Sample records for cardiovascular disease epidemic

  1. Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.

  2. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson

    2002-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

  3. Adiponectin and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Medhavi Jogi; Mandeep Bajaj

    Adiponectin, an adipocytokine secreted by adipose tissue, enhances insulin sensitivity and inhibits vascular inflammation.\\u000a Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and other cardiovascular\\u000a complications. Furthermore, enhancing adiponectin concentrations by lifestyle changes or pharmacological therapy can have\\u000a cardiovascular-protective effects. In this chapter, we review the association between adiponectin and cardiovascular disease\\u000a and discuss treatment strategies to ameliorate

  4. Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L ANE DUVALL

    2003-01-01

    Almost 62 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease and, of these, more than 32 million are female. This translates into an average of 1 in 5 women, making cardiovascular disease the leading killer of women in the U.S., responsible for more than half a million deaths a year. While it has been known for some time

  5. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  6. Cardiovascular Disease in Developing Countries: Myths, Realities, and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Pearson

    1999-01-01

    Summary. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially ischemic heart disease and stroke, varies remarkably between regions of the world, with declining rates in Europe, North America, and Australia\\/New Zealand, burgeoning epidemics in the former socialist economies and India, and relatively lower impact in developing regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. The basis for a prediction of a global CVD epidemic

  7. Cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Onwuanyi, Anekwe E.; Clarke, Aubrey; Vanderbush, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Although mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has been declining, it remains the leading cause of death among urban U.S. blacks. McCord and Freeman reported CVD as the major contributor to excess mortality in Central Harlem. However the disease-specific CVD mortality was not assessed. Thus, it was unclear what the distribution of specific CVDs was in Central Harlem and their contribution to excess mortality. We reviewed the vital statistics records of New York City (NYC) Department of Health for 1990 and identified all cases in which the cause of death was coded as cardiovascular (International Classification of Diseases-ICD, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393-398, 401-404, 410, 411, 414-417, 420-438 and 440-444). The total and disease-specific CVD mortality for NYC and Central Harlem were calculated using the appropriate 1990 census data as the denominator. Central Harlem residents aged between 25-64 years were at least twice as likely to die from cardiovascular causes, compared to NYC residents. Hypertension-related deaths, ICD codes 401 (essential hypertension), 402 (hypertensive heart disease), 403 (hypertensive renal disease), and 404 (hypertensive heart and renal disease), were the major cause of excess death for men and women in Central Harlem. These findings show the importance of hypertension as the main determinant of the excess cardiovascular mortality in urban blacks and suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular death in blacks residing in Central Harlem. PMID:14717470

  8. Epidemic! The World of Infectious Disease - Exhibit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the museum's Epidemic! exhibit, provides an in-depth look at the world of infectious disease. It includes information on how environmental changes can affect the spread of disease, the three major groups of microbes and how disease is spread, and the factors that determine whether an outbreak will become an epidemic or a pandemic. There is a list, organized by topic and specific disease, of more than 250 Web sites and a glossary.

  9. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  10. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hao Wang; Chuhsing Kate Hsiao; Chi-Ling Chen; Lin-I Hsu; Hung-Yi Chiou; Shu-Yuan Chen; Yu-Mei Hsueh; Meei-Maan Wu; Chien-Jen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose–response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by

  11. Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander G. Logan; T. Douglas Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death in North America. To improve outcomes, it will likely be necessary\\u000a to identify new potentially treatable conditions. Sleep apnea affects approximately 50% of patients with cardiovascular disease\\u000a and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Continuous positive airway pressure is currently the treatment of choice\\u000a and has many short-term favorable effects. The

  12. ENDEMIC DISEASES VS. ACUTE EPIDEMICS

    PubMed Central

    Ravenel, Mazÿck P.

    1920-01-01

    Epidemics are cared for through the incident terror of the people, and there is always money to fight them and investigate, but the far more important insidious endemics attract little interest or popular support. Attention to reduction in morbidity, rather than mortality, rates is the “stitch in time” plea of Dr. Ravenel. PMID:18010377

  13. [Sleep rhythm and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Maemura, Koji

    2012-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem in general adult population. Recent evidence suggests the link between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and several sleep disturbances including sleep apnea syndrome, insomnia and periodic limb movements during sleep. Sleep duration may affect the cardiovascular outcome. Shift work also may increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Normalization of sleep rhythm has a potential to be a therapeutic target of ischemic heart diseases, although further study is required to evaluate the preventive effect on cardiovascular events. Here we describe the current understandings regarding the roles of sleep disorders during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events. PMID:22844804

  14. Contagion: Historical Views of Disease and Epidemics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    With this rather remarkable collection, the dedicated staff members at Harvard University Library's Open Collections Program have brought together Philadelphia's yellow fever epidemic of 1793, London's Great Plague of 1665, and six other notable epidemics from world history. The collection provides general background information on diseases and epidemics worldwide, and as previously suggested, is organized around significant "episodes" of such diseases. Visitors to the collection will find historical pamphlets, serials, books, and manuscripts totaling over 500,000 pages. The "General Materials" area is worth a look as it provides access to brief overviews of important concepts such as germ theory, public health, vaccination, medical geography, and humoral theory. Overall, it's a tremendous set of offerings, and visitors with a penchant for the history of medicine, public health, or diseases will find that this site is well worth many visits. Also, visitors can share resources on the site via Google Bookmarks and Facebook.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Csányi, Gábor; Miller, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine. PMID:24722571

  16. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K D Rosenman

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested.

  17. Pediatric CKD and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Safder, Osama; Al sharif, Shafiqa; Kari, Jameela A

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the possible risk factors for early atherosclerosis in children with CKD. Endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis, starts early in renal disease, as indicated by increased carotid artery intima media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness, impaired flow mediated dilatation, and coronary artery calcification, which are frequently present in children with CKD. Many risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, renal bone disease, hyperhomocysteinemia, and uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors are associated with CKD. All of these risk factors are modifiable and optimal clinical management can delay or prevent cardiovascular disease. Another strategy to decrease the risk of premature cardiac disease and death in children with CKD is to slow the progression of renal disease. PMID:24720458

  18. Spread of epidemic disease on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E.

    2002-07-01

    The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on networks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community. In this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models, the so-called susceptible/infective/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly on a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case of fixed infectiveness time and fixed and uncorrelated probability of transmission between all pairs of individuals, we solve cases in which times and probabilities are nonuniform and correlated. We also consider one simple case of an epidemic in a structured population, that of a sexually transmitted disease in a population divided into men and women. We confirm the correctness of our exact solutions with numerical simulations of SIR epidemics on networks.

  19. Pharmacogenomics and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established critical pathways and specific loci modulating therapeutic responses to commonly used drugs such as clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins. In addition, genomic approaches have defined mechanisms and genetic variants underlying important toxicities with these and other drugs. These findings have not only resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described to date might be deployed in clinical decision making. PMID:23689943

  20. Thiazolidinediones and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Chilton; Elaine Chiquette

    2005-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones hold promise for reducing cardiovascular events and human atherosclerosis. Similar to statins and angiotensin-converting\\u000a enzyme inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic actions\\u000a in the vessel wall. A number of clinical trials in subjects with or without diabetes have shown that thiazolidinedione therapy\\u000a can reduce in-stent restenosis and delay progression of atherosclerosis measured by carotid

  1. The emerging role of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is a worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular diseases causing not only a public health issue but also accounting for trillions of dollars of healthcare expenditure. Studies pertaining to epidemiology, pathophysiology, molecular biology, gene identification and genetic linkage maps have been able to lay a strong foundation for both the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular medicine. Although the concept of ‘epigenetics’ is not recent, the term in current usage is extended from the initial concept of ‘controlling developmental gene expression and signaling pathways in undifferentiated zygotes’ to include heritable changes to gene expression that are not from differences in the genetic code. The impact of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease is now emerging as an important regulatory key player at different levels from pathophysiology to therapeutics. This review focuses on the emerging role of epigenetics in major cardiovascular medicine specialties such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetes. PMID:24982752

  2. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Jennifer R.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a significant cause of death in industrialized society. Although some controversy persists, scientific evidence largely suggests that it is possible to reduce blood cholesterol by dietary measures and that reduction of hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. There is, furthermore, general consensus amongst health authorities with regard to dietary guidelines for modifying hypercholesterolaemia. This paper examines how dietary intervention, with particular emphasis on dietary fat, may influence the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease.

  3. CRP in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahir Karakas; Wolfgang Koenig

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In primary prevention, traditional risk factors are a useful\\u000a first step in determining who is at cardiovascular\\u000a risk, however, it has been noted that a considerable\\u000a number of those at risk cannot be identified on the basis\\u000a of traditional risk factors alone. Among blood biomarkers,\\u000a C-reactive protein (CRP), measured by\\u000a high-sensitivity assays (hsCRP), has received widespread\\u000a interest and a

  4. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  5. Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina H.; Robledo, Candace; Boghossian, Nansi; Zhang, Cuilin; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease has traditionally been viewed as a condition of aging individuals, increasing focus has turned to its developmental origins. Since birthweight has been related to cardiovascular disease risk, research into factors such as gravid conditions that affect fetal growth have grown. Associations between maternal diabetes and childhood obesity from sibling studies suggest a causal role but prospective studies of gestational diabetes remain mixed. Preeclampsia and increased offspring blood pressure has been consistently observed but evidence for other cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. While maternal obesity is associated with childhood obesity, causality remains unclear and paternal obesity should be investigated as an independent risk factor. Environmental chemical exposures in utero, particularly obesogens, are now emerging as another concern, as is conception by infertility treatment. Few studies have investigated subclinical measures of endothelial function or atherosclerosis and more research in these areas may help reveal the underlying pathogenesis. PMID:25364653

  6. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, K D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested. PMID:465378

  7. Therapeutic angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Anthony Ware; Michael Simons

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in the management of ischaemic cardiovascular disease during the past three decades, there remains a significant population of patients who are not served well by current treatment approaches. Stimulating revascularization in ischaemic regions is an attractive novel therapeutic strategy, and several angiogenic agents anticipated to have the potential to achieve this goal have been clinically evaluated in

  8. Global risk of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Poulter

    2003-01-01

    UK death rates from coronary heart disease are among the highest in the world. This is because the UK has high levels of standard risk factors and a low level of intervention on those risk factors. The most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are dyslipidaemia (particularly high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol), smoking, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and central obesity.

  9. Insulin Sensitizers and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina K. Thethi; Shipra Singh; Vivian Fonseca

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive disease caused by insulin resistance (IR) in the skeletal muscle, adipose tissue,\\u000a and liver in conjunction with impaired pancreatic secretion. Epidemiologic studies have shown IR to be an independent risk\\u000a factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance contributes to the development of atherosclerosis through multiple\\u000a other well-established risk factors such as hypertension,

  10. Chocolate and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Diseases Nutrition Stroke About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  11. Contraception and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Cornette, Jerome; Sliwa, Karen; Pieper, Petronella G; Veldtman, Gruschen R; Johnson, Mark R

    2015-07-14

    Contraceptive counselling should begin early in females with heart disease, preferably directly after the start of menstruation. In coming to a decision about the method of contraception, the following issues should be considered: (i) the risk of pregnancy for the mother and the consequences of an unplanned pregnancy; (ii) the risks of the contraceptive method; (iii) failure rates; (iv) the non-contraceptive benefits; (v) the availability; (vi) the individual's preferences; (vii) protection against infection; and (viii) costs. In some women with heart disease, the issues may be complex and require the input of both a cardiologist and an obstetrician (or other feto-maternal expert) to identify the optimal approach. No studies have been performed in women with heart disease to investigate the relative risks and benefits of different contraceptive methods. PMID:25926560

  12. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD. PMID:17120060

  13. Commentary: environmental disease--a preventable epidemic

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J. (Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Toxic environmental diseases are highly preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Toxic diseases in the work environment cause an estimated 50,000 to 70,000 deaths and 350,000 new cases of illness each year in the United States; the asbestos pandemic will ultimately claim at least 300,000 lives; pediatric lead poisoning is epidemic, and an estimated 3 to 4 million US preschool children have blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl and could suffer long-term neuropsychological impairment. Prevention of environmental diseases can be achieved through legislation and regulation that control common-source exposures to chemical toxins. Modification of personal behaviors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, complements but does not replace control of toxic environmental exposures.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suma Potiny; Sarah Clauss

    \\u000a The precise genetic mutations that directly cause or play some role in coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiomyopathies, cardiac\\u000a arrhythmias, and pulmonary artery hypertension have begun to be identified. The majority of the genetic mutations of hypertrophic\\u000a and dilated cardiomyopathies have also been described. Many of the genes responsible for cardiac arrhythmias, such as long\\u000a QT syndrome, have been identified as

  15. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare M. Hasler; Susan Kundrat; Deborah Wool

    2000-01-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic\\u000a nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic,\\u000a tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and

  16. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Recent findings Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. Summary The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing. PMID:24717670

  17. Homocysteine: Role in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Sabetisoofyani; Douglas F. Larson; Ronald Ross Watson

    \\u000a Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular ischemic events.\\u000a \\u000a Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmia, and\\u000a peripheral vascular disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Some factors induce elevation of homocysteine concentration such as mutations in the enzymes responsible for homocysteine\\u000a metabolism: cystathionine ?-synthase (C?S) or 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, nutritional deficiencies in B vitamin\\u000a cofactors

  18. Insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in cardiovascular disease development.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Markku; Kuusisto, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus will likely increase globally from 371 million individuals in 2013 to 552 million individuals in 2030. This epidemic is mainly attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which represents about 90-95% of all cases. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among individuals with diabetes mellitus, and >50% of patients will die from a cardiovascular event-especially coronary artery disease, but also stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Classic risk factors such as elevated levels of LDL cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as smoking, are risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM to a similar degree as they are in healthy individuals. Patients with T1DM develop insulin resistance in the months after diabetes mellitus diagnosis, and patients with T2DM typically develop insulin resistance before hyperglycaemia occurs. Insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia, in turn, further increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This Review discusses the mechanisms by which T1DM and T2DM can lead to cardiovascular disease and how these relate to the risk factors for coronary artery disease. PMID:24663222

  19. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy, although the majority of studies have been largely confined to non-cardiac cells. Despite the unique arrangement of mitochondria in the adult heart, emerging data suggest that changes in mitochondrial morphology may be relevant to various aspects of cardiovascular biology-these include cardiac development, the response to ischaemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and apoptosis. Interestingly, the machinery required for altering mitochondrial shape in terms of the mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins are all present in the adult heart, but their physiological function remains unclear. In this article, we review the current developments in this exciting new field of mitochondrial biology, the implications for cardiovascular physiology, and the potential for discovering novel therapeutic strategies for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:20631158

  20. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Mitsnefes

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally\\u000a high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular\\u000a complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors,\\u000a mortality and morbidity in children with

  1. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  2. Epidemic!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Epidemic! uses three case studies to explore such disease-related environmental considerations as fate and transport, monitoring the environment, pollution prevention, regulations and policy, and risk assessment and decisionmaking. Scientific principles of ecology, evolution, and microbial resistance are also introduced. Instructors will find a wealth of teaching resources including an epidemiology role-play, Web-based activities, alignment of topics with science standards, and many links to additional information and resources on the Web. Designed as a resource for teachers, Epidemic! can also be used as a multidisciplinary learning resource for students in high school and college in the areas of biological sciences, environmental technology, allied health, social sciences, math, and English.

  3. Personalized Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a novel medical model with all decisions and practices being tailored to individual patients in whatever ways possible. In the era of genomics, personalized medicine combines the genetic information for additional benefit in preventive and therapeutic strategies. Personalized medicine may allow the physician to provide a better therapy for patients in terms of efficiency, safety and treatment length to reduce the associated costs. There was a remarkable growth in scientific publication on personalized medicine within the past few years in the cardiovascular field. However, so far, only very few cardiologists in the USA are incorporating personalized medicine into clinical treatment. We review the concepts, strengths, limitations and challenges of personalized medicine with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There are many challenges from both scientific and policy perspectives to personalized medicine, which can overcome them by comprehensive concept and understanding, clinical application, and evidence based practices. Individualized medicine serves a pivotal role in the evolution of national and global healthcare reform, especially, in the CVDs fields. Ultimately, personalized medicine will affect the entire landscape of health care system in the near future. PMID:23091501

  4. Cardiovascular Disease in Elders: Is It Inevitable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Riegel; Jill A. Bennett

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death and disability in America. The burden of cardiovascular disease is higher in elders than in younger populations, presumably because of life-long exposure to risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, abnormal blood lipids, lack of exercise, and\\/or obesity. Many assume that it is too late to attempt to modify risk factors in elders

  5. Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christy; Rasmussen, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and intervention trials will be reviewed. Further identification of polyphenols in foods and accurate assessment of exposures through measurement of biomarkers (i.e., polyphenol metabolites) could provide the needed impetus to examine the impact of polyphenol-rich foods on CVD intermediate outcomes (especially those signifying chronic inflammation) and hard endpoints among high risk patients. Although we have mechanistic insight into how polyphenols may function in CVD risk reduction, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for consumption can be made. PMID:23512608

  6. Cardiovascular involvement in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Montoya-Sánchez, Laura; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  7. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  8. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17 Section...Services § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition... Medicare Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the...

