is by supplementation with iron chelating agents. However, administration of free radical scavengers as effective protection against persistent presence of fibrin-like deposits should also be investigated to contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. PMID:23721262

Lipinski, Boguslaw; Pretorius, Etheresia

2013-01-01

159

Mitochondria, myocardial remodeling, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The process of muscle remodeling lies at the core of most cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac adaptation to pressure or volume overload is associated with a complex molecular change in cardiomyocytes which leads to anatomic remodeling of the heart muscle. Although adaptive at its beginnings, the sustained cardiac hypertrophic remodeling almost unavoidably ends in progressive muscle dysfunction, heart failure and ultimately death. One of the features of cardiac remodeling is a progressive impairment in mitochondrial function. The heart has the highest oxygen uptake in the human body and accordingly it has a large number of mitochondria, which form a complex network under constant remodeling in order to sustain the high metabolic rate of cardiac cells and serve as Ca(2+) buffers acting together with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, this high dependence on mitochondrial metabolism has its costs: when oxygen supply is threatened, high leak of electrons from the electron transport chain leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. These three aspects of mitochondrial function (Reactive oxygen species signaling, Ca(2+) handling and mitochondrial dynamics) are critical for normal muscle homeostasis. In this article, we will review the latest evidence linking mitochondrial morphology and function with the process of myocardial remodeling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22972531

Verdejo, Hugo E; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Tomás; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Pedrozo, Zully; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Garcia, Lorena; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

2012-12-01

160

Drug treatment of obesity in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Obesity is a significant health problem worldwide and is associated with a number of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease. A number of different pathophysiologic mechanisms including increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance have been associated with initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease in obese individuals. Lifestyle modifications have provided modest results in weight reduction and the focus of interest has now shifted towards drug development to treat severely obese individuals with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) or those with a BMI >27 kg/m(2) who have additional co-morbidities. Different regimens focusing on dietary absorption or acting centrally to control hunger and food intake have been developed. However, their weight loss effect is, in most cases, modest and this effect is lost once the medication is discontinued. In addition, long-term use of these drugs is limited by significant side effects and lack of long-term safety and efficacy data. Orlistat is the only US FDA-approved medication for long-term use. A number of new medications are currently under investigation in phase III trials with promising preliminary results. This review comments on available anti-obesity pharmacologic regimens, their weight-loss benefit, and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:22292446

Charakida, Marietta; Finer, Nicholas

2012-04-01

161

The role of estrogen in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death among women, accounting for nearly 50% of female deaths. Statistics show that women on average develop cardiovascular disease 10 to 15 years later in life than men, and that the risk may increase after menopause. This observation has led to much speculation as to what physiological change(s) associated with menopause is responsible for the higher risk of atherosclerosis. Estrogen, with its potential as a cardioprotective agent and as an immunomodulator of the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis, has received the most attention. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to these differences may allow beneficial therapeutic intervention to enhance this effect in females and evoke this protection in males. This review will do the following: (1) characterize mechanisms of atherosclerosis, (2) explore the role of estrogen-replacement therapy, (3) define the effect of gender on inflammation, (4) compare and contrast the effects of estrogen and testosterone on endothelial functional, and (5) suggest mechanistic based therapeutic opportunities. PMID:14697301

Baker, Lauren; Meldrum, Kirstan K; Wang, Meijing; Sankula, Rajakumar; Vanam, Ram; Raiesdana, Azad; Tsai, Ben; Hile, Karen; Brown, John W; Meldrum, Daniel R

2003-12-01

162

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajlic1,  

E-print Network

) is a group of diseases of the heart and blood vessels and a major global cause of death, with more people1 Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajli´c1, , Vuk Janji´c1, SW72AZ, UK 2 Institute for Cardiovascular Disease "Dedinje," University of Belgrade, Serbia E

Przulj, Natasa

163

Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ?-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

2013-01-01

164

Cardiovascular disease and spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and spinal cord injury (SCI) in a large representative sample. Methods: Data were compiled from more than 60,000 individuals from the 2010 cycle of the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this relationship, adjusting for confounders and using probability weighting to account for the CCHS sampling method. Results: After adjusting for age and sex, SCI was associated with a significant increased odds of heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.94–3.82) and stroke (adjusted OR = 3.72, 95% CI 2.22–6.23). Conclusions: These remarkably heightened odds highlight the exigent need for targeted interventions and prevention strategies addressing modifiable risk factors for CVD in individuals with SCI. PMID:23884034

Noonan, Vanessa K.; Krassioukov, Andrei; Borisoff, Jaimie

2013-01-01

165

Disturbed tryptophan metabolism in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis (AS), a major pathologic consequence of obesity, is the main etiological factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the most common cause of death in the western world. A systemic chronic low grade immune- mediated inflammation (scLGI) is substantially implicated in AS and its consequences. In particular, proinflammatory cytokines play a major role, with Th1-type cytokine interferon-? (IFN-?) being a key mediator. Among various other molecular and cellular effects, IFN-? activates the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, dendritic, and other cells, which, in turn, decreases serum levels of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP). Thus, people with CVD often have increased serum kynurenine to tryptophan ratios (KYN/TRP), a result of an increased TRP breakdown. Importantly, increased KYN/TRP is associated with a higher likelihood of fatal cardiovascular events. A scLGI with increased production of the proinflammatory adipokine leptin, in combination with IFN-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6), represents another central link between obesity, AS, and CVD. Leptin has also been shown to contribute to Th1-type immunity shifting, with abdominal fat being thus a direct contributor to KYN/TRP ratio. However, TRP is not only an important source for protein production but also for the generation of one of the most important neurotransmitters, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), by the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent TRP 5-hydroxylase. In prolonged states of scLGI, availability of free serum TRP is strongly diminished, affecting serotonin synthesis, particularly in the brain. Additionally, accumulation of neurotoxic KYN metabolites such as quinolinic acid produced by microglia, can contribute to the development of depression via NMDA glutamatergic stimulation. Depression had been reported to be associated with CVD endpoints, but it most likely represents only a secondary loop connecting excess adipose tissue, scLGI and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accelerated catabolism of TRP is further involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia of scLGI. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-? suppresses growth and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells, and the depletion of TRP limits protein synthesis and thus hemoglobin production, and, through reduction in oxygen supply, may contribute to ischemic vascular disease. In this review we discuss the impact of TRP breakdown and the related complex mechanisms on the prognosis and individual course of CVD. Measurement of TRP, KYN concentrations, and calculation of the KYN/TRYP ratio will contribute to a better understanding of the interplay between inflammation, metabolic syndrome, mood disturbance, and anemia, all previously described as significant predictors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with CVD. The review leads to a novel framework for successful therapeutic modification of several cardinal pathophysiological processes leading to adverse cardiovascular outcome. PMID:24606499

Mangge, H; Stelzer, I; Reininghaus, E Z; Weghuber, D; Postolache, T T; Fuchs, D

2014-06-01

166

Mental stress and the cardiovascular system part II: Acute mental stress and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in normal subjects, acute mental stress increases blood pressure measurements (sometimes to hypertensive levels) in subjects with cardiovascular disease. We found examples in the literature of acute mental stress increasing peripheral vascular resistance (as in isometric exercise) in patients with cardiovascular disease. We did not, however, find examples of acute mental stress decreasing peripheral vascular resistance (as in isotonic

W. Victor; R. Vieweg; Linda M. Dougherty; Christopher S. Nicholson

1997-01-01

167

Type D personality and cardiovascular function in daily life of people without documented cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type D personality, the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition, is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease. The mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Type D personality is associated with cardiovascular function in everyday life of people without documented cardiovascular disease. Eighty-six participants (53% women) aged 27

Ivan Nyklí?ek; Ad Vorselaars; Johan Denollet

2011-01-01

168

Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men  

PubMed Central

Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This ‘Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the ‘cause' versus ‘effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

2012-01-01

169

Impact of exercise training on redox signaling in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species regulate a wide array of signaling pathways that governs cardiovascular physiology. However, oxidant stress resulting from disrupted redox signaling has an adverse impact on the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we address how redox signaling and oxidant stress affect the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, hypertension and heart failure. We also summarize the benefits of exercise training in tackling the hyperactivation of cellular oxidases and mitochondrial dysfunction seen in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23978413

Campos, Juliane C; Gomes, Kátia M S; Ferreira, Julio C B

2013-12-01

170

Cardiovascular Disease in Transplant Recipients: Current and Future Treatment Strategies  

PubMed Central

A cardiovascular disease event in a transplant recipient may be the result of a pretransplantation disease process, a direct effect of immunosuppressant medications, or the result of exposure to a variety of traditional and nontraditional risk factors after transplantation. Although the understanding of posttransplantation cardiovascular disease remains incomplete, there is evidence that the impact of posttransplantation cardiovascular disease has been decreased, through increased attention to this problem. In the absence of controlled studies to guide therapy, this review summarizes treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors for which there is strong evidence of benefit in the nontransplantation setting, observational evidence of a similar risk in transplant recipients, and evidence that treatment can be safely administered to transplant recipients. Putative risk factors for posttransplantation cardiovascular disease for which the current level of evidence is insufficient to support specific treatment recommendations are also discussed. Potential new strategies to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease events after transplantation in the future, including aggressive pretransplantation risk reduction, individualized treatments to prevent different types of cardiovascular disease, dedicated efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease events during transitions between dialysis and transplantation, and manipulation of immunosuppressant protocols, are also introduced. PMID:18309001

Gill, John S.

2008-01-01

171

Peripheral blood gene expression profiling for cardiovascular disease assessment  

PubMed Central

Whole blood gene expression profiling has the potential to be informative about dynamic changes in disease states and to provide information on underlying disease mechanisms. Having demonstrated proof of concept in animal models, a number of studies have now tried to tackle the complexity of cardiovascular disease in human hosts to develop better diagnostic and prognostic indicators. These studies show that genomic signatures are capable of classifying patients with cardiovascular diseases into finer categories based on the molecular architecture of a patient’s disease and more accurately predict the likelihood of a cardiovascular event than current techniques. To highlight the spectrum of potential applications of whole blood gene expression profiling approach in cardiovascular science, we have chosen to review the findings in a number of complex cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and myocardial infarction as well as thromboembolism, aortic aneurysm, and heart transplant. PMID:18923935

Aziz, Hamza; Zaas, Aimee

2008-01-01

172

Risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Abundant scientific evidence supporting an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and venous thromboembolic events, caused by an IBD related hypercoagulability, is acknowledged and thromboprophylactic treatment strategies are now implemented in the management of IBD patients. In contrary, the risk of arterial thromboembolic disease, as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and mesenteric ischemia in patients with IBD remains uncertain and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated, with ambiguous risk estimates among studies. The evident role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis forms the basis of a biological plausible link; the chronic systemic inflammation in IBD patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby the risk of thrombotic events. Further, studies have shown that the burden of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia is lower in IBD populations, thus further strengthen the role of non-traditional risk factors, as chronic inflammation in the linking of the two disease entities. Likewise, mortality from cardiovascular disease in IBD remains questioned. The aim of the current review is to give an up-date on the existing evidence of the possible association between IBD and cardiovascular disease and to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors. PMID:25133036

Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Jess, Tine

2014-01-01

173

The global epidemic of noncommunicable disease: the role of early-life factors.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is probably the most important global health problem of the 21st century. Already in every region except Africa, NCDs account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle behaviors in adult life are the main risk factors, substantial evidence now suggests that factors in early life also have a major role in the development of NCDs. For instance, breastfeeding and a slower pattern of infant weight gain have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in both low-income and high-income countries. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but include epigenetic changes and resetting of endocrine systems that affect energy metabolism and appetite. These early life factors may interact with and exacerbate the detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle and energy-dense diets later in life. As a consequence, the impact of early-life factors on long-term health may be particularly important in low- and middle-income countries, which face the fastest increases in urbanization and greatest changes to lifestyle. Strategies to optimize infant nutrition could therefore make a major contribution to stemming the current global epidemic of NCD. PMID:24504213

Singhal, Atul

2014-01-01

174

CT angiography in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: a transformation in cardiovascular CT practice  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography (CT) angiography represents the most important technical development in CT imaging and it has challenged invasive angiography in the diagnostic evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities. Over the last decades, technological evolution in CT imaging has enabled CT angiography to become a first-line imaging modality in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic applications of CT angiography (CTA) in cardiovascular disease, with a focus on selected clinical challenges in some common cardiovascular abnormalities, which include abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism (PE) and coronary artery disease. An evidence-based review is conducted to demonstrate how CT angiography has changed our approach in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease. Radiation dose reduction strategies are also discussed to show how CT angiography can be performed in a low-dose protocol in the current clinical practice. PMID:25392823

Al Moudi, Mansour; Cao, Yan

2014-01-01

175

Molecular Basis of Obesity and the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the main causes of death in the Western world, for both men and women. The onset and development of diseases of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system are strongly dependent on multiple risk factors that promote pathologic conditions like atherosclerosis, hypertension and thrombosis. Besides genetic factors also environmental influences such as diet composition are known

Muhidien Soufi; Alexander M. Sattler; Matthias Herzum; Bernhard Maisch; Jürgen R. Schaefer

2006-01-01

176

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Police Officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with subclinical cardiovascular disease in police officers. A stratified sample of 100 police officers was randomly selected from the Buffalo, New York, Police Department. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers were assessed by ultrasound of the brachial artery (flow-mediated dilation [FMD]). PTSD symptoms were measured with the Impact of Event Scale (IES).

John M. Violanti; Michael E. Andrew; Cecil M. Burchfiel; Joan Dorn; Tara Hartley; Diane B. Miller

2006-01-01

177

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes  

PubMed Central

The structure of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has already been successfully used as a source of new biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major global cause of death, many CVD genes still await discovery. We explore ways to utilize the structure of the human PPI network to find important genes for CVDs that should be targeted by drugs. The hope is to use the properties of such important genes to predict new ones, which would in turn improve a choice of therapy. We propose a methodology that examines the PPI network wiring around genes involved in CVDs. We use the methodology to identify a subset of CVD-related genes that are statistically significantly enriched in drug targets and “driver genes.” We seek such genes, since driver genes have been proposed to drive onset and progression of a disease. Our identified subset of CVD genes has a large overlap with the Core Diseasome, which has been postulated to be the key to disease formation and hence should be the primary object of therapeutic intervention. This indicates that our methodology identifies “key” genes responsible for CVDs. Thus, we use it to predict new CVD genes and we validate over 70% of our predictions in the literature. Finally, we show that our predicted genes are functionally similar to currently known CVD drug targets, which confirms a potential utility of our methodology towards improving therapy for CVDs. PMID:23977067

Stojkovic, Neda; Radak, Djordje; Przulj, Natasa

2013-01-01

178

Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury to multiple vital organ systems and a chronic hemolytic anemia, both contributing to progressive organ dysfunction. The introduction of treatments that induce protective fetal hemoglobin and reduce infectious complications has greatly prolonged survival. However, with increased longevity, cardiovascular complications are increasingly evident, with the notable development of a progressive proliferative systemic vasculopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is reported in autopsy studies and numerous clinical studies have shown that increased pulmonary pressures are an important risk marker for mortality in these patients. In epidemiological studies, the development of PH is associated with intravascular hemolysis, cutaneous leg ulceration, renal insufficiency, iron overload and liver dysfunction. Chronic anemia in sickle cell disease results in cardiac chamber dilation and a compensatory increase in left ventricular mass. This is often accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction which has also been a strong independent predictor of mortality patients with sickle cell disease. Both PH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with marked abnormalities in exercise capacity in these patients. Sudden death is an increasingly recognized problem and further cardiac investigations are necessary to recognize and treat high-risk patients. PMID:22440212

Gladwin, Mark T.; Sachdev, Vandana

2013-01-01

179

Design of PREVENCION: a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in Peru.  

PubMed

Latin America is undergoing the epidemiologic transition that occurred earlier in developed countries, and is likely to face a gigantic epidemic of heart disease in the next few years unless urgent action is taken. The first essential component of any effective cardiovascular disease (CVD) control program is to establish reliable estimates of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. However, such data from population-based studies in Latin America are still lacking. In this paper, we present the design and operation of PREVENCION (Estudio Peruano de Prevalencia de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, for Peruvian Study of the Prevalence of Cardiovascular diseases). PREVENCION is an ongoing population-based study on a representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the second largest city in Peru. Its population is comparable to the rest of the Peruvian urban population and closely resembles other Latin American populations in countries such as Bolivia and Ecuador. Our study will contribute to the enormous task of understanding and preventing CVD in Latin America. PMID:16243113

Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Chirinos, Julio A; Zea Díaz, Humberto; Morey, Oscar; Bolanos, Juan F; Munoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio

2005-11-01

180

Physical activity and prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence that regular physical activity reduces risk of cardiovascular disease. Building on the evidence review for the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, this article summarizes the recommended amounts and types of physical activity for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults. Key guidelines are largely based on current understanding of the dose-response relationship between amount of physical activity and risk of chronic disease. In part due to the preventive effects on cardiovascular disease, physical activity has beneficial effects on functional limitations and health-related quality of life in older adults. Gaps in research on physical activity and cardiovascular health are discussed, with an emphasis on the need for research on how sedentary time affects risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic illnesses. PMID:19944266

Buchner, David M

2009-11-01

181

Computational Fluid Dynamics in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mechanical engineering field for analyzing fluid flow, heat transfer, and associated phenomena, using computer-based simulation. CFD is a widely adopted methodology for solving complex problems in many modern engineering fields. The merit of CFD is developing new and improved devices and system designs, and optimization is conducted on existing equipment through computational simulations, resulting in enhanced efficiency and lower operating costs. However, in the biomedical field, CFD is still emerging. The main reason why CFD in the biomedical field has lagged behind is the tremendous complexity of human body fluid behavior. Recently, CFD biomedical research is more accessible, because high performance hardware and software are easily available with advances in computer science. All CFD processes contain three main components to provide useful information, such as pre-processing, solving mathematical equations, and post-processing. Initial accurate geometric modeling and boundary conditions are essential to achieve adequate results. Medical imaging, such as ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for modeling, and Doppler ultrasound, pressure wire, and non-invasive pressure measurements are used for flow velocity and pressure as a boundary condition. Many simulations and clinical results have been used to study congenital heart disease, heart failure, ventricle function, aortic disease, and carotid and intra-cranial cerebrovascular diseases. With decreasing hardware costs and rapid computing times, researchers and medical scientists may increasingly use this reliable CFD tool to deliver accurate results. A realistic, multidisciplinary approach is essential to accomplish these tasks. Indefinite collaborations between mechanical engineers and clinical and medical scientists are essential. CFD may be an important methodology to understand the pathophysiology of the development and progression of disease and for establishing and creating treatment modalities in the cardiovascular field. PMID:21949524

2011-01-01

182

Polyamine intake, dietary pattern, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In addition to general lifestyle, a number of foods and dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), are associated with lower incidences of chronic, age-related diseases, and mortality. We have shown that increased polyamine intake decreases age-associated pathology and increases longevity in mice. Several foods in the MD, such as fruits and legumes, are foods containing high amount of polyamines. Among age-associated conditions, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and individuals who adhere to a MD have a lower incidence of CVD. The possible contribution of increased polyamine intake to CVD prevention is discussed in this manuscript. Polyamines from food are distributed to all organs and tissues, and long-term intake increases polyamine concentration in blood. Because most polyamines are associated with red and white blood cells, they act to suppress synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1. Foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to help prevent CVD. Additionally, suppression of de novo polyamine synthesis results from increased polyamines intake, normally synthesized from arginine. This in turn increases availability of arginine for synthesis of nitric oxide, which plays an important role in preserving normal vascular physiology. PMID:20347532

Soda, Kuniyasu

2010-09-01

183

[Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].  

PubMed

In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk. PMID:24448943

Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

2013-01-01

184

Cardiovascular biomarkers in acute Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

Background Endomycocardial biopsies have demonstrated that subclinical myocarditis is a universal feature of acute Kawasaki disease (KD). Methods We investigated biochemical evidence of myocardial strain, oxidative stress, and cardiomyocyte injury in 55 acute KD subjects (30 with paired convalescent samples), 54 febrile control (FC), and 50 healthy control (HC) children by measuring concentrations of cardiovascular biomarkers. Results Levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and soluble ST2 (sST2) were elevated in acute vs. convalescent KD, FC, and HC (p?0.0002), while ?-glutamyl transferase and alanine amino transferase as measures of oxidative stress were increased in acute vs. FC (p?0.0008). Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, using a highly sensitive assay, were elevated in 30% and 40% of paired acute and convalescent KD subjects, respectively, and normalized within two years of disease onset. NT-proBNP and sST2 negatively correlated with measures of diastolic function (MV E:A ratio and deceleration time), but only NT-proBNP positively correlated with the coronary artery Z score. Conclusions NT-proBNP and sST2 were elevated in acute KD subjects and correlated with impaired myocardial relaxation. These findings, combined with elevated levels of cTnI, suggest that both cardiomyocyte stress and cell death are associated with myocardial inflammation in acute KD. PMID:21777987

Sato, Yuichiro Z.; Molkara, Delaram P.; Daniels, Lori B.; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Shimizu, Chisato; Kanegaye, John T.; Best, Brookie M.; Snider, James V.; Frazer, Jeffrey R.; Maisel, Alan; Burns, Jane C.

2011-01-01

185

Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Excess cardiovascular mortality has been documented in chronic haemodialysis patients. Oxidative stress is greater in haemodialysis patients with prevalent cardiovascular disease than in those without, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in excess cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis. We investigated the effect of high-dose vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular disease outcomes in haemodialysis patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Methods

M Boaz; S Smetana; T Weinstein; Z Matas; U Gafter; A Iaina; A Knecht; Y Weissgarten; D Brunner; M Fainaru

2000-01-01

186

Methods of assessing prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to describe the methods of assessing cardiovascular conditions among older adults recruited to the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort study of risk factors for coronary disease and stroke. Medicare eligibility lists from four US communities were used to obtain a representative sample of 5201 community-dwelling elderly, who answered standardized questionnaires and underwent an

Bruce M. Psaty; Lewis H. Kuller; Diane Bild; Gregory L. Burke; Steven J. Kittner; Maurice Mittelmark; Thomas R. Price; Pentti M. Rautaharju; John Robbins

1995-01-01

187

Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

2014-01-01

188

Endurance exercise and resistance training in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Contrary to the age old taboo of exercise in cardiac patients, resistance training has been gaining importance recently as a safe, healthy fitness option in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the leading killer disease in the population above 45 years in the United States. Endurance or aerobic exercise helps improve overall stamina and the ability of the heart to pump oxygenated blood in those with and without prior cardiovascular disease. In addition to modifying cardiovascular risks, resistance training has profound beneficial effects on improving muscle strength and endurance, preventing osteoporosis and improving quality of life both in the healthy and cardiovascular patients including women and heart failure patients. So resistance training should be regarded as a complementary fitness program rather that a substitute to endurance training. This review discusses the physiological phenomenon and benefits of exercise training programs on cardiovascular disease patients focusing on endurance exercise and resistance training. PMID:19124415

Meka, Naga; Katragadda, Srikanth; Cherian, Biju; Arora, Rohit R

2008-04-01

189

Do Insomnia Complaints Cause Hypertension or Cardiovascular Disease?  

PubMed Central

Objective: We prospectively investigated odds ratios (ORs) for development of hypertension or cardiovascular disease by endorsement of sleep complaints. Methods: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is a prospective, population-based study of cardiovascular disease. Our study sample was 8757 ARIC participants without hypertension and 11,863 ARIC participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline. We applied multivariate regression analysis to predict the ORs of development of hypertension or cardiovascular disease over 6 years of follow-up by endorsement of symptoms of difficulty falling asleep (DFA), waking up repeatedly (SCD), awakening tired and fatigued (NRS), or combinations of these symptoms. We controlled for age, sex, alcohol intake, income, smoking, diabetes, heart disease, menopausal status, depression, educational level, Body Mass Index, respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function. Results: Endorsement of all 3 sleep complaints predicted a slightly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (OR 1.5, 1.1–2.0) but not of hypertension. Endorsement of either DFA or SCA predicted slightly increased risk of hypertension (OR 1.2, 1.03–1.3) Conclusions: The definition of insomnia affects its impact. A combination of 3 sleep complaints (DFA, SCD, NRS) predicted a slightly increased risk of cardiovascular disease but not hypertension, and a complaint of either DFA or SCD predicted increased hypertensive risk. It is not clear whether these modest and inconsistent effects are of clinical significance. Citation: Phillips B; Mannino DM. Do insomnia complaints cause hypertension or cardiovascular disease? J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(5):489-494. PMID:17803012

Phillips, Barbara; Mannino, David M.

2007-01-01

190

Animal welfare consequences in England and Wales of the 2001 epidemic of foot and mouth disease.  

PubMed

The ethical issues surrounding slaughter as a means of control of a disease epidemic are discussed and the use of this method as at least one component of the eradication of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is justified. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals received numerous complaints of suffering at slaughter during the FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom in 2001 but none led to prosecution because of lack of evidence. Movement restrictions imposed as part of the disease control strategy caused major welfare problems on farms which were unaffected by disease. These issues are detailed. Significant breaches of transport regulations appear to have occurred. PMID:12523721

Laurence, C J

2002-12-01

191

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 89, 032702 (2014) Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics  

E-print Network

of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics Sarabjeet Singh* Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Sibley School and pattern formation [1], and epidemic models have been useful in under- standing the spread of infectious, branching processes often form the basis of such models. In describing epidemics, the susceptible

Myers, Chris

192

Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions  

PubMed Central

Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Yoon, Hye-Won; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

2013-01-01

193

n-3 PUFAs in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Many large, randomised clinical trials and some meta-analyses have shown that treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) is associated with consistent benefits on cardiovascular (CV) events, primarily due to a reduction of coronary and CV deaths in patients with coronary heart disease. At variance with such evidence, some clinical trials and meta-analyses showing a neutral effect of n-3 PUFAs have been recently published, raising concern about the consistency of the evidence on the CV benefits of n-3 PUFAs. Several methodological and clinical aspects of these recent trials deserve to be considered. Indeed, the low rate of events or the overoptimistic expectations of the benefit of n-3 PUFAs used for sample size calculation led to an inadequate statistical power of several studies. The improvement of background medical therapy, serum baseline levels of n-3 PUFAs, and different doses and/or treatment duration might have downplayed the benefit of n-3 PUFAs. Similarly to old drugs shown to be effective some years ago, it is possible that the benefits of treatment with n-3 PUFAs are not as great in a modern CV prevention strategy so rich in many effective drugs compared with past trials testing CV drugs when less effective therapies were available. PMID:24012154

Marchioli, Roberto; Levantesi, Giacomo

2013-12-20

194

Biomarkers and HIV-Associated Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Our goal is to summarize recent literature on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the setting of HIV infection with an emphasis on those associated with clinical events. Recent Findings Epidemiological data have demonstrated that HIV-infection is associated with increases in well-established markers of inflammation and thrombosis, and levels of hsCRP, IL-6, D-dimer and fibrinogen predict CVD and mortality risk in HIV cohorts. Levels of IL-6, D-dimer and endothelial adhesion molecules increase when antiretroviral therapy is interrupted, suggesting HIV replication may be driving CVD risk in this context. However, data on changes in many CVD biomarkers after starting ART are inconsistent or lacking. Finally, assessment of high-density lipoprotein particle concentration may provide important information specific to HIV-related CVD risk beyond that apparent from traditional measures of serum cholesterol. Summary Biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis have the potential to improve CVD risk stratification beyond traditional and HIV-specific factors, and may prove useful for evaluating CVD prevention strategies for individuals with HIV infection. PMID:20978394

Baker, Jason V.; Duprez, Daniel

2014-01-01

195

Cardiovascular disease self-care interventions.  

PubMed

Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Nocella, Jill; Yoon, Hye-Won; Hammer, Marilyn; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

2013-01-01

196

Sexual Health Concerns in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Sexual Health Concerns in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Lindsey Rosman , MA ; John M. Cahill , MD ; Susan L. McCammon , PhD ; Samuel F. Sears , PhD From the Departments of Psychology (L.R., S.L.M., S.F.S.) and Cardiovascular Sciences ( ...

197

Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder, characterized by repeated disruptions of breathing during sleep. This disease has many potential consequences including excessive daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive deterioration, endocrinologic and metabolic effects, and decreased quality of life. Patients with OSAS experience repetitive episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation during transient cessation of breathing that provoke systemic effects. Furthermore, there may be increased levels of biomarkers linked to endocrine-metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Epidemiological studies have identified OSAS as an independent comorbid factor in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and physiopathological links may exist with onset and progression of heart failure. In addition, OSAS is associated with other disorders and comorbidities which worsen cardiovascular consequences, such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is an emerging public health problem that represents a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors. Both OSAS and metabolic syndrome may exert negative synergistic effects on the cardiovascular system through multiple mechanisms (e.g., hypoxemia, sleep disruption, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammatory activation). It has been found that CPAP therapy for OSAS provides an objective improvement in symptoms and cardiac function, decreases cardiovascular risk, improves insulin sensitivity, and normalises biomarkers. OSAS contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease independently and by interaction with comorbidities. The present review focuses on indirect and direct evidence regarding mechanisms implicated in cardiovascular disease among OSAS patients. PMID:23936649

Zamarron, Carlos; Valdes Cuadrado, Luis; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

198

Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft drink overconsumption is now considered to be a major public health concern with implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows a number of studies performed in animals suggesting that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation. In particular, the monosaccharide fructose has been attracting increasing attention as the more harmful sugar component in terms of

C M Brown; A G Dulloo; J-P Montani

2008-01-01

199

Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and

David M. Maahs; Stephen R. Daniels; Robert H. Eckel; Kristen J. Nadeau

2011-01-01

200

Androgens and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on the link between androgens and cardiovascular disease and the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women has been conducted. The few existing studies on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women indicate no effect or a deleterious effect of increasing androgens and increased cardiovascular risk. However, there is evidence of a favorable effect of androgens on surrogate cardiovascular markers in postmenopausal women, such as high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, body fat mass and triglycerides. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the impact of therapy with androgens on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. The cardiovascular effect of testosterone or methyltestosterone with or without concomitant estrogens needs to be elucidated. PMID:24559253

Spoletini, I; Vitale, C; Pelliccia, F; Fossati, C; Rosano, G M C

2014-12-01

201

Safety of varenicline in patients with cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Smoking cessation lowers the risk of death substantially in patients with cardiovascular disease. Although varenicline is an effective medication for smoking cessation, its safety in this population has been questioned and evaluated in several studies. In 2 randomized controlled trials of patients with cardiovascular disease, the rates of serious cardiovascular events were up to 2% higher in patients receiving varenicline than placebo, though the differences were not statistically significant. In the first meta-analysis of mostly trials involving patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, varenicline was found to significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular events by 72%; however, a second meta-analysis did not find a significant increased risk. In an observational study, varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of events when compared to bupropion in a subgroup analysis of patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. Because the evidence on the safety of varenicline in this population is limited and conflicting, additional data are needed to formulate stronger conclusions. In the meantime, health care professionals should consider individual smoking patterns, concomitant medical conditions, and cost when recommending smoking cessation pharmacotherapy for patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24080536

Haber, Stacy L; Boomershine, Virginia; Raney, Erin

2014-02-01

202

Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed

In 2012, the United Nations estimated that globally, 34 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at the end of 2011. About 6.5% of AIDS-related mortality is attributable to cardiovascular disease. HIV related cardiovascular disease is diverse. In this review we explore the different disease states associated with HIV such as cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, electrocardiographic abnormalities, prolonged QT interval and sudden death. The pathophysiology of these numerous diseases is complex and multifactorial. Current management of these patients is challenging due to multiple drug-drug interactions and side effects. However, the approach to prevention is quite familiar, taking on the same rules that apply for any patient to minimize cardiovascular disease risk. The challenges are many, therefore for HIV patients who present after a cardiovascular event, or for prevention of cardiovascular disease, the concept of a heart team is essential, where cardiovascular specialists and the HIV care team work side by side to ensure safety of medications (avoid drug interactions) and to institute a goal directed prevention plan of care. PMID:24798779

Escárcega, Ricardo O; Franco, Joseph J; Mani, Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam; Vyas, Apurva; Tedaldi, Ellen M; Bove, Alfred A

2014-07-15

203

Cardiovascular Disease and Diet: Research Findings for Classroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major public health problem in the U.S. today. Health education teachers should take the initiative to teach others about the relationships of diet, personal attributes, metabolic disorders, and lifestyle characteristics to CVD. (JN)

Roush, Robert E.

1980-01-01

204

Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly. Facts and Gaps  

PubMed Central

Hypercholesterolemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor that increases the incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in adults, although the association is less well established in the elderly. The role of statins is well characterized for the reduction of myocardial infarction incidence or death in individuals with a history or high risk of cardiovascular diseases, regardless of age. Therapeutic measures recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce cholesterol levels in the elderly, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, are based on studies conducted in younger adults. This narrative review aims to summarize the main observational studies and randomized clinical trials that have studied the relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and the potential benefits and drawbacks of statins use in elderly patients. PMID:23730531

Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Grau, Maria; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel

2013-01-01

205

Transgenic Rabbit Models for Studying Human Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases involve the heart or blood vessels and remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. A variety of animal models have been used to study cardiovascular diseases and have contributed to our understanding of their pathophysiology and treatment. However, mutations or abnormal expression of specific genes play important roles in the pathophysiology of some heart diseases, for which a closely similar animal model often is not naturally available. With the advent of techniques for specific genomic modification, several transgenic and knockout mouse models have been developed for cardiovascular conditions that result from spontaneous mutations. However, mouse and human heart show marked electrophysiologic differences. In addition, cardiac studies in mouse models are extremely difficult because of their small heart size and fast heart rate. Therefore, larger genetically engineered animal models are needed to overcome the limitations of the mouse models. This review summarizes the transgenic rabbit models that have been developed to study cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23561880

2012-01-01

206

Adipokines: a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Obesity is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. Recent studies aimed at understanding the microenvironment of adipose tissue and its impact on systemic metabolism have shed light on the pathogenesis of obesity-linked cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by secreting multiple immune-modulatory proteins known as adipokines. Obesity leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and diminished expression of anti-inflammatory adipokines, resulting in the development of a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state. This adipokine imbalance is thought to be a key event in promoting both systemic metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. This review will focus on the adipose tissue microenvironment and the role of adipokines in modulating systemic inflammatory responses that contribute to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24355497

Nakamura, Kazuto; Fuster, José J; Walsh, Kenneth

2014-04-01

207

Kidney disease is both a cause and a consequence of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer of all Americans. Cardiovascular disease, or heart disease is the primary cause  

E-print Network

Kidney disease is both a cause and a consequence of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer than 20 million people in the U.S. with chronic kidney disease. Having chronic kidney disease amplifies disease accounts for more than half of all deaths among people with kidney failure. Even early or mild

208

Migraine, Migraine Features, and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background — Many studies support an association between migraine and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This association appears particularly in migraine with aura and is also modified by additional factors. Objective — We sought to investigate whether the association between migraine and CVD in addition to aura status is affected by certain migraine features. Methods — Cohort study among 27,840 women, participating in the Women’s Health Study. We had detailed self-reported information on migraine and migraine features among women with active migraine (migraine during the year prior to baseline). Incident CVD events were confirmed after medical record review. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between migraine and incident CVD. The results have been presented in part before. We ran additional analyses according to migraine features. Results – At baseline, 5,125 (18.4%) women reported history of migraine; 39.7% of the 3,610 women with active migraine indicated aura. During a mean of 11.9 years of follow-up, 708 CVD events occurred. Migraine with aura doubled the risk for CVD, ischemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. With regard to ischemic stroke, this association seemed stronger in the absence than in the presence of migraine features. This was most pronounced in the absence (HR=3.27; 95% CI=1.93–5.51; p<0.0001) than in the presence of nausea/vomiting (HR=0.91; 95% CI=0.43–1.93; p=0.80). In contrast, the association with myocardial infarction did not reveal a certain pattern. Conclusions — These data suggest that the association between migraine with aura and ischemic stroke may differ by absence or presence of migraine features. PMID:20100297

Schurks, Markus; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

2010-01-01

209

Intercontinental Spread of a Genetically Distinctive Complex of Clones of Neisseria meningitidis Causing Epidemic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for an epidemic of meningococcal disease occurring in Norway since the mid-1970s and for recent increases in the incidence of disease in several other parts of Europe have been identified by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis as members of a distinctive group of 22 closely related clones (the ET-5 complex). Clones of this complex have also colonized

Dominique A. Caugant; L. Oddvar Froholm; Kjell Bovre; Eirik Holten; Carl E. Frasch; Louis F. Mocca; Wendell D. Zollinger; Robert K. Selander

1986-01-01

210

Prolonged Sitting and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged sitting behaviors are a distinct subset of sedentary behaviors. They include television viewing, computer and video\\u000a use, sitting in automobiles, and workplace sitting. I reviewed scientific literature from 2005 to 2010 to assess the effects\\u000a of prolonged sitting on cardiovascular disease mortality and risk factors. I conclude that prolonged sitting is positively\\u000a associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and

Wendell C. Taylor

2011-01-01

211

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Cardiovascular Disease, and Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing epidemic of obesity in an aging population, obstructivesleepapnea(OSA)isincreasinglyencounteredin clinical practice. Given the acute cardiopulmonary stressors consequent to repetitive upper airway collapse, as well as evidence for cardiovas- cular homeostatic dysregulation in subjects with sleep apnea, there is ample biologic plausibility that OSA imparts increased cardiovas- cular risk, independent of comorbid disease. Indeed, observational studies have suggested strong

Jason M. Golbin; Virend K. Somers; Sean M. Caples

2008-01-01

212

eNOS, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Large epidemiologic studies have established that diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity all increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the precise mechanisms by which these metabolic disorders increase the propensity to develop atherosclerosis are not known. Recently, the concept of the metabolic syndrome – a constellation of conditions including obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance – has received much attention. Studies on the metabolic syndrome might enable a better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on endothelial nitric oxide synthase and summarizes evidence that a reduction in the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide serves as a key link between metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk. PMID:19647446

Huang, Paul L.

2009-01-01

213

Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7–6.2?mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1945–1956. PMID:21091078

Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

2011-01-01

214

Molecular imaging in cardiovascular disease: Which methods, which diseases?  

PubMed Central

Techniques for in vivo assessment of disease-related molecular changes are being developed for all forms of non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. The ability to evaluate tissue molecular or cellular phenotype in patients has the potential to not only improve diagnostic capabilities but to enhance clinical care either by detecting disease at an earlier stage when it is more amenable to therapy, or by guiding most appropriate therapies. These new techniques also can be used in research programs in order to characterize pathophysiology and as a surrogate endpoint for therapeutic efficacy. The most common approach for molecular imaging involves the creation of novel-targeted contrast agents that are designed so that their kinetic properties are different in disease tissues. The main focus of this review is not to describe all the different molecular imaging approaches that have been developed, but rather to describe the status of the field and highlight some of the clinical and research applications that molecular imaging will likely provide meaningful benefit. Specific target areas include assessment of atherosclerotic disease, tissue ischemia, and ventricular and vascular remodeling. PMID:24092271

Lindner, Jonathan R.; Sinusas, Albert

2014-01-01

215

microRNA therapeutics in cardiovascular disease models.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality, posing a high socioeconomic burden on the health sector worldwide. microRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a new class of unique molecular regulators involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of disorders. Studies in the past decade have identified miRNA signatures of various cardiovascular disorders and successfully validated miRNA-based therapeutic options in various small and a few large experimental cardiovascular disease models. In these models, researchers manipulate the expression of miRNAs and downstream signaling cascades, aiming to prevent and cure cardiovascular disease. Here, we review and discuss the recent reports on the in vivo use of miRNA animal models and miRNA therapeutic development as well as provide an outlook for clinical applications in the near future. PMID:24111539

Dangwal, Seema; Thum, Thomas

2014-01-01

216

Cardiovascular disease and its relationship with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death, is mostly precipitated by cardiometabolic risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD). CVD and kidney disease are closely interrelated and disease of one organ cause dysfunction of the other, ultimately leading to the failure of both organs. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at much higher risk of mortality due to CVD. Traditional CVD risk factors viz., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes do not account for the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients and also standard clinical interventions for managing CVD that are successful in the general population, are ineffective to lower the death rate in CKD patients. Nontraditional factors, related to disturbed mineral and vitamin D metabolism were able to provide some explanation in terms of vascular calcification, for the increased risk of CVD in CKD. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, a bone-derived hormone that regulates vitamin D synthesis in renal proximal tubules and renal phosphate reabsorption, has been suggested to be the missing link between CKD and CVD. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is strongly related to the progress of CVD and its early diagnosis and treatment has significant positive effect on the outcomes of CVD in the affected patients. Besides this, non-dialysable protein-bound uraemic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, produced by colonic microbes from dietary amino acids, appear to cause renal dysfunction. Thus, therapeutic approaches targeting colonic microbiota, have led to new prospects in early intervention for CKD patients. Intervention targets for preventing CVD events in CKD patients ideally should include control of blood pressure and dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, lowering proteinuria, correction of anemia, management of mineral metabolism abnormalities and life style changes including smoking cessation, decreased consumption of salt, and achievement of normal body mass index. Use of ?-blockers, renin-angiotensin blockers, diuretics, statins, and aspirin are helpful in the early stages of CKD. In this review, we will address the biological, pathological and clinical relationship between CVD and CKD and their therapeutic management. PMID:25339487

Liu, M; Li, X-C; Lu, L; Cao, Y; Sun, R-R; Chen, S; Zhang, P-Y

2014-10-01

217

Effect of Age on the Relationship of Occupational Social Class with Prevalence of Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies on cardiovascular risk profile in different socioeconomic status were focused on younger populations and many of them have not been able to take into account age and sex differences. Objectives: To investigate the relationship of occupational social class with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in younger (<65 years) and older (?65 years)

Phyo K. Myint; Robert N. Luben; Ailsa A. Welch; Sheila A. Bingham; Nicholas J. Wareham; Kay-Tee Khaw

2006-01-01

218

Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Effect of Weight Loss An Update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease From the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is becoming a global epidemic in both children and adults. It is associated with numerous comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain cancers, and sleep apnea\\/sleep-disordered breathing. In fact, obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD, and CVD risks have also been documented in obese children. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of

Paul Poirier; Thomas D. Giles; George A. Bray; Yuling Hong; Judith S. Stern; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Robert H. Eckel

219

Cadmium Exposure and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence supports that cadmium, a toxic metal found in tobacco, air and food, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease. Twelve studies were identified. Overall, the pooled relative risks (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were: 1.36 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.66), 1.30 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.52), 1.18 (95%CI: 0.86, 1.59), and 1.49 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.92), respectively. The pooled relative risks for cardiovascular disease in men, women and never smokers were 1.29 (1.12, 1.48), 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) and 1.27 (0.97, 1.67), respectively. Together with experimental evidence, our review supports the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease, especially for coronary heart disease. The number of studies with stroke, HF and PAD endpoints was small. More studies, especially studies evaluating incident endpoints, are needed. PMID:23955722

Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Jones, Miranda R; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

220

Renal disease in cardiovascular disorders: an underrecognized problem.  

PubMed

Chronic renal disease is generally appreciated as a major and rapidly growing health problem. In the United States alone, as many as 19.5 million people may have markers of early renal disease, and more than 660,000 people are expected to require renal replacement therapy by the year 2010. By contrast, the presence and pathological role of renal disease in patients with cardiovascular disease are somewhat underrecognized. Evidence now shows that even minor impairments in renal function, as indicated by measures including glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria, are common in cardiovascular disease states and predictive of cardiovascular events. Indeed, microalbuminuria may be a marker of systemic vascular disease rather than kidney dysfunction alone. In patients with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, acute coronary syndromes, and stroke, markers of renal disease have proved to be at least as predictive of morbidity and mortality as conventional risk factors. Yet, chart reviews in a variety of clinical settings reflect poor recognition and management of renal disease in at-risk patients. Models for renal protection are based on the control of risk factors, particularly blood pressure, that are associated with renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Screening protocols for markers of renal disease should recognize the potential inaccuracy of serum creatinine concentrations and the preferability of glomerular filtration rate estimates that take age and gender into account. Pilot programs for screening high-risk populations have shown efficacy in detecting renal disease. PMID:15785015

Baumelou, Alain; Bruckert, Eric; Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert

2005-01-01

221

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Chronic Kidney Disease--FGF23: A Key Molecule in the Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Moreover, abnormal mineral and bone metabolism, the so-called CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD), occurs from early stages of CKD. This CKD-MBD presents a strong cardiovascular risk for CKD patients. Discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has altered our understanding of CKD-MBD and has revealed more complex cross-talk and endocrine feedback loops between the kidney, parathyroid gland, intestines, and bone. During the past decade, reports of clinical studies have described the association between FGF23 and cardiovascular risks, left ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular calcification. Recent translational reports have described the existence of FGF23-Klotho axis in the vasculature and the causative effect of FGF23 on cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest FGF23 as a promising target for novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes of CKD patients. PMID:24678415

Jimbo, Rika

2014-01-01

222

Diagonal earlobe creases and fatal cardiovascular disease: a necropsy study.  