  9. Erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ophuis, A.J.M. Oude; Nijeholt, A.A.B. Lycklama à

    2006-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a highly prevalent disease, especially in cardiovascular-compromised men. Many of the well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also risk factors for erectile dysfunction. A correlation between erectile dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction is well established. It is postulated that erectile dysfunction with an arteriovascular aetiology can predate and be an indicator of potential coronary artery disease. In this paper we will attempt to increase awareness among cardiologists for the predictive value of erectile dysfunction for future cardiovascular disease in order to optimise cardiovascular risk management. The treatment of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular interactions is also discussed in detail. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1B PMID:25696612

  10. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li; Xiong, Xing-jiang; Fan, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  11. Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

  12. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  13. Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071915

  14. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.; Hsiao, C.K.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Wu, M.-M. [Department of Cardiology, Cardinal Tien Hospital and College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Department of Cardiology, Cardinal Tien Hospital and College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cjchen@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality.

  15. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters’ fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

  16. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a widespread toxic metal with potential cardiovascular effects, but no studies have evaluated cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association of urine cadmium concentration with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in a large population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,348 American Indian adults aged 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Follow-up extended through 31 December 2008. Results The geometric mean cadmium level in the study population was 0.94 ?g/g (95% confidence interval= 0.92 – 0.93). We identified 1,084 cardiovascular events, including 400 deaths. After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios (comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations) was 1.43 for cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval=1.21 – 1.70), and 1.34 for coronary heart disease mortality (1.10 – 1.63). The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure were 1.24 (1.11 – 1.38), 1.22 (1.08 – 1.38), 1.75 (1.17 – 2.59) and 1.39 (1.01 – 1.94), respectively. The associations were similar in most study subgroups including never-smokers. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term exposure, was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. These findings support that cadmium exposure is a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23514838

  17. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan J. Collins; Shuling Li; David T. Gilbertson; Jiannong Liu; Shu-Cheng Chen; Charles A. Herzog

    2003-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population.BackgroundThe extent of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Medicare population is relatively unknown. Also unknown is the effect of these diseases on patient survival before end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsPrevalent cohorts of Medicare enrollees from 1996 to 2000 were assessed for diabetes and CKD, presence of

  18. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention. PMID:25983308

  19. Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Studies of chronic stressors are discussed in terms of job stress, marital unhappiness, and burden of caregiving. From all of these studies there are extensive data concerning stressors’ contributions to diverse pathophysiological changes including sudden death, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and wall motion abnormalities, as well as to alterations in cardiac regulation as indexed by changes in sympathetic nervous system activity and hemostasis. Although stressors trigger events, it is less clear that stress “causes” the events. There is nonetheless overwhelming evidence both for the deleterious effects of stress on the heart and for the fact that vulnerability and resilience factors play a role in amplifying or dampening those effects. Numerous approaches are available for stress management that can decrease patients’ suffering and enhance their quality of life. PMID:18371552

  20. Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: Is It Preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Thompson, Kathryn C.

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (<2.5 µm, PM2.5) air pollution is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. The largest portion of adverse health effects is from cardiovascular diseases. In North America, PM2.5 concentrations have shown a steady decline over the past several decades; however, the opposite trend has occurred throughout much of the developing world whereby daily concentrations commonly reach extraordinarily high levels. While air quality regulations can reduce air pollution at a societal level, what individuals can do to reduce their personal exposures remains an active field of investigation. Here, we review the emerging evidence that several interventions (e.g., air filters) and/or behavioral changes can lower PM pollution exposure and as such, may be capable of mitigating the ensuing adverse cardiovascular health consequences. Air pollution remains a worldwide epidemic and a multi-tiered prevention strategy is required in order to optimally protect global public health. PMID:26097526

  1. Systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLellan, W. Robb; Wang, Yibin; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2013-01-01

    Common cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure, are exceptionally complex, involving a multitude of environmental and genetic factors that often show nonlinear interactions as well as being highly dependent on sex, age, and even the maternal environment. Although focused, reductionistic approaches have led to progress in elucidating the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such approaches are poorly powered to address complex interactions. Over the past decade, technological advances have made it possible to interrogate biological systems on a global level, raising hopes that, in combination with computational approaches, it may be possible to more fully address the complexities of cardiovascular diseases. In this Review, we provide an overview of such systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease and discuss their translational implications. PMID:22231714

  2. Cardiovascular disease. A men's health hazard.

    PubMed

    Foreman, M D

    1986-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on cardiovascular disease in men. Factors believed to contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis are discussed. Recommendations for nursing practice and research are considered. PMID:3513134

  3. BASIC SCIENCE HIV Epidemics Driven by Late Disease Stage Transmission

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    BASIC SCIENCE HIV Epidemics Driven by Late Disease Stage Transmission Brandy L. Rapatski, PhD, Frederick Suppe, PhD,*§ and James A. Yorke, PhD* Summary: How infectious a person is when infected with HIV of semen infectivity by HIV disease stage. We find that the infectivity of the symptomatic stage is far

  4. Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Taylor C.

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of abundant and widely consumed flavonoid constituents that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors present in many fruit- and vegetable-based food products. Their intake has been estimated to be up to 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins have become increasingly important to the food industry as their use as natural alternatives to artificial colors has become widespread and knowledge of their health-promoting properties has become more evident. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of mortality among men and women. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals, exhibiting synergistic biological effects but making contributions from individual components difficult to decipher. Over the past 2 decades, many peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated that in addition to their noted in vitro antioxidant activity, anthocyanins may regulate different signaling pathways involved in the development of CVD. This review summarizes the latest developments on the bioavailability/bioactivity and CVD preventative activities of anthocyanins, including results from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model systems as related to their multiple proposed mechanisms of action. Limited yet promising data from epidemiological studies and human clinical trials are also presented. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and characterizing their metabolic and/or breakdown products are necessary to ultimately evaluate their use for protection/prevention against the development of CVD. PMID:22211184

  5. Epidemic of invasive pneumococcal disease, western Canada, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Gregory J; Lovgren, Marguerite; Ibrahim, Quazi; Garg, Sipi; Chui, Linda; Boone, Tyler J; Mangan, Carol; Patrick, David M; Hoang, Linda; Horsman, Greg B; Van Caeseele, Paul; Marrie, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    In Canada before 2005, large outbreaks of pneumococcal disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 5, were rare. Since then, an epidemic of serotype 5 invasive pneumococcal disease was reported: 52 cases during 2005, 393 during 2006, 457 during 2007, 104 during 2008, and 42 during in 2009. Of these 1,048 cases, 1,043 (99.5%) occurred in the western provinces of Canada. Median patient age was 41 years, and most (659 [59.3%]) patients were male. Most frequently representing serotype 5 cases (compared with a subset of persons with non-serotype 5 cases) were persons who were of First Nations heritage or homeless. Restriction fragment-length polymorphism typing indicated that the epidemic was caused by a single clone, which multilocus sequence typing identified as sequence type 289. Large pneumococcal epidemics might go unrecognized without surveillance programs to document fluctuations in serotype prevalence. PMID:22515944

  6. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Julian; Hutchison, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease do not progress to end stage renal failure, but do have a significantly higher incidence of all cardiovascular co-morbidities. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors only partially account for this increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In patients with kidney disease the basic biology underlying cardiovascular disease may be similar to that in patients without kidney disease, but it would seem many more risk factors are involved as a consequence of renal dysfunction. Although emphasis is placed on delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease, it must be appreciated that for many patients it is vital to address their cardiovascular risk factors at an early stage to prevent premature cardiovascular death. This review examines available epidemiological evidence, discusses common cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease, and suggests possible treatment strategies. Potential areas for important research are also described. PMID:19756163

  7. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    PubMed

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present in the future. PMID:18221692

  8. Cysteinyl Cathepsins: Multifunctional Enzymes in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Zexuan; Cheng, Zeen

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the role of lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsins in intracellular protein degradation was believed to be mainly restricted to scavenging. However, recent studies have revealed nontraditional roles for cysteine protease cathepsins in the extracellular space during the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Although the precise mechanisms are unknown, data from animal studies suggest that members of the cathepsin family, like other extracellular proteases, contribute to extracellular matrix protein remodeling and interstitial matrix degradation, as well as to cell signaling and cell apoptosis in heart disease. Inflammatory cytokines and hormones regulate the expression and secretion of cathepsins in cultured cardiovascular cells and macrophages. Serum levels of cathepsins L, S, and K and their endogenous inhibitor cystatin C may be useful predictive biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and cardiac disease. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacological intervention with a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor and cardiovascular drugs (including statins and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists) has the potential for pharmacologic targeting of cathepsins in cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on cathepsin biology (structure, synthesis, processing, activation, secretion, activity regulation, and function) and the involvement of cysteinyl cathepsins in the pathogenesis of several heart and vessel diseases, especially with respect to their potential application as diagnostic and prognostic markers and drug targets to prevent inappropriate proteolysis in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22977747

  9. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  10. Is the fructose index more relevant with regards to cardiovascular disease than the glycemic index?

    PubMed

    Segal, Mark S; Gollub, Elizabeth; Johnson, Richard J

    2007-10-01

    The glycemic index (G.I.) is a means for categorizing carbohydrates based on their ability to raise blood glucose, subsequently this index has been popularized as a way for selecting foods to reduce the risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We suggest that the G.I. is better aimed at identifying foods that stimulate insulin secretion rather than foods that stimulate insulin resistance. In this regard, fructose has a low G.I. but may be causally linked with the obesity and cardiovascular disease epidemic. The reported association of high G.I. with cardiovascular disease may be due to the association of sugar intake which contains fructose, but which has a high G.I. due to its glucose content. We propose the use of a fructose index to categorize foods and propose studies to determine the effect of low fructose diets as a means to prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the population. PMID:17763967

  11. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in women.

    PubMed

    Bavry, Anthony A; Limacher, Marian C

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women. In fact, the cardiovascular disease mortality rate among women exceeds the rate in men. Unfortunately, many minority women are still unaware of the importance of this disease. All women, including those with no history of cardiovascular disease, should have an accurate estimate of the probability of a cardiovascular disease event (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) usually within the next decade. Such an estimate will help determine if women are candidates for preventive measures and specific therapies such as aspirin. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to construct a risk score, which is now widely used; however, other risk scores are available. To prevent cardiovascular disease, women should refrain from smoking, maintain a healthy weight, eat a heart-healthy diet, be physically active, and have normal blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Aspirin can be considered for primary prevention, with expected benefit to prevent ischemic stroke; however, this needs to be balanced against potential bleeding risk. Hormone therapy is no longer recommended due to an increase in adverse events (most consistently seen as increased ischemic stroke risk). Folic acid is also no longer recommended due to lack of benefit. PMID:25321422

  12. Method of thermography in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazyuk, D. G.; Sidorenko, I. V.; Krushevskaya, T. V.

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the possibility of using infrared thermography (IT) in diagnosing the commonest cardiovascular diseases: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and hypertensive disease (HD). We show that the IT method allows one to evaluate the condition of peripheral blood flow, but the results of examination depend greatly on the presence of accompanying diseases (osteochondrosis, varicosis). The IT method is not specific enough to evaluate the functional state of a myocardium.

  13. Telomere biology in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Kurz

    2004-01-01

    Summary Advanced age brings about significant changes to cardiovascular physiology, and is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The basis for this associa- tion remains unclear, but it has been suggested that atherogenesis may share common mech- anisms with the ageing process. Ageing at the cellular level leads to a condition known as replicative senescence, which is

  14. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  15. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio

    2003-01-01

    Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

  16. Inflammation and thrombosis in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagareddy, Prabhakara; Smyth, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review This article will summarize recent observations that provide mechanistic insight into the molecular and cellular links between inflammation and thrombosis in the context of cardiovascular and other thromboinflammatory disease states. Recent findings Several disease conditions are characterized by a thromboinflammatory state in which interactions of blood cells and components with the vascular wall perpetuate both thrombotic and inflammatory pathways. Targeting these pathways may be of benefit in inflammatory conditions and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Summary Ongoing clinical trials should provide additional insight into the hypothesis that the thromboinflammatory state contributes to adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:23892572

  17. Hormones and cardiovascular disease in older men.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Bu B; Flicker, Leon

    2014-05-01

    Older men have lower circulating testosterone (T) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) but higher levels of thyrotrophin (TSH) compared with younger men, and exhibit poorer health. Whether age-associated differences in hormone levels are causally related to cardiovascular disease, or are biomarkers reflecting accumulated ill-health remains under debate. Lower T levels are associated with aortic, peripheral vascular, and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and older men. In some but not all studies, lower levels of T predict increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Recently, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has also been identified as a predictor for peripheral vascular and ischemic heart disease. Small scale randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T supplementation suggest a protective effect against myocardial ischemia in men with coronary artery disease. There have been no RCTs with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or mortality. One RCT of T in older men with mobility limitations was stopped due to an excess of cardiovascular adverse events in men receiving T, but other RCTs have not raised similar concerns. Observational studies of testosterone supplementation have reported contrasting results. Levels of IGF-I and its binding proteins 1 and 3 have been variably associated with mortality in some but not all studies, and RCTs of interventions to modulate IGF-I levels are either lacking or lacking in power to examine outcomes of cardiovascular events or mortality. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism predict poorer outcomes, and emerging data implicate higher levels of free thyroxine with other outcomes such as dementia and mortality in older men. However, RCTs that manipulate free thyroxine levels within the normal range are lacking and would be challenging to perform. Further research is needed to clarify the role of these hormones as predictors of cardiovascular outcomes in aging men, and to test whether interventions that modulate levels of T, DHT, IGF-I or free thyroxine would reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24529874

  18. Cardiovascular complications in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Schicho, Rudolf; Marsche, Gunther; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, a growing number of studies have indicated that patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Both are chronic inflammatory diseases and share certain pathophysiological mechanisms that may influence each other. High levels of cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine in IBD patients may lead to endothelial dysfunction, an early sign of atherosclerosis. IBD patients, in general, do not show the typical risk factors for cardiovascular disease but changes in lipid profiles similar to the ones seen in cardiovascular events have been reported recently. Higher levels of coagulation factors frequently occur in IBD which may predispose to arterial thromboembolic events. Finally, the gut itself may have an impact on atherogenesis during IBD through its microbiota. Microbial products are released from the inflamed mucosa into the circulation through a leaky barrier. The induced rise in proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to endothelial damage, artherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although large retrospective studies favor a link between IBD and cardiovascular diseases, the mechanisms behind still remain to be determined. PMID:25642719

  19. Vectors for gene therapy of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Dedieu; Abderrahim Mahfoudi; Aude Le Roux; Didier Branellec

    2000-01-01

    Several phase I\\/II clinical trials are currently ongoing in gene therapy of cardiovascular disease. Whereas the indications\\u000a vary, including peripheral artery disease, ischemic heart disease, post-angioplasty restenosis, and vein graft failure, these\\u000a trials are mostly based on the use of adenoviral vectors and nonviral vectors. Novel vectors aimed at improving the efficacy\\u000a and safety of gene delivery in target organs,

  20. Protective Effects of Food on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Giovane; Claudio Napoli

    \\u000a Experimental and epidemiological evidence have been accumulated in the last decades demonstrating a stringent correlation\\u000a between nutrition lifestyle and chronic-inflammatory diseases like cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. It is now agreed\\u000a that the incidence of these diseases can be reduced by diet. The French paradox [1], or the Mediterranean diet [2], has provided\\u000a a scientific explanation, namely that the antioxidants

  1. Home Monitoring Device for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ciorap; C. Hritcu-Luca; C. Corciova; A. Stan; D. Zaharia

    \\u000a This paper presents the preliminary work made in the framework of the research project SIMPA 11-070. The aim of this project\\u000a is to develop a medical device for monitoring some vital parameters on patients with chronically diseases (like cardiovascular\\u000a diseases) that alongside a software application, it provides an integrated solution of monitoring the evolution of the disease\\u000a in order to

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. PMID:25841599

  3. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently been investigated. In this article, we review the emerging role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease. Recent Advances: Changes in mitochondrial dynamics have been implicated in vascular smooth cell proliferation, cardiac development and differentiation, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, and heart failure. Critical Issues: Many of the experimental studies investigating mitochondrial dynamics in the cardiovascular system have been confined to cardiac cell lines, vascular cells, or neonatal cardiomyocytes, in which mitochondria are distributed throughout the cytoplasm and are free to move. However, in the adult heart where mitochondrial movements are restricted by their tightly-packed distribution along myofibrils or beneath the subsarcolemma, the relevance of mitochondrial dynamics is less obvious. The investigation of transgenic mice deficient in cardiac mitochondrial fission or fusion proteins should help elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the adult heart. Future Directions: Investigating the role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease should result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for treating patients with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability globally. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 400—414. PMID:22793879

  4. Cardiovascular disease in childhood: the role of obesity.

    PubMed

    Herouvi, Despina; Karanasios, Evangelos; Karayianni, Christina; Karavanaki, Kyriaki

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, childhood obesity is becoming an epidemic health problem. It is now evident from many studies that childhood obesity is correlated with adult excess weight status and the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. The exposure to obesity and to the above risk factors during childhood subsequently lead to atherosclerotic development, such as altered vascular structure and function, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Several non-invasive, and thus easy-to-obtain measures of arterial structure and function, have been shown to be clinically useful in providing information about vasculature early in the course of atherosclerosis, including measurement of endothelial function, carotid intima media thickness, and arterial stiffness. The early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities is essential because the control of the atherogenic process is more effective during its early stages. The present review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of obesity, on the mechanisms and the methods of measurement of endothelial dysfunction in obese children and adolescents, and on the ways of intervention for the improvement of vascular health. PMID:23340698