PubMed Central

The association between diagonal earlobe creases and fatal cardiovascular disease was investigated in a consecutive series of 303 coroner's necropsies. Those studied all died outside hospital in the Brighton Health District. Data were analysed on the cause of death and on the type of earlobe, the presence or absence of diagonal creases, age, sex, height, and any previous history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. The age of nine men and six women was not known. Cardiovascular causes of death included ischaemic and hypertensive disease, calcific valvar stenosis, ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, and ruptured atheromatous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The mean (SD) age at death was 72 (15) and the male to female ratio was 1.3:1. Diagonal creases were present in 123 (72%) of 171 men and 88 (67%) of 132 women. A previous history of cardiovascular disease was present in 90 (30%) of the total of 303 and 74 (35%) of the 211 with diagonal creases. A cardiovascular cause of death was present in 154 (73%) of 211 with and 41 (45%) of 92 without diagonal creases and was associated with an increased risk of a cardiovascular cause of death of 1.55 in men and 1.74 in non-diabetic women. Images Fig PMID:2713193

Kirkham, N; Murrells, T; Melcher, D H; Morrison, E A

1989-01-01

223

Social Support, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a conceptual and selective review of the relationship between social support and cardiovascular illness and death. It is argued that cardio- vascular health is not only determined by biological factors but also by social and psychological factors. For decades, epidemiological studies have linked mortality rates to marital status and social networks, thus indicating a beneficial effect of

Ralf Schwarzer; Nina Rieckmann

224

Aspirin Resistance in Cardiovascular Disease: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Aspirin is effective at reducing the cardiovascular event rate in defined patient groups. The introduction of antiplatelet therapies other than aspirin and the concept of aspirin resistance have led to critical reappraisal of current treatment. This review aims to clarify the evidence for aspirin resistance in patients with atherosclerosis.Methods. Medline search was performed to identify publications concerned with antiplatelet

S Wong; M Appleberg; C. M Ward; D. R Lewis

2004-01-01

225

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and concentration of C-reactive protein in Type D personality persons without cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Type D personality is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome in patients with coronary or peripheral arterial disease. Whether Type D personality is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without overt cardiovascular disease remains unknown. We hypothesized that Type D personality is associated with higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and higher concentration of C-reactive protein.Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: Type

Gunnar Einvik; Toril Dammen; Harald Hrubos-Strøm; Silje K Namtvedt; Anna Randby; Håvard A Kristiansen; Virend K Somers; Inger H Nordhus; Torbjørn Omland

2011-01-01

226

Emerging and reemerging epidemic-prone diseases among settling nomadic pastoralists in Uganda.  

PubMed

Epidemic-prone diseases have traditionally been uncommon among nomadic pastoralists as mobility allows already dispersed populations to migrate away from epidemic threats. In the Karamoja region of Uganda, nomadic pastoralists are transitioning to an increasingly settled lifestyle due to cattle raiding and associated civil insecurity. In attempts to reduce conflict in the region, the Ugandan government has instituted disarmament campaigns and encouraged sedentism in place of mobility. In Karamoja, this transition to sedentism has contributed to the emergence and reemergence of epidemic-prone diseases such as cholera, hepatitis E, yellow fever, and meningococcal meningitis. The incidence of these diseases remains difficult to measure and several challenges exist to their control. Challenges to communicable disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists are related to nomadic mobility, remote geography, vaccination and immunity, and poor sanitation and safe water access. In addition to improving gaps in infrastructure, attracting well-trained government health workers to Karamoja and similar areas with longstanding human resource limitations is critical to address the challenges to epidemic-prone disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists. In conjunction with government health workers, community health teams provide a sustainable method by which public health programs can be improved in the austere environments inhabited by mobile and settling pastoralists. PMID:24784434

Cummings, Matthew J; Wamala, Joseph F; Komakech, Innocent; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa

2014-09-01

227

Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Soft drink overconsumption is now considered to be a major public health concern with implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows a number of studies performed in animals suggesting that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation. In particular, the monosaccharide fructose has been attracting increasing attention as the more harmful sugar component in terms of weight gain and metabolic disturbances. High-fructose corn syrup is gradually replacing sucrose as the main sweetener in soft drinks and has been blamed as a potential contributor to the current high prevalence of obesity. There is also considerable evidence that fructose, rather than glucose, is the more damaging sugar component in terms of cardiovascular risk. This review focuses on the potential role of sugar drinks, particularly the fructose component, in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19079277

Brown, C M; Dulloo, A G; Montani, J-P

2008-12-01

228

Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease: perspectives and potential.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of mortality in the western world, accounting for over 800,000 premature deaths per year in the EU alone. Cardiovascular disease is the second most common application for gene therapy clinical trials, which most frequently employ adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors as delivery vehicles. Although interactions of Ad5 vectors with circulating proteins and cells can limit their efficacy after systemic administration, local gene delivery strategies show great potential in the cardiovascular setting, notably in the context of vascular delivery. Here we review the pathogenesis of bypass graft failure and in-stent restenosis, identifying potential therapeutic targets and discussing recent advances in the field of adenovirus biology and retargeting that, in concert, will potentially translate in coming years to more effective gene therapies for cardiovascular applications. PMID:23142171

Bradshaw, Angela C; Baker, Andrew H

2013-03-01

229

Behavioral responses to epidemics in an online experiment: using virtual diseases to study human behavior.  

PubMed

We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a 'self-protection fatigue' effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time. PMID:23326360

Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

2013-01-01

230

Future Directions for Cardiovascular Disease Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide decision-makers the evidence needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of alternative clinical management strategies. CER has become a national priority, with considerable new research funding allocated. Cardiovascular disease is a priority area for CER. This workshop report provides an overview of CER methods, with an emphasis on practical clinical trials and observational treatment comparisons. The report also details recommendations to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for a new framework for evidence development to foster cardiovascular CER, and specific studies to address eight clinical issues identified by the Institute of Medicine as high priorities for cardiovascular CER. PMID:22796257

Hlatky, Mark A; Douglas, Pamela S; Cook, Nakela L; Wells, Barbara; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dickersin, Kay; Goff, David C; Hirsch, Alan T; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric; Roger, Veronique L; Selby, Joseph V; Udelson, James E; Lauer, Michael S

2012-01-01

231

Cardiovascular risk factors and future risk of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in elderly people, but there are still no curative options. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are considered hallmarks of AD, but cerebrovascular pathology is also common. In this review, we summarize findings on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors in the etiology of AD. Firstly, we discuss the association of clinical CVD (such as stroke and heart disease) and AD. Secondly, we summarize the relation between imaging makers of pre-clinical vascular disease and AD. Lastly, we discuss the association of cardiovascular risk factors and AD. We discuss both established cardiovascular risk factors and emerging putative risk factors, which exert their effect partly via CVD. PMID:25385322

de Bruijn, Renée Fag; Ikram, M Arfan

2014-01-01

232

Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease—how to promote healthy eating habits in populations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The obesity epidemic brings with it an increase in related diseases, like diabetes mellitus, and subsequently cardiovascular\\u000a disease. Traditional dietary guidelines have focused on food composition rather than energy balance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  To identify promising approaches towards promoting healthy eating and lifestyle patterns. Implementation strategies were also\\u000a sought.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A review of the pertinent literature based on MEDLINE searches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Weight loss subsequent to

C. von Schacky

2008-01-01

233

Heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate influences myocardial oxygen demand, coronary blood flow, and myocardial function. Clinical and experimental studies\\u000a support an association between elevated resting heart rate and a broad range of maladaptive effects on the function and structure\\u000a of the cardiovascular system. Heart rate has been shown to be an important predictor of mortality in cardiovascular disorders\\u000a such as coronary artery disease,

Jan-Christian Reil; Florian Custodis; Karl Swedberg; Michel Komajda; Jeffrey S. Borer; Ian Ford; Luigi Tavazzi; Ulrich Laufs; Michael Böhm

2011-01-01

234

[Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Belgian Working Group on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation].  

PubMed

Since more than 15 years, expert groups and various European Scientific Societies have written Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Because of the rapid evolution of science, it is necessary to adapt regularly these guidelines. The last version dates from 2007 and has been written by the " Fourth Joint Task Force of European and other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice ". In this issue, the more recent Guidelines are summarised and we focus on highlighting the aspects of these Guidelines that have changed since the previous version published in this journal in 2005. PMID:19353941

Dereppe, H; Laruelle, C; De Backer, G; Brohet, C; Daubresse, J C; Dendale, P; Fagardy, R; Legat, P; De Sutter, J

2009-01-01

235

Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial\\/ ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent

Rajnish Mehrotra; Keith C. Norris; Ralph Shohet; Leah A. Garcia; Jorge N. Artaza; Gary Gibbons; Sandra Contreras; David Martins

2011-01-01

236

Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial\\/ ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent

Rajnish Mehrotra; Keith C. Norris; Ralph Shohet; Leah A. Garcia; Jorge N. Artaza; Gary Gibbons; Sandra Contreras; David Martins

2011-01-01

237

Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mor- tality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial\\/ ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an

Rajnish Mehrotra; Keith C. Norris; Ralph Shohet; Leah A. Garcia; Jorge N. Artaza; Gary Gibbons; Sandra Contreras; David Martins

2011-01-01

238

Leukotriene modifiers as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to their anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene modifiers have been the primary therapeutics in asthma management for several years. Although blocking the inflammatory component of human disease is a long-standing and established concept, the use of leukotriene modifiers in treating the inflammatory component of cardiovascular disease encompassing atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and aortic aneurysm has, surprisingly, only been seriously contemplated in

Colin D. Funk

2005-01-01

239

Cardiovascular risk in pediatric-onset rheumatological diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health concerns for adults with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The enhanced atherogenesis in this patient population is promoted by the exposure to traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional cardiovascular insults, such as corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammation and autoantibodies. Despite definite differences between many adult-onset and pediatric-onset rheumatologic diseases, it is extremely likely that atherosclerosis will become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this pediatric patient population. Because cardiovascular events are rare at this young age, surrogate measures of atherosclerosis must be used. The three major noninvasive vascular measures of early atherosclerosis - namely, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity - can be performed easily on children. Few studies have explored the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and even fewer have used the surrogate vascular measures to document signs of early atherosclerosis in children with pediatric-onset rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on cardiovascular risk and early atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis patients, and to review cardiovascular preventive strategies that should be considered in this population. PMID:23731870

2013-01-01

240

[Statins in primary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

The review summarises data on statins efficacy in primary prophylaxis of cardiovascular complications. Main results of the JUPITER (Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) trial are analysed in detail. Its role in possible changes in current recommendations on prophylaxis and treatment of atherosclerosis is shown. Statins are considered as drugs essential in the strategy of improvement of life quality. PMID:22145392

Kobalava, Zh D; Villeval'de, S V

2011-01-01

241

Impacts of hot and cold temperature extremes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in mortality during heat waves were examined in many European countries; much less is known about the effects of heat waves on morbidity, measured for example by the number of hospital admissions. Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study examines links between hot and cold temperature extremes and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic over 1994-2007. We make use of a recently completed database of all admissions for cardiovascular diseases to hospitals in the area of the Czech Republic since 1994, with a detailed classification of diseases and detailed information concerning each patient (in total 1,467,675 hospital admissions over 1994-2007). The main goals of the study are (i) to identify excess/deficit morbidity during and after periods of heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter, (ii) to compare the links for individual diseases (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, I21; angina pectoris, I20; cerebral infarction, I63; brain ischemia, I64) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to weather, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and mortality. Periods when morbidity data were affected by epidemics of influenza and acute respiratory infections in winter were excluded from the analysis.

Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; K?íž, B.

2010-09-01

242

Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease mediated by ultrasound and microbubbles  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy provides an efficient approach for treatment of cardiovascular disease. To realize the therapeutic effect, both efficient delivery to the target cells and sustained expression of transgenes are required. Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique has become a potential strategy for target-specific gene and drug delivery. When gene-loaded microbubble is injected, the ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction may spew the transported gene to the targeted cells or organ. Meanwhile, high amplitude oscillations of microbubbles increase the permeability of capillary and cell membrane, facilitating uptake of the released gene into tissue and cell. Therefore, efficiency of gene therapy can be significantly improved. To date, UTMD has been successfully investigated in many diseases, and it has achieved outstanding progress in the last two decades. Herein, we discuss the current status of gene therapy of cardiovascular diseases, and reviewed the progress of the delivery of genes to cardiovascular system by UTMD. PMID:23594865

2013-01-01

243

An epidemic of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan.  

PubMed

A Newcastle disease epidemic in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in July and August 1995, during a 1994-96 study of a breeding colony of this species on Doré Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada). Clinical signs and mortality were observed from a tunnel-and-blind system, and moribund and freshly dead birds were examined virologically. Yolks from cormorant eggs and sera from cormorants and other birds were tested for hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Evidence of Newcastle disease was limited to juvenile double-crested cormorants, despite close contact with other birds, including American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and gulls (Larus spp.). Clinical signs included limb, head or neck paralysis, head or body tremors, ataxia, and blindness; pathogenic NDV was isolated from affected birds. The mortality rate of juvenile cormorants was 32 to 64%, which was high relative to overall first-year mortality in years without epidemics. Thirty-seven of 63 (59%) cormorant sera collected during the epidemic tested positive for antibodies to NDV. Antibody status of cormorant egg yolks depended on stage of incubation, likely due to changes in the amount of water in the yolks. The departure of juvenile cormorants from their nests at 4 wk of age, resulting in an increased contact rate among individuals, may have been important in triggering the epidemic. PMID:9706555

Kuiken, T; Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G; Danesik, K L; Riva, J; Heckert, R A

1998-07-01

244

Modelling of infectious diseases for providing signal of epidemics: a measles case study in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The detection of unusual patterns in the occurrence of diseases is an important challenge to health workers interested in early identification of epidemics. The objective of this study was to provide an early signal of infectious disease epidemics by analyzing the disease dynamics. A two-stage monitoring system was applied, which consists of univariate Box-Jenkins model or autoregressive integrated moving average model and subsequent tracking signals from several statistical process-control charts. The analyses were illustrated on January 2000-August 2009 national measles data reported monthly to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Bangladesh. The results of this empirical study revealed that the most adequate model for the occurrences of measles in Bangladesh was the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (3, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1)12 model, and the statistical process-control charts detected no measles epidemics during September 2007-August 2009. The two-stage monitoring system performed well to capture the measles dynamics in Bangladesh without detection of an epidemic because of high measles-vaccination coverage. PMID:22283030

Sharmin, Sifat; Rayhan, Israt

2011-12-01

245

Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. PMID:21556169

Fassett, Robert G.; Coombes, Jeff S.

2011-01-01

246

Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. PMID:21556169

Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

2011-01-01

247

Impact of obstructive sleep apnoea on diabetes and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a potential cause of systemic hypertension in young and middle-aged people, and treatment helps reduce blood pressure in some patients. Severe OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index [AHI] > 30/h) is strongly associated with increased mortality, stroke and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged populations. The cardiovascular risk from moderate OSA (AHI, 15-30/h) is uncertain, particularly if the oxygen desaturation index is low, although the data suggest an increased risk for stroke (particularly in men). There is no evidence of increased cardiovascular risk from mild OSA (AHI < 15/h). In the elderly, the cardiovascular risks of OSA are uncertain, although there is a likelihood of increased risk of stroke. Current, ongoing randomised controlled trials will inform whether OSA is a reversible cardiovascular risk factor within the next 5 years. Patients with cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity or poorly controlled hypertension are at high risk of OSA and should be questioned for symptoms of OSA, which, if present, may warrant further investigation and treatment. Weight loss has an unpredictable effect on OSA severity, but is independently beneficial for symptoms and metabolic health in OSA patients and is recommended for all overweight and obese OSA patients. PMID:24138362

Hamilton, Garun S; Naughton, Matthew T

2013-10-21

248

Lactation and Maternal Measures of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between lactation and subclinical cardiovascular disease in a population free of clinical cardiovascular disease. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 297 women who reported at least one live birth on enrollment in the Study of Women Across the Nation–Heart Study. Participants were mothers aged 45–58 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. History of lactation was self-reported. Electron beam tomography was used to assess coronary and aortic calcification. B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess carotid adventitial diameter, intima–media thickness, and carotid plaque. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate whether lactation was independently associated with markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease. RESULTS In unadjusted models, compared with mothers who had breastfed all of their children for at least 3 months, mothers who had not breastfed were more likely to have coronary artery calcification (17% compared with 32%), aortic calcification (17% compared with 39%), carotid plaque (10% compared with 18%), and larger carotid adventitial diameters (mean ± standard deviation 6.63±0.59 compared with 6.87±0.60 mm). After adjusting for measures of socioeconomic status and lifestyle and family history variables, mothers who had not breastfed remained more likely to have aortic calcification (odds ratio [OR] 3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47–10.00) and coronary artery calcification (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.05–7.14) than mothers who had consistently breastfed. After further adjustment for body mass index and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, mothers who had not breastfed remained more likely to have aortic calcification than mothers who had consistently breastfed (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.47–20.00). CONCLUSION Mothers who do not breastfeed their infants seem to be at increased risk of vascular changes associated with future cardiovascular disease. PMID:20027032

Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; McClure, Candace K.; Tepper, Ping G.; Thurston, Rebecca; Janssen, Imke; Matthews, Karen A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

2013-01-01

249

Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the Doomsday scenario be averted?  

PubMed

There are at present approximately 110 million people with diabetes in the world but this number will reach over 220 million by the year 2010, the majority of them with type 2 diabetes. Thus there is an urgent need for strategies to prevent the emerging global epidemic of type 2 diabetes to be implemented. Tackling diabetes must be part of an integrated program that addresses lifestyle related disorders. The prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and the other major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) can be cost- and health-effective through an integrated (i.e. horizontal) approach to noncommunicable diseases disease prevention and control. With the re-emergence of devastating communicable diseases including AIDS, the Ebola virus and tuberculosis, the pressure is on international and regional agencies to see that the noncommunicable disease epidemic is addressed. The international diabetes and public health communities need to adopt a more pragmatic view of the epidemic of type 2 diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases. The current situation is a symptom of globalization with respect to its social, cultural, economic and political significance. Type 2 diabetes will not be prevented by traditional medical approaches; what is required are major and dramatic changes in the socio-economic and cultural status of people in developing countries and the disadvantaged, minority groups in developed nations. The international diabetes and public health communities must lobby and mobilize politicians, other international agencies such as UNDP, UNICEF, and the World Bank as well as other international nongovernmental agencies dealing with the noncommunicable diseases to address the socio-economic, behavioural, nutritional and public health issues that have led to the type 2 diabetes and noncommunicable diseases epidemic. A multidisciplinary Task Force representing all parties which can contribute to a reversal of the underlying socio-economic causes of the problem is an urgent priority. PMID:10762445

Zimmet, P

2000-03-01

250

The role of epigenetic dysregulation in the epidemic of allergic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemic of allergic disease in early life is one of the clearest indicators that the developing immune system is vulnerable\\u000a to modern environmental changes. A range of environmental exposures epidemiologically associated with allergic disease have\\u000a been shown to have effects on the foetal immune function in pregnancy, including microbial burden, dietary changes and environmental\\u000a pollutants. Preliminary studies now suggest

Susan Prescott; Richard Saffery

251

Immunologic Basis of Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Infected Adults  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular complications are more common in human immunodeficiency virus–infected individuals than in age-matched uninfected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications, suggesting that viral replication directly or indirectly causes vascular disease. Long-term effective antiretroviral therapy does not fully restore vascular health, and treated adults continue to have higher-than-expected rates of disease progression. Although this excess risk during therapy is likely due to multiple factors, a growing body of evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, which persists during effective antiretroviral therapy, is directly and causally associated with vascular dysfunction and the accelerated development of atherosclerosis. PMID:22577211

Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Hunt, Peter W.

2012-01-01

252

Mendelian Forms of Structural Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Clinical and molecular genetics are inextricably linked. In the last two decades genetic studies have revealed the causes of several forms of structural heart disease. Recent work is extending the insights from inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies to other forms of heart disease. In this review we outline the current state of the art for the genetics of adult structural heart disease, in particular the cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease and aortic disease. The general approaches are described with a focus on clinical relevance, while potential areas for imminent innovation in diagnosis and therapeutics are highlighted. PMID:24046092

2013-01-01

253

The epidemic of the 20(th) century: coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in the US at the beginning of the 20th century. By mid-century it had become the commonest cause. After peaking in the mid-1960s, the number of heart disease deaths began a marked decline that has persisted to the present. The increase in heart disease deaths from the early 20th century until the 1960s was due to an increase in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant coronary heart disease, as documented by autopsy studies. This increase was associated with an increase in smoking and dietary changes leading to an increase in serum cholesterol levels. In addition, the ability to diagnose acute myocardial infarction with the aid of the electrocardiogram increased the recognition of coronary heart disease before death. The substantial decrease in coronary heart disease deaths after the mid-1960s is best explained by the decreased incidence, and case fatality rate, of acute myocardial infarction and a decrease in out-of-hospital sudden coronary heart disease deaths. These decreases are very likely explained by a decrease in coronary atherosclerosis due to primary prevention, and a decrease in the progression of nonobstructive coronary atherosclerosis to obstructive coronary heart disease due to efforts of primary and secondary prevention. In addition, more effective treatment of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction has led to a substantial decrease in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction. It is very likely that the 20th century was the only century in which heart disease was the most common cause of death in America. PMID:24811552

Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S; Goldberg, Robert J; Weinstein, Ronald S

2014-09-01

254

Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.04, 65,978 participants). This did not alter with sub-grouping or sensitivity analysis. Few studies compared reduced with modified fat diets, so direct comparison was not possible. Authors’ conclusions The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups, should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturates. The ideal type of unsaturated fat is unclear. PMID:21735388

Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

2014-01-01

255

Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model  

PubMed Central

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

Castanon-Gonzalez, Jorge Alberto; Macias, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, Jose Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martinez, Sebastian

2013-01-01

256

Angiotensin-converting enzymes and drug discovery in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a major target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In addition to ACE, ACE2 – which is a homolog of ACE and promotes the degradation of angiotensin II (AngII) to Ang (1–7) – has been recognized recently as a potential therapeutic target in the management of CVDs. This article reviews different metabolic pathways of ACE and ACE2 (AngI-AngII-AT1 receptors and AngI-Ang (1–7)-Mas receptors) in the regulation of cardiovascular function and their potential in new drug development in the therapy of CVDs. In addition, recent progress in the study of angiotensin and ACE in fetal origins of cardiovascular disease, which might present an interesting field in perinatal medicine and preventive medicine, is briefly summarized. PMID:20170743

Shi, Lijun; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

2010-01-01

257

Diabetes mellitus may induce cardiovascular disease by decreasing neuroplasticity  

PubMed Central

Summary Neuroplasticity has been defined “the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections”. The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function. Thus neuroplasticity may be associated with the pathogenesis of other diseases besides neuropsychiatric diseases. Decreased neuroplasticity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a disease related to decreased neuroplasticity may confer a greater CVD risk. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is related to CVD and DM induces decreased neuroplasticity, which is manifested as depression, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetic neuropathy. Therefore we conclude that DM may induce CVD by decreasing neuroplasticity. PMID:25014044

Zheng, Zhihua; Wu, Junyan; Wang, Ruolun; Zeng, Yingtong

2014-01-01

258

DIABETIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: getting to the heart of the matter  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart disease, and heart disease is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality among people living with diabetes. The diabetic metabolic milieu predisposes to aggressive obstructive coronary artery disease that causes heart attacks, heart failure and death. Furthermore, diabetes can be associated with heart failure, independent of underlying coronary artery disease, hypertension or valve abnormalities. The pathogenesis of the vascular and myocardial complications of diabetes is, as yet, incompletely understood. Although a number of medical and surgical approaches can improve outcomes in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease, much remains to be learned in order to optimize approaches to these critical complications. PMID:22639341

Peterson, Linda R.; McKenzie, Clark R.; Schaffer, Jean E.

2012-01-01

259

Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies. PMID:24741577

Yao, Longbiao; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Chen, Yitong; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

2014-01-01

260

Predicting cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a critical clinical challenge due to poor clinical outcome and increasing prevalence. Nephrologists and transplant specialists need suitable biomarkers to predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events and/or mortality in practice. At the technical level, development of a non-invasive repetitive sampling procedure is required to develop applicable biomarkers, offering a platform for clinicians to dynamically monitor the alteration of patient condition. Apart from specificity and sensitivity, the ideal biomarkers should be independent of various confounders such as sex, sex, age, kidney function, diabetes, and blood pressure. This article reviews recent studies on the identified potential biomarkers to analyze their predictive value and significance. The present study revealed that the identified potential biomarkers are involved in magnesium and phosphate metabolism, hormone dysregulation, pro-inflammatory process, and cardiovascular pathogenesis. Combined use of those biomarkers might allow early identification of subclinical cardiovascular system organ damage, effectively predict cardiovascular mortality, and significantly deepen our mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality, which will help to develop preventive measures. PMID:25315215

Sun, Wenhui; Liu, Dahai; Gong, Ping; Shi, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yong; Wang, Ping; Gong, Weihua

2014-01-01

261

Cardiovascular Disease and Dyslipidemia in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ardiovascular disease, primarily coronary heart disease (CHD), outnumbers the next 16 causes of death in women combined. However, the long-held belief that heart dis- ease in women has a more benign prognosis than in men has resulted in less aggressive diagnosis and management patterns. Appreciation of the differences between men and women in CHD risk factors and presentation can assist

Francine K. Welty

262

Chronic Life Stress, Cardiovascular Reactivity, and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between chronic life stress, cardiovascular reactivity, and a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Methods Participants were 158 healthy adolescents who completed self-report measures of chronic negative life stress as well as assessments of heart rate and blood pressure reactivity to acute laboratory stressors at two timepoints, approximately 3.3 years apart. At Time 2, intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, was also measured. Results In hierarchical regression models adjusting for demographic variables and body mass index, chronic negative life stress at Time 2 was concurrently associated with greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity to stress (? = 0.18, p = .016), but neither chronic stress nor cardiovascular reactivity was concurrently associated with IMT. Increasing life stress from Time 1 to Time 2 was accompanied by increasing cardiovascular reactivity (?’s = 0.14 to 0.20, p < .05), and increasing DBP reactivity over time was also associated with IMT (? = 0.24, p = .03), though increasing chronic life stress was not directly related to IMT. Conclusions Adolescents exposed to chronic, negative stressors that worsen over time may show heightened cardiovascular reactivity that puts them at risk for subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:19737856

Low, Carissa A.; Salomon, Kristen; Matthews, Karen A.

2009-01-01

263

Tracking ancient pathways to a modern epidemic: Diabetic end-stage renal disease in Saskatchewan aboriginal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking ancient pathways to a modern epidemic: Diabetic end-stage renal disease in Saskatchewan aboriginal people.BackgroundSaskatchewan aboriginal people are experiencing an epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic end-stage renal disease (DESRD). The purpose of these investigations was to study the role of the intrauterine environment in the emergence of these diseases.MethodsEpidemiologic studies were carried out using data from the

Roland F. Dyck

2005-01-01

264

South american guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation.  

PubMed

In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR). In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.Com este documento, o Comitê Interamericano de Prevenção e Reabilitação Cardiovascular, em posição conjunta com a Sociedade Sul-Americana de Cardiologia, mostra seu interesse no desenvolvimento de estratégias, medidas e intervenções para a prevenção e a reabilitação cardiovascular. Com o objetivo de implementar na América Latina uma política de saúde regional e nacional dos países membros, tem-se o objetivo de promover a saúde cardiovascular e, consequentemente, diminuir a morbimortalidade. O grupo de estudos em Reabilitação Cardiopulmonar e Metabólica do Departamento de Exercício, Ergometria e Reabilitação Cardiovascular de Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (DERC/SBC) criou uma comissão de experts para revisar a versão em português e adaptá-la à realidade nacional. Este documento tem como missão principal auxiliar os profissionais de saúde a alcançarem medidas efetivas de prevenção e reabilitação cardiovascular (RCV) na prática clínica diária. Com a difusão deste documento, bem como com a sua implementação de forma mais abrangente, contribuiremos com a meta da Organização Mundial de Saúde de diminuir a mortalidade cardiovascular no mundo em 25% até o ano de 2025. As prioridades deste grupo de trabalho são: • Enfatizar o caráter prioritário da RCV como instrumento de prevenção secundária com importante impacto na morbimortalidade cardiovascular; • Unir esforços para melhorar o conhecimento da RCV, sua difusão e aplicação na maioria dos centros e institutos cardiovasculares da América do Sul, priorizando a utilização de um método de prevenção cardiovascular integral, prático, de fácil aplicação e de custo/benefício comprovado; • Melhorar a educação do pessoal da saúde e dos pacientes por meio de programas educativos dirigidos, que permitam envolver diretamente os sistemas de saúde, pessoal médico, pacientes e líderes comunitários sobre a importância dos serviços de RCV, a fim de diminuir as barreiras para a sua implantação. PMID:25387466

Herdy, Ah; López-Jiménez, F; Terzic, Cp; Milani, M; Stein, R; Carvalho, T; Serra, S; Araujo, Cg; Zeballos, Pc; Anchique, Cv; Burdiat, G; González, K; González, G; Fernández, R; Santibáñez, C; Rodríguez-Escudero, Jp; Ilarraza-Lomelí, H

2014-08-01

265

The Silent Epidemic. Teens and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)

Francis, Susan

1998-01-01

266

Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of

Martín R. Bustamante; Jamie A. Consuegra; Michael P. L. Fogden; Pru N. Foster; Enrique La Marca; Karen L. Masters; Andrés Merino-Viteri; Robert Puschendorf; Santiago R. Ron; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Christopher J. Still; Bruce E. Young; J. Alan Pounds

2006-01-01

267

Omega3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (-3 PUFA) therapy continues to show great promise in primary and, particu- larly in secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. The most compelling evidence for CV benefits of -3 PUFA comes from 4 controlled trials of nearly 40,000 participants randomized to receive eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) with or without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in studies of patients in

Carl J. Lavie; Richard V. Milani; Mandeep R. Mehra; Hector O. Ventura

2009-01-01

268

Spousal Suffering and Partner's Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The  

E-print Network

(cardiovascular disease [CVD]) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design prevalent and inci- dent depression and CVD. Results: Controlling for known risk factors for depression. With respect to CVD, and controlling for subclinical CVD at baseline, husbands whose wives reported high levels

Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

269

Introduction Worldwide, cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the  

E-print Network

are not associated with this disorder in south Asians,3 and increases in blood pressure might be more importantArticles Introduction Worldwide, cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause in low-income and middle-income countries,1,2 with about 80% of the burden now occurring

Meagher, Mary

270

Postdoctoral Scholar position Area: Cardiovascular Disease, Faculty of Nursing  

E-print Network

-doctoral position Cardiovascular Disease. Dr. King-Shier has a multi-methods program of research, which is focused these would be served by your participation in Dr. King-Shier's program of research o Describe your research to Dr. King-Shier (kingk@ucalgary.ca). #12;Applications will begin to be reviewed immediately

de Leon, Alex R.

271

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9: Many Shades of Function in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. MMP-9 directly degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and activates cytokines and chemokines to regulate tissue remodeling. MMP-9 deletion or inhibition has proven overall beneficial in multiple animal models of cardiovascular disease. As such, MMP-9 expression and activity is a common end point measured. MMP-9 cell-specific overexpression, however, has also proven beneficial and highlights the fact that little information is available on the underlying mechanisms of MMP-9 function. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of MMP-9 physiology, including structure, regulation, activation, and downstream effects of increased MMP-9. We discuss MMP-9 roles during inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. By concentrating on the substrates of MMP-9 and their roles in cardiovascular disease, we explore the overall function and discuss future directions on the translational potential of MMP-9 based therapies. PMID:24186934

Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Ma, Yonggang; Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; Hall, Michael E.

2013-01-01

272

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease  

E-print Network

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease Allan H Smith professor, Oakland, California, USA Arsenic has more effects on health than any other toxicant, and the list of inorganic arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, bladder, lung, liver, and kidney.1 2 Mounting

California at Berkeley, University of

273

Associations between Eating Competence and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Explore the relationship between eating competence (EC) and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Secondary analysis of data collected for a larger, 2-way crossover clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient clinical research center. Participants: Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [greater than or equal]…

Psota, Tricia L.; Lohse, Barbara; West, Sheila G.

2007-01-01

274

COLD AND THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in winter is well known, and several explanatory mechanisms have been suggested based on increased blood pressure, haematological changes and res- piratory infections. Most investigations have used ecological data such as daily temperatures recorded at weather stations and mortality in the general population. Cause-specific mortality is the outcome mea- sure most commonly used. Local

Simo Näyhä

275

Depressive Symptoms and Subclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo examine the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid artery intima media thickening (IMT), in a sample of healthy adolescents, and to explore adolescent hostility as a potential moderator of depression on subclinical markers of CVD.

Laura J. Dietz; Karen A. Matthews

2011-01-01

276

Childhood Roots of Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease in Adulthood  

E-print Network

the substantial burden of obesity and the adverse health behaviors and environment that often begin in childhood and are present in most high-income nations, especially the United States." Circulation. 2010; 21:586-613. #12Childhood Roots of Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease in Adulthood Karen A. Matthews, Ph

Illinois at Chicago, University of

277

RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are at high cardio- vascular risk. Although some risk factors are unmodifiable (for example, age, sex, genetics), others are exacerbated in the unfriendly uremic milieu (inflammation, oxidative stress, mineral disturbances) or contribute per se to kid- ney disease and cardiovascular progression (diabetes mel- litus, hypertension). Moreover, several factors associated with PD therapy may both increase

Elvia García-López; Juan J. Carrero; Mohamed E. Suliman; Bengt Lindholm; Peter Stenvinkel

278

Cardiovascular Diseases in the Ageing Dog: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE AGEING CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Increased life expectancy is a common scenario for dogs living in the third millennium, since many advances in canine medicine and surgery, as well as in nutrition and preventive health care, have taken place over the last few decades. According to a study conducted on a population of 9248 subjects, cardiac diseases are the second most

C. Guglielmini

2003-01-01

279

Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease in Accelerated Aging Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the mechanisms of premature aging. These rare, genetic conditions offer valuable insights into the normal aging process and the complex biology of cardiovascular disease. Many of these advances have been made in the most dramatic of these disorders, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Although characterized by features of

Issei Komuro; Brian C. Capell; Francis S. Collins; Elizabeth G. Nabel

280

Prevention of cardiovascular disease: From biomedical research to health policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the developed world. Broad consensus exists on CVD preventability through reduction of their risk factors at both the individual and population level. The latter kind of intervention implies involvement of policymaking institutions, owing to the manifold implications (agriculture, industry, environment) of such programmes. They have to be

Sergio Muntoni

1995-01-01

281

Job strain and autonomic indices of cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the etiologic mechanisms. This, in turn, would help to more precisely identify risk. Methods We measured Job Strain using the Job Content Questionnaire, 8\\/day diary reports, and nationally standardized occupational code linkage, as well as autonomic regulation utilizing heart rate variability including spectral-derived components

Sean M. Collins; Robert A. Karasek; Kevin Costas

2005-01-01

282

Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

erbs have been used as medical treatments since the beginning of civilization and some derivatives (eg, aspirin, reserpine, and digitalis) have become mainstays of hu- man pharmacotherapy. For cardiovascular diseases, herbal treatments have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, ath- erosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency, and arrhythmia. However, many herbal remedies used today have

Nick H. Mashour; George I. Lin; William H. Frishman

1998-01-01

283

Niacin and cholesterol: role in cardiovascular disease (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niacin has been widely used as a pharmacologic agent to regulate abnormalities in plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although the use of niacin in the treatment of dyslipidemia has been reported as early as 1955, only recent studies have yielded an understanding about the cellular and molecular mechanism of action of niacin

Shobha H. Ganji; Vaijinath S. Kamanna; Moti L. Kashyap

2003-01-01

284

Cardiovascular disease after Escherichia coli O157:H7 gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis, which can be devastating in outbreak situations. We studied the risk of cardiovascular disease following such an outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario, in May 2000. Methods: In this community-based cohort study, we linked data from the Walkerton Health Study (2002–2008) to Ontario’s large healthcare databases. We included 4 groups of adults: 3 groups of Walkerton participants (153 with severe gastroenteritis, 414 with mild gastroenteritis, 331 with no gastroenteritis) and a group of 11 263 residents from the surrounding communities that were unaffected by the outbreak. The primary outcome was a composite of death or first major cardiovascular event (admission to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, stroke or congestive heart failure, or evidence of associated procedures). The secondary outcome was first major cardiovascular event censored for death. Adults were followed for an average of 7.4 years. Results: During the study period, 1174 adults (9.7%) died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Compared with residents of the surrounding communities, the risk of death or cardiovascular event was not elevated among Walkerton participants with severe or mild gastroenteritis (hazard ratio [HR] for severe gastroenteritis 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38–1.43, mild gastroenteritis HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42–0.98). Compared with Walkerton participants who had no gastroenteritis, risk of death or cardiovascular event was not elevated among participants with severe or mild gastroenteritis. Interpretation: There was no increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease in the decade following acute infection during a major E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. PMID:23166291

Hizo-Abes, Patricia; Clark, William F.; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Young, Ann; Huang, Anjie; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Austin, Peter C.; Garg, Amit X.

2013-01-01

285

Cardiovascular regulation by skeletal muscle reflexes in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Heart rate and blood pressure are elevated at the onset and throughout the duration of dynamic or static exercise. These neurally mediated cardiovascular adjustments to physical activity are regulated, in part, by a peripheral reflex originating in contracting skeletal muscle termed the exercise pressor reflex. Mechanically sensitive and metabolically sensitive receptors activating the exercise pressor reflex are located on the unencapsulated nerve terminals of group III and group IV afferent sensory neurons, respectively. Mechanoreceptors are stimulated by the physical distortion of their receptive fields during muscle contraction and can be sensitized by the production of metabolites generated by working skeletal myocytes. The chemical by-products of muscle contraction also stimulate metaboreceptors. Once activated, group III and IV sensory impulses are transmitted to cardiovascular control centers within the brain stem where they are integrated and processed. Activation of the reflex results in an increase in efferent sympathetic nerve activity and a withdrawal of parasympathetic nerve activity. These actions result in the precise alterations in cardiovascular hemodynamics requisite to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle. Coordinated activity by this reflex is altered after the development of cardiovascular disease, generating exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, heart rate, and vascular resistance. The basic components and operational characteristics of the reflex, the techniques used in human and animals to study the reflex, and the emerging evidence describing the dysfunction of the reflex with the advent of cardiovascular disease are highlighted in this review. PMID:21841019

Murphy, Megan N.; Mizuno, Masaki; Mitchell, Jere H.

2011-01-01

286

Therapeutic potentials of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization functional class I). PDE5 inhibitors can induce vasodilation; in addition, through a complex pathway involving nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and protein kinase G, it can reduce apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation. The presence of PDE5 inhibitors in various tissues and systemic vasculature make them potential targets in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In many in vitro and in vivo studies, PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to have positive effects in systolic and diastolic congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. They also improved vasoconstriction in Raynaud phenomenon, peripheral artery disease, and hypoxic brain conditions. This article reviews the therapeutic potentials of PDE5 inhibitors in different cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25051133

Nguyen, Ha; Amanullah, Aman M

2014-01-01

287

The epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1951-1952.  

PubMed

The epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan in 1951 and 1952 was studied in order to determine origins of outbreaks and methods of spread. The epidemic was initially considered to be vesicular stomatitis and foot-and-mouth disease was not recognized until February 1952, three months after the initial infection. The reports prepared at that time were reviewed in order to obtain details of the numbers of animals infected and the source and date of infection for the outbreaks. Methods of spread were rated according to their likelihood. The introduction of infection by an immigrant through his clothes as well as by sausage was possible. The sequence of events from the first outbreak to the spread from a feedlot/packing plant and from a dairy farm, which failed to report the disease, were clarified. Methods of spread included movement of animals, animal products and people and the airborne route. Milk delivery and artificial insemination did not result in spread of infection. The quarantine of affected farms reduced spread by animals and deterred visits by people. The original diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis was due to misinterpretation of a lesion in an inoculated horse. Laboratory tests established the presence of foot-and-mouth disease. The limited extent of the epidemic, despite the delay in diagnosis, is attributed to (i) the low density of cattle, (ii) few infected pigs and hence less airborne virus and (iii) absence of waste food feeding and milk collection in addition to the limited quarantine imposed. PMID:2249179

Sellers, R F; Daggupaty, S M

1990-10-01

288

Epidemiologic Studies of Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A physically more active life, while not being related to atherosclerosis, could enable some individuals to live longer with atherosclerosis before dying from or showing symptoms of coronary heart disease. (MJB)

Montoye, Henry J.

1977-01-01

289

Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen increased attention to women’s health. Within this relatively new field, topics range from conditions\\u000a that are unique to women such as menopause to coronary heart disease, which is the leading cause of death among women. The\\u000a role of gender in the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease is far more than that of a sociodemographic

MARGARET A. CHESNEY; JILL B. NEALEY

290

Impact of the obesity epidemic on hypertension and renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess weight gain is a major cause of increased blood pressure in most patients with essential hypertension, and also greatly\\u000a increases the risk for renal disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular reabsorption, impairing pressure\\u000a natriuresis, causing volume expansion due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system, and\\u000a by physical compression of the kidneys, especially

John E. Hall; Daniel W. Jones; Jay J. Kuo; Alexandre da Silva; Lakshmi S. Tallam; Jiankang Liu

2003-01-01

291

Role of Dietary Components in the Epidemic of Allergic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the source of all nutrients, diet is arguably one the most important environmental exposures during early development.\\u000a Maternal dietary exposures in utero have implications for most aspects of fetal development and there is growing evidence that this includes immune pathways\\u000a that have the capacity to influence the risk of allergic disease. In the postnatal period, oral exposures, including a

Susan L. Prescott; Sarah Jennings; David Martino; Nina D’Vaz; Henning Johannsen

292

Web-Based System to True-Forecast Disease Epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges for modelers, besides the development of mathematical equations integrating biology and climatology,\\u000a is to provide a comprehensive model delivery system through the Internet. The use of near real-time and forecast weather data\\u000a is key to true-forecast disease outbreaks at local and regional basis. A prototype of such a system is proposed here to predict\\u000a and forecast

J. Fernandes; E. Ponte; W. Pavan; G. Cunha

293

Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Disease Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over 80 million people in the United States exhibit one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and atherosclerotic\\u000a CVD (mainly coronary heart disease and stroke) is, by far, the leading cause of death among men and women. More women die\\u000a from CVD in the United States each year than men. Atherosclerotic CVD has become a worldwide pandemic. While CVD

Kevin C. Maki; Martyn R. Rubin

294

Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

2006-01-01

295

Sleep and Inflammation: Psychoneuroimmunology in the Context of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Poor sleep is prospectively linked to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Inflammatory processes may be an important biological\\u000a mechanism linking poor sleep to cardiovascular disease. Such processes involve active participation of signaling molecules\\u000a called cytokines in development of atherosclerotic plaques.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  I review evidence from experimental sleep deprivation and clinical observational studies suggesting a bidirectional relationship\\u000a between sleep and inflammatory cytokines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Findings

Sarosh J. Motivala

296

[Cardiovascular disease and aircraft transportation: specificities and issues].  