  5. The global burden of cardiovascular diseases: a challenge to improve.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Shanthi; Chestnov, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    There are many challenges that need to be overcome to address the global cardiovascular disease epidemic. They include (1) lack of multisectoral action to support reduction of behavioral risk factors and their determinants, (2) weak public health and health care system capacity for forging an accelerated national response, and (3) inefficient use of limited resources. To make progress, countries need to develop and implement multisectoral national action plans guided by the global action plan for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, strengthen surveillance and monitoring systems, and set national targets consistent with global voluntary targets, which are to be attained by 2025. In addition, a set of cost-effective preventive and curative interventions need to be prioritized. Further, resources need to be generated and capacity developed to ensure sustainable country-wide implementation of the prioritized interventions. According to WHO estimates, the implementation of a core set of very cost-effective interventions for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease requires about 4 % of current health spending in lower income countries, 2 % in lower middle income countries, and less than 1 % in upper middle income and high income countries. PMID:24718672

  6. Proteinuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Gemma; Delles, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated morbidity pose a worldwide health problem. As well as risk of endstage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death among the CKD population. Proteinuria is a marker of renal injury that can often be detected earlier than any tangible decline in glomerular filtration rate. As well as being a risk marker for decline in renal function, proteinuria is now widely accepted as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review will address the prognostic implications of proteinuria in the general population as well as other specific disease states including diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. A variety of pathophysiological mechanisms that may underlie the relationship between renal and cardiovascular disease have been proposed, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. As proteinuria has evolved into a therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction in the clinical setting we will also review therapeutic strategies that should be considered for patients with persistent proteinuria. PMID:24379690

  7. Cardiovascular disease and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its increased stiffness, which reverts after treatment with levothyroxine. Mortality seems mildly reduced, although the risk of myocardial infarction is increased. The risk of atrial fibrillation is related to thyroid function over the whole spectrum: from a reduced risk in overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, a progressively increased risk in people with different levels of reduced TSH to a physiologically 'dose-dependent' effect of thyroid hormones on the heart in overt hyperthyroidism. Heart failure represents an intriguing clinical situation in which triiodothyronine treatment might be beneficial. In conclusion, subclinical dysthyroid states affect the heart with subsequent changes in morbidity and mortality. Subclinical hyperthyroidism seems a more serious condition than subclinical hypothyroidism, which should affect treatment decision in a more aggressive manner. PMID:24943297

  8. Metabolic biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Jana E; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac and peripheral vascular biomarkers are increasingly becoming targets of both research and clinical practice. As of 2008, cardiovascular-related medical care accounts for greater than 20% of all the economic costs of illness in the United States. In the age of burgeoning financial pressures on the entire health care system, never has it been more important to try to understand who is at risk for cardiovascular disease in order to prevent new events. In this paper, we will discuss the cost of cardiovascular disease to society, clarify the definition of and need for biomarkers, offer an example of a current biomarker, namely high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and finally examine the approval process for utilizing these in clinical practice. PMID:23386789

  9. MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Koh; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Han, Jiahuai

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have gained status as important regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the cardiovascular system under some pathological conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function studies using in vitro and in vivo models have revealed distinct roles for specific miRNAs in cardiovascular development and physiological function. The implications of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease have recently been recognized, representing the most rapidly evolving research field. In the present article, the currently relevant findings on the role of miRNAs in cardiac diseases will be updated and the target genes of these miRNAs are summarized. PMID:21395978

  10. Visceral Obesity- The Link Among Inflammation, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patrick Mathieu (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Surgery)

    2009-02-23

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity, fostered by the modern lifestyle characterized by the lack of physical activity and an energy-dense diet, has contributed to create an unprecedented condition in human history where a majority of overfed individuals will soon surpass the number of malnourished.1 Obesity-associated disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, an atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, have undoubtedly contributed to create an atherosclerosis-prone environment and thereby the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality in Westernized societies. A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution is closely associated with metabolic perturbations and, thus, with CVD risk.2 In this regard, accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is strongly associated with insulin resistance and with a typical atherogenic dyslipidemic state.3

  11. Adult congenital heart disease: a growing epidemic.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Pablo; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Dore, Annie; Marcotte, François; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Ibrahim, Reda; Asgar, Anita; Miro, Joaquim; Andelfinger, Gregor; Mondésert, Blandine; de Guise, Pierre; Poirier, Nancy; Khairy, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Medical and surgical breakthroughs in the care of children born with heart defects have generated a growing population of adult survivors and spawned a new subspecialty of cardiology: adult congenital heart disease. The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease is escalating at a rampant rate, outpacing the relatively static prevalence of pediatric congenital heart disease, because adults now surpass children in numbers by a ratio of 2:1. As such, congenital heart disease can no longer be considered primarily a pediatric specialty. Most congenital heart defects are not curable and require lifelong specialized care. Health care systems worldwide are challenged to meet the unique needs of this increasingly complex patient population, including the development of supraregional centres of excellence to provide comprehensive and multidisciplinary specialized care. In this review, we explore the incidence and prevalence of congenital heart disease and their changing patterns, address organization and delivery of care, highlight the importance of appropriate training and dedicated research, summarize the high burden of health care resource utilization, and provide an overview of common issues encountered in adults with congenital heart disease. PMID:25432136

  12. Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Altan Onat

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common

  13. Noninvasive imaging of apoptosis in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan Chauncey Korngold; Farouc Amin Jaffer; Ralph Weissleder; David Edwin Sosnovik

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular imaging have permitted the noninvasive imaging of apoptosis, a critical process underlying the\\u000a pathogenesis of many diseases of the cardiovascular system including atherosclerotic vascular disease, myocardial ischemia\\u000a and reperfusion injury, chronic heart failure, myocarditis, and cardiac allograft rejection. Multiple molecular targets including\\u000a phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and caspases have been targeted by a variety of imaging agents

  14. Race, Genetics and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivor J. Benjamin; Theophilus Owan

    \\u000a Significant strides from personalized medicine hold great promise to improve early detection, guide targeted therapies, and\\u000a enhance disease monitoring while simultaneously incorporating specific contributions from race and ethnicity in disease pathogenesis.\\u000a Hypertension underscores complex gene–environment interactions related to salt sensitivity. Genetic disorders in which certain\\u000a candidate genes result in a loss of function and the aberrant expression of an abnormal

  15. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease in women.

    PubMed

    Cífková, Renata; Kraj?oviechová, Alena

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in women in developed countries. Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in women, particularly after the menopause. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been identified as the key lipid parameter in both genders whereas HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides have been more closely associated, in some studies, with cardiovascular risk in women. Menopause has been shown to be associated with an increase in total and LDL-cholesterol and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol (predominantly in the HDL2 subfraction). Despite its beneficial effects on the lipid profile, hormone replacement therapy is not recommended for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. The latest meta-analysis of statin trials with gender-specific outcomes showed a similar benefit in women and men. The addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin in patients with acute coronary syndromes showed a further reduction of the primary endpoint in both genders. While there are no gender-related differences in drug treatment of dyslipidemia, current guidelines, to avoid overtreatment, strongly suggest risk estimation before initiating lipid-lowering treatment in women without manifest cardiovascular disease. PMID:26026998

  16. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

  17. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-07-26

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

  18. Cardiovascular Health Score and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Aijun; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Yuntao; Cai, Jun; Chen, Youren; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the American Heart Association proposed a definition of ideal health behaviors and health factors to measure cardiovascular health, from which Huffman et al. created the Cardiovascular Health Score (CVH score) to estimate these metrics on an individual level. We performed a prospective cohort study among employees of the Kailuan Group Corporation, who underwent a physical examination in 2006–2007 to investigate the relationship between the CVH score and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 91,598 individuals free of stroke and myocardial infarction at baseline were included in the final analysis. We calculated baseline CVH score for each metric (poor=0, intermediate=1, ideal=2 points; range=0–14 points for all seven metrics) and categorized them into three groups: inadequate (0–4 points), average (5–9 points), and optimum (10–14 points). Incidence of total number of CVD events, myocardial infarction, and stroke was analyzed among these three groups and each incremental point on the CVH score. During an average 6.81 years of follow-up, there were 3276 CVD events, 2579 strokes and 747 myocardial infarction occurred. After adjusting for several confounding factors, each better health category of the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 47% for all CVD events, and each point higher on the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 18%. Similar trends were detected in the risks for myocardial infarction and stroke. A higher CVH score is therefore a protective factor for CVD, myocardial infarction, and stroke. PMID:26154254

  19. Therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yin-Shan Ng; Patricia A D'Amore

    2001-01-01

    The identification of angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor, has fueled interest in using such factors to induce therapeutic angiogenesis. The results of numerous animal studies and clinical trials have offered promise for new treatment strategies for various ischemic diseases. Increased understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of vessel growth has, however,

  20. Contraceptive Hormone Use and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Noel Bairey Merz, C.

    2009-01-01

    Contraceptive hormones, most commonly prescribed as oral contraceptives (OC), are a widely utilized method to prevent ovulation, implantation and therefore pregnancy. The Women’s Health Initiative demonstrated cardiovascular risk linked to menopausal hormone therapy among women without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, prompting review of the safety, efficacy and side effects of other forms of hormone therapy. A variety of basic science, animal and human data suggest that contraceptive hormones have anti-atheromatous effects, however relatively less is known regarding the impact on atherosclerosis, thrombosis, vasomotion and arrhythmogenesis. Newer generation OC formulations currently in use indicate no increased myocardial infarction (MI) risk for current users, but a persistent increased risk of venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). There are no cardiovascular data available for the newest generation contraceptive hormone formulations, including those that contain newer progestins that lower blood pressure, as well as the non-oral routes (topical and vaginal). Current guidelines indicate that, as with all medication, contraceptive hormones should be selected and initiated by weighing risks and benefits for the individual patient. Women 35 years and older should be assessed for cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, smoking, diabetes, nephropathy and other vascular diseases including migraines, prior to use. Existing data are mixed with regard to possible protection from OC for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events; longer-term cardiovascular follow-up of menopausal women with regard to prior OC use, including subgroup information regarding adequacy of ovulatory cycling, the presence of hyperandrogenic conditions, and the presence of prothrombotic genetic disorders is needed to address this important issue. PMID:19147038

  1. Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cedzy?ski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host. PMID:24877121

  2. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Meggan E.; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-01-01

    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

  3. Gap junctions in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, H J; Wilders, R

    2000-06-23

    Connexins, the protein molecules forming gap junction channels, are reduced in number or redistributed from intercalated disks to lateral cell borders in a variety of cardiac diseases. This "gap junction remodeling" is considered to be arrhythmogenic. Using a simple model of human ventricular myocardium, we found that quantitative remodeling data extracted from the literature gave rise to only small to moderate changes in conduction velocity and the anisotropy ratio. Especially for longitudinal conduction, cytoplasmic resistivity (and thus cellular geometry) is much more important than commonly realized. None of the remodeling data gave rise to slow conduction on the order of a few centimeters per second. PMID:10864907

  4. How does preeclampsia predispose to future cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Dawn C; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing emphasis on cardiovascular disease in women and study of female-specific cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension in pregnancy, and specifically preeclampsia, has been identified as one such risk factor. In this review, we explore the epidemiological evidence for preeclampsia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We propose reasons for this association, giving evidence for potential pathways linking preeclampsia with future cardiovascular disease. PMID:25097110

  5. Cardiovascular Disease and the Endothelium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Porro (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)

    1997-12-01

    FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Millions of Americans are counting cholesterol, spending more time on the stairmaster and less in front of TV, and trading their burgers for broiled fishÂ?all in an effort to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Doctors and scientists are doing their part, too. Their biomedical research is unraveling the complex causes of these deadly disorders, which kill almost half the people who die every year in the United States,Japan, and Europe.Some of the most important progress has been in research on a disease called atherosclerosis. Doctors know atherosclerosis all too well as the main cause of heart attacks and strokes. In the last decade, researchers investigating what causes the disease have discovered that the endothelium, an extremely thin lining of the walls of the bodyÂ?s arteries, plays a crucial role. Recent discoveries about how that lining operates are providing doctors new tools for preventing atherosclerosis, diagnosing it if it occurs,and treating it effectively.

  6. Occupational Factors, Fatigue, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Briefly identify the epidemiological evidence, propose pertinent mechanisms, and discuss physical therapy practice as well as research implications of a causal association between occupational factors and cardiovascular disease. Summary of Key Points: There is evidence that occupational metabolic demands and work organizations characterized by reduced worker control are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is biologically plausible that these two factors interact to create a preclinical, intermediate state of fatigue (burnout) that is a critical component in the causal path from occupational factors to CVD. Physical therapists are uniquely qualified to contribute to an understanding of these mechanisms and their resultant implications for work organization, rehabilitation, and health promotion. Statement of Recommendations: Physical therapists engaged in ergonomic job analysis should consider work related metabolic demands, worker control, and fatigue in their assessment of risk for injury and illness, in recommendations for return to work, and in the prescription of health promotion leisure time physical activity PMID:20467535

  7. Optimal Sampling Strategies for Detecting Zoonotic Disease Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jake M.; Langebrake, Jessica B.; Cannataro, Vincent L.; Garcia, Andres J.; Hamman, Elizabeth A.; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests. PMID:24968100

  8. Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Jie Xiao; Yi-Han Chen

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause one third of all deaths in China, and the number is anticipated to double by 2020. They\\u000a also greatly result in disability and adjusted life year loss. The prevalence of CVD has become a new burden for China, due\\u000a to an aging population, smoking, and changes in dietary habits and lifestyles. As the largest developing country,

  9. Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

    2014-09-01

    Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

  10. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Coronary heart disease

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    have a greater prevalence in women · Osteoporosis · Autoimmune disease A. Osteoporosis · Osteoporosis ­ disorder of low bone mass, microarchitectural denegra7on% of all women >65 years old have osteoporosis (15% of all Caucasian women

  11. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... signal problems with the reabsorption in the tubules. Diabetes Recent studies about diabetes risks for those with HIV contain some conflicting ... it is clear that minimizing your risks for diabetes is important. Diabetes contributes to heart disease and ...

  12. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  13. Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, W E; Megill, D M; Hughson, M D

    1987-06-01

    An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology. PMID:3591794

  14. Cardiovascular disease in women: peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease in women that is underrecognized. It is most strongly associated with smoking and diabetes. Women with PAD are more likely to have atypical or no symptoms compared with men. The classic symptoms of claudication are seen in some, but not all, patients. The most useful initial test for PAD is the ankle-brachial index. The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guideline recommends that it be obtained for all patients with exertional leg symptoms; patients 50 years or older with diabetes; patients 50 years or older who smoke; all patients older than 65 years; and any patient with known coronary artery disease. Other tests, such as Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomography angiography, should be reserved for patients in whom the diagnosis of PAD is unclear. Exercise programs improve symptoms. Aspirin and statins are recommended for all patients with PAD, whereas surgery is reserved for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy. PMID:23977828

  15. Fructose-Containing Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the United States and worldwide. Numerous risk factors have been identified for CVD, including a number of nutritional factors. Recently, attention has been focused on fructose-containing sugars and their putative link to risk factors for CVD. In this review, we focus on recent studies related to sugar consumption and cardiovascular risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. We then examine the scientific basis for competing recommendations for sugar intake. We conclude that although it appears prudent to avoid excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars, levels within the normal range of human consumption are not uniquely related to CVD risk factors with the exception of triglycerides, which may rise when simple sugars exceed 20% of energy per day, particularly in hypercaloric settings. PMID:26178027

  16. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signaling modulates the protein function, the various sources of increased oxidative stress in CVD, and the labyrinth of redox-sensitive molecular mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and ischemia–reperfusion injury. Advances in redox biology and pharmacology for inhibiting ROS production in specific cell types and subcellular organelles combined with the development of nanotechnology-based new in vivo imaging systems and targeted drug delivery mechanisms may enable fine-tuning of redox signaling for the treatment and prevention of CVD. PMID:23583330

  17. Inflammation modulation and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zuhier; Genest, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Heart disease and stroke represent the major burden of health worldwide and account for a staggering 17 million deaths yearly. This pandemic is, in great part preventable through simple and modifiable preventive measures such as smoking cessation, healthy eating, regular activity and weight loss. In patients with established atherosclerotic vascular disease, lipid lowering agent have had a major impact on reducing risk, along with pharmacological treatment of elevated blood pressure and the use of anti-thrombotic medication. Despite these advances, there remains a significant residual risk and newer approaches are required to decrease atherosclerosis. Innate and acquired immunity play a pivotal role in the initiation, progression and instability of the atherosclerotic plaque. The remarkable complexity of the immune system makes it difficult to target a single pathway for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, recent data points to possible therapeutic targets that may decrease atherosclerosis, without increasing the risk of infection, decreasing immune surveillance for cancers and without undue toxicity. Here we discuss the clinical trials and registry data associated with the use of inflammation modulation and cardiovascular disease and the ongoing major clinical trial that may change the clinical medicine and preventive cardiology. The selective inhibition of interleukin 1? and the use of low-dose methotrexate are now undergoing large outcome-driven clinical trials to answer these questions. PMID:24711609

  18. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P-Y; Xu, X; Li, X-C

    2014-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here. PMID:25392110

  19. Life insurance for children with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Truesdell, S C; Skorton, D J; Lauer, R M