PubMed

With the development of air transport and travel to distant destinations, the number of passengers and elderly passengers on board increases each year. In this population, cardiovascular events are a major concern. Among medical incidents occurring in-flight they are second-ranked (10%) behind gastrointestinal disorders (25%). Their occurrence may involve life-threatening events and require resuscitation, difficult to perform during flight or in a precarious health environment. Coronary heart disease and pulmonary thromboembolic disease are the most serious manifestations. They are the leading cause of hospitalization in a foreign country and sudden cardiac death occurring during or subsequent to the flight. Their occurrence is explained on aircraft by hypoxia, hypobaria and decreased humidity caused by cabin pressurization and upon arrival by a different environmental context (extreme climates, tropical diseases). Moreover, the occurrence of a cardiovascular event during flight can represent for the air carrier a major economic and logistic problem when diversion occurred. Furthermore, the liability of the practitioner passenger could be involved according to airlines or to the country in which the aircraft is registered. In this context, cardiovascular events during aircraft transportation can be easily prevented by identifying high risk patients, respect of cardiovascular indications to travel, the implementation of simple preventive measures and optimization of medical equipment in commercial flights. PMID:21719248

Touze, Jean-Étienne; Métais, Patrick; Zawieja, Philippe

2012-02-01

297

Impact of diabetes on cardiovascular disease: an update.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23533715

Matheus, Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos; Tannus, Lucianne Righeti Monteiro; Cobas, Roberta Arnoldi; Palma, Catia C Sousa; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Gomes, Marilia de Brito

2013-01-01

298

Role of metabolic therapy in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The pathophysiological basis for the use of metabolic therapy in the treatment of heart failure is analyzed. Bioenergetical processes related to ATP bioavailability play a central role in regulating myocardial contractility at rest and on effort. Furthermore, a significant correlation has been demonstrated in diseased heart between ATP content, revealed at endomyocardial biopsy, and systolic and diastolic left ventricular

F. Rengo; P. Abete; P. Landino; D. Leosco; F. Covelluzzi; D. Vitale; V. Fedi; N. Ferrara

1993-01-01

299

Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks.  

PubMed

Despite several decades of decline, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common causes of death in Western societies. Sedentary living and high fat diets contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This paper analyses the trade-offs between lifestyle choices defined in terms of diet, physical activity, cost, and risk of cardiovascular disease that a representative sample of the population of Northern Ireland aged 40-65 are willing to make. Using computer assisted personal interviews, we survey 493 individuals at their homes using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) questionnaire administered between February and July 2011 in Northern Ireland. Unlike most DCE studies for valuing public health programmes, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise, based on the individuals' baseline choices. A "fat screener" module in the questionnaire links personal cardiovascular disease risk to each specific choice set in terms of dietary constituents. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, we find that to improve their lifestyles, overweight and obese people would be more likely to do more physical activity than to change their diets. Therefore, public policies aimed to target obesity and its related illnesses in Northern Ireland should invest public money in promoting physical activity rather than healthier diets. PMID:23906130

Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Boeri, Marco; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

2013-09-01

300

Effects of Epidemic Diseases on the Distribution of Bonobos  

PubMed Central

This study examined how outbreaks and the occurrence of Anthrax, Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis may differentially affect the distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Using a combination of mapping, Jaccard overlapping coefficients and binary regressions, the study determined how each disease correlated with the extent of occurrence of, and the areas occupied by, bonobos. Anthrax has only been reported to occur outside the range of bonobos and so was not considered further. Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis were each reported within the area of occupancy of bonobos. Their respective overlap coefficients were: J?=?0.10; Q??=?0.05?=?2.00 (odds ratios?=?0.0001, 95% CI?=?0.0057; Z?=??19.41, significant) for Ebola; J?=?1.00; Q??=?0.05?=?24.0 (odds ratios?=?1.504, 95% CI?=?0.5066–2.6122) for Monkeypox; and, J?=?0.33; Q??=?0.05?=?11.5 (Z?=?1.14, significant) for Trypanosomiasis. There were significant relationships for the presence and absence of Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis and the known extent of occurrence of bonobos, based on the equations y?=?0.2368Ln(x)+0.8006 (R2?=?0.9772) and y?=??0.2942Ln(x)+0.7155 (R2?=?0.698), respectively. The positive relationship suggested that bonobos tolerated the presence of Monkeypox. In contrast, the significant negative coefficient suggested that bonobos were absent in areas where Trypanosomiasis is endemic. Our results suggest that large rivers may have prevented Ebola from spreading into the range of bonobos. Meanwhile, Trypanosomiasis has been recorded among humans within the area of occurrence of bonobos, and appears the most important disease in shaping the area of occupancy of bonobos within their overall extent of occupancy. PMID:23251431

Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Leader-Williams, Nigel

2012-01-01

301

Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease--A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 ?g/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure. PMID:17431501

Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

302

A Review of Calcium Supplements and Cardiovascular Disease Risk12  

PubMed Central

A group of academic and industry experts in the fields of nutrition, cardiology, epidemiology, food science, bone health, and integrative medicine examined the data on the relationship between calcium supplement use and risk of cardiovascular events, with an emphasis on 4 of the Bradford Hill criteria for causal inference: strength, consistency, dose-response, and biological plausibility. Results from 2 epidemiological studies and a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials, including a subgroup analysis from the Women’s Health Initiative, have prompted concern about a potential association between calcium supplement use and a small increase in the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. However, a number of issues with the studies, such as inadequate compliance with the intervention, use of nontrial calcium supplements, potential bias in event ascertainment, and lack of information on and adjustment for known cardiovascular risk determinants, suggest that bias and confounding cannot be excluded as explanations for the reported associations. Findings from other cohort studies also suggest no detrimental effect of calcium from diet or supplements, with or without vitamin D, on cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, little evidence exists for plausible biological mechanisms to link calcium supplement use with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The authors do not believe that the evidence presented to date regarding the hypothesized relationship between calcium supplement use and increased cardiovascular disease risk is sufficient to warrant a change in the Institute of Medicine recommendations, which advocate use of supplements to promote optimal bone health in individuals who do not obtain recommended intakes of calcium through dietary sources. PMID:23153730

Heaney, Robert P.; Kopecky, Stephen; Maki, Kevin C.; Hathcock, John; MacKay, Douglas; Wallace, Taylor C.

2012-01-01

303

Diet, Weight Loss, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.  

PubMed

Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with a patient should be based on this risk-benefit assessment. The body mass is the basic measurement for this assessment, and should be part of the "vital signs" when a patient is first evaluated by the medical staff. When the body mass index (BMI) is below 25 kg/m(2), there is little risk from the body weight, but because obesity is a "stigmatized" condition, many patients, particularly women, desire to lose weight even within the normal range. For this purpose, a high-quality diet like the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet at a reduced-calorie intake would be our recommendation. When the BMI is above 25 kg/m(2), patients deserve dietary advice, but in addition to a reduced-calorie DASH-like diet, this is a place to consider using "portion-control" strategies, such as the nutrition labels that manufacturers provide on canned and frozen foods to guide patients in reducing calorie intake. In overweight individuals at high risk (ie, those with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, or the metabolic syndrome), the use of orlistat or sibutramine along with diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, and portion control should be considered. When the BMI is above 35 kg/m(2), bariatric surgery should also be discussed as an option for the "at-risk" individual. Evidence reviewed here shows that modest weight losses of 5% to 10% can reduce the risk of conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes and can maintain lower blood pressure over extended periods. All of the approaches described above can produce weight losses of this magnitude. PMID:12834563

Bray, George A.; Ryan, Donna H.; Harsha, David W.

2003-08-01

304

Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease  

SciTech Connect

This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices utilizes an open-loop configuration involving a team consisting of neurosurgeon, neurologist and neurophysiologist all present and participating in the decision process of delivery. We propose the development of an integrated system which provides for distributed decision making and tele-manipulation of the instrument delivery system.

Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

2008-02-29

305

Secondhand smoke exposure and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among nonsmokers,\\u000a which has been estimated to be 20% to 30%. SHS may also increase the risk of stroke; however, the link is equivocal compared\\u000a with that for CHD. In addition, data from clinical and animal studies support the biologic plausibility of the

Saverio Stranges; K. Michael Cummings; Francesco P. Cappuccio; Maurizio Trevisan

2007-01-01

306

New Perspectives of Infections in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Infections have been recognized as significant causes of cardiac diseases for many decades. Various microorganisms have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases involving all classes of microbial agents. All components of the heart structure can be affected by infectious agents, i.e. pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, valves, autonomic nervous system, and some evidence of coronary arteries. A new breed of infections have evolved over the past three decades involving cardiac implants and this group of cardiac infectious complications will likely continue to increase in the future, as more mechanical devices are implanted in the growing ageing population. This article will review the progress made in the past decade on understanding the pathobiology of these infectious complications of the heart, through advances in genomics and proteomics, as well as potential novel approach for therapy. An up-to-date, state-of-the-art review and controversies will be outlined for the following conditions: (i) perimyocarditis; (ii) infective endocarditis; (iii) cardiac device infections; (iv) coronary artery disease and potential role of infections. PMID:20436849

Fong, Ignatius W

2009-01-01

307

The mutually reinforcing triad of depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions of depression, erectile dysfunction (ED), and cardiovascular disease may seem at a superficial level as independent medical problems managed by 3 separate and unrelated healthcare disciplines. Various studies, however, have revealed significant associations between depression and cardiovascular disease, ED and cardiovascular disease, and depression and ED. The purpose of this research was to identify whether the 3 medical

Irwin Goldstein

2000-01-01

308

Cardiovascular disease: Pathogenesis, epidemiology, and risk among users of oral contraceptives who smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease among persons of both sexes. The risk of cardiovascular disease is further increased among users of oral contraceptives who smoke, particularly those who are ?35 years old or carry the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation. Other important cardiovascular disease risk factors in women include waist\\/hip girth ratio >0.8, high concentration

William P. Castelli

1999-01-01

309

On politics and health: an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba.  

PubMed

Political decisions may cause disease. During 1992 and 1993, an epidemic of neuropathy in Cuba--largely overlooked by U.S. physicians--affected more than 50,000 persons and caused optic neuropathy, deafness, myelopathy, and sensory neuropathy. Patients with the neurologic disease responded to B group vitamins, and oral vitamin supplementation of the population curbed the epidemic. Dietary restrictions and excessive carbohydrate intake were the immediated cause of the epidemic; however, the primary cause might have been political. Political changes in eastern Europe had major repercussions on Cuba's economy and food supply. In turn, these changes compounded the effects of internal political decisions in the island, leading toward isolationism and economic dependence on the former Soviet Union. Also, for more than 30 years, the United States has maintained an economic embargo against Cuba. In 1992, the U.S. embargo was tightened by the Torricelli amendment (or the Cuba Democracy Act), which prohibited third-country subsidiaries of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba and prevented food and medicines from reaching the island; this amendment produced a virtual economic blockade. Penuries resulting from all these political events resulted in the largest epidemic of neurologic disease in this century. Physicians may need to use their influence to modify political decisions when these decisions result in adverse health consequences. The American Academy of Neurology has issued a plea to encourage physicians and other health personnel to support efforts leading to lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba for humanitarian reasons. PMID:7872589

Román, G C

1995-04-01

310

Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases.  

PubMed

Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering. PMID:15831140

Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

311

Ayurveda and yoga in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering. PMID:15834238

Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

2005-01-01

312

Disease Prevention versus Data Privacy: Using Landcover Maps to Inform Spatial Epidemic Models  

PubMed Central

The availability of epidemiological data in the early stages of an outbreak of an infectious disease is vital for modelers to make accurate predictions regarding the likely spread of disease and preferred intervention strategies. However, in some countries, the necessary demographic data are only available at an aggregate scale. We investigated the ability of models of livestock infectious diseases to predict epidemic spread and obtain optimal control policies in the event of imperfect, aggregated data. Taking a geographic information approach, we used land cover data to predict UK farm locations and investigated the influence of using these synthetic location data sets upon epidemiological predictions in the event of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. When broadly classified land cover data were used to create synthetic farm locations, model predictions deviated significantly from those simulated on true data. However, when more resolved subclass land use data were used, moderate to highly accurate predictions of epidemic size, duration and optimal vaccination and ring culling strategies were obtained. This suggests that a geographic information approach may be useful where individual farm-level data are not available, to allow predictive analyses to be carried out regarding the likely spread of disease. This method can also be used for contingency planning in collaboration with policy makers to determine preferred control strategies in the event of a future outbreak of infectious disease in livestock. PMID:23133352

Tildesley, Michael J.; Ryan, Sadie J.

2012-01-01

313

Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

2014-01-01

314

Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama  

PubMed Central

Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

Crawford, Andrew J.; Lips, Karen R.; Bermingham, Eldredge

2010-01-01

315

Epidemics and control strategies for diseases of farmed salmonids: a parameter study.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of the English and Welsh fish farming and fisheries industry to emergent diseases is assessed using a stochastic simulation model. The model dynamics operate on a network comprising directed transport and river contacts, as well as undirected local and fomite transmissions. The directed connections cause outward transmission risk to be geographically more confined than inward risk. We consider reactive, proactive, and hybrid methods of control which correspond to a mixture of policy and the ease of disease detection. An explicit investigation of the impact of laboratory capacity is made. General quantified guidelines are derived to mitigate future epidemics. PMID:21352790

Jonkers, A R T; Sharkey, K J; Thrush, M A; Turnbull, J F; Morgan, K L

2010-12-01

316

Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT00441623). Intestinal uptake of p-cresol, under steady state conditions, was estimated from 24 h urinary excretion of PCS. Primary endpoint was time to first cardiovascular event, i.e., cardiac death, myocardial infarction/ischemia, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiovascular surgery, ischemic stroke or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Statistical analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results In a cohort of 200 patients, median 24 h urinary excretion of PCS amounted to 457.47 ?mol (IQR 252.68 – 697.17). After a median follow-up of 52 months, 25 patients reached the primary endpoint (tertile 1/2/3: 5/6/14 events, log rank P 0.037). Higher urinary excretion of PCS was directly associated with cardiovascular events (univariate hazard ratio per 100 ?mol increase: 1.112, P 0.002). In multivariate analysis, urinary excretion of PCS remained a predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of eGFR (hazard ratio 1.120, P 0.002). Conclusions In patients with chronic kidney disease, intestinal uptake of p-cresol associates with cardiovascular disease independent of renal function. The intestinal generation and absorption of p-cresol may be therapeutic targets to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in patients with renal dysfunction. PMID:24912660

2014-01-01

317

Cardiovascular Disease Could be Contained based on Currently Available Data!  

PubMed Central

Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the incidence of chronic age-related diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and late-onset diabetes have increased and have become serious public health problem, as well. The etiology of these disorders is still incompletely understood, therefore, neither preventive strategies nor long-term effective treatment modalities are available for these disorders. In keeping with the aforementioned, the ultimate goal in cardiovascular research is to prevent the onset of cardiovascular episodes and thereby allow successful ageing without morbidity and cognitive decline. Herein, I argue that cardiovascular episodes could be contained with relatively simple approaches. Cardiovascular disorder is characterized by cellular and molecular changes that are commonplace in age-related diseases in other organ system, such alterations include increased level of oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and “horror autotoxicus” largely brought about by the perturbation of ubiquitin -proteasome system, and excessive oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle cells and tissues, and cross-reactions of specific antibodies against human heat shock protein 60 with that of mycobacterial heat shock protein 65.” Horror autotoxicus”, a Latin expression, is a term coined by Paul Ehrlich at the turn of the last century to describe autoimmunity to self, or the attack of “self” by immune system, which ultimately results to autoimmune condition. Based on the currently available data, the risk of cardiovascular episodes and several other age-related disorders, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, is known to be influenced by the nature and level of food intake. Now, a wealth of scientific data from studies of rodents and monkeys has documented the significant beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) or dietary restriction (DR), and multiple antioxidant agents in extending life span and reducing the incidence of progeroid-related diseases. Reduced levels of cellular oxidative stress, protection of genome from deleterious damage, detoxification of toxic molecules, and enhancement of energy homeostasis, contribute to the beneficial effects of dietary restriction and multiple antioxidant agents. Recent findings suggest that employment of DR and multiple antioxidant agents (including, catalase, gluthatione peroxidase, CuZn superoxide dismutase, and Mn superoxide dismutase = enzymes forming the primary defense against oxygen toxicity), and ozone therapy may mount an effective resistance to pathogenic factors relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular episodes. Hence, while further studies will be needed to establish the extent to which CR and multiple antioxidant agents will reduce incidence of cardiovascular episodes in humans, it would seem prudent to recommend CR and multiple antioxidant agents as widely applicable preventive approach for cardiovascular disorders and other progeroid-related disorders. PMID:18648594

Ofodile, Okom Nkili F.C.

2006-01-01

318

Associations of blood rheology and interleukin-6 with cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Haemorheological variables (whole-blood, plasma and relative blood viscosity, haematocrit, red cell aggregation, white cell count and fibrinogen) were measured in 753 men and 821 women aged 25-74 years, and related to cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Men had higher levels than women of blood viscosity, haematocrit, corrected viscosity and relative viscosity. Post-menopausal women had higher levels than pre-menopausal women of blood viscosity, haematocrit, corrected blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen: each of these differences was completely or partly abolished by use of hormone replacement therapy. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index and smoking markers showed positive associations with most rheological variables, whereas HDL-cholesterol, plasma vitamin C and social class showed inverse associations. Rheological variables were associated with prevalent CVD after age-adjustment. However, after multiple risk factor adjustment only plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation showed significant (P<0.04) associations in both men and women (comparing top to bottom quarters). Plasma interleukin-6 (measured in a 25% subsample of 196 men and 221 women) correlated significantly with age, fibrinogen, white cell count, plasma and blood viscosity, current smoking, and (in men) with low serum vitamin C levels; but not with other major risk factors or with prevalent cardiovascular disease. PMID:10050704

Woodward, M; Rumley, A; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Lowe, G D

1999-02-01

319

Inflammation and reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been proposed to be mediators of experimental cardiovascular pathology. There is also a wealth of data indicating that ROS are involved in clinical cardiovascular pathology. However, multiple clinical studies have shown little benefit from anti-oxidant treatments, whereas nearly all experimental studies have shown a marked effect of anti-oxidant therapy. One reason for this discrepancy is that ROS are produced through multiple different mechanisms of which some are clinically beneficial; thus, in a defined experimental system where predominately pathological ROS are generated does not mimic a clinical setting where there are likely to be multiple ROS generating systems producing beneficial and pathological ROS. Simple inhibition of ROS would not be expected to have the same result in these two situations; ergo, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the production of ROS so that clinical treatments can be tailored to target the pathological production of ROS. One such example of this in cardiovascular biology is tissue specific inflammation-mediated ROS generation. This and the following series of articles discuss the current understanding of the role of ROS in cardiovascular disease, specifically focusing on the molecular mechanisms of ROS generation and the actions of ROS within the cardiovascular system. Although there are still many areas with regard to the effects of ROS in the cardiovascular system that are not completely understood, there is a wealth of data suggesting that blocking pathological ROS production is likely to have beneficial clinical effects compared to traditional anti-oxidants. PMID:21191541

Zhang, Nannan; Andresen, Bradley T; Zhang, Cuihua

2010-12-26

320

Alcohol and cardiovascular diseases: a historical overview.  

PubMed

Evident disparities in relationships make it desirable to consider several disorders separately. (1) Alcoholic cardiomyopathy was perceived 150 years ago, but understanding was clouded by recognition of beriberi and of synergistic toxicity from alcohol with arsenic or cobalt. (2) A report of a link between heavy drinking and hypertension in WWI French soldiers was apparently ignored for > 50 years. Epidemiological and intervention studies have now firmly established this association, but a mechanism remains elusive. (3) The 'holiday heart syndrome', an increased risk of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in alcoholics, has been widely known to clinicians for 25 years; data remain sparse about the total role of heavier drinking in cardiac rhythm disturbances. (4) Failure of earlier studies to distinguish types of stroke impeded understanding; it now seems probable that alcohol drinking increases risk of haemorrhagic stroke but lowers risk of ischaemic stroke. (5) Heberden reported angina relief by alcohol in 1786, and an inverse alcohol-atherosclerosis association was observed by pathologists early in this century. Recent population studies and plausible mechanisms support a protective effect of alcohol against coronary disease. International comparisons dating back to 1819 suggest beverage choice as a factor, but this issue (the 'French Paradox') remains unresolved. PMID:9949784

Klatsky, A L

1998-01-01

321

Oxidative and Proteolytic Stress in Homocysteine-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Homocysteine (HCY) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases. HCY increases oxidative stress, activates\\u000a MMP, and alters calcium homeostasis, thereby leading to vascular dysfunction. The major source of oxidative stress in HCY-induced\\u000a vascular remodeling is the mitochondria. HCY causes activation and the mitochondrial translocation of calpain-1 (calcium-dependent\\u000a cysteine protease), thereby increasing intramitochondrial oxidative stress leading to the induction of

Karni S. Moshal; Munish Kumar; Neetu Tyagi; Paras Kumar Mishra; Saumi Kundu; Suresh C. Tyagi

322

Use of Metformin in Patients with Kidney and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metformin is an insulin-sensitizing agent with anti-hyperglycemic properties that is widely used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The efficacy of metformin in reducing hyperglycemia is well established, and there is emerging evidence that its chronic use is associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. While the hypoglycemic properties of metformin are largely attributed to suppression of hepatic

David Klachko; Adam Whaley-Connell

2011-01-01

323

Mitochondrial biogenesis in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders including obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance,\\u000a components which are risk factors for the development of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease. Pathophysiological\\u000a abnormalities that contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome include impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation\\u000a and mitochondrial biogenesis, dampened insulin metabolic signaling, endothelial dysfunction, and associated myocardial functional\\u000a abnormalities.