    1986-05-01

    To determine the life insurability of young people with cardiovascular disease, we sent questionnaires to 99 life insurance companies concerning 18 congenital defects, rheumatic heart disease, and four dysrhythmias. We received 50 responses (50%) from companies whose sales make up 41% of the life insurance market. The concensus of insurability for the defects listed was: standard rates--mild pulmonic stenosis, rheumatic fever without carditis, mitral valve prolapse without regugitation, and the following postoperative lesions: patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect; uninsurable--most unoperated lesions, postoperative lesions with complex dysrrhythmias, severe aortic insufficiency, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, Ebstein's anomaly, truncus arteriosus, tricuspid atresia; insurable at increased rates--most other defects, including dextrotransposition of the great vessels, postoperative aortic stenosis, mild aortic insufficiency, postoperative coarctation of aorta, postoperative tetralogy of Fallot, and small ventricular septal defect. We conclude that life insurance is available to many children with cardiovascular disease, including most postoperative patients. Whether the increased rates requested for some defects are prohibitive is a matter to be decided by each family. PMID:3703635

  20. Epidemic progression on networks based on disease generation time.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Bahman; Moser, Flavia; Brauer, Fred; Pourbohloul, Babak

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of disease spread on a network and present an analytical framework using the concept of disease generation time. Assuming a susceptible-infected-recovered epidemic process, this network-based framework enables us to calculate in detail the number of links (edges) within the network that are capable of producing new infectious nodes (individuals), the number of links that are not transmitting the infection further (non-transmitting links), as well as the number of contacts that individuals have with their neighbours (also known as degree distribution) within each epidemiological class, for each generation period. Using several examples, we demonstrate very good agreement between our analytical calculations and the results of computer simulations. PMID:23889499

  1. Sex Differences in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Intapad, Suttira; Ojeda, Norma B.; Dasinger, John Henry

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) proposes that adverse events during early life program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Experimental models provide proof of concept but also indicate that insults during early life program sex differences in adult blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. This review will highlight the potential mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24583768

  2. Mitochondria, myocardial remodeling, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Hugo E; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Tomás; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Pedrozo, Zully; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Garcia, Lorena; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The process of muscle remodeling lies at the core of most cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac adaptation to pressure or volume overload is associated with a complex molecular change in cardiomyocytes which leads to anatomic remodeling of the heart muscle. Although adaptive at its beginnings, the sustained cardiac hypertrophic remodeling almost unavoidably ends in progressive muscle dysfunction, heart failure and ultimately death. One of the features of cardiac remodeling is a progressive impairment in mitochondrial function. The heart has the highest oxygen uptake in the human body and accordingly it has a large number of mitochondria, which form a complex network under constant remodeling in order to sustain the high metabolic rate of cardiac cells and serve as Ca(2+) buffers acting together with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, this high dependence on mitochondrial metabolism has its costs: when oxygen supply is threatened, high leak of electrons from the electron transport chain leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. These three aspects of mitochondrial function (Reactive oxygen species signaling, Ca(2+) handling and mitochondrial dynamics) are critical for normal muscle homeostasis. In this article, we will review the latest evidence linking mitochondrial morphology and function with the process of myocardial remodeling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22972531

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Among Alaska Native Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    Although Alaska Native peoples were thought to be protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), data now show that this is not the case, despite traditional lifestyles and high omega-3 fatty acid intake. In this article, the current understanding of CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples, particularly among the Yupik and Inupiat populations, will be discussed, using data from three major studies funded by the National Institutes of Health: Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease among Alaska Natives (GOCADAN), Center for Native Health Research (CANHR), and Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH). Data from these epidemiologic studies have focused concern on CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples. This review will summarize the findings of these three principal studies and will suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. PMID:24367710

  4. The Northumberland epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, 1966.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R F; Gloster, J

    1980-08-01

    The spread of foot-and-mouth disease during an epidemic in Northumberland in July, August and September 1966 was analysed. Although strong emitters, for example pigs, were not involved, in 18 of the 32 outbreaks spread could be attributed to the airborne route and in another 4, spread by this route was the most likely. Airborne spread was in general between 1 and 8 km but on two occasions as much as 20 km. Other means of spread included movement by animals, people and vehicles and carriage of virus between animals in neighbouring fields. No spread by milk or milk lorries took place. Sheep were involved in 9 farms; on each, lesions older than 48 h were found and it is likely that the sheep were the source of virus for other animals, especially cattle, on the farm and on neighbouring farms. The analysis suggests that control measures such as slaughtering direct contacts, as used in this epidemic, or ring vaccination as well as movement control would be effective in limiting spread. PMID:7052228

  5. The Hampshire epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, 1967.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R F; Forman, A J

    1973-03-01

    An analysis was made of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease during the epidemic in Hampshire in January and February 1967. To explain the pattern of spread, it had to be postulated that virus was present seven days before the first outbreak was reported. It is suggested that the disease occurred initially in pigs fed on infected meat and that the virus was subsequently disseminated from the local abattoir, where the pigs were killed, to four farms by movement of animals, slaughterhouse waste, people or vehicles, and to fifteen by the airborne route. Subsequent spread from these farms was by movement in two instances and by the airborne route in five. The source and route of infection of the last farm in the outbreak were not determined.The risk of spread through movement was associated more with carriage of infected slaughterhouse waste, movement of animals, people or vehicles carrying animals than through collection of milk, artificial insemination or movement of other types of vehicles. Outbreaks of disease among pigs gave rise to more secondary spread than outbreaks in cattle. Secondary outbreaks attributed to airborne spread occurred only in ruminants. Most airborne spread was into areas of high livestock density and cattle in the larger herds became infected. Airborne spread could be correlated with wind direction and speed but not with rain. The reduction in the number of outbreaks at the end of the epidemic could be attributed to the elimination of the largest sources of virus, the control of movements and the fact that in all instances except two the wind was blowing virus over towns and out to sea, to areas of low stock density and to areas where animals had been killed. PMID:4511946

  6. The Emerging Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemic: Clinical Impact, Economic Burden, and Opportunities for Disease Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Carter; Brian L. Tiep; Rebecca E. Tiep

    2008-01-01

    The incidence and economic impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is escalating worldwide and is projected to remain on a positive trajectory for many years to come. At some point in this escalation, COPD may be regarded as a true epidemic. Unfortunately, the incidence among women is escalating more rapidly than in men, reflecting the social anthropology of changing

  7. Lipoprotein oxidation in cardiovascular disease: chief culprit or innocent bystander?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay W. Heinecke

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to contribute to ath- erosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Consistent with this idea, the antioxi- dant drug probucol reduces the risk of restenosis, a form of cardiovascular disease, in humans. However, a new study now suggests that the protective effect of probucol depends not on its ability to inhibit lipid oxidation, but on its

  8. CD36: Implications in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Febbraio, Maria; Silverstein, Roy L.

    2007-01-01

    CD36 is a broadly expressed membrane glycoprotein that acts as a facilitator of fatty acid uptake, a signaling molecule, and a receptor for a wide range of ligands, including apoptotic cells, modified forms of low density lipoprotein, thrombospondins, fibrillar beta-amyloid, components of gram positive bacterial walls and malaria infected erythrocytes. CD36 expression on macrophages, dendritic and endothelial cells, and in tissues including muscle, heart, and fat, suggest diverse roles, and indeed, this is truly a multifunctional receptor involved in both homeostatic and pathologic conditions. Despite an impressive increase in our knowledge of CD36 functions, in depth understanding of the mechanistic aspects of this protein remains elusive. This review focuses on CD36 in cardiovascular disease—what we know, and what we have yet to learn. PMID:17466567

  9. Lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk associated with glucose-lowering medications.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Barbara E; Gebhard, Catherine; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic, associated with a high burden of complications and 4.6 million deaths annually worldwide. As a result of decreasing levels of physical activity and increasing rates of obesity, diabetes is shifting from a disease affecting the elderly to one that affects younger patients or even children. Thus, aggressive treatment and optimal control of risk factors is the key to improve outcomes in those patients. Accumulating evidence of the cardiovascular and lipid effects of glucose-lowering medications suggest that treatment efficacy in diabetes can be further improved. This review provides an overview of the lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk of current anti-diabetic medications and highlights opportunities and challenges in clinical practice. PMID:26031672

  10. Functional Foods as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular intakes of fatty fish rich in the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids that compete with the more pervasive membrane fatty acid, arachidonic acid, disrupting the metabolic cascades that stimulate inflammation. Another effective dietary strategy is to consume less arachidonic acid by reducing beef, poultry, fish, and eggs from the diet (e.g., adopting a vegetarian-like diet). Since oxidative stress plays a prominent role in immune system activation, regular ingestion of ample amounts of fruits and vegetables (8+ servings/d) rich in antioxidant compounds, the polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C (e.g., citrus, tomatoes, berries, carrots, and greens), lowers inflammatory mediators and risk for chronic disease. Whole grains, legumes, and nuts have also been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively reduce inflammatory mediators and risk for CVD. Hence, as proclaimed in antiquity, ‘let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food’. PMID:20368755

  11. Cardiovascular disease epidemiology in Asia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and half of the cases of CVD are estimated to occur in Asia. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries, except for Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Thailand, have higher age-adjusted mortality from CVD. In Japan, the mortality from CVD, especially stroke, has declined continuously from the 1960s to the 2000s, which has contributed to making Japan into the top-ranking country for longevity in the world. Hypertension and smoking are the most notable risk factors for stroke and coronary artery disease, whereas dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus are risk factors for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke. The nationwide approach to hypertension prevention and control has contributed to a substantial decline in stroke mortality in Japan. Recent antismoking campaigns have contributed to a decline in the smoking rate among men. Conversely, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and, therefore, the population-attributable risks of CVD for dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus have increased moderately. To prevent future CVD in Asia, the intensive prevention programs for hypertension and smoking should be continued and that for emerging metabolic risk factors should be intensified in Japan. The successful intervention programs in Japan can be applied to other Asian countries. PMID:23803294

  12. Dietary methods in cardiovascular disease critique.

    PubMed

    Elmer, P J

    1992-03-01

    It is planned that a wide variety of questions related to nutrient intake and cardiovascular disease will be addressed in NHANES III. Given the scope of these questions and the number of different types of designs that may be utilized--cross-sectional, cohort, and case control--several different dietary methodologies will probably be needed within NHANES III. Assessment and ranking of current intake is a primary objective to the overall NHANES III design. The 24-hour recall will provide this assessment and maintain comparability with the previous extensive NHANES. In many instances, however, information on usual intake or past intake will be necessary to better elucidate a nutrient-disease relationship, either because of temporal exposure concerns or because of the variability of the nutrient intake. A food history or quantitative frequency method for the specific nutrient(s) would best address these needs. Information on specific foods or other diet constituents (such as fish, dairy foods, alcohol, or water intake) in addition to nutrient levels will be of interest not only for cardiovascular disease but, with some food items, for cancer and osteoporosis as well. A history or quantitative frequency method would be appropriate for this purpose. The question of serial and multiple measures needs to be addressed. For adequate classification of individuals, several nonconsecutive measures would be most appropriate. The actual number of measures would be determined by the estimate of the most acceptable reduction in variance that could be achieved with multiple measures, balanced by the feasibility and cost of such measures. The use of multiple measures would necessitate the use of alternative interview techniques, most likely by telephone. It is clear that, if this type of methodology is adopted, further validation and extensive pretesting would need to be conducted. A subsample approach could also be utilized. Automated coding of dietary data and computer-prompted immediate data entry interview techniques may facilitate the use of these dietary data collection methods. Whichever methods are utilized, standardization of the coding procedures and additions to the nutrient data base, particularly for sodium, are essential. Finally, there is considerable interest in evaluating any deleterious effects of dietary modification on health and mortality outcome. For example, there is concern that a fat-modified diet may increase cancer mortality in some or that a low-sodium diet may be unpalatable and lead to a lowered dietary intake and potential nutrient deficiencies. It would be useful in this regard for NHANES III to be able to ascertain if altered dietary levels were due to self-selected dietary practices, to prescription of a therapeutic diet, or to a disease state or illness that lowered overall food intake. PMID:1375412

  13. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    PubMed Central

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  14. Type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Type 1 diabetes largely impairs life expectancy. Hyperglycemia leading to an increase in oxidative stress is considered to be the key pathophysiological factor of both micro- and macrovascular complications. In Type 1 diabetes, the presence of coronary calcifications is also related to coronary artery disease. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy, which significantly impairs myocardial function and blood flow, also enhances cardiac abnormalities. Also hypoglycemic episodes are considered to adversely influence cardiac performance. Intensive insulin therapy has been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence and progression of both micro- and macrovascular complications. This has been evidenced by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. The concept of a metabolic memory emerged based on the results of the study, which established that intensified insulin therapy is the standard of treatment of Type 1 diabetes. Future therapies may also include glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-based treatment therapies. Pilot studies with GLP-1-analogues have been shown to reduce insulin requirements. PMID:24165454

  15. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk. PMID:24448943

  16. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Liu, Mu-En; Ku, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Shoa-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may be associated with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we analyze the association between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction in cardiovascular disease. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still controversial, and larger scale, randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to investigate whether oral vitamin D supplementation can reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the low cost, safety, and demonstrated benefit of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority for combating common and costly chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24109497

  17. An MTHFR variant, homocysteine, and cardiovascular comorbidity in renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Wrone; James L. Zehnder; John M. Hornberger; Linda M. McCann; Norman S. Coplon; Stephen P. Fortmann

    2001-01-01

    An MTHFR variant, homocysteine, and cardiovascular comorbidity in renal disease.BackgroundIt is unclear whether total serum homocysteine (tHcy) and the C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsA cross-sectional sample of 459 patients with ESRD on chronic dialysis was assessed to determine whether tHcy and the C677T mutation are associated

  18. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Slaví?ek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Kone?ná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1±4.60 (SD) to 24.8±4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8±23.02 (SD) to 123.8±21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1,210 persons) from 79.8±12.7 (SD) to 77.5±11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86±0.95 (SD) to 4.32±0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31±1.59 (SD) to 3.88±1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  19. Role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sewon; Kwak, Hyo-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Under disease conditions including obesity (insulin resistance) and diabetes, dysregulation of adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin contribute to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Unlike other adipokines, adiponectin has been shown to be a therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Circulating levels of adiponectin are markedly reduced in obese, diabetic, hypertensive, and coronary artery disease patients as well as experimental animal models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Recently, the small molecule adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) agonist was discovered and suggested that the agonist is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes linked to obesity in an experimental mouse model. This review will focus on signaling pathways involved in adiponectin and its receptors and the role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease including insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24877038

  20. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Homeless Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony C. Lee; John G. Hanlon; Jessica Ben-David; Gillian L. Booth; Warren J. Cantor; Philip W. Connelly; Stephen W. Hwang

    2010-01-01

    Background—Homeless people represent an extremely disadvantaged group in North America. Among older homeless men, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The objective of this study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors in a representative sample of homeless adults and identify opportunities for improved risk factor modification. Methods and Results—Homeless persons were randomly selected at shelters for single

  1. Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zamarrón, Carlos; Valdés Cuadrado, Luis; Álvarez-Sala, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder, characterized by repeated disruptions of breathing during sleep. This disease has many potential consequences including excessive daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive deterioration, endocrinologic and metabolic effects, and decreased quality of life. Patients with OSAS experience repetitive episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation during transient cessation of breathing that provoke systemic effects. Furthermore, there may be increased levels of biomarkers linked to endocrine-metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Epidemiological studies have identified OSAS as an independent comorbid factor in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and physiopathological links may exist with onset and progression of heart failure. In addition, OSAS is associated with other disorders and comorbidities which worsen cardiovascular consequences, such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is an emerging public health problem that represents a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors. Both OSAS and metabolic syndrome may exert negative synergistic effects on the cardiovascular system through multiple mechanisms (e.g., hypoxemia, sleep disruption, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammatory activation). It has been found that CPAP therapy for OSAS provides an objective improvement in symptoms and cardiac function, decreases cardiovascular risk, improves insulin sensitivity, and normalises biomarkers. OSAS contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease independently and by interaction with comorbidities. The present review focuses on indirect and direct evidence regarding mechanisms implicated in cardiovascular disease among OSAS patients. PMID:23936649

  2. Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W

    2003-02-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the most common cause of death in most Western countries. Nutrition factors contribute importantly to this high risk for ASCVD. Favourable alterations in diet can reduce six of the nine major risk factors for ASCVD, i.e. high serum LDL-cholesterol levels, high fasting serum triacylglycerol levels, low HDL-cholesterol levels, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Wholegrain foods may be one the healthiest choices individuals can make to lower the risk for ASCVD. Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with higher levels (in the highest quintile) of whole-grain intake have a 29 % lower risk for ASCVD than individuals with lower levels (lowest quintile) of whole-grain intake. It is of interest that neither the highest levels of cereal fibre nor the highest levels of refined cereals provide appreciable protection against ASCVD. Generous intake of whole grains also provides protection from development of diabetes and obesity. Diets rich in wholegrain foods tend to decrease serum LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels as well as blood pressure while increasing serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Whole-grain intake may also favourably alter antioxidant status, serum homocysteine levels, vascular reactivity and the inflammatory state. Whole-grain components that appear to make major contributions to these protective effects are: dietary fibre; vitamins; minerals; antioxidants; phytosterols; other phytochemicals. Three servings of whole grains daily are recommended to provide these health benefits. PMID:12740068

  3. Homocysteine, iron and cardiovascular disease: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Joseph E; Tamura, Tsunenobu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations (hyperhomocysteinemia) have been regarded as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, several large clinical trials to correct hyperhomocysteinemia using B-vitamin supplements (particularly folic acid) have largely failed to reduce the risk of CVD. There is no doubt that a large segment of patients with CVD have hyperhomocysteinemia; therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that circulating tHcy concentrations are in part a surrogate marker for another, yet-to-be-identified risk factor(s) for CVD. We found that iron catalyzes the formation of Hcy from methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and cystathionine. Based on these findings, we propose that an elevated amount of non-protein-bound iron (free Fe) increases circulating tHcy. Free Fe catalyzes the formation of oxygen free radicals, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a well-established risk factor for vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our findings on iron-catalyzed formation of Hcy from thioethers as well as recent findings by other investigators on this issue. Collectively, these support our hypothesis that circulating tHcy is in part a surrogate marker for free Fe, which is one of the independent risk factors for CVD. PMID:25668155