Jun Ren; Lakshmi Pulakat; Adam Whaley-Connell; James R. Sowers

2010-01-01

324

Cadmium and cardiovascular diseases: cell biology, pathophysiology, and epidemiological relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the killer number one world wide. In 2004 an estimated 17.1 million people died due\\u000a to CVDs and this number will further increase to an estimated 23.6 million by 2030. Importantly, currently known risk factors,\\u000a like hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, can only be made responsible for about 50–75% of all CVDs, highlighting the urgent\\u000a need to search for

Barbara Messner; David Bernhard

2010-01-01

325

Antioxidation in Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases – An Effect of Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Catechins are major components of green\\u000a tea with many biological functions, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. Antioxidative\\u000a effects of tea catechins are characterized by the ability to inhibit free radical generation and to scavenge free radicals,\\u000a among other effects. They also influence activation of transcription factors such

Jun-ichi Suzuki; Mitsuaki Isobe; Ryuichi Morishita; Ryozo Nagai

326

Cardiovascular Disease in Asian Indians Living in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian Indians (people originating from the Indian subcontinent) are the largest Asian subgroup in the United States and one\\u000a of the fastest growing ethnic groups as well, with the population projected to increase to 41 million by 2050. Prevalence\\u000a of cardiovascular disease is significantly higher in Asian Indians compared to whites living in the United States. Asian Indians\\u000a have a

Jasmine Boparai; Himara Davila; Manisha Chandalia

2011-01-01

327

Metabolism of Homocysteine and its Relationship with Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia, or the rise of plasmatic homocysteine levels above 15 µg\\/dL, is accepted nowadays as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in men and women. Homocysteine (Hcy) is a non-protein forming aminoacid (aa) derivated from the loss of the methyl group, found within methionine. Methionine regenerates by retrieving the methyl radical from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) creating tetrahydrofolate (THF) which will

Bernardo Aguilar; Julio C. Rojas; María T. Collados

2004-01-01

328

Women with Cardiovascular Disease Have Increased Risk of Osteoporotic Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether women with cardiovascular disease (CVD) would have an increased risk of fractures as osteoporosis\\u000a and CVD share many common risk factors. From February 2006 to January 2007, 17,033 women aged ?50 years (mean 71.8, range\\u000a 50–106) were recruited by 1,248 primary care practitioners and interviewed by trained nurses. For each woman, 10-year probability\\u000a of a future major

Jian Sheng Chen; Chris Hogan; Greg Lyubomirsky; Philip N. Sambrook

2011-01-01

329

Herbs and alternative therapies: Relevance to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal remedies, supplements, and alternative therapeutic items are used by many patients with hypertension and cardiovascular\\u000a diseases. Scientific knowledge about their efficacy and safety is lacking, and unfortunately, physicians are frequently not\\u000a aware that patients are using these nontraditional forms of medical care. Patients may anticipate physicians’ disapproval\\u000a of their use, or not realize that it is important for the

Chaula K. Vora; George A. Mansoor

2005-01-01

330

Beta-Adrenergic gene therapy for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy using in vivo recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is an effective technique that offers great potential to improve existing drug treatments for the complex cardiovascular diseases of heart failure and vascular smooth muscle intimal hyperplasia. Cardiac-specific adenovirus-mediated transfer of the carboxyl-terminus of the ?-adrenergic receptor kinase (?ARKct), acting as a G??-?-adrenergic receptor kinase (?ARK)1 inhibitor, improves basal and agonist-induced

Andrea D Eckhart; Walter J Koch

2000-01-01

331

Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular diseases in an Israeli population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Israel is in the Mediterranean basin, but its population immigrated mostly from Europe, Asia, and Africa. We surveyed the adherence of the Israeli Jewish population to Mediterranean Diet (MD) and its association with cardiovascular disease.Methods. We studied a random sample of Jewish adults, aged 35+ using a 24-h recall questionnaire. A MD score (scale 0–8) was computed reflecting high

Natalya Bilenko; Drora Fraser; Hillel Vardi; Iris Shai; Danit R. Shahar

2005-01-01

332

Aspirin use for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The benefits of aspirin use for the secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been demonstrated in several clinical trials.Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of aspirin use for primary and secondary prophylaxis of CVD and to identify predictors associated with its use.Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from

Mariam Hassan; Mayur Amonkar

2001-01-01

333

Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk.Objective:To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether

L J Lloyd; S C Langley-Evans; S McMullen

2010-01-01

334

The Implications of Mental Stress for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence points to a significant role for psychological factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mental\\u000a stress, including psychological, psychosocial, or emotional stress, is recognized as a risk factor for the development of\\u000a CVD. It also seems to contribute to the onset of—and can directly precipitate acute—coronary syndromes (ACS), fatal arrhythmias,\\u000a and acute heart failure.

Brendon L. Graeber; Aaron Soufer; Matthew M. Burg; Robert S. Soufer

335

Value of Weight Reduction in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and contributes markedly to individual CV risk factors,\\u000a including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and other chronic conditions, such as osteoarthritis, obstructive\\u000a sleep apnea, and physical deconditioning. Obesity, defined as a body mass index ?30 kg\\/m2, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in severely obese patients with a body

Surya M. Artham; Carl J. Lavie; Richard V. Milani; Hector O. Ventura

2010-01-01

336

Epigenetic programming and risk: the birthplace of cardiovascular disease?  

PubMed

Epigenetics, through control of gene expression circuitries, plays important roles in various physiological processes such as stem cell differentiation and self renewal. This occurs during embryonic development, in different tissues, and in response to environmental stimuli. The language of epigenetic program is based on specific covalent modifications of DNA and chromatin. Thus, in addition to the individual identity, encoded by sequence of the four bases of the DNA, there is a cell type identity characterized by its positioning in the epigenetic "landscape". Aberrant changes in epigenetic marks induced by environmental cues may contribute to the development of abnormal phenotypes associated with different human diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders and inflammation. Most of the epigenetic studies have focused on embryonic development and cancer biology, while little has been done to explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. This review highlights our current knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation and the evidence that chromatin remodeling and histone modifications play key roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease through (re)programming of cardiovascular (stem) cells commitment, identity and function. PMID:22773406

Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Pesce, Maurizio

2013-06-01

337

Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction  

PubMed Central

We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

2010-01-01

338

Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide. PMID:24693336

Wang, Yonggang; Miao, Xiao; Liu, Yucheng; Li, Fengsheng; Liu, Quan; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

2014-01-01

339

PPAR? and its ligands: therapeutic implications in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

The relevance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes arises from its hypoglycemic effects in diabetic patients and also from the critical role in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. From a clinical perspective, differences between currently FDA-approved PPAR? drugs have been observed in terms of atherosclerosis, cardiac and stroke events. The adverse effects of PPAR?-specific treatments that hamper their cardiovascular protective roles, affirm the strong need to evaluate the efficacy of the current drugs. Therefore, active research is directed towards high-throughput screening and pharmacologic testing of a plethora of newly identified natural or synthetic compounds. Here we describe the rationale behind drug design strategies targeting PPAR?, based on current knowledge regarding the effects of such drugs in experimental animal models as well as in the clinical practice. Regarding endogenous PPAR? ligands, several fatty acid derivatives bind PPAR? with different affinity, though the physiological relevance of these interactions is not always evident. Recently, nitric oxide-derived unsaturated fatty acids were found to be potent agonists of PPARs, with preferential affinity for PPAR?, compared to oxidized fatty acid derivatives. Nitroalkenes exert important bioactivities of relevance for the cardiovascular system including anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet actions and are important mediators of vascular tone. A new generation of insulin sensitizers with PPAR? function for the treatment of diabetes, may serve to limit patients from the increased cardiovascular burden of this disease. PMID:19118492

Villacorta, Luis; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Zhang, Jifeng; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene

2009-01-01

340

[Coffee and cardiovascular disease risk: yin and yang].  

PubMed

Many epidemiological studies have addressed the effects of coffee on cardiovascular disease. Most case-control studies suggest an increased risk in high coffee consumers, whereas cohort studies indicate no clear association with cardiovascular risk. Several aspects could be considered to explain and/or reconcile these inconsistencies. Selection bias and recall bias may explain a positive association supported by case-control studies. An inadequate adjustment for many confounding factors (i.e., smoking, poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, etc.) could also affect the relationship between coffee consumption and cardiovascular risk. Moreover, coffee contains several biologically active substances that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. The development of complete/partial tolerance to some caffeine effects in habitual drinkers adds to the complexity of coffee effects. Variation in cup size and methods of coffee preparation may also explain some conflicting results. As it is not reasonable to conduct randomized controlled trials, it is recommended that coffee consumption be moderate in healthy people and limited in individuals at high risk. PMID:19209536

Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Marchioli, Roberto

2008-11-01

341

Periodontitis, cardiovascular disease and pregnancy outcome - focal infection revisited?  

PubMed

Over the last two decades there has been a renewed interest around the possible effects of periodontal disease on both cardiovascular health and pregnancy outcome (among other diseases), a topic which has interested science for hundreds of years. These have led to a range of studies, workshops and consensus documents being published, with corresponding coverage in general and professional media. In this article the authors summarise the history and supporting theories behind such associations, whether clinical studies have been able to confirm these and what this might mean for general practitioners who are questioned on this topic by patients. PMID:25342358

Ide, M; Linden, G J

2014-10-24

342

Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality Due to Cardiovascular Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease in Shenyang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular

Pengfei Zhang; Guanghui Dong; Baijun Sun; Liwen Zhang; Xi Chen; Nannan Ma; Fei Yu; Huimin Guo; Hui Huang; Yungling Leo Lee; Naijun Tang; Jie Chen

2011-01-01

343

Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... and have not gotten this vaccine or have immunity to these diseases Varicella vaccine to protect against ... gotten two doses of this vaccine or have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and ...

344

Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes  

PubMed Central

Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

2014-01-01

345

Wine, beer, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and cancer.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer's lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

2012-07-01

346

Roles of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Cardiovascular Physiology and Disease  

PubMed Central

The bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) exerts a range of effects on the cardiovasculature that suggest a role in a variety of critical cardiovascular functions and clinically important cardiovascular diseases. LPA is an activator of platelets from a majority of human donors identifying a possible role as a regulator of acute thrombosis and platelet function in atherogenesis and vascular injury responses. Of particular interest in this context, LPA is an effective phenotypic modulator of vascular smooth muscle cells promoting the de-differentiation, proliferation and migration of these cells that is required for the development of intimal hyperplasia. Exogenous administration of LPA results in acute and systemic changes in blood pressure in different animal species, suggesting a role for LPA in both normal blood pressure regulation and hypertension. Advances in our understanding of the molecular machinery responsible for the synthesis, actions and inactivation of LPA now promises to provide the tools required to define the role of LPA in cardiovascular physiology and disease. In this review we discuss aspects of LPA signaling in the cardiovasculature focusing on recent advances and attempting to highlight presently unresolved issues and promising avenues for further investigation. PMID:18586114

Smyth, Susan S.; Cheng, Hsin-Yuan; Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Morris, Andrew J.

2008-01-01

347

Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease should be targeted to patients with a high cardiovascular\\u000a risk. Physicians should assess the risks and benefits of aspirin therapy for primary prevention and incorporate patient preferences.

Nicolas Rodondi; Jacques Cornuz; Douglas C. Bauer

2005-01-01

348

Epigenomes: the missing heritability in human cardiovascular disease?  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is a tremendous burden on human health and results from malfunction of various networks of biological molecules in the context of environmental stress. Despite strong evidence of heritability, many common forms of heart disease (heart failure in particular) have not yielded to genome-wide association studies to identify causative mutations acting via the disruption of individual molecules. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that genetic variation in noncoding regions is strongly linked to disease susceptibility. We hypothesize that epigenomic variation may engender different chromatin environments in the absence of (or in parallel with) changes in protein or mRNA sequence and abundance. In this manner, distinct-genetically encoded-chromatin environments can exhibit distinct responses to environmental stresses that cause heart failure, explaining a significant portion of the altered susceptibility that is observed in human disease. PMID:24957631

Monte, Emma; Vondriska, Thomas M

2014-08-01

349

Disparities in heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases among women  

PubMed Central

This article reviews literature pertinent to cardiovascular disparities in women, focusing primarily on heart failure (HF). It provides an in-depth look at causes, biological influences, self-management and lack of adherence to HF-treatment guidelines in women. Disparities in treatment of causative factors of HF, such as myocardial infarction and hypertension, contribute to women having poorer HF outcomes than men. This article discusses major contributing reasons for nonadherence to medication regimes for HF in women, including advanced age at time of diagnosis, likelihood of multiple comorbidities, lack of social support and low socioeconomic status. Limited inclusion of women in clinical trials and the scarcity of gender analyses for HF and other cardiovascular diseases continues to limit the applicability of research findings to women. PMID:22757737

McSweeney, Jean; Pettey, Christina; Lefler, Leanne L; Heo, Seongkum

2012-01-01

350

Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences  

PubMed Central

Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

Perez-Lopez, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

351

Role of childhood food patterns on adult cardiovascular disease risk.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence indicates that childhood nutrition plays a role in the adulthood cardiovascular health. A lifelong tracking of dietary habits, following a long-term exposure to unhealthy dietary patterns or independent effects, is a potential effect-mediating mechanism. Dietary patterns have been studied by data-driven and hypothesis-based approaches. Typically, either data-driven healthy or prudent childhood dietary patterns have been characterized and found to be associated with lower adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the published cohort studies. With regard to the individual food groups or food quality indices, intakes particularly of vegetables and fruits (or fiber indicating plant food intake) and polyunsaturated fatty acids have shown protective effects. The evidence which could confirm the long-term healthiness of a hypothesis-based Mediterranean diet is limited, requiring further investigation. Overall, the recent literature strengthens the view that a healthy childhood diet is associated with lowered adulthood CVD risk. PMID:25092579

Kaikkonen, Jari E; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T

2014-10-01

352

Meditation can produce beneficial effects to prevent cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Coronary heart disease is the major cause of global cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Lifestyle behaviour contributes as a risk factor: unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial stress. Atherosclerosis pathologic mechanisms involving oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, inflammation and senescence are associated with arterial wall damage and plaque formation. Stress reduction was observed in several types of meditation. After meditation, hormonal orchestration modulates effects in the central nervous system and in the body. All types of meditation are associated with blood pressure control, enhancement in insulin resistance, reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular senescence, independent of type of meditation. This review presents scientific evidence to explain how meditation can produce beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and particularly regarding vascular aspects. PMID:25390009

Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cardoso, Roberto

2014-06-01

353

Recurrent disease outbreaks in corneous demosponges of the genus Ircinia : epidemic incidence and defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2008 and 2009, an epidemic affected sponges of the genus Ircinia in the Western Mediterranean. Investigations at a site on the European coast (6º43?08.80??N; 3º43?52.20??W) and another on\\u000a the African coast (35º10?51.00??N; 2º25?33.00??W) revealed healthier African populations. The disease started with small pustules\\u000a on the sponge surface, which subsequently coalesced forming larger, extensive lesions. An ultrastructural study suggested\\u000a that

Manuel Maldonado; Luis Sánchez-Tocino; Carlos Navarro

2010-01-01

354

Ectopic fat, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: implications for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Ectopic fat accumulation in the liver causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Ectopic liver lipid, particularly diacylglycerol, exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance, promotes systemic inflammation, and increases risk of developing both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence suggests that NAFLD is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and although there are currently no licensed treatments for NAFLD per se, current evidence suggests that statin treatment is safe in NAFLD. Presently, there is insufficient evidence to indicate that statins or other cardioprotective agents, such as angiotensin receptor blockers, are effective in treating NAFLD. In this brief narrative review, we discuss the diagnosis of NAFLD and the role of ectopic liver fat to cause insulin resistance and to increase risk of both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For this review, PubMed was searched for articles using the key words non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or fatty liver combined with diabetes risk, cardiovascular risk, and cardiovascular mortality between 1990 and 2014. Articles published in languages other than English were excluded. PMID:24743428

Byrne, Christopher D; Targher, Giovanni

2014-06-01

355

Discrete epidemic models with arbitrary stage distributions and applications to disease control  

PubMed Central

W. O. Kermack and A. G. McKendrick introduced in their fundamental paper, A Contribution to the Mathematical Theory of Epidemics, published in 1927, a simple deterministic model that captured the qualitative dynamic behavior of single infectious disease outbreaks. A Kermack-McKendrick discrete-time general framework, motivated by the emergence of a multitude of models used to forecast the dynamics of SARS and influenza outbreaks, is introduced in this manuscript. Results that allow us to measure quantitatively the role of classical and general distributions on disease dynamics are presented. The case of the geometric distribution is used to evaluate the impact of waiting-time distributions on epidemiological processes or public health interventions. In short, the geometric distribution is used to set up the baseline or null epidemiological model used to test the relevance of realistic stage-period distribution on the dynamics of single epidemic outbreaks. A final size relationship involving the control reproduction number, a function of transmission parameters and the means of distributions used to model disease or intervention control measures, is computed. Model results and simulations highlight the inconsistencies in forecasting that emerge from the use of specific parametric distributions. Examples, using the geometric, Poisson and binomial distributions, are used to highlight the impact of the choices made in quantifying the risk posed by single outbreaks and the relative importance of various control measures. PMID:23797790

Hernandez-Ceron, Nancy; Feng, Zhilan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

2014-01-01

356

Controlling ischemic cardiovascular disease: from basic mechanisms to clinical management.  

PubMed

Progress in cardiovascular disease understanding and management continues at an exponential pace. Our understanding of the molecular basis of disease is enhanced by newer molecular measurement techniques, sophisticated models of physiological protein functions, understanding of the genetic foundation for diseases, and the incorporation of population genetic tools in our clinical analysis. In this review, I discuss prevention and therapy of coronary stenosis impeding coronary flows, prevention of acute and chronic manifestation of coronary flow impairment, and interfering with myocardial manifestation of acute or chronic deprivation of coronary flow. Mechanical heart failure and arrhythmias are common causes of myocardial dysfunction that originate, in part, from the loss of myocardial tissue and function. Techniques for interfering with cardiac function, in order to address the molecular mechanisms associated with restenosis, range from pharmacologic to mechanical procedures including mechanical dilation and scaffolding of coronary stenosis. The use of stents with and without drug coating is leading the clinical world of revascularization side-by-side with cardiac bypass surgery. Other topics that are discussed here include managing myocardial damage and acute and chronic pump failure. Finally, population genetics of cardiac health and the potential for genetic therapeutic guidance in managing ischemic cardiovascular diseases are discussed. PMID:18375595

Beyar, Rafael

2008-03-01

357

Strategic Approaches to Unraveling Genetic Causes of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

DNA sequence variants (DSVs) are major components of the “causal field” for virtually all-medical phenotypes, whether single-gene familial disorders or complex traits without a clear familial aggregation. The causal variants in single gene disorders are necessary and sufficient to impart large effects. In contrast, complex traits are due to a much more complicated network of contributory components that in aggregate increase the probability of disease. The conventional approach to identification of the causal variants for single gene disorders is genetic linkage. However, it does not offer sufficient resolution to map the causal genes in small size families or sporadic cases. The approach to genetic studies of complex traits entails candidate gene or Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). GWAS provides an unbiased survey of the effects of common genetic variants (common disease - common variant hypothesis). GWAS have led to identification of a large number of alleles for various cardiovascular diseases. However, common alleles account for a relatively small fraction of the total heritability of the traits. Accordingly, the focus has shifted toward identification of rare variants that might impart larger effect sizes (rare variant-common disease hypothesis). This shift is made feasible by recent advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms, which afford the opportunity to identify virtually all common as well as rare alleles in individuals. In this review, we discuss various strategies that are used to delineate the genetic contribution to medically important cardiovascular phenotypes, emphasizing the utility of the new deep sequencing approaches. PMID:21566222

Marian, A.J.; Belmont, John

2011-01-01

358

The emerging role of microRNAs in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains the most prevalent cause of human morbidity and mortality in ageing Western societies. Basic and translational scientific efforts have focused on the development and improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit the burden of associated diseases, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. Progress in molecular medicine and biology has unravelled a complex epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene-regulating machinery in humans which may limit disease development. An increasing number of attractive molecular strategies, which use the potential of modulating noncoding RNAs, have surfaced over the last decade. Currently, the most extensively studied gene-regulating RNA subspecies are microRNAs, which have been shown to adjust the translational output of coding transcripts by enforcing their degradation and inhibiting their translation into protein. Key findings indicate that microRNAs act as crucial regulators in the majority of human pathologies. Thus, recent research has focused on detecting and modulating microRNAs for therapeutic and biomarker purposes. This review focuses on main and repeated discoveries regarding the role and the therapeutic and biomarker feasibility of microRNAs during cardiovascular disease development and exacerbation. PMID:25160930

Maegdefessel, L

2014-12-01

359

An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation?  

PubMed Central

Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compared to age-matched controls, and 2) the effects of a six-month exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation program on CAD-related GMV decline. Compared to controls, significant decreases in regional GMV were found in the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyrus; superior and inferior parietal gyrus; middle and superior temporal gyrus and in the posterior cerebellum of CAD patients. Cardiovascular rehabilitation was associated with the recovery of regional GMV in the superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellum of the CAD patients as well as the increase in GMV in the supplementary motor area. Total and regional GMV correlated with fitness level, defined by the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), at baseline but not after cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study demonstrates that cardiovascular disease can adversely affect age-related decline in GMV; and that these disease-related effects could be mitigated by moderate levels of exercise training as part of cardiovascular rehabilitation. PMID:24273722

Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J.K.; Suskin, N.; St. Lawrence, K.S.