  4. Vitamin D and its analogues: Do they protect against cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADEERA LEVIN; YAN CHUN LI

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D and its analogs: Do they protect against cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease?BackgroundPatients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular disease, and despite recent advances in hypertension control, anemia management, and dialysis adequacy, mortality remains high. Improved understanding of nontraditional risk factors, including those present at early phases in CKD, may lead to

  5. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Schierbeck, L

    2015-08-01

    Many peri- and postmenopausal women suffer from a reduced quality of life due to menopausal symptoms and preventable diseases. The importance of cardiovascular disease in women must be emphasized, as it is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in women. It is well known that female hormones contribute to the later onset of cardiovascular disease in women. The effect of estrogens has for decades been understood from observational studies of postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Later, treatment with HRT was disregarded due to the fear of side-effects and an ambiguity of the cardiovascular advantages. Accumulating knowledge from the large number of trials and studies has elucidated the cause for the disparity in results. In this paper, the beneficial effects of HRT, with emphasis on cardiovascular disease are explained, and the relative and absolute risks of side-effects are discussed. PMID:25830825

  6. Maternal preeclampsia and risk for cardiovascular disease in offspring.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Garcia, Guadalupe; Contag, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) has been associated with elevated lifetime cardiovascular risk, including stroke, myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease. These two entities share common risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. This article will evaluate the current literature on the maternal and fetal cardiovascular risks posed by HDP. The landmark study by Barker et al. demonstrated increased cardiovascular risk in growth-restricted infants, which may also be associated with HDP. Research has demonstrated the effects that HDP may have on the vascular and nephron development in offspring, particularly with respect to endothelial and inflammatory markers. In order to control for confounding variables and better understand the relationship between HDP and lifetime cardiovascular risk, future research will require following blood pressure and metabolic profiles of the parturients and their offspring. PMID:25097112

  7. ?-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms: Cardiovascular Disease Associations and Pharmacogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Johnson; Steven G. Terra

    2002-01-01

    The ß-adrenergic receptors (ßAR) play important roles in cardiovascular function and disease, and both agonists and antagonists are widely used in various settings for treatment of cardiovascular disease. Both the ß1AR and ß2AR genes have several polymorphisms that are common in the population and result in encoding of different amino acids. More importantly, in vitro functional studies suggest that these

  8. [New indications for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the first cause of death and disability in Italy. The main reversible risk factors are high levels of LDL-cholesterol, hypertension, tobacco-smoking, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome and poor physical activity (at leisure). The prevalence of these risk factors is high in adult Italian population. Cardiovascular diseases prevention should start early in life, with health promotion programs aimed at the acquisition of a healthy lifestyle in communities such as schools and worksites. Besides the "cardiovascular risk score" should be used by general practitioners in order to screen adult population and to lower risk factors levels. PMID:18773606

  9. Genetic epidemiology of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Rotimi, Charles N

    2013-01-01

    The burdens of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasing in Africa. T2D and CVD are the result of the complex interaction between inherited characteristics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The epidemic of obesity is largely behind the exploding global incidence of T2D. However, not all obese individuals develop diabetes and positive family history is a powerful risk factor for diabetes and CVD. Recent implementations of high throughput genotyping and sequencing approaches have advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of diabetes and CVD by identifying several genomic loci that were not previously linked to the pathobiology of these diseases. However, African populations have not been adequately represented in these global genomic efforts. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge of the genetic epidemiology of T2D and CVD in Africa and highlight new genomic initiatives that promise to inform disease etiology, public health and clinical medicine in Africa. PMID:24267432

  10. Genetic epidemiology of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The burdens of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasingin Africa. T2D and CVD are the result of the complex interaction between inherited characteristics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The epidemic of obesity is largely behind the exploding global incidence of T2D. However, not all obese individuals develop diabetes and positive family history is a powerful risk factor for diabetes and CVD. Recent implementations of high throughput genotyping and sequencing approaches have advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of diabetes and CVD by identifying several genomic loci that were not previously linked to the pathobiology of these diseases. However, African populations have not been adequately represented in these global genomic efforts. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge of the genetic epidemiology of T2D and CVD in Africa and highlight new genomic initiatives that promise to inform disease etiology, public health and clinical medicine in Africa. PMID:24267432

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 in inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng-Ling; Ho, Yen-Chun; Lin, Chen-Yu; Yet, Shaw-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for 1 of every 2.9 deaths in the United States, thus the burden of the disease remains high. Given the high mortality and escalating healthcare cost for the disease, it is of urgent need to treat cardiovascular disease effectively. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the oxidation of heme to generate carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and iron. These reaction products of HO-1 have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functions. Although HO-1 is expressed at low levels in most tissues under normal basal conditions, it is highly inducible in response to various pathophysiological stresses. Numerous studies have indicated that HO-1 induction is an adaptive defense mechanism to protect cells and tissues against injury in many disease settings. This review highlights the role of HO-1 in inflammation and several cardiovascular diseases—atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, graft survival after heart transplantation, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Given that inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with development of cardiovascular disease and that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, HO-1 is emerging as a great potential therapeutic target for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:22254194

  12. Defenseless against an enemy: the history of epidemics, disease and medicine in the Republic of Texas

    E-print Network

    Depew, Diane Kay

    1982-01-01

    diseases ravaged the republic, but the most serious and often most fatal disease was yellow fever. It struck the coastal areas almost annually, and twice during the republic period hit in epidemic form in Houston and Galveston. Other diseases rampant... until the later days of the republic, and no reference is made to them in guidebooks. For example, there is no reference to yellow fever in most early guide books, because it was not until 1839 that this disease struck the republic in epidemic form...

  13. Interdisciplinary approaches in epidemic studies--II: Four geographic models of the flow of contagious disease.

    PubMed

    Angulo, J J

    1987-01-01

    Straightforward adaptation of geographical and regional-science models to conceptual modeling of the epidemic spread of a contagious disease is achieved by: using analogies and isomorphisms, and using as a real example the observations made during a well studied epidemic of variola minor (the mild form of smallpox), a typical contagious disease. The adaptation of the Wilson model of planning for urban development includes a static view (network) of the structure and activities of the population and of organizations (diffusion agencies such as day schools), and the dynamic view (mechanism of epidemic spread) which includes the changes with time of elements of the network brough by flow of disease. Adaptation of the Brown model of spatial diffusion yields flows of disease occurring between micro-scale units (households) of social interactions but aggregations of these units do not participate explicitly in the flows. The occurrence of successive generations of affected households is specified as well as the occurrence of definite stages of the epidemic progression. Adaptation of the Alves-Morrill model of spatial diffusion yields a network of social groups and interdependencies; a simplified network of the mechanism of spread that shows flows of disease between individuals grouped into generations of infected individuals and generations of infective individuals; and a more realistic view which shows the flows of disease between real epidemiological units such as households and school classes. Adaptation of the Morrill-Manninen model of spatial diffusion concentrates on the mechanism and parameters having the epidemic spread as output. The interdependencies between the parameters and between each parameter and the epidemic spread are represented, including feedback processes. Brown's model seems to be the best for describing the epidemic spread of contagious disease while the Morrill-Manninen model is the most promising for investigating the detailed mechanism of the spread. Since these two models complement each other, their combined use is indicated. PMID:3823998

  14. The impact of epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease on vaccine uptake: lessons from the 2011-2012 US pertussis epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Elizabeth R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Opel, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that if there is a vaccine that is effective in preventing a disease, vaccine uptake will increase when the disease risk is high. Recent evidence, however, suggests that this may not always be the case. In a study we conducted in Washington State, we found no population-level increase in pertussis vaccination of infants during a pertussis epidemic. In this paper, we aim to review what is known about the history of vaccine uptake during epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease, the challenges facing public health campaigns responding to these epidemics, and how the effect of a vaccine-preventable disease epidemic on vaccine uptake can be studied. PMID:25872609

  15. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. PMID:21762853

  16. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. PMID:21659815

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Chronic Kidney Disease—FGF23: A Key Molecule in the Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Rika

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Moreover, abnormal mineral and bone metabolism, the so-called CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD), occurs from early stages of CKD. This CKD-MBD presents a strong cardiovascular risk for CKD patients. Discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has altered our understanding of CKD-MBD and has revealed more complex cross-talk and endocrine feedback loops between the kidney, parathyroid gland, intestines, and bone. During the past decade, reports of clinical studies have described the association between FGF23 and cardiovascular risks, left ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular calcification. Recent translational reports have described the existence of FGF23-Klotho axis in the vasculature and the causative effect of FGF23 on cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest FGF23 as a promising target for novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes of CKD patients. PMID:24678415

  18. The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  19. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  20. Nitric oxide synthases in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Shimokawa; Masato Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in almost all tissues and organs, exerting a variety of biological actions under both physiological\\u000a and pathological conditions. NO is synthesized by three distinct NO synthase (NOS) isoforms (neuronal, inducible, and endothelial\\u000a NOS), all of which are expressed in the human cardiovascular system. Although the regulatory roles of NOSs in cardiovascular\\u000a diseases have been described

  1. Tristetraprolin family proteins may prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most deadly disease in the U. S., according to the American Heart Association statistics. CVD have been consistently ranked the No. 1 killer since 1900 (except 1918), accounted for 38.5% of all deaths in 2001, and was estimated to cost $368.4 billion in 2004 in t...

  2. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Nutrigenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hooman Allayee; Nitzan Roth; Howard N. Hodis

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) arises as a result of genetic predisposition in the context of a disease-promoting environment. While several risk factors have been identified for CVD, such as elevated serum lipid levels and hypertension, most of the genes identified thus far do not appear to involve such ‘conventional’ risk factors. Moreover, the interactions between genes and environment, such as a

  3. The Western Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic Exhibits Both Global Exponential and Local Polynomial Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Hyman, James M; Simonsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Background: While many infectious disease epidemics are initially characterized by an exponential growth in time, we show that district-level Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in West Africa follow slower polynomial-based growth kinetics over several generations of the disease. Methods: We analyzed epidemic growth patterns at three different spatial scales (regional, national, and subnational) of the Ebola virus disease epidemic in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia by compiling publicly available weekly time series of reported EVD case numbers from the patient database available from the World Health Organization website for the period 05-Jan to 17-Dec 2014. Results: We found significant differences in the growth patterns of EVD cases at the scale of the country, district, and other subnational administrative divisions. The national cumulative curves of EVD cases in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia show periods of approximate exponential growth. In contrast, local epidemics are asynchronous and exhibit slow growth patterns during 3 or more EVD generations, which can be better approximated by a polynomial than an exponential function. Conclusions: The slower than expected growth pattern of local EVD outbreaks could result from a variety of factors, including behavior changes, success of control interventions, or intrinsic features of the disease such as a high level of clustering. Quantifying the contribution of each of these factors could help refine estimates of final epidemic size and the relative impact of different mitigation efforts in current and future EVD outbreaks. PMID:25685633

  4. Cardiovascular risk in pediatric-onset rheumatological diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health concerns for adults with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The enhanced atherogenesis in this patient population is promoted by the exposure to traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional cardiovascular insults, such as corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammation and autoantibodies. Despite definite differences between many adult-onset and pediatric-onset rheumatologic diseases, it is extremely likely that atherosclerosis will become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this pediatric patient population. Because cardiovascular events are rare at this young age, surrogate measures of atherosclerosis must be used. The three major noninvasive vascular measures of early atherosclerosis - namely, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity - can be performed easily on children. Few studies have explored the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and even fewer have used the surrogate vascular measures to document signs of early atherosclerosis in children with pediatric-onset rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on cardiovascular risk and early atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis patients, and to review cardiovascular preventive strategies that should be considered in this population. PMID:23731870

  5. Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Mellitus: Complication of the Disease or of Antihyperglycemic Medications.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C A; Lingvay, I; Vuylsteke, V; Koffarnus, R L; McGuire, D K

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal complication and the leading cause of death for patients with diabetes (DM). The efficacy of antihyperglycemic treatments on cardiovascular disease risk remains uncertain. Cardiovascular risk factors are affected by antihyperglycemic medications, as are many intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize the evidence assessing the cardiovascular effects of antihyperglycemic medications with regard to risk factors, intermediate markers of disease, and clinical outcomes. PMID:25963811

  6. Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease in Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chumakov; M. VOROSttILOVA; L. Shindarov; I. Lavrova; L. Gracheva; G. Koroleva; S. Vasilenko; I. Brodvarova; M. Nikolova; S. Gyurova; M. Gacheva; G. Mitov; N. Ninov; E. Tsylka; I. Robinson; M. Frolova; V. Bashkirtsev; L. Martiyanova; V. Rodin

    1979-01-01

    Summary Virological and serological studies of an epidemic disease in Bulgaria, 1975, were carried out. Epidemiologically, clinically and pathomorphologically, the disease simulated almost all known forms of poliomyelitis, acute stem encephalitis, encephalomyocarditis and aseptic meningitis. The studies completely ruled out the participation of polioviruses and provided comprehensive evidence for the etiological role of a peculiar enterovirus subsequently identified as enterovirus

  7. Cardiovascular diseases in the developing countries: dimensions, determinants, dynamics and directions for public health action.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Srinath

    2002-02-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, principally due to a sharp rise in the developing countries which are experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: demographic shifts with altered population age profiles; lifestyle changes due to recent urbanisation, delayed industrialisation and overpowering globalisation; probable effects of foetal undernutrition on adult susceptibility to vascular disease and possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets and diminished physical activity are critical factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across developing regions with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must integrate policies and programmes that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of these diseases and provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives that espouse and enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health. An empowered community, an enlightened policy and an energetic coalition of health professionals must ensure that development is not accompanied by distorted nutrition and disordered health. PMID:12027289

  8. Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

  9. [Problems in medical care for patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T M; Lushkina, N P; Ogryzko, E V

    2012-01-01

    Despite showing that cardiovascular disease mortality in Russia is declining evaluation of medical care for cardiovascular patients, using different information sources, revealed a lot of problems in this field need it's solving. Together with modernization of medical services it is urgently necessary to transform the medical education, including post graduate, information support for medical professionals in field of modern medical technologies, using in countries with low mortality rates, creation the conditions for regular updating professional knowledge. It is necessary to reconsider formal criteria for medical care evaluation, especially taking into account co morbidity of cardiovascular diseases. Our data illustrate that social disparities influence on outcomes of diseases and so for further decreasing mortality rates and increasing the life expectancy adequate treatment must be provide for all patients independently of their material wellbeing. PMID:22712270

  10. Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease mediated by ultrasound and microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy provides an efficient approach for treatment of cardiovascular disease. To realize the therapeutic effect, both efficient delivery to the target cells and sustained expression of transgenes are required. Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique has become a potential strategy for target-specific gene and drug delivery. When gene-loaded microbubble is injected, the ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction may spew the transported gene to the targeted cells or organ. Meanwhile, high amplitude oscillations of microbubbles increase the permeability of capillary and cell membrane, facilitating uptake of the released gene into tissue and cell. Therefore, efficiency of gene therapy can be significantly improved. To date, UTMD has been successfully investigated in many diseases, and it has achieved outstanding progress in the last two decades. Herein, we discuss the current status of gene therapy of cardiovascular diseases, and reviewed the progress of the delivery of genes to cardiovascular system by UTMD. PMID:23594865

  11. Genetics of cardiovascular disease: Importance of sex and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Winham, Stacey J; de Andrade, Mariza; Miller, Virginia M

    2015-07-01

    Sex differences in incidence and prevalence of and morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are well documented. However, many studies examining the genetic basis for cardiovascular disease fail to consider sex as a variable in the study design, in part, because there is an inherent difficulty in studying the contribution of the sex chromosomes in women due to X chromosome inactivation. This paper will provide general background on the X and Y chromosomes (including gene content, the pseudoautosomal regions, and X chromosome inactivation), discuss how sex chromosomes have been ignored in Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular diseases, and discuss genetics influencing development of cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis with particular attention to carotid intima-medial thickness, and coronary arterial calcification based on sex-specific studies. In addition, a brief discussion of how ethnicity and hormonal status act as confounding variables in sex-based analysis will be considered along with methods for statistical analysis to account for sex in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25817330

  12. Oxidative stress and inflammation, a link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Cachofeiro; Marian Goicochea; Soledad García de Vinuesa; Pilar Oubiña; Vicente Lahera; José Luño

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This seems to be consequence of the cardiovascular risk factor clustering in CKD patients. Non traditional risk factors such as oxidative stress and inflammation are also far more prevalent in this population than in normal subjects. Renal disease is associated with a graded increase in oxidative stress

  13. Is preclinical autoimmunity benign?: The case of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Majka, Darcy S; Chang, Rowland W

    2014-11-01

    Although there are many examples of autoantibodies in disease-free individuals, they can be a preclinical phenomenon heralding future autoimmune rheumatic disease. They may be a marker for autoreactive B-cell activation and other inflammatory autoimmune processes. The increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, and the increased risk of CVD in patients with rheumatic disease with autoantibodies, suggest that CVD may have autoimmune features. Autoantibodies might be risk markers for subclinical and clinical CVD development not only in patients with rheumatic diseases but in the general population as well. PMID:25437283

  14. Bone markers predict cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Herberth, Johann; Browning, Steven R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Wirnsberger, Gerhard; Holzer, Herwig; Dobnig, Harald; Malluche, Hartmut H

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated a link between bone metabolism and cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is a major health problem worldwide. This study evaluates the role of noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in predicting cardiovascular morbidity (coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke) and mortality in patients with mild to severe forms of CKD. In a prospective cohort study, 627 patients with CKD were screened. To focus on bone metabolism, traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events were excluded, and 135 patients with CKD stages 1-5 were followed for 4 yr. Glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. PTH (measured by four different assays), vitamin D 25 and 1,25, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP), TRACP-5b, osteocalcin, serum collagen cross-link molecules, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin were determined. Predictors of cardiovascular events were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival, and Cox regression analysis. There were a total of 45 cardiovascular events (33%). Event rates were 5.6%, 29.1%, 45.2%, and 45.0% in CKD stages 1-2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. In logistic regression, cardiovascular events were predicted only by (1) CKD stage (independent of age or sex; p < 0.001); (2) BSALP (p = 0.03); and (3) TRACP-5b (p = 0.04). Markers of bone formation (BSALP) and resorption (TRACP-5b) can serve as predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD. PMID:18597636

  15. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle ... fatty deposits called plaque build up in the arteries, especially those in the legs. Over time, the ...