2013-01-01

360

Relationships Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Events in Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) account for much of the variability in CVD outcomes and are also related to psychosocial variables. There is evidence that depression can undermine the treatment and advance the progression of CVD risk factors, suggesting that CVD risk factor relationships with CVD events may differ among those with depression. Methods This study tracked CVD events and mortality over a median of 5.9 years among a prospective cohort of 620 women (mean age 59.6 years [11.6]) completing a diagnostic protocol including coronary angiography and CVD risk factor assessment. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The study outcome was combined cardiovascular mortality and events. Results Over the follow-up interval, 16.1% of the sample experienced one or more of the cardiovascular outcomes. In separate Cox regression models adjusting for age, education history, ethnicity, and coronary angiogram scores, we observed statistically significant CVD risk factor?×?BDI score interactions for diabetes, smoking, and waist–hip ratio factors. Simple effect analyses indicated that diabetes and smoking status were more strongly associated with cardiovascular outcomes among participants with lower BDI scores, whereas waist–hip ratio values predicted outcomes only among those with higher BDI scores. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between modifiable CVD risk factors and CVD outcomes may vary with depression status in clinical samples of women. This evidence augments prior research by demonstrating that depression may influence CVD risk jointly with or independent of CVD risk factors. It also provides further support for the inclusion of depression assessment in cardiovascular clinic settings. PMID:21988550

Linke, Sarah E.; Johnson, B. Delia; Bittner, Vera; Krantz, David S.; Cornell, Carol E.; Vaccarino, Viola; Pepine, Carl J.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Eteiba, Wafia; Shaw, Leslee J.; Parashar, Susmita; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Vido, Diane A.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

2012-01-01

361

Cardiovascular risk factors in hematopoietic cell transplantation survivors: role in development of subsequent cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients may be at an increased risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia (referred to as cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]); and these factors can potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the incidence and predictors of CVRFs and subsequent CVD in 1885 consecutive 1+year survivors of HCT performed at City of Hope between 1995 and 2004. Ten-year cumulative incidence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and multiple (? 2) CVRFs was 37.7%, 18.1%, 46.7%, and 31.4%, respectively. The prevalence of CVRFs was significantly higher among HCT recipients compared with the general population; contributed to largely by allogeneic HCT recipients. Older age and obesity at HCT were associated with increased risk of CVRFs. History of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease was associated with an increased risk for hypertension (relative risk [RR] = 9.1, P < .01), diabetes (RR = 5.8, P < .01), and dyslipidemia (RR = 3.2, P < .01); conditioning with total body irradiation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (RR = 1.5, P = .01) and dyslipidemia (RR = 1.4, P < .01). There was an incremental increase in 10-year incidence of CVD by number of CVRFs (4.7% [none], 7.0% [1 CVRF], 11.2% [? 2 CVRFs], P < .01); the risk was especially high (15.0%) in patients with multiple CVRFs and pre-HCT exposure to anthracyclines or chest radiation. PMID:23034279

Sun, Can-Lan; Vase, Tabitha; Ness, Kirsten K.; Blum, Emily; Francisco, Liton; Venkataraman, Kalyanasundaram; Samoa, Raynald; Wong, F. Lennie; Forman, Stephen J.; Bhatia, Smita

2012-01-01

362

Inflammation, a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Obesity, the most common nutritional disorder in industrialized countries, is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is primarily considered to be a disorder of energy balance, and it has recently been suggested that some forms of obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. The present paper focuses on the current status of our knowledge regarding chronic inflammation, a link between obesity and CVDs, including heart diseases, vascular disease and atherosclerosis. The paper discusses the methods of body fat evaluation in humans, the endocrinology and distribution of adipose tissue in the genders, the pathophysiology of obesity, the relationship among obesity, inflammation, and CVD, and the adipose tissue-derived cytokines known to affect inflammation. Due to space limitations, this paper focuses on C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, apelin, and retinol binding protein 4 as adipokines. PMID:20847813

Wang, Zhaoxia; Nakayama, Tomohiro

2010-01-01

363

The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among high-income countries and is projected to be the leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. Much of the current research efforts have been aimed toward the identification, modification and treatment of individual-level risk factors. Despite significant advancements, gross inequalities continue to persist over space and time. Although increasing at different rates worldwide, the magnitude of increase in the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors has shifted research efforts to study the causes of the risk factors (ie, the ‘causes of the causes’), which include the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health reflect the impact of the social environment on health among people sharing a particular community. Imbalances in the social determinants of health have been attributed to the inequities in health observed between and within countries. The present article reviews the role of the social determinants of health on a global level, describing the epidemiological transition and the persistent trend known as the ‘inverse social gradient’. The impact of social determinants in Canada will also be examined, including data from ethnic and Aboriginal communities. Possible solutions and future directions to reduce the impact of social factors on cardiovascular health are proposed. PMID:20847985

Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S

2010-01-01

364

P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease  

PubMed Central

The role of ATP as an extracellular signalling molecule is now well established and evidence is accumulating that ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, UTP and UDP) play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, acting via P2X (ion channel) and P2Y (G protein-coupled) receptors. In this article we consider the dual role of ATP in regulation of vascular tone, released as a cotransmitter from sympathetic nerves or released in the vascular lumen in response to changes in blood flow and hypoxia. Further, purinergic long-term trophic and inflammatory signalling is described in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and death in angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, restenosis and atherosclerosis. The effects on haemostasis and cardiac regulation is reviewed. The involvement of ATP in vascular diseases such as thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes will also be discussed, as well as various heart conditions. The purinergic system may be of similar importance as the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems in cardiovascular regulation and pathophysiology. The extracellular nucleotides and their cardiovascular P2 receptors are now entering the phase of clinical development. PMID:18368530

Erlinge, David

2007-01-01

365

Cardiovascular disease risk following a 758 km pilgrimage.  

PubMed

Millions of people participate in pilgrimages around the world such as the Camino de Santiago. However, few studies have examined the effects of this type of activity on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors: c-reactive protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels following a 758 km, 30-day pilgrimage. 11 healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 18-56 participated in pre and post pilgrimage blood pressure and blood tests, as well as pre, during, and post pilgrimage weight, skin-fold, and aerobic fitness testing. Heart rate monitors and pedometers provided maximum, average, and minimum heart rates as well as distances covered during the exercise. The mean daily walking distance was 25 km at an average intensity of 55.96% (±1.93%) of maximum heart rate. Statistically significant changes were seen in body weight (79.3 kg±3.4 pre vs. 76.4±2.98 post, p<0.05), body fat percentage (24.48%±2.31% pre vs. 23.01%±2.12 post, p<0.05), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (119±3.82/75±2.73 pre vs. 110±5.07/69±3.10 post, p<0.05), as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. These data suggest that some cardiovascular disease risk factors can be improved in healthy subjects participating in a low intensity, long duration, high frequency activity such as a walking pilgrimage. PMID:23382008

Harris, M B; Wolf, M R

2013-08-01

366

Gab Docking Proteins in Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The docking proteins of the Grb2-associated binder (Gab) family have emerged as crucial signaling compartments in metazoans. In mammals, the Gab proteins, consisting of Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3, are involved in the amplification and integration of signal transduction evoked by a variety of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, antigens, and other molecules. Gab proteins lack the enzymatic activity themselves; however, when phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, they provide binding sites for multiple Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins, such as SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85, phospholipase C?, Crk, and GC-GAP. Through these interactions, the Gab proteins transduce signals from activated receptors into pathways with distinct biological functions, thereby contributing to signal diversification. They are known to play crucial roles in numerous physiological processes through their associations with SHP2 and p85. In addition, abnormal Gab protein signaling has been linked to human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. In this paper, we provide an overview of the structure, effector functions, and regulation of the Gab docking proteins, with a special focus on their associations with cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammation. PMID:23431498

Nakaoka, Yoshikazu; Komuro, Issei

2013-01-01

367

Use of Metformin in Patients with Kidney and Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Metformin is an insulin-sensitizing agent with anti-hyperglycemic properties that is widely used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The efficacy of metformin in reducing hyperglycemia is well established, and there is emerging evidence that its chronic use is associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. While the hypoglycemic properties of metformin are largely attributed to suppression of hepatic glucose production and increases in peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the precise mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of metformin remains unclear. There is evidence that metformin use interrupts mitochondrial oxidative stress in the liver and corrects abnormalities of intracellular calcium metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and adipocytes) and cardiovascular tissue. However, the use of metformin in patients with kidney disease, a high-risk CVD state, is confounded by confusion regarding appropriate concerns about the development of lactic acidosis in this population. Thus, we will review current evidence on metformin use for improving CVD outcomes and its therapeutic use in kidney disease. PMID:22294985

Klachko, David; Whaley-Connell, Adam

2011-01-01

368

Mitochondrial bioenergetics and therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains the commonest form of mortality and morbidity in the Western World. It accounts for more deaths than the combined incidence of all cancers. There remains an urgency to identify and translate therapies to reduce the effects of this disease and its associated co-morbidities. Atherosclerotic disease accounts for over two thirds of all cardiovascular related deaths. Arterial vessel wall plaques rupture and cause death due to loss of integrity of the overlaying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) cap. Although plaques contain a heterogeneous pool of different cell types, it is the VSMCs that by their nature are responsible for rupture. VSMC are the primary source of extracellular matrix and collagen and it has been suggested that loss of viability and vitality of these cells contributes to plaque vulnerability and rupture. While DNA damage has long been associated with atherosclerotic plaques only relatively recently has the contribution of mitochondrial DNA damage been suggested to play a role. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a source of ATP that the cell requires for all its energetic functions but is also a source of free radicals that produce reactive species (RS). While these RS exacerbate DNA damage and attack lipids and proteins, it is the loss of ATP that may ultimately be more detrimental. Therapeutic intervention for mitochondria dysfunction is one route on alleviating this burden. Finding alternative sources of ATP synthesis by energetic reconfiguration may also provide a vital link in delaying the kinetics of plaque rupture. PMID:23911986

Mercer, John R

2014-01-01

369

Endothelium and Its Alterations in Cardiovascular Diseases: Life Style Intervention  

PubMed Central

The endothelium, which forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and lymphatics, is a highly metabolically active organ that is involved in many physiopathological processes, including the control of vasomotor tone, barrier function, leukocyte adhesion, and trafficking and inflammation. In this review, we summarized and described the following: (i) endothelial cell function in physiological conditions and (ii) endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in the main cardiovascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis, and hypertension) and to diabetes, cigarette smoking, and aging physiological process. Finally, we presented the currently available evidence that supports the beneficial effects of physical activity and various dietary compounds on endothelial functions. PMID:24719887

Paganelli, Corrado; Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

2014-01-01

370

Stress and cardiovascular disease risk in female law enforcement officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess the levels of stress and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in female law enforcement officers\\u000a (LEOs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Self-reported data including job-related stress and CVD risk factors were obtained from 65 female LEOs. Stress scores were\\u000a compared with 429 males LEOs and CVD risk factors were compared with 1,213 demographically similar female respondents to the\\u000a CDC BRFSS

Hyelim Yoo; Warren D. Franke

2011-01-01

371

N-3 fatty acids for prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the USA. A diet enriched with n-3 fatty acids (FA) has been reported to play an important role in preventing the development of CVD. Prior studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of n-3 FA on hypertriglyceridemia, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, and platelet function. However, data on the relation of n-3 FA consumption with CVD risk remain inconsistent. This paper reviews current evidence on the effects of n-3 FA on CVD, CVD risk factors, and potential biologic mechanisms. Last, we discuss major limitations of currently available data and future directions in the field. PMID:25214423

Khawaja, Owais A; Gaziano, John M; Djoussé, Luc

2014-11-01

372

Negative affect, introversion and physiological markers of cardiovascular disease.  

E-print Network

??Cardiovascular risk factors have expanded to include personality and other psychological characteristics. Negative affect (NA) has a longstanding history in cardiovascular health, but the path… (more)

Martin, Luci A.

2008-01-01

373

Smoking, Clopidogrel, and Mortality in Patients with Established Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking increases platelet aggregability, and the degree of platelet inhibition by clopidogrel on ex vivo platelet function tests. Whether smoking status affects the relationship between clopidogrel and clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods and Results We evaluated the relationship between smoking status (current smoker (CS), former smoker (FS), and never smoker (NS)) and treatment with clopidogrel on the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among the 12,152 participants from the CHARISMA trial with established cardiovascular disease. Current smoking was associated with an increase in all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.58, [1.85–3.60]), cardiovascular (HR 2.26, [1.48–3.45]), and cancer mortality (HR 4.16, [2.46–7.03]) compared to NS. The impact of clopidogrel and mortality differed by smoking status (P for interaction = 0.018 for current smokers). Among CS, clopidogrel was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.68, [0.49–0.94]); clopidogrel did not reduce all cause mortality among FS (HR 0.95, [0.75–1.19]) or NS (HR 1.14, [0.83–1.58]). A similar pattern was noted for cardiovascular mortality. As expected, no relationship was observed between clopidogrel and cancer mortality by smoking status. The risk of bleeding seemed to differ according to smoking status; randomized clopidogrel was associated with a significantly increased hazard of severe or moderate bleeding (HR 1.62, P=0.04) among CS, but a smaller and nonsignificant increase among NS (HR 1.31, P=0.15). Conclusion Clopidogrel therapy may be more effective, but with a greater bleeding risk in CS than in patients who are not smokers. Further studies are needed to investigate this possibility. PMID:19933933

Berger, Jeffrey S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Steinhubl, Steven R.; Shao, Mingyuan; Steg, P. Gabriel; Montalescot, Gilles; Hacke, Werner; Fox, Keith A.; Lincoff, A. Michael; Topol, Eric J.; Berger, Peter B.

2010-01-01

374

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Purpose The purpose of the current review is to evaluate the evidence suggesting that PTSD increases cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and to identify possible biomarkers and psychosocial characteristics and behavioral variables that are associated with these outcomes. Methods A systematic literature search in the period of 2002–2009 for PTSD, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disease was conducted. Results The literature search yielded 78 studies on PTSD and cardiovascular/metabolic disease and biomarkers. Conclusions Although the available literature suggests an association of PTSD with cardiovascular disease and biomarkers, further research must consider potential confounds, incorporate longitudinal designs, and conduct careful PTSD assessments in diverse samples to address gaps in the research literature. Research on metabolic disease and biomarkers suggests an association with PTSD, but has not progressed as far as the cardiovascular research. PMID:20174903

Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Watkins, Lana L.; Sherwood, Andrew; Beckham, Jean C.

2011-01-01

375

Sex differences in lifetime risk and first manifestation of cardiovascular disease: prospective population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate differences in first manifestations of cardiovascular disease between men and women in a competing risks framework. Design Prospective population based cohort study. Setting People living in the community in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants 8419 participants (60.9% women) aged ?55 and free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Main outcome measures First diagnosis of coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, revascularisation, and coronary death), cerebrovascular disease (stroke, transient ischaemic attack, and carotid revascularisation), heart failure, or other cardiovascular death; or death from non-cardiovascular causes. Data were used to calculate lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease and its first incident manifestations adjusted for competing non-cardiovascular death. Results During follow-up of up to 20.1 years, 2888 participants developed cardiovascular disease (826 coronary heart disease, 1198 cerebrovascular disease, 762 heart failure, and 102 other cardiovascular death). At age 55, overall lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease were 67.1% (95% confidence interval 64.7% to 69.5%) for men and 66.4% (64.2% to 68.7%) for women. Lifetime risks of first incident manifestations of cardiovascular disease in men were 27.2% (24.1% to 30.3%) for coronary heart disease, 22.8% (20.4% to 25.1%) for cerebrovascular disease, 14.9% (13.3% to 16.6%) for heart failure, and 2.3% (1.6% to 2.9%) for other deaths from cardiovascular disease. For women the figures were 16.9% (13.5% to 20.4%), 29.8% (27.7% to 31.9%), 17.5% (15.9% to 19.2%), and 2.1% (1.6% to 2.7%), respectively. Differences in the number of events that developed over the lifespan in women compared with men (per 1000) were ?7 for any cardiovascular disease, ?102 for coronary heart disease, 70 for cerebrovascular disease, 26 for heart failure, and ?1 for other cardiovascular death; all outcomes manifested at a higher age in women. Patterns were similar when analyses were restricted to hard atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes, but absolute risk differences between men and women were attenuated for both coronary heart disease and stroke. Conclusions At age 55, though men and women have similar lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease, there are considerable differences in the first manifestation. Men are more likely to develop coronary heart disease as a first event, while women are more likely to have cerebrovascular disease or heart failure as their first event, although these manifestations appear most often at older ages. PMID:25403476

Leening, Maarten J G; Ferket, Bart S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Kavousi, Maryam; Deckers, Jaap W; Nieboer, Daan; Heeringa, Jan; Portegies, Marileen L P; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; Hunink, M G Myriam; Franco, Oscar H; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

2014-01-01

376

Risk Factors in the Initial Presentation of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina; Chronic Stable Angina; Ischemic Stroke; Cerebrovascular Accident; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Sudden Coronary Death; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Sudden Death; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Failure

2013-03-03

377

Low-Dose Aspirin in Patients with Stable Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Many recommendations,for aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease are based on analyses of all antiplatelet therapies at all dosages and in both stable and unstable patients. Our objective was to evaluate the benefit and risk of low-dose aspirin (50-325 mg\\/d) in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Secondary prevention trials of low-dose aspirin in patients with stable cardiovascular disease

Jeffrey S. Berger; David L. Brown; Richard C. Becker

378

Septicemia, access and cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients: The USRDS Wave 2 Study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Septicemia, access and cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients: The USRDS Wave 2 Study.BackgroundMicroinflammation is linked to cardiovascular disease, and is highly prevalent in dialysis patients. It is logical to postulate that septicemia, a common macroinflammatory occurrence in dialysis patients, contributes to their large burden of cardiovascular disease.MethodsThe Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Wave 2 was a randomly selected prospective cohort of

AREEF ISHANI; ALLAN J COLLINS; CHARLES A HERZOG; ROBERT N FOLEY

2005-01-01

379

Screening Children to Identify Families at Increased Risk for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Atherosclerosis begins early in life; however, children and young and middle-aged adults are not universally screened for the presence of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiovascular disease risk-factor assessment in children can identify families who are at increased

Evelyn Cohen Reis; Kevin E. Kip; Oscar C. Marroquin; Marin Kiesau; Lee Hipps; Ronald E. Peters; Steven E. Reis

2010-01-01

380

Air pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Valencia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo estimate the short-term association between air pollution levels and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Valencia, within 1994–1996 period.DESIGNDaily levels of air pollution and emergency admissions for cardiovascular diseases were related to using an ecological time series design. The number of admissions was obtained from the hospital records database. Selected groups of causes were all cardiovascular diseases,

F Ballester; J M Tenías; S Pérez-Hoyos

2001-01-01

381

Role of advanced glycation end products in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced through the non enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Enhanced formation of AGEs occurs particularly in conditions associated with hyperglycaemia such as diabetes mellitus (DM). AGEs are believed to have a key role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with DM through the modification of the structure, function and mechanical properties of tissues through crosslinking intracellular as well as extracellular matrix proteins and through modulating cellular processes through binding to cell surface receptors [receptor for AGEs (RAGE)]. A number of studies have shown a correlation between serum AGE levels and the development and severity of heart failure (HF). Moreover, some studies have suggested that therapies targeted against AGEs may have therapeutic potential in patients with HF. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of AGEs in cardiovascular disease and in particular in heart failure, focussing on both cellular mechanisms of action as well as highlighting how targeting AGEs may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of HF. PMID:22558488

Hegab, Zeinab; Gibbons, Stephen; Neyses, Ludwig; Mamas, Mamas A

2012-04-26

382

Microvesicles at the crossroads between infection and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Observational and experimental studies continue to support the association of infection and infection-stimulated inflammation with development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Microvesicles (MV) are heterogeneous populations of sealed membrane-derived vesicles shed into circulation by activated mammalian cells and/or pathogenic microbes that may represent an interface between bacterial/microbial infection and increased risk of CVD. This review evaluates how MV act to modulate and intersect immunological and inflammatory responses to infection with particular attention to progression of CVD. While infection-related stimuli provoke release of MV from blood and vascular cells, MV express phosphatidylserine (PS) and other procoagulant factors on their surface which initiate and amplify blood coagulation. In addition, MV mediate cell-cell adhesion which may stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vascular cells, which in turn aggravate progression of CVD and propagate atherothrombosis. MV transfer membrane receptors, RNA and proteins among cells, and present auto-antigens from their cells of origin to proximal or remote target cells. Because MV harbor cell surface proteins and contain cytoplasmic components of the parent cell, they mediate biological messages and play a pivotal role in the crossroad between infection-stimulated inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21242813

Xiong, Jing; Miller, Virginia M.; Li, Yunman; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

2011-01-01

383

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers research into the various mechanisms of action proposed for Crataegus preparations, clinical trials involving Crataegus preparations, and the herb's safety profile. Clinical trials reviewed have been inconsistent in terms of criteria used (sample size, preparation, dosage, etc) but have been largely consistent with regard to positive outcomes. An investigation into data available to date regarding hawthorn preparations and herb/drug interactions reveals that theoretical adverse interactions have not been experienced in practice. Further, adverse reactions relating to the use of hawthorn preparations are infrequent and mild, even at higher dosage ranges. A recent retrospective study by Zick et al. has suggested a negative outcome for the long-term use of hawthorn in the prognosis of heart failure. These findings are examined in this paper. Although further research is needed in certain areas, current research to date suggests that hawthorn may potentially represent a safe, effective, nontoxic agent in the treatment of CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD). PMID:22228939

Tassell, Mary C.; Kingston, Rosari; Gilroy, Deirdre; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose

2010-01-01

384

Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in South Asians  

PubMed Central

This review discusses the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in the South Asian population, evaluates conventional and emerging risk factors, and reinforces the need for ethnic-specific redefinition of guidelines used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. We reviewed recent and past literature using Ovid Medline and PubMed databases. South Asians represent one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the world. With this growth, a dramatic rise in the rates of acute myocardial infarction and diabetes is being seen in this population. Potential etiologies for this phenomenon include dietary westernization, poor lifestyle measures, adverse body fat patterning, and genetics. While traditional risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease should not be overlooked, early metabolic syndrome has now been shown in the South Asian pediatric population, suggesting that “metabolic programming” and perinatal influences may likely play a substantial role. Health care practitioners must be aware that current guidelines used to identify individuals with metabolic syndrome are underestimating South Asian individuals at risk. New ethnic-specific guidelines and prevention strategies are discussed in this review and should be applied by clinicians to their South Asian patients. PMID:19756165

Eapen, Danny; Kalra, Girish L; Merchant, Nadya; Arora, Anjali; Khan, Bobby V

2009-01-01

385

Rho kinase as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Rho kinase (ROCK) belongs to the AGC (PKA/PKG/PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases and is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA. ROCK plays central roles in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular functions such as contraction, adhesion, migration, proliferation and gene expression. Two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 a n d ROCK2, are assumed to be functionally redundant, based largely on the major common activators, the high degree of homology within the kinase domain and studies from overexpression with kinase constructs a n d chemical inhibitors (e.g., Y27632 a n d fasudil), which inhibit both ROCK1 and ROCK2. Extensive experimental a n d clinical studies support a critical role for the RhoA/ROCK pathway in the vascular bed in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, in which increased ROCK activity mediates vascular smooth muscle cell hypercontraction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment and vascular remodeling. Recent experimental studies, using ROCK inhibitors or genetic mouse models, indicate that the RhoA/ROCK pathway in myocardium contributes to cardiac remodeling induced by ischemic injury or persistent hypertrophic stress, thereby leading to cardiac decompensation and heart failure. This article, based on recent molecular, cellular and animal studies, focuses on the current understanding of ROCK signaling in cardiovascular diseases and in the pathogenesis of heart failure. PMID:21929346

Surma, Michelle; Wei, Lei; Shi, Jianjian

2011-01-01

386

Dietary modulators of statin efficacy in cardiovascular disease and cognition.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other developed countries, and is fast growing in developing countries, particularly as life expectancy in all parts of the world increases. Current recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease issued jointly from the American Academy of Cardiology and American Heart Association emphasize that lifestyle modification should be incorporated into any treatment plan, including those on statin drugs. However, there is a dearth of data on the interaction between diet and statins with respect to additive, complementary or antagonistic effects. This review collates the available data on the interaction of statins and dietary patterns, cognition, genetics and individual nutrients, including vitamin D, niacin, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, phytochemicals (polyphenols and stanols) and alcohol. Of note, although the available data is summarized, the scope is limited, conflicting and disparate. In some cases it is likely there is unrecognized synergism. Virtually no data are available describing the interactions of statins with dietary components or dietary pattern in subgroups of the population, particularly those who may benefit most were positive effects identified. Hence, it is virtually impossible to draw any firm conclusions at this time. Nevertheless, this area is important because were the effects of statins and diet additive or synergistic harnessing the effect could potentially lead to the use of a lower intensity statin or dose. PMID:24813475

Wang, Huifen; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Choi, Sang-Woon; Corcoran, Michael P; Harris, Susan S; Jacques, Paul F; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R; McKay, Diane L; Meydani, Mohsen; Parnell, Laurence D; Prokopy, Max P; Scott, Tammy M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

2014-08-01

387

Therapy Insight: management of cardiovascular disease in patients with cancer and cardiac complications of cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac disease in patients with cancer or caused by cancer therapy is a clinical problem of emerging importance. Optimum management of cardiovascular disease can mean that patients with cancer can successfully receive therapies to treat their malignancy and can reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease in cancer survivors. The presence of cancer and cancer-related morbidities substantially complicates the

Aarif Y Khakoo; Edward TH Yeh

2008-01-01

388

Erectile dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular disease RA Kloner1,2  

E-print Network

REVIEW Erectile dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular disease RA Kloner1,2 1 Heart Institute been recognized that erectile dysfunction (ED) and coronary artery disease share many of the same risk May 2008 Keywords: erectile dysfunction; coronary artery disease; cardiovascular risk factors

Cai, Long

389

The Interface between Inflammation and Coagulation in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The intimate connection between coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular disease has moved more and more into focus of clinical research. This paper focuses on the essential components of this interplay in the settings of cardiovascular disease and acute coronary syndrome. Tissue factor, the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, plays a central role via causing a proinflammatory response through activation of coagulation factors and thereby initiating coagulation and downstream cellular signalling pathways. Regarding activated clotting factors II, X, and VII, protease-activated receptors provide the molecular link between coagulation and inflammation. Hereby, PAR-1 displays deleterious as well as beneficial properties. Unravelling these interrelations may help developing new strategies to ameliorate the detrimental reciprocal aggravation of inflammation and coagulation. PMID:22518344

Demetz, Gabriele; Ott, Ilka

2012-01-01

390

Associations of Pentraxin 3 with Cardiovascular Disease and All Cause Death: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined associations of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a vascular inflammation marker, with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all cause death. Methods and Results 1,583 Cardiovascular Health Study participants free of prevalent CVD were included. Non-exclusive case groups were angina (n=476), myocardial infarction (MI; n=237), stroke (n=310), CVD death (n=282) and all cause death (n=772). 535 participants had no events. PTX3 levels were higher in those with subclinical CVD (1.90 ± 1.89 ng/ml) than those without (1.71 ± 1.88 ng/ml; p=0.001). Using Cox regression adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, a standard deviation increase in PTX3 (1.89 ng/ml) was associated with CVD death (hazard ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.21) and all cause death (1.08; 1.02–1.15). PTX3 was not associated with angina (1.09; 0.98–1.20), MI (0.96; 0.81–1.12) or stroke (1.06; 0.95–1.18). Adding C-reactive protein (CRP) or CVD risk factors to the models had no significant effects on associations. Conclusions In these older adults, PTX3 was associated with CVD and all cause death independent of CRP and CVD risk factors. PTX3 likely reflects different aspects of inflammation than CRP and may provide insight into vascular health in aging and chronic diseases of aging that lead to death. PMID:19164811

Jenny, Nancy Swords; Arnold, Alice M.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Tracy, Russell P.; Psaty, Bruce M.

2009-01-01

391

Impaired fasting glucose, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease mortality.  

PubMed

Impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L [110 to 125 mg/dL]) is a common glycemic disorder which usually progress to diabetes mellitus. The relationships between impaired fasting glucose, other risk factors including blood pressure, and mortality have never been clearly investigated. We studied 63 443 consecutive men (ages 21 to 60 years), each of whom had a routine health examination with a fasting plasma glucose measurement. Men with known ischemic cardiac disease and treatment for diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Impaired fasting glucose was found in 10 773 (17.0%) of these men. Mean body mass index, serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and systolic, diastolic, and pulse blood pressure were significantly higher for men with impaired fasting glucose compared with those men with normal fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 3.9 to 6.0 mmol/L). When adjusted for confounding variables, relative risk of 8-year cardiovascular mortality associated with impaired fasting glucose was dependent on systolic blood pressure level (1.02 [95% CI: 0.62 to 1.70] when <140 mm Hg and 2.10 [95% CI: 1.16 to 3.80] between 140 and 160 mm Hg). Inversely, relative risk of 8-year cardiovascular mortality associated with moderate systolic hypertension (140 to 159 mm Hg) compared with normal systolic blood pressure (<140 mm Hg) was highly dependent on the glycemic status (2.97 [95% CI: 1.58 to 5.55] for men with impaired fasting glucose compared with 1.35 [95% CI: 0.84 to 2.18] in those with normal fasting glucose). Similar results were found concerning overall mortality. In conclusion, the presence of moderate systolic hypertension can identify subjects with impaired fasting glucose who are at risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality, and vice versa, probably through the metabolic syndrome. PMID:12364347

Henry, Patrick; Thomas, Frédérique; Benetos, Athanase; Guize, Louis

2002-10-01

392

Angiotensin Peptides and Nitric Oxide in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the normal control of cardiovascular and renal function in the healthy state and is a contributing factor in the development and progression of various types of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including hypertension, diabetes, and heart failure. Recent Advances: Evidence suggests that a balance between activation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1 receptor axis and the ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas receptor axis is important for the function of the heart, kidney, and autonomic nervous system control of the circulation in the normal healthy state. An imbalance in these opposing pathways toward the ACE/Ang II/AT1 receptor axis is associated with CVD. The key component of this imbalance with respect to neural control of the circulation is the negative interaction between oxidative and NO• mechanisms, which leads to enhanced sympathetic tone and activation in disease conditions such as hypertension and heart failure. Critical Issues: The key mechanisms that disrupt normal regulation of Ang II and Ang-(1–7) signaling and promote pathogenesis of CVD at all organ levels remain poorly understood. The reciprocal relation between ACE and ACE2 expression and function suggests they are controlled interdependently at pre- and post-translational levels. Insights from neural studies suggest that an interaction between oxidative and nitrosative pathways may be key. Future Directions: The role of redox mechanisms in the control of expression and activity of RAS enzymes and Ang receptors may provide important insight into the function of local tissue RAS in health and disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1121–1132. PMID:22462736

Patel, Kaushik P.

2013-01-01

393

On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In the emerging landscape of cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials evaluating the effects of blood glucose lowering drugs in individuals with type 2 diabetes, it is becoming increasingly apparent that since the promising signals coming from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) no unequivocal benefits have been established for any single therapy thus far. There is an unmet need for introducing an effective pharmacological agent which could target both correlates of glycaemic regulation and CV risk factors, to ameliorate the enormous burden of fatal and non-fatal CV events in diabetic patients. Acarbose, like other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), has been proven to be an effective antidiabetic treatment for decades, but the overall significant impact of this class of drugs on modulating CV risk has only recently been appreciated. Accumulating evidence has shown that apart from its multiple effects on primarily postprandial glucose dysmetabolism, a key component of mechanisms linked to increased incidence of CV events, acarbose therapy also associates with a favorable impact on an array of surrogate markers of CV disease. Data stemming from in vitro testing of human cell lines as well as from preliminary trials in diabetic populations, like the Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) trial, have highlighted - though not undisputed - the potential beneficial effects of the drug on CV morbidity. Large scale trials, like the ongoing Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial, aim at conclusively establishing such a positive effect in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance. In view of its usually acceptable level of side effects that are, if they occur, mostly limited to transient gastrointestinal symptoms, acarbose could well be a strong future player in CV disease secondary prevention. Current discouraging results from many trials of antidiabetic medications to significantly lower CV event rates in diabetic patients, should only draw further attention on alternative glucose lowering agents, among which acarbose is indeed promising. PMID:24742256

Standl, Eberhard; Theodorakis, Michael J; Erbach, Michael; Schnell, Oliver; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2014-01-01

394

Simulation Modelling of Population Dynamics of Mosquito Vectors for Rift Valley Fever Virus in a Disease Epidemic Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics. Methods/Findings Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD) and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML) files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district. Conclusion/Significance Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings. PMID:25259792

Mweya, Clement N.; Holst, Niels; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.

2014-01-01

395

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada and elsewhere. It affects 5% of all adult Canadians and is the fourth leading cause of death. Interestingly, the leading causes of hospitalizations and mortality among COPD patients are cardiovascular events. In the Lung Health Study, over 5 800 patients with mild to

Don D. Sin; S. F. Paul Man

2005-01-01

396

Asbestos-related disease in South Africa: the social production of an invisible epidemic.  

PubMed

South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered--and continue to suffer--from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

2006-08-01

397

Obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the number one killer of Americans. It is also a major risk factor\\u000a for obstructive sleep apnea, which is rising in the US population as the obesity epidemic continues. Obstructive sleep apnea,\\u000a in turn, has been implicated as a risk factor for hypertension, glucose dysregulation, and cardiovascular disease. Understanding\\u000a the pathophysiologic

Muhammad Iqbal; Syed Shah; Sonalis Fernandez; Jocelyne Karam; Girardin Jean-Louis; Samy I. McFarlane

2008-01-01

398

Glycated haemoglobin--a marker and predictor of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Glycated haemoglobin is formed by simple chemical reaction between haemoglobin and blood glucose. It represents a reliable and moving average of blood glucose over preceding three months. In 2009 the International Expert Committee recommended the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes with a cut-off of 6.5%. Studies have shown that HbA1c even in the range of 5.5% to 6.5% poses considerably high risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. HbA1c as a test is important because about 220 million people have diabetes and with increasing life expectancy and emergence of type 2 diabetes in children makes it even more important. Each 1% increase in HbA1c poses 15-18% relative risk of cardiovascular disease in T1DM and T2DM respectively. CVD is a major cause of death and disability among diabetes patients and glycated haemoglobin itself is proportionately linked with excess CV morbidity and mortality. UKPDS-35 demonstrated 14% reduction in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction with only 1% reduction in HbA1c in T2DM patients. The DCCT reported significant reduction in retinopathy and nephropathy in T1DM, the follow up trial EDIC demonstrated 42% reduction in CVD with intensive reduction of HbAlc. This review is written to remind ourselves of the importance of this simple test which can predict early CV mortality in patients without prior CVD and poor prognosis in established cardiovascular disease. In a country like ours, Pakistan; where diabetes is prevalent with poor health awareness and limited resources, a test like HbA1c which costs Rs, 500.00 twice a year should be considered a cost effective way to avoid the long term diabetes complications, which once start unfolding put enormous burden on already stretched healthcare resources which could easily be avoided by intensive control of diabetes. PMID:22204248

Syed, Iftikhar Ahmad Asim; Khan, Waqar Ahmed

2011-07-01

399

Complications of HIV: lipodystrophy, anemia, renal, cardiovascular, and bone diseases.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has long been associated with a short life expectancy, with care centered on the treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and symptom management. As progress has been made through better understanding of the virus, and improved medications and treatments, persons with HIV are living longer, more productive lives. In addition to the scientific breakthroughs in treating the HIV-infected patient, more is also being learned about the long-term effects of the treatments and the virus, such as lipodystrophy syndrome. Comorbid diseases are also becoming more common in patients with HIV, such as anemia, bone disease, renal disease, and cardiac disease, which may be the result of metabolic complications or HIV itself. There is a vast array of comorbid diseases and adverse effects of medications in persons with HIV disease; and information regarding these issues is constantly changing as research continues to show more about their pathophysiology and treatment options. The most common comorbid disorders will be explored. A detailed explanation of the lipodystrophy syndrome and its common metabolic manifestations will be presented, including current research. In addition, the etiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of the most common comorbid diseases associated with anemia and the bone, renal, and cardiovascular systems will be presented as they relate to the HIV-infected patient. All of the descriptions are designed for the primary care provider, who may be in contact with an HIV-infected patient whose differential diagnoses consist of one or more of these disorders. PMID:11889688

Balt, C A; Nixon, H

2001-12-01

400

KATP channels and cardiovascular disease: Suddenly a syndrome  

PubMed Central

ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels were first discovered in the heart 30 years ago1. Reconstitution of KATP channel activity by coexpression of members of the pore-forming inward rectifier gene family (Kir6.1, KCNJ8, and Kir6.2 KCNJ11) with sulfonylurea receptors (SUR1, ABCC8, and SUR2, ABCC9) of the ABCC protein sub-family, has led to the elucidation of many details of channel gating and pore properties. In addition, the essential roles of Kir6.x and SURx subunits in generating cardiac and vascular KATP2 and the detrimental consequences of genetic deletions or mutations in mice have been recognised3. However, despite this extensive body of knowledge, there has been a paucity of defined roles of KATP subunits in human cardiovascular diseases, although there are reports of association of a single Kir6.1 variant with the J-wave syndrome in the electrocardiogram, and two isolated studies have reported association of loss of function mutations in SUR2 with atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Two new studies convincingly demonstrate that mutations in the SUR2 gene are associated with Cantu syndrome, a complex multi-organ disorder characterized by hypertrichosis, craniofacial dysmorphology, osteochondrodysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, cardiomegaly, pericardial effusion, and lymphoedema. As we discuss, this realization of previously unconsidered consequences provides significant insight into the roles of the KATP channel in the cardiovascular system and suggests novel therapeutic possibilities. PMID:23538276

Nichols, Colin G.; Singh, Gautam K.; Grange, Dorothy K.

2013-01-01

401

Depressive Symptoms and Subclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid artery intima thickening (IMT), in a sample of healthy adolescents, and to explore adolescent hostility as a potential moderator of depression on subclinical markers of CVD. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven (n = 157) black and white adolescents between the ages of 16-21 completed a follow-up study of psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk factors that included measures of PWV and carotid IMT. Psychosocial measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; divided into tertiles), and the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory subscales. Linear regression models controlled for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, blood pressure, body mass index, and heart rate. Results Results show that more severe depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of PWV (B = 0.17, R2 = 0.30, ?R2 = 0.03, CI = 2.2 – 47.0, p = .03) but not with higher IMT. Adolescent depression remained a significant predictor of PWV when controlling for adolescent hostility; hostility did not moderate the relationship between adolescent depression and PWV. Conclusions Depression may be important in the development of arterial stiffness in adolescence. Further research is needed to delineate the relationship in adolescence and young adulthood between depressive symptoms and the pathogenesis of CVD. PMID:21575817

Dietz, Laura J.; Matthews, Karen A.

2010-01-01

402

Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-07-01

403

[Increased iron store and its relationship with cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

In the last years, great advance has been achieved in the control of several of the classic atherogenic risk factors; nonetheless, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains high. Among the disorders which are associated with CVD, increased iron stores have been described as one of them. Its study gained relevance since the "iron hypothesis", which postulates that low iron levels exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system, was elaborated. In spite of the numerous studies carried out to test this hypothesis, the results have been controversial. On the other hand, much knowledge regarding iron metabolism has been gained since the description of the regulatory hormone, hepcidin. The studies on hepcidin physiologic functions allowed the elaboration of new hypothesis that could explain the results formerly conceived as inconsistent. The aim of the present review is to describe, in light of the newest advances in iron metabolism regulation and its association with inflammation, the current state of knowledge regarding the possible role of iron overload as a risk factor of CVD. PMID:22167735

Meroño, Tomás; Sorroche, Patricia; Brites, Fernando D

2011-01-01

404

The Role of Alcohol Consumption in the Aetiology of Different Cardiovascular Disease Phenotypes: a CALIBER Study  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Stable Angina; Unstable Angina; Coronary Heart Disease Not Otherwise Specified; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Heart Failure; Ventricular Arrhythmias; Cardiac Arrest; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Ischaemic Stroke; Subarachnoid Haemorrhagic Stroke; Intracerebral Haemorrhagic Stroke; Stroke Not Otherwise Specified; Sudden Cardiac Death; Unheralded Coronary Death; Mortality; Coronary Heart Disease (CHD); Cardiovascular Disease (CVD); Fatal Cardiovascular Disease (Fatal CVD); ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI); Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (nSTEMI); Myocardial Infarction Not Otherwise Specified (MI NOS)

2013-05-28

405

microRNAs in the onset and development of cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Physiological and pathological roles for small non-encoding miRNAs (microRNAs) in the cardiovascular system have recently emerged and are now widely studied. The discovery of widespread functions of miRNAs has increased the complexity of gene-regulatory processes and networks in both the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, it has recently been shown that miRNAs are implicated in the regulation of many of the steps leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. These findings represent novel aspects in miRNA biology and, therefore, our understanding of the role of these miRNAs during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is critical for the development of novel therapies and diagnostic interventions. The present review will focus on understanding how miRNAs are involved in the onset and development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24102098

VICKERS, Kasey C.; RYE, Kerry-Anne; TABET, Fatiha

2013-01-01

406

Obstructive sleep apnea: the new cardiovascular disease. Part I: obstructive sleep apnea and the pathogenesis of vascular disease  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly recognized as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. OSA is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery disease and stroke. OSA exerts its negative cardiovascular consequences through its unique pattern of intermittent hypoxia. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation are all consequences of OSA directly linked to intermittent hypoxia and critical pathways in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA. This review will discuss the known mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in patients with OSA and their implications for cardiovascular disease. PMID:18807180

Khayat, Rami; Hayes, Don

2009-01-01

407

MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

The management of cardiovascular risk through lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy is paramount to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have identified obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension as interrelated factors that negatively affect cardiovascular health. Recently, genetic and pharmacological evidence in model systems has implicated microRNAs as dynamic modifiers of disease pathogenesis. An expanded understanding of the function of microRNAs in gene regulatory networks associated with cardiovascular risk will enable identification of novel genetic mechanisms of disease and inform the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:23281405

Quiat, Daniel; Olson, Eric N

2013-01-01

408

The Prognostic Significance of Heart Rate for Cardiovascular Disease and Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five decades ago, hypertension was a debated risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. After further studies\\u000a and the introduction of antihypertensive medications, few, if any, have doubted the important role hypertension plays as a\\u000a cardiovascular risk factor. Today, a growing body of evidence emphasizes the relationship between heart rate and hypertension,\\u000a and heart rate and cardiovascular disease, which

Trygve B. Tjugen; Arnljot Flaa; Sverre E. Kjeldsen

2010-01-01

409

Theoretical basis to measure the impact of short-lasting control of an infectious disease on the epidemic peak  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While many pandemic preparedness plans have promoted disease control effort to lower and delay an epidemic peak, analytical methods for determining the required control effort and making statistical inferences have yet to be sought. As a first step to address this issue, we present a theoretical basis on which to assess the impact of an early intervention on the

Ryosuke Omori; Hiroshi Nishiura

2011-01-01

410

Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, selected cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the 5-year incidence of age-related cataract and progression of lens opacities: the beaver dam eye study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe the relationships of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors to cumulative incidence of age-related cataract and to progression of lens opacities over a 5-year interval.METHODS: A follow-up examination of the Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort was performed 5 years after the baseline evaluation. Ages at the census prior to baseline ranged from 43

Barbara E. K Klein; Ronald Klein; Kristine E Lee

1998-01-01

411

Cardiovascular Disease, Psychosocial Factors, and Genetics: The Case of Depression  

PubMed Central

Psychosocial factors are associated with cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the role of genetics in this relationship. Focusing on the well-studied phenotype of depression, current data show that there are shared genetic factors that may give rise to both depression and CVD, and these genetic risks appear to be modified by gender. This pleiotropic effect suggests that a single pathway, when perturbed, gives rise to the dual phenotypes of CVD and depression. The data also suggest that women contribute disproportionately to the depression-CVD comorbidity, and this unbalanced contribution is attributable, in part, to genetic factors. While the underlying biology behind this relationship is unclear, recent data support contributions from inflammatory or serotonergic pathways toward the comorbidity between CVD and depression. Even without knowledge of a specific mechanism, epidemiological observations offer new directions to explain the relationship between depression and CVD that have both research and clinical applications. PMID:23621965

Mulle, Jennifer Gladys; Vaccarino, Viola

2013-01-01

412

Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations  

PubMed Central

Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk. PMID:24163770

Hussain, S. Monira; Oldenburg, Brian; Zoungas, Sophia; Tonkin, Andrew M.

2013-01-01

413

Cardiovascular variability in Mexican patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular variability (CVV) has been evaluated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in other countries and exhibit ethnic differences. Objective We investigated heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in Mexican patients with PD. Method We further compared HRV and BPV between this group and young healthy controls (YHC) in order to estimate, for the first time in our country, the magnitude of the difference. Twenty patients were examined. Time- and frequency-domain CVV parameters were studied during supine rest (SR), active standing (AS) and controlled breathing. These measurements were compared to those of 20 YHC. Results In the three conditions tested, our study showed a decrease in almost all HRV parameters in PD patients; on the contrary, decreased BPV parameters were found less frequently and only during SR and AS. Conclusion Our results indicate that HRV is impaired in PD. Some BPV parameters are also diminished. PMID:25337727

Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol, Bruno; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Infante-Vázquez, Oscar; Bertado-Ramírez, Nancy

2014-10-01

414

Adherence behavior in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Adherence is critical to the overall management of individuals at risk for and with cardiovascular disease. It forms an interplay between the patient, provider, and health care system and includes barriers that have been encountered within all 3 domains. Improving adherence to exercise, diet, and medication as well as focusing on addictive disorders such as smoking cessation requires patient, provider, and health care system approaches. The use of the cognitive/behavioral elements of health behavior change and communication strategies such as motivational interviewing and coaching serve to enhance overall adherence. Continuous quality improvement initiatives at the system level of change also increase the likelihood that teams will succeed in helping individuals change their behavior. Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a unique opportunity for health care professionals to play a key role in supporting individuals through the health behavior change process. PMID:22193934

Miller, Nancy Houston

2012-01-01

415

A System Dynamics Model for Planning Cardiovascular Disease Interventions  

PubMed Central

Planning programs for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a challenge to every community that wants to make the best use of its limited resources. Selecting programs that provide the greatest impact is difficult because of the complex set of causal pathways and delays that link risk factors to CVD. We describe a system dynamics simulation model developed for a county health department that incorporates and tracks the effects of those risk factors over time on both first-time and recurrent events. We also describe how the model was used to evaluate the potential impacts of various intervention strategies for reducing the county's CVD burden and present the results of those policy tests. PMID:20167899

Homer, Jack; Evans, Elizabeth; Zielinski, Ann

2010-01-01

416