  16. Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Frankel; James B. Meigs

    Diabetes is a common disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Diabetic patients are at markedly increased risk for development\\u000a of coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure and, further, when they develop these diseases, they have worse outcomes\\u000a including higher mortality. This mandates an aggressive approach to reducing cardiovascular risk in all diabetic patients.\\u000a Good evidence has shown that tight

  17. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cigolle, Christine T; Blaum, Caroline S; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2009-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death as well as a leading cause of disability and impaired quality of life in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, preventing cardiovascular events in this population is an important goal of care. Available evidence supports the use of lipid-lowering agents and treatment of hypertension as effective measures to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults with diabetes. Glucose control, smoking cessation, weight control, regular physical activity, and a prudent diet are also recommended, although data supporting the efficacy of these interventions are limited. While reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains a primary objective of preventive cardiology in older adults with diabetes, the impact of these interventions on functional well-being, cognition, and other geriatric syndromes requires further study. PMID:19944264

  18. [Mitochondrial fusion protein Mfn2 and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Yi; Guo, Yan-Hong; Gao, Wei

    2010-02-01

    Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a mitochondrial dynamin-related protein involved in the mitochondrial fusion reaction and is also connected to an altered mitochondrial energy supply. Mfn2 is a signaling molecule, plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, which participates in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, restenosis after angioplasty, atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac oxidative stress injury. Regulating the mitochondria-related metabolism, Mfn2 affects diabetes and insulin resistance pathogenesis. In addition, Mfn2 could be an important biomarker and therapeutic target molecule for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21417008

  19. [Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Daubresse, J C; Sternon, J

    2006-01-01

    Most--but not all--epidemiological studies have demonstrated that omega-3 intake, either from nutrition or supplementation, reduces cardiovascular risk. A few intervention studies have shown a reduction of studden death in patients followed after a myocardial infarction. However EBM studies from the Cochrane Library do not confirm the real advantage of omega-3 in any group of subjects. Probably, the most interesting prescription of omega-3 supplementations would benefit to the patients after myocardial infarction, in addition to drugs that have proved their efficacy (aspirine, beta-blocker statin and ACE inhibitor). PMID:16608011

  20. Inflammation, Sleep, Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle A. Miller; Francesco P. Cappuccio

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that disturbances in sleep and sleep disorders play a role in the morbidity of chronic con- ditions. However, the relationship between sleep processes, disease development, disease progression and disease man- agement is often unclear or understudied. Numerous common medical conditions can have an affect on sleep. For example, diabetes or inflammatory conditions such as arthritis can lead

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Bogaert; Marco Francone

    2009-01-01

    The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases;

  2. Cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Silva, Leila S V; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Silva, Geraldo B; Lima, Jose Wellington O; Silva, Ricardo P; Liborio, Alexandre B; Daher, Elizabeth F; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto R M

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD) in Brazil. Their mean age was 47 ± 39 years. The main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were arterial hypertension (89.4%), dyslipidemia (78.3%), low high-density lipoprotein levels (84.2%) and low physical activity (64.1%). Family history of coronary insufficiency and high low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly associated with coronary artery disease (P = 0.005 and P = 0.029, respectively). Sedentary life style, diabetes mellitus, secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperglycemia also showed a significant association with the underlying vascular disease (P = 0.017, P = 0.039, P = 0.037 and P = 0.030, respectively). Hypercalcemia, hypertension and black race were factors significantly associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (P = 0.01, P = 0.0013 and P = 0.024, respectively). Our study shows that the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in patients with ESRD were left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic disease, valvular disease and coronary artery disease. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the common risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on HD in a single center in Brazil. PMID:22382216

  3. Arsenic Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease: An Updated Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas–Acien, Ana

    2012-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, high-chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease, despite methodological limitations. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Here, we update a previous systematic review (Am J Epidemiol 2005;162: 1037–49) examining the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. Eighteen studies published since 2005 were combined with 13 studies from the previous review. We calculated pooled relative risks by comparing the highest versus the lowest exposure category across studies. For high exposure (arsenic in drinking water > 50 ?g/L), the pooled relative risks (95 % confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were 1.32 (95 % CI: 1.05–1.67), 1.89 (95 % CI: 1.33–2.69), 1.08 (95 % CI: 0.98–1.19), and 2.17 (95 % CI: 1.47–3.20), respectively. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Our review strengthens the evidence for a causal association between high-chronic arsenic exposure and clinical cardiovascular endpoints. Additional high quality studies are needed at low-moderate arsenic levels. PMID:22968315

  4. Drug treatment and cost of cardiovascular disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ademi, Zanfina; Liew, Danny; Chew, Derek; Conner, Greg; Shiel, Louise; Nelson, Mark; Soman, Ash; Steg, Gabriel; Bhatt, Deepak L; Reid, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme supports the use of effective drugs for the prevention and control of cardiovascular risk factors. However, there are little data available describing per person costs of medication in primary prevention and secondary prevention in the community. We aim to understand annual expenditure on cardiovascular medicines according to the level and extent of cardiovascular disease, using participants enrolled in the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) registry. 2873 participants were recruited into the REACH registry through 273 Australian general practices. Cardiovascular medicines review was undertaken at baseline. Average weighted costs of medications were estimated using government-reimbursed prices. Annual costs were stratified by disease extent and location. The annual mean cost of pharmaceuticals per person was 1307 AU dollars. The average reported medicine use per person across all states and participants groups varied significantly. Participants with cerebrovascular or peripheral arterial disease were prescribed less cardiovascular medication than those with coronary artery disease (CAD) (mean number of drugs 3.5 vs. 4.5, P < 0.0001) and (3.6 vs. 4.5, P < 0.0001), while those with risk factor alone had the same medication use as those with CAD (mean number 4.5). Medication use was lower in Western Australia in comparison to eastern States. Participants with existing cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease receive less preventive therapy than those with CAD or even risk factors alone. This observation is consistent across all mainland states. Given the evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treating all types of vascular diseases, the present study suggests that there is scope to improve the treatment of these high-risk participants in Australia. PMID:19689615

  5. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan TF; van Hout, Hein PJ; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2010-01-01

    Background Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In addition, the role of specific clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in the association with cardiovascular disease was explored. Methods Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used, including persons with a current (i.e. past year) or remitted DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorder (N=2315) and healthy controls (N=492). Additional clinical characteristics (subtype, duration, severity, psychoactive medication) were assessed. Cardiovascular disease (stroke and coronary heart disease) was assessed using algorithms based on self-report and medication use. Results Persons with current anxiety disorders showed an about three-fold increased prevalence of coronary heart disease (OR anxiety only=2.70, 95%CI=1.31–5.56; OR comorbid anxiety/depression=3.54, 95%CI=1.79–6.98). No associations were found for persons with depressive disorders only or remitted disorders, nor for stroke. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms - but no other clinical characteristics - most strongly indicated increased prevalence of coronary heart disease. Limitations Cross-sectional design. Conclusions Within this large psychopathology-based cohort study, prevalence of coronary heart disease was especially increased among persons with anxiety disorders. Increased prevalence of coronary heart disease among depressed persons was largely owing to comorbid anxiety. Anxiety - alone as well as comorbid to depressive disorders - as risk indicator of coronary heart disease deserves more attention in both research and clinical practice. PMID:20223521

  6. Lncing Epigenetic Control of Transcription to Cardiovascular Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Rizki, Gizem; Boyer, Laurie A

    2015-07-01

    Transcriptional and epigenetic regulation is critical for proper heart development, cardiac homeostasis, and pathogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs have emerged as key components of the transcriptional regulatory pathways that govern cardiac development as well as stress response, signaling, and remodeling in cardiac pathologies. Within the past few years, studies have identified many long noncoding RNAs in the context of cardiovascular biology and have begun to reveal the key functions of these transcripts. In this review, we discuss the growing roles of long noncoding RNAs in different aspects of cardiovascular development as well as pathological responses during injury or disease. In addition, we discuss diverse mechanisms by which long noncoding RNAs orchestrate cardiac transcriptional programs. Finally, we explore the exciting potential of this novel class of transcripts as biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26139858

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzymes and drug discovery in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lijun; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a major target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In addition to ACE, ACE2 – which is a homolog of ACE and promotes the degradation of angiotensin II (AngII) to Ang (1–7) – has been recognized recently as a potential therapeutic target in the management of CVDs. This article reviews different metabolic pathways of ACE and ACE2 (AngI-AngII-AT1 receptors and AngI-Ang (1–7)-Mas receptors) in the regulation of cardiovascular function and their potential in new drug development in the therapy of CVDs. In addition, recent progress in the study of angiotensin and ACE in fetal origins of cardiovascular disease, which might present an interesting field in perinatal medicine and preventive medicine, is briefly summarized. PMID:20170743

  8. Arsenic Exposure and Subclinical Endpoints of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Molinaro, Peter; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic evidence suggests that arsenic exposure from drinking water increases the production of reactive oxygen species and influences inflammatory responses and endothelial nitric oxide homeostasis. These arsenic-induced events may lead to endothelial dysfunction that increases the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We reviewed accumulating epidemiologic evidence that evaluated the association between arsenic exposure and intermediate markers and subclinical measures that predict future cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional studies have indicated positive associations between high or low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, QT interval prolongation, and circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction. The evidence is limited for other intermediate endpoints such as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, QT dispersion, and lipid profiles. Prospective studies are needed to enhance the causal inferences of arsenic's effects on subclinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease, especially at lower arsenic exposure levels. PMID:25013752

  9. Bile acid receptors as targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Porez, Geoffrey; Prawitt, Janne; Gross, Barbara; Staels, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. When dyslipidemia coincides with other metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, defined as the metabolic syndrome (MS), individuals present an elevated risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as CVD. Because the MS epidemic represents a growing public health problem worldwide, the development of therapies remains a major challenge. Alterations of bile acid pool regulation in T2D have revealed a link between bile acid and metabolic homeostasis. The bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5 both regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, rendering them potential pharmacological targets for MS therapy. This review discusses the mechanisms of metabolic regulation by FXR and TGR5 and the utility relevance of natural and synthetic modulators of FXR and TGR5 activity, including bile acid sequestrants, in the treatment of the MS. PMID:22550135

  10. Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Longbiao; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Chen, Yitong; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies. PMID:24741577

  11. Predictability and epidemic pathways in global outbreaks of infectious diseases: the SARS case study

    PubMed Central

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Background The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic has clearly shown the importance of considering the long-range transportation networks in the understanding of emerging diseases outbreaks. The introduction of extensive transportation data sets is therefore an important step in order to develop epidemic models endowed with realism. Methods We develop a general stochastic meta-population model that incorporates actual travel and census data among 3 100 urban areas in 220 countries. The model allows probabilistic predictions on the likelihood of country outbreaks and their magnitude. The level of predictability offered by the model can be quantitatively analyzed and related to the appearance of robust epidemic pathways that represent the most probable routes for the spread of the disease. Results In order to assess the predictive power of the model, the case study of the global spread of SARS is considered. The disease parameter values and initial conditions used in the model are evaluated from empirical data for Hong Kong. The outbreak likelihood for specific countries is evaluated along with the emerging epidemic pathways. Simulation results are in agreement with the empirical data of the SARS worldwide epidemic. Conclusion The presented computational approach shows that the integration of long-range mobility and demographic data provides epidemic models with a predictive power that can be consistently tested and theoretically motivated. This computational strategy can be therefore considered as a general tool in the analysis and forecast of the global spreading of emerging diseases and in the definition of containment policies aimed at reducing the effects of potentially catastrophic outbreaks. PMID:18031574

  12. Practical Dietary Approaches to Reducing Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen J. Melanson

    2007-01-01

    As a follow-up to a previous review on the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk, this article offers practical advice for making appropriate dietary changes. Reliable resources and Web sites are discussed, as well as general concepts in diet planning. These include reading food labels, controlling serving sizes, and selecting foods with high nutrient density and low energy density.

  13. Job strain and autonomic indices of cardiovascular disease risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Collins; Robert A. Karasek; Kevin Costas

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the etiologic mechanisms. This, in turn, would help to more precisely identify risk. Methods We measured Job Strain using the Job Content Questionnaire, 8\\/day diary reports, and nationally standardized occupational code linkage, as well as autonomic regulation utilizing heart rate variability including spectral-derived components

  14. Therapy Insight: adipocytokines in metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Matsuzawa

    2006-01-01

    Abdominal fat accumulation has been shown to play crucial roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Visceral fat accumulation particularly is closely correlated to the development of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Given these clinical findings, the functions of adipocytes have been intensively investigated in the past 10 years, and have been revealed

  15. Recipes for Creating Animal Models of Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin E. Bornfeldt; Willa Hsueh; E. Dale Abel; Jan L. Breslow; Nobuyo Maeda; Richard C. Davis; Edward A. Fisher; Hayes Dansky; Donald A. McClain; Richard McIndoe; Momtaz K. Wassef; Cristina Rabadan-Diehl; Ira J. Goldberg

    2010-01-01

    For more than 50 years, investigators have unsuccessfully tried to recreate in experimental animals the cardiovascular complications of diabetes seen in humans. In particular, accelerated atherosclerosis and dilated cardiomyopathy, the major causes of mortality in patients with diabetes, have been conspicuously absent in many mouse models of the disease. Under the auspices of the NIH, the Animal Models of Diabetic

  16. Heart muscle disease and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sado, Daniel M; Fontana, Marianna; Moon, James C

    2014-07-01

    This article introduces the reader to the different types of heart muscle disease which are commonly encountered in clinical practice. It then discusses cardiovascular magnetic resonance and explains how it can help in the work up of these diverse conditions. PMID:25040517

  17. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9: Many Shades of Function in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Ma, Yonggang; Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; Hall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. MMP-9 directly degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and activates cytokines and chemokines to regulate tissue remodeling. MMP-9 deletion or inhibition has proven overall beneficial in multiple animal models of cardiovascular disease. As such, MMP-9 expression and activity is a common end point measured. MMP-9 cell-specific overexpression, however, has also proven beneficial and highlights the fact that little information is available on the underlying mechanisms of MMP-9 function. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of MMP-9 physiology, including structure, regulation, activation, and downstream effects of increased MMP-9. We discuss MMP-9 roles during inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. By concentrating on the substrates of MMP-9 and their roles in cardiovascular disease, we explore the overall function and discuss future directions on the translational potential of MMP-9 based therapies. PMID:24186934

  18. Stressing out hematopoietic stem cells in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Richard N.; Hedrick, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Stress has long been thought to be a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease, although little is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms. A new study illustrates that chronic stress promotes hematopoietic stem cell proliferation in bone marrow, leading to increased leukocyte production, circulation, and recruitment to the vasculature. PMID:24999940

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease: A Premature Association?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD S. LEGRO

    2003-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often as- sumed, a priori, to be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), given the high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome X among them. There is, however, no single defini- tion of PCOS, and for that reason a comparison of studies that have analyzed its association with CVD is compromised from the

  20. [Rare cardiovascular diseases in the context of occupational health care].

    PubMed

    Salska, Agata; Chi?y?ski, Krzysztof; Salski, Witold; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    In Poland like in other European countries a favorable trend towards reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease has been observed. Nevertheless they are still one of the most important health problems in the population, responsible for nearly half of all deaths, including premature deaths. They also affect the quality of life in terms of health and socio-economic development, limiting the possibility of taking and/or continuing employment. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases have become more common among young, professionally active people. Their professional activity, work organization and exposure to a broad range of occupational factors and environmental conditions may significantly influence the development and course of the cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to present the relationship between occupation and some rarer diseases and cardiovascular pathologies, as well as those in which this relationship has not as yet been fully evidenced, however, they may play an important role in workers' health care. In this paper tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, pericardial tamponade, Brugada syndrome and sudden cardiac death are discussed. In addition, the authors indicate new issues emerging along with the development of modern diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in cardiology, such as the care of patients with implanted pace-maker and the use of automated external defibrillators. These issues are presented in the context of their relationship with the occupation, taking into account the activities possibly to be undertaken under preventive care programs. PMID:25902700

  1. Cavin-1: caveolae-dependent signalling and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jamie J L; Palmer, Timothy M

    2014-04-01

    Caveolae are curved lipid raft regions rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids found abundantly in vascular endothelial cells, adipocytes, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. They are multifunctional organelles with roles in clathrin-independent endocytosis, cholesterol transport, mechanosensing and signal transduction. Caveolae provide an environment where multiple receptor signalling components are sequestered, clustered and compartmentalized for efficient signal transduction. Many of these receptors, including cytokine signal transducer gp130 (glycoprotein 130), are mediators of chronic inflammation during atherogenesis. Subsequently, disruption of these organelles is associated with a broad range of disease states including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Cavin-1 is an essential peripheral component of caveolae that stabilizes caveolin-1, the main structural/integral membrane protein of caveolae. Caveolin-1 is an essential regulator of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and its disruption leads to endothelial dysfunction which initiates a range of cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders. Although dysfunctional cytokine signalling is also a hallmark of cardiovascular disease, knowledge of caveolae-dependent cytokine signalling is lacking as is the role of cavin-1 independent of caveolae. The present review introduces caveolae, their structural components, the caveolins and cavins, their regulation by cAMP, and their potential role in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24646232

  2. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjian; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2014-10-16

    Cardiovascular cells derived from patient specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) harbor gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of inherited cardiac diseases and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Numerous reports have demonstrated the utilization of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) to model cardiac diseases as a means of investigating their underlying mechanisms. So far, they have been shown to investigate the molecular mechanisms of many cardiac disorders, such as long-QT syndrome (LQT), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Barth syndrome (BTHS), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and other CHD. This article summarizes the growing body of research related to modeling various cardiac diseases using hiPSCs. Moreover, by reviewing the methods used in previous studies, we propose multiple novel applications of hiPSCs to investigate comprehensive cardiovascular disorders and facilitate drug discovery. PMID:25322695

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids: role in metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Philipp A; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Berneis, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    The inverse association of cardiovascular risk with intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was suspected early in populations that are known to have a high consumption of fish and fish oil. Subsequent cohort studies confirmed such associations in other populations. Further evidence of possible beneficial effects on metabolism and cardiovascular health was provided by many studies that were able to show specific mechanisms that may underlie these observations. These include improvement of the function of tissues involved in the alterations occurring during the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as adipose tissue, the liver and skeletal muscle. Direct action on the cardiovascular system was not only shown regarding vascular function and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, but also by providing antiarrhythmic effects on the heart. Data on these effects come from in vitro as well as in vivo studies that were conducted in animal models of disease, in healthy humans and in humans suffering from cardiovascular disease. To define prophylactic as well as treatment options in primary and secondary prevention, large clinical trial assessed the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on end points as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, so far these trials provided ambiguous data that do allow recommendations regarding the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in higher dosages and beyond the dietary advice of regular fish intake only in few clinical situations, such as severe hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:23317405

  4. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ibrahim M

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), likely contributing to the high incidence of cardiovascular mortality in this patient population. In addition to adrenergic overdrive in affected individuals, clinical and experimental evidence now strongly indicates the presence of impaired reflex control of both sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow to the heart and vasculature. Although the principal underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, potential involvements of altered baroreceptor, cardiopulmonary, and chemoreceptor reflex function, along with factors including but not limited to increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, activation of the renal afferents and cardiovascular structural remodeling have been suggested. This review therefore analyzes potential mechanisms underpinning autonomic imbalance in CKD, covers results accumulated thus far on cardiovascular autonomic function studies in clinical and experimental renal failure, discusses the role of current interventional and therapeutic strategies in ameliorating autonomic deficits associated with chronic renal dysfunction, and identifies gaps in our knowledge of neural mechanisms driving cardiovascular disease in CKD. PMID:26071764

  5. Magnesium and cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Massy, Ziad A; Drüeke, Tilman B

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Abundant experimental evidence suggests a physiological role of magnesium in cardiovascular function, and clinical evidence suggests a role of the cation in cardiovascular disease in the general population. The role of magnesium in CKD-mineral and bone disorder, and in particular its impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD, is however not well understood. Experimental studies have shown that magnesium inhibits vascular calcification, both by direct effects on the vessel wall and by indirect, systemic effects. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiologic studies in patients with CKD have shown associations of serum magnesium levels with intermediate and hard outcomes, including vascular calcification, cardiovascular events and mortality. Intervention trials in these patients conducted to date have had small sample sizes and have been limited to the study of surrogate parameters, such as arterial stiffness, vascular calcification and atherosclerosis. Randomized controlled trials are clearly needed to determine the effects of magnesium supplementation on hard outcomes in patients with CKD. PMID:25963594

  6. MODELING OF CEREAL RUST EPIDEMICS IN RUSSIA: DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE EPIDEMICS IN TIME AND SPACE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To control quantity of settling spores and complex of photometric parameters, initial infection process by Puccinia graminis, P. triticina, P. striiformis fungi was studied. Factors determining speed of rust development on wheat crops in time and space and disease damage were studied. More than 400 ...

  7. Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Disease Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin C. Maki; Martyn R. Rubin

    \\u000a Over 80 million people in the United States exhibit one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and atherosclerotic\\u000a CVD (mainly coronary heart disease and stroke) is, by far, the leading cause of death among men and women. More women die\\u000a from CVD in the United States each year than men. Atherosclerotic CVD has become a worldwide pandemic. While CVD

  8. Kawasaki disease: a review with emphasis on cardiovascular complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Duarte; Silvia Cisneros; Gabriel Fernandez; Daniel Castellon; Cesar Cattani; Cíntia A Melo; Asier Apocada

    2010-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that is currently the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood\\u000a in the United States. Cardiovascular complications are the major cause of morbidity, are responsible for virtually all deaths\\u000a from KD and should be evaluated as soon as possible after the acute phase to establish the baseline status, in order to

  9. Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeneng Wang; Elizabeth Klipfell; Brian J. Bennett; Robert Koeth; Bruce S. Levison; Brandon Dugar; Ariel E. Feldstein; Earl B. Britt; Xiaoming Fu; Yoon-Mi Chung; Yuping Wu; Phil Schauer; Jonathan D. Smith; Hooman Allayee; W. H. Wilson Tang; Joseph A. Didonato; Aldons J. Lusis; Stanley L. Hazen

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics studies hold promise for the discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Here we used a metabolomics approach to generate unbiased small-molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine--choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine--were identified and then shown

  10. A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOOGICAL STUDIES ON DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Major risk factors do not entirely explain the worldwide variability of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Several environmental factors, including the hardness of drinking water may affect cardiovascular disease risks. We conducted a qualitative...

  11. Plant disease epidemics resulting from introduction of exotic fungal pathogens are a well-known phenom-

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Plant disease epidemics resulting from introduction of exotic fungal pathogens are a well-known phenom- enon. Limited resistance in the host and excessive aggres- siveness in the pathogen (reflecting present a window of evolutionary op- portunity for the pathogen. In its endemic location, a plant pathogen

  12. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

  13. Epidemiologic Studies of Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    A physically more active life, while not being related to atherosclerosis, could enable some individuals to live longer with atherosclerosis before dying from or showing symptoms of coronary heart disease. (MJB)

  14. [Premorbid markers of cardiovascular diseases in mining industry workers].

    PubMed

    Ustinova, O Iu; Vlasova, E M; Luzhetskii, k P; Ivashova, Iu A; Belitskaia, V E

    2014-01-01

    Functional studies of cardiovascular system in mine cutting machine operators with 10 years of underground length of service under exposure to occupational hazards (air pollution with sylvinite dust, noise, general and local vibration, increased humidity, absent natural illumination, work hardiness and intensity), helped to establish premorbid markers of cardial diseases--labile arterial hypertension, disordered processes of myocardial excitability, conductivity and automatism, higher thickness of intima-media complex in extracranial branches of brachiocephalic arteries. To decrease cardiovascular morbidity in mine cutting machine operators, the authors recommend additional blood pressure monitoring and ultrasound study of intima-media complex of extracranial brachiocephalic arteries within periodic medical examinations. PMID:25854079

  15. Sleep and Inflammation: Psychoneuroimmunology in the Context of Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarosh J. Motivala

    Background  Poor sleep is prospectively linked to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Inflammatory processes may be an important biological\\u000a mechanism linking poor sleep to cardiovascular disease. Such processes involve active participation of signaling molecules\\u000a called cytokines in development of atherosclerotic plaques.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  I review evidence from experimental sleep deprivation and clinical observational studies suggesting a bidirectional relationship\\u000a between sleep and inflammatory cytokines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Findings

  16. [Cardiovascular disease and aircraft transportation: specificities and issues].

    PubMed

    Touze, Jean-Étienne; Métais, Patrick; Zawieja, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    With the development of air transport and travel to distant destinations, the number of passengers and elderly passengers on board increases each year. In this population, cardiovascular events are a major concern. Among medical incidents occurring in-flight they are second-ranked (10%) behind gastrointestinal disorders (25%). Their occurrence may involve life-threatening events and require resuscitation, difficult to perform during flight or in a precarious health environment. Coronary heart disease and pulmonary thromboembolic disease are the most serious manifestations. They are the leading cause of hospitalization in a foreign country and sudden cardiac death occurring during or subsequent to the flight. Their occurrence is explained on aircraft by hypoxia, hypobaria and decreased humidity caused by cabin pressurization and upon arrival by a different environmental context (extreme climates, tropical diseases). Moreover, the occurrence of a cardiovascular event during flight can represent for the air carrier a major economic and logistic problem when diversion occurred. Furthermore, the liability of the practitioner passenger could be involved according to airlines or to the country in which the aircraft is registered. In this context, cardiovascular events during aircraft transportation can be easily prevented by identifying high risk patients, respect of cardiovascular indications to travel, the implementation of simple preventive measures and optimization of medical equipment in commercial flights. PMID:21719248

  17. Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease: A Risk Factor for the Global Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Chiha, Maguy; Njeim, Mario; Chedrawy, Edgar G.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in the United States and the world. In this we will paper focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, review the mechanisms of atherogenesis in diabetics, the impact of hypertension and the treatment goals in diabetics, the guidelines for screening, and review the epidemiologic consequences of diabetes and heart disease on a global scale. The underlying premise to consider diabetes a cardiovascular disease equivalent will be explored as well as the recommendations for screening and cardiac testing for asymptomatic diabetic patients. PMID:23119148

  18. Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks.

    PubMed

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Boeri, Marco; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Despite several decades of decline, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common causes of death in Western societies. Sedentary living and high fat diets contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This paper analyses the trade-offs between lifestyle choices defined in terms of diet, physical activity, cost, and risk of cardiovascular disease that a representative sample of the population of Northern Ireland aged 40-65 are willing to make. Using computer assisted personal interviews, we survey 493 individuals at their homes using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) questionnaire administered between February and July 2011 in Northern Ireland. Unlike most DCE studies for valuing public health programmes, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise, based on the individuals' baseline choices. A "fat screener" module in the questionnaire links personal cardiovascular disease risk to each specific choice set in terms of dietary constituents. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, we find that to improve their lifestyles, overweight and obese people would be more likely to do more physical activity than to change their diets. Therefore, public policies aimed to target obesity and its related illnesses in Northern Ireland should invest public money in promoting physical activity rather than healthier diets. PMID:23906130

  19. Studies on the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic. The relation of weather to the spread of disease.

    PubMed

    Hugh-Jones, M E; Wright, P B

    1970-06-01

    An analysis of the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic with reference to the initial spread, the origin of outbreaks more than 60 km. from the main epidemic area, the series of outbreaks near Worcester, a specific case history and the daily rate of spread of the epidemic, strongly suggests that the weather played a major part in the spread of disease. The two main factors involved in this type of spread are wind and precipitation. It is noted that after the epidemic had been checked, following anticyclonic weather, the association between the weather and the spread of disease was less apparent. PMID:5270205

  20. Epigenetic-related therapeutic challenges in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Schiano, Concetta; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Picascia, Antonietta; Pascale, Maria Rosaria De; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Progress in human genetic and genomic research has led to the identification of genetic variants associated with specific cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have analyzed the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications in the development and progression of CVD. Preliminary work has investigated the correlations between DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-based mechanisms with CVDs including atherosclerosis, heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), and cardiac hypertrophy. Remarkably, both in utero programming and postnatal hypercholesterolemia may affect the epigenetic signature in the human cardiovascular system, thereby providing novel early epigenetic-related pharmacological insights. Interestingly, some dietary compounds, including polyphenols, cocoa, and folic acid, can modulate DNA methylation status, whereas statins may promote epigenetic-based control in CVD prevention through histone modifications. We review recent findings on the epigenetic control of cardiovascular system and new challenges for therapeutic strategies in CVDs. PMID:25758254

  1. The potential health benefits of taurine in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Jun; Arneja, Amarjit S; Tappia, Paramjit S; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2008-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), a sulphur-containing amino acid, is found in most mammalian tissues. Although it can be synthesized endogenously, the major source of taurine is from the diet. Taurine was found to exhibit diverse biological actions, including protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, modulation of intracellular calcium concentration, and antioxidant, antiatherogenic and blood pressure-lowering effects. The present review will address the potential beneficial actions of taurine in congestive heart failure, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis and diabetic cardiomyopathy. There is a wealth of experimental information and some clinical evidence available in the literature suggesting that taurine could be of benefit in cardiovascular disease of different etiologies. However, double-blind long-term clinical trials need to be conducted before taurine can be unequivocally recommended as a nutritional intervention for the prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19343117

  2. EELGRASS WASTING DISEASE: CAUSE AND RECURRENCE OF A MARINE EPIDEMIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERICK T. SHORT; LISA K. MUEHLSTEIN; DAVID PORTER

    Eelgrass populations are currently infected with a disease that produces symptoms and epidemiology reminiscent of the famous eelgrass wasting disease of the 1930s. This disease virtually eliminated eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the North Atlantic for three decades. For 50 years scientists have speculated about the cause ofthe 1930s eelgrass decline. We have now proven that the causal organism of

  3. An epidemic of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kuiken, T; Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G; Danesik, K L; Riva, J; Heckert, R A

    1998-07-01

    A Newcastle disease epidemic in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in July and August 1995, during a 1994-96 study of a breeding colony of this species on Doré Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada). Clinical signs and mortality were observed from a tunnel-and-blind system, and moribund and freshly dead birds were examined virologically. Yolks from cormorant eggs and sera from cormorants and other birds were tested for hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Evidence of Newcastle disease was limited to juvenile double-crested cormorants, despite close contact with other birds, including American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and gulls (Larus spp.). Clinical signs included limb, head or neck paralysis, head or body tremors, ataxia, and blindness; pathogenic NDV was isolated from affected birds. The mortality rate of juvenile cormorants was 32 to 64%, which was high relative to overall first-year mortality in years without epidemics. Thirty-seven of 63 (59%) cormorant sera collected during the epidemic tested positive for antibodies to NDV. Antibody status of cormorant egg yolks depended on stage of incubation, likely due to changes in the amount of water in the yolks. The departure of juvenile cormorants from their nests at 4 wk of age, resulting in an increased contact rate among individuals, may have been important in triggering the epidemic. PMID:9706555

  4. A Computer Software – Epitimulator® for Simulating Temporal Dynamics of Plant Disease Epidemic Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-zhong TAN; Cheng-wen LI; Chao-wei BI; Xian-chao SUN

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a computer software for simulating the temporal development of plant disease epidemics using Richards, logistic, Gompertz, monomolecular, and exponential functions, respectively, and for predicting disease with a fitted model. The software was programmed using Visual Basic (VB6.0) and packaged with the Wise Installation System. The Fibonacci (‘0.618') section strategy was used

  5. C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. METHODS We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. RESULTS The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P<0.001), and yielded a net reclassification improvement of 1.52% and 0.83%, respectively, for the predicted 10-year risk categories of “low” (<10%), “intermediate” (10% to <20%), and “high” (?20%) (P<0.02 for both comparisons). We estimated that among 100,000 adults 40 years of age or older, 15,025 persons would initially be classified as being at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event if conventional risk factors alone were used to calculate risk. Assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of ?20% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), additional targeted assessment of CRP or fibrinogen levels in the 13,199 remaining participants at intermediate risk could help prevent approximately 30 additional cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. CONCLUSIONS In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.) PMID:23034020

  6. Finding Cardiovascular Disease Genes in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; Meurs, Kathryn M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics are changing the landscape of veterinary biology, and by default, veterinary medicine. No longer are clinicians locked into traditional methods of diagnoses and therapy. Rather major advances in canine genetics and genomics from the past five years are now changing the way the veterinarian of the 21st century practices medicine. First, the availability of a dense genome map gives canine genetics a much needed foothold in comparative medicine, allowing advances made in human and mouse genetics to be applied to companion animals. Second, the recently released 7.5x whole genome sequence of the dog is facilitating the identification of hereditary disease genes. Finally, development of genetic tools for rapid screening of families and populations at risk for inherited disease means that the cost of identifying and testing for disease loci will significantly decrease in coming years. Out of these advances will come major changes in companion animal diagnostics and therapy. Clinicians will be able to offer their clients genetic testing and counseling for a myriad of disorders. Such advances are certain to generate healthier and more long lived dogs, improving quality of life for owner and pet alike. The clinician of the 21st century, therefore, faces incredible opportunities as well as challenges in the management of genetic disease. In this review we summarize recent findings in canine genomics and discuss their application to the study of canine cardiac health. PMID:19083345

  7. Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 ?g/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure. PMID:17431501

  8. Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sinicato, Nailú Angélica; Cardoso, Priscila Aparecida da Silva; Appenzeller, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and multisystemic autoimmune disorder which predominantly affecting women. The most common cause of death in SLE patients affected by disease for more than 5 years is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological observations suggest that, together with classical conventional risk factors, other mechanisms (non-conventional/disease-specific factors) promote accelerated atherosclerosis in inflammatory diseases like SLE. Traditional CVD risk factors included age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, previous vascular event defined as previous history of cerebrovascular accidents or ischemic heart disease, menopause and smoking. The non-traditional factors presents in SLE are disease-specific like renal disease manifestation as Lupus nephritis (LN), presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines, some of inflammatory mediators, antiphospholipid antibodies, anti-oxLDL antibodies, corticosteroid uses and cumulative dose of glucocorticoids. We will review traditional and non-traditional risk factors associated with CVD in SLE patients. PMID:23463953

  9. Cardiovascular effects of drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Howes, Laurence Guy

    2014-06-01

    Drugs that are used to treat Alzheimer's disease include the acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (ACHIs) donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Adverse cardiovascular events with these drugs are very uncommon. However, there is evidence that ACHI therapy is associated with a small but significant increase in the risk of syncope and bradycardia. There are also a few reports that these drugs may occasionally be associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. Adverse cardiovascular effects of ACHIs including syncope and bradycardia are less common than their adverse gastrointestinal effects, but they remain important considerations in susceptible individuals. In contrast, animal studies and some observational studies suggest that ACHIs may reduce myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality and have favourable effects on hemodynamics and survival in heart failure. Further research is required to confirm these potential beneficial effects. Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of memantine but there have been reports of bradycardia and reduced cardiovascular survival associated with its use. PMID:24777654

  10. Extracellular Vesicles as Therapeutic Tools in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Audrey; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Le Lay, Soazig

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes, are small vesicles secreted from a wide variety of cells. Whereas MVs are particles released by the outward budding of the plasma membrane, exosomes are derived from endocytic compartments. Secretion of EVs can be enhanced by specific stimuli, and increased plasma circulating levels of EVs have been correlated with pathophysiological situations. MVs, already present in the blood of healthy individuals, are considerably elevated in several cardiovascular diseases associated with inflammation, suggesting that they can mediate deleterious effects such as endothelial dysfunction or thrombosis. Nonetheless, very recent studies also demonstrate that MVs may act as biological information vectors transferring proteins or genetic material to maintain cell homeostasis, favor cell repair, or even promote angiogenesis. Additionally, exosomes have also been shown to have pro-angiogenic and cardio-protective properties. These beneficial effects, therefore, reveal the potential therapeutical use of EVs in the field of cardiovascular medicine and regenerative therapy. In this review, we will provide an update of cellular processes modulated by EVs of specific interest in the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. A special focus will be made on the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) associated with EVs (EVsShh+), which have been shown to mediate many pro-angiogenic effects. In addition to offer a potential source of cardiovascular markers, therapeutical potential of EVs reveal exciting opportunities to deliver specific agents by non-immunogenic means to cardiovascular system. PMID:25136343

  11. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammation: mechanisms underlying premature cardiovascular events in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Justin C; Libby, Peter

    2015-02-21

    A variety of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases associate with an increased risk of atherosclerotic events and premature cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although this recognition has stimulated intense basic science and clinical research, the precise nature of the relationship between local and systemic inflammation, their interactions with traditional CV risk factors, and their role in accelerating atherogenesis remains unresolved. The individual rheumatic diseases have both shared and unique attributes that might impact CV events. Understanding of the positive and negative influences of individual anti-inflammatory therapies remains rudimentary. Clinicians need to adopt an evidence-based approach to develop diagnostic techniques to identify those rheumatologic patients most at risk of CV disease and to develop effective treatment protocols. Development of optimal preventative and disease-modifying approaches for atherosclerosis in these patients will require close collaboration between basic scientists, CV specialists, and rheumatologists. This interface presents a complex, important, and exciting challenge. PMID:25433021

  12. Sphingolipids in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Borodzicz, Sonia; Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Kuch, Marek; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Many investigations suggest the pivotal role of sphingolipids in the pathogenesis of lifestyle diseases such as myocardial infarction, hypertension, stroke, diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity. Some studies suggest that sphingolipids are important factors in cellular signal transduction. They serve as biologically active components of cell membrane and are involved in many processes such as proliferation, maturation and apoptosis. Recently, ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate have become the target of many investigations. Ceramide is generated in three metabolic pathways and many factors induce its production as a cellular stress response. Ceramide has proapoptotic properties and acts as a precursor for many other sphingolipids. Sphingosine-1-phosphate is a ceramide derivative, acting antiapoptotically and mitogenically and it is importantly involved in cardioprotection. Further research on the involvement of sphingolipids in cellular pathophysiology may improve the prevention and therapy of lifestyle diseases. PMID:26076974

  13. New Perspectives of Infections in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ignatius W

    2009-01-01

    Infections have been recognized as significant causes of cardiac diseases for many decades. Various microorganisms have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases involving all classes of microbial agents. All components of the heart structure can be affected by infectious agents, i.e. pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, valves, autonomic nervous system, and some evidence of coronary arteries. A new breed of infections have evolved over the past three decades involving cardiac implants and this group of cardiac infectious complications will likely continue to increase in the future, as more mechanical devices are implanted in the growing ageing population. This article will review the progress made in the past decade on understanding the pathobiology of these infectious complications of the heart, through advances in genomics and proteomics, as well as potential novel approach for therapy. An up-to-date, state-of-the-art review and controversies will be outlined for the following conditions: (i) perimyocarditis; (ii) infective endocarditis; (iii) cardiac device infections; (iv) coronary artery disease and potential role of infections. PMID:20436849

  14. The Advancing Clinical Impact of Molecular Imaging in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (PET, SPECT, MRI), as well in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g. the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in Phase II clinical trials. Here we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

  15. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  16. Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT00441623). Intestinal uptake of p-cresol, under steady state conditions, was estimated from 24 h urinary excretion of PCS. Primary endpoint was time to first cardiovascular event, i.e., cardiac death, myocardial infarction/ischemia, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiovascular surgery, ischemic stroke or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Statistical analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results In a cohort of 200 patients, median 24 h urinary excretion of PCS amounted to 457.47 ?mol (IQR 252.68 – 697.17). After a median follow-up of 52 months, 25 patients reached the primary endpoint (tertile 1/2/3: 5/6/14 events, log rank P 0.037). Higher urinary excretion of PCS was directly associated with cardiovascular events (univariate hazard ratio per 100 ?mol increase: 1.112, P 0.002). In multivariate analysis, urinary excretion of PCS remained a predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of eGFR (hazard ratio 1.120, P 0.002). Conclusions In patients with chronic kidney disease, intestinal uptake of p-cresol associates with cardiovascular disease independent of renal function. The intestinal generation and absorption of p-cresol may be therapeutic targets to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in patients with renal dysfunction. PMID:24912660

  17. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review of a growing epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Bhalla, Varun; Ezz El Regal, Mohammed; A-Kader, H Hesham

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is quickly becoming one of the most prominent causes of liver disease worldwide. The increasing incidence of NAFLD is tied to the obesity epidemic and the subsequent metabolic derangements brought along with it. Current efforts to elucidate the mechanism and causes of the disease have answered some questions, but much remains unknown about NAFLD. The aim of this article is to discuss the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as the current and future diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic options available to clinicians for the management of NAFLD. PMID:25232245

  18. Retrospective characterization of Newcastle Disease Virus Antrim '73 in relation to other epidemics, past and present.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, K.; Lomniczi, B.; McFerran, B.; Connor, T. J.; Seal, B.; King, D.; Banks, J.; Manvell, R.; White, P. S.; Richmond, K.; Jackson, P.; Hugh-Jones, M.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1973 Newcastle disease suddenly appeared in Northern Ireland, where the viscerotropic disease had not been seen in 3 1/2 years and the two Irelands had been regarded as largely disease free for 30 years. It was successfully controlled with only 36 confirmed affected layer flocks, plus 10 more slaughtered as 'dangerous contacts'. Contemporary investigations failed to reveal the source of the Irish epidemic. Using archival virus samples from most of the affected flocks, RT PCR was conducted with primers selected for all six NDV genes. Phylogenetic analyses of three genes, HN, M and F, confirmed vaccine as the cause of one of the outbreaks. The other six samples were identical and closely related to previous outbreaks in the United States and western Europe initiated by infected imported Latin American parrots. The probable cause of the epidemic followed from the importation from The Netherlands of bulk feed grains contaminated with infected pigeon faeces. PMID:15061512

  19. Ayurveda and yoga in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering. PMID:15834238

  20. Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

    Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering. PMID:15831140

  1. Uncertainty in the Tail of the Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Epidemic in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Ghani, Azra C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite low case numbers the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease epidemic poses many challenges for public health planning due to remaining uncertainties in disease biology and transmission routes. We develop a stochastic model for variant CJD transmission, taking into account the known transmission routes (food and red-cell transfusion) to assess the remaining uncertainty in the epidemic. We use Bayesian methods to obtain scenarios consistent with current data. Our results show a potentially long but uncertain tail in the epidemic, with a peak annual incidence of around 11 cases, but the 95% credibility interval between 1 and 65 cases. These cases are predicted to be due to past food-borne transmissions occurring in previously mostly unaffected genotypes and to transmissions via blood transfusion in all genotypes. However, we also show that the latter are unlikely to be identifiable as transfusion-associated cases by case-linking. Regardless of the numbers of future cases, even in the absence of any further control measures, we do not find any self-sustaining epidemics. PMID:21203419

  2. Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hervás, Ramón; Fontecha, Jesús; Ausín, David; Castanedo, Federico; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2013-01-01

    With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. PMID:23681093

  3. [Nutrition and cardiovascular disease prevention: myths and realities].

    PubMed

    Guggenbühl, N

    2002-06-01

    The dietary approach to cardiovascular disease often boils down to a few "classical" tips. However the data concerning the links between food and the health of the heart and arteries have never been as well substantiated as they are now. This paper reviews, in the various nutritional categories, the most recent findings concerning those nutritional factors influencing in one way or another the risk of cardiovascular disease. Each nutritional category includes foodstuffs which sometimes behave in very different ways. This "wide-ranging" approach to nutrition allows, besides repeating the basic messages (i.e. the importance of vegetables, the choice of fats, etc.), to counter some myths and to contemplate new ways of enabling positive, sound and personalized advice to be given. PMID:12143155

  4. MicroRNAs and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery diseases (CAD) and heart failure have high mortality rate in the world, although much progress has been made in this field in last two decades. There is still a clinical need for a novel diagnostic approach and a therapeutic strategy to decrease the incidence of CAD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved noncoding small RNA molecules that regulate a large fraction of the genome by binding to complementary messenger RNA sequences, resulting in posttranscriptional gene silencing. Recent studies have shown that specific miRNAs are involved in whole stage of atherosclerosis, from endothelium dysfunction to plaque rupture. These findings suggest that miRNAs are potential biomarkers in early diagnosis and therapeutic targets in CAD. In the present review, we highlight the role of miRNAs in every stage of atherosclerosis, and discuss the prospects of miRNAs in the near future. PMID:25710020

  5. Integrated preclinical cardiovascular prevention: a new paradigm to face growing challenges of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Massimo; Mastromarino, Vittoria; Battistoni, Allegra

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) still represents the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite considerable improvements in the prognosis of CVD and the significant reduction of CVD mortality obtained during the past half century, patients developing CVD, even though satisfactorily treated, still carry coronary artery disease and remain at risk for advanced CVD. Thus, the healthcare and socioeconomic burden linked to CVD remains high. As a result, more effective CVD prevention strategies remain crucial. 'Population strategies' and 'high-risk' approaches both have limitations and have often been viewed as alternative solutions. This persistent dualism could be overcome with the promotion of integrated prevention strategies based on a systematic evaluation of the total risk of disease, at both a population and an individual level. New approaches are also needed to reach people earlier in the course of the vascular disease and, possibly, to prevent risk factors and reduce CVD clinical manifestation. PMID:25894618

  6. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Lloyd; S C Langley-Evans; S McMullen

    2010-01-01

    Background:Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk.Objective:To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether

  7. Ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A hot remedy for cardiovascular disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Nicoll; Michael Y Henein

    2009-01-01

    Ginger is now exciting considerable interest for its potential to treat many aspects of cardiovascular disease. This letter reviews the more recent trials, which suggest that ginger shows considerable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet, hypotensive and hypolipidemic effect in in vitro and animal studies. Human trials have been few and generally used a low dose with inconclusive results, however dosages of 5 g

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Implications on Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nisha Aggarwal; Jared P. Reis; Erin D. Michos

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is widely known for its important role in bone health. More recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may also play\\u000a a protective role in many chronic conditions, including cancer, autoimmune, kidney, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Observational\\u000a studies have associated low vitamin D levels with CVD risk factors, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and\\u000a metabolic syndrome, as well as with

  9. The Implications of Mental Stress for Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendon L. Graeber; Aaron Soufer; Matthew M. Burg; Robert S. Soufer

    Evidence points to a significant role for psychological factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mental\\u000a stress, including psychological, psychosocial, or emotional stress, is recognized as a risk factor for the development of\\u000a CVD. It also seems to contribute to the onset of—and can directly precipitate acute—coronary syndromes (ACS), fatal arrhythmias,\\u000a and acute heart failure.

  10. Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among American Indians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. Welty; Dorothy A. Rhoades; Fawn Yeh; Elisa T. Lee; Linda D. Cowan; Richard R. Fabsitz; David C. Robbins; Richard B. Devereux; Jeffrey A. Henderson; Barbara V. Howard

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study describes changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in older American Indians over a 4-year period.METHODS: The Strong Heart Study, a longitudinal population-based study of CVD and CVD risk factors among American Indians aged 45–74 years, measured CVD risk factors among 3638 members of 13 tribes in three geographic areas during examinations in 1989 to 1991 and

  11. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabet Svenungsson; Kerstin Jensen-Urstad; Mikael Heimbürger; Angela Silveira; Anders Hamsten; Joseph L. Witztum; Johan Frostegård

    2010-01-01

    Background—Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is overrepresented in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We determined the prevalence of traditional and nontraditional risk factors for CVD in SLE patients with and without CVD compared with controls. Methods and Results—Twenty-six women (aged 528.2 years) with SLE and a history of CVD (SLE cases) were compared with 26 age-matched women with SLE but without

  12. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

  13. Cardiovascular Disease: A Target for the Pharmacological Effects of Quercetin.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; Quintremil, Sebastian; Rodrigo, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a prominent dietary antioxidant present in vegetables, especially onions, fruits, highlighting apples and berries, wine and tea, belongs to a group of plant derived heterocyclic polyphenols. These compounds could be important mediators of the biological actions attributed to healthy diets. Chemically, quercetin is a type of flavonoid that specifically belongs to the flavonols group. It naturally occurs either as glycoside or aglycone, both of which have biological activity. Many of the natural sources of quercetin are included in the Mediterranean diet, a dietary habit associated with a decrease of cardiovascular diseases. During the last years, several researches have reported effects consistent with pharmacological applications of quercetin in cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiotoxicity, and hypertension, among others. In this review, the pathways and molecules involved in the beneficial effects of quercetin are summarized. In addition, a scope of the new insights concerning quercetin pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and bioavailability are presented. The mechanisms whereby quercetin exerts its effects have not been fully elucidated. However, interesting results have been obtained from early clinical studies involving cardioprotection by quercetin, but much knowledge is still lacking in the field of its bioavailability to improve the clinical application of this flavonol. This study presents evidence supporting the point of view that quercetin should be considered a potential therapeutic agent against cardiovascular diseases, giving rise to novel applications in their prevention and treatment. PMID:25915608

  14. Dietary polyphenols regulate endothelial function and prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Tagami, Motoki; Yamori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction strongly induces development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated a preventative effect of dietary polyphenols toward cardiovascular disease. In studies using cultured vascular ECs, polyphenols were recognized to regulate nitric oxide and endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. Furthermore, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules by a signaling pathway that is similar to that of high-density lipoprotein and involves induction of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, liver kinase B, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression. The effects of polyphenols on ECs include antioxidant activity and enhancement of the expression of several protective proteins, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase and paraoxonase 1. However, the observed effects of dietary polyphenols in vitro do not always translate to an in vivo setting. As such, there are many questions concerning their physiological mode of action. In this review, we discuss research on the effect of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and their protective effect on EC dysfunction. PMID:25466651

  15. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Miao, Xiao; Liu, Yucheng; Li, Fengsheng; Liu, Quan; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide. PMID:24693336

  16. Early detection and response to meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: appraisal of the WHO strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Leake, J. A. D.; Kone, M. L.; Yada, A. A.; Barry, L. F.; Traore, G.; Ware, A.; Coulibaly, T.; Berthe, A.; Mambu Ma Disu, H.; Rosenstein, N. E.; Plikaytis, B. D.; Esteves, K.; Kawamata, J.; Wenger, J. D.; Heymann, D. L.; Perkins, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold strategy for detecting meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and to estimate the impact of the strategy on an epidemic at district level. METHODS: Data on meningitis cases at the district level were collected weekly from health ministries, WHO country and regional offices, and nongovernmental organizations in countries where there were epidemics of meningococcal disease in 1997. An epidemic was defined as a cumulative district attack rate of at least 100 cases per 100,000 population from January to May, the period of epidemic risk. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold rate were calculated, and curves of sensitivity against (1 - specificity) were compared with alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemic sizes. The impact of the WHO strategy on a district epidemic was estimated by comparing the numbers of epidemic cases with cases estimated to have been prevented by vaccination. FINDINGS: An analysis was made of 48 198 cases reported in 174 districts in Benin, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. These cases were 80.3% of those reported from Africa to WHO during the 1997 epidemic period. District populations ranged from 10,298 to 573,908. The threshold rate was crossed during two consecutive weeks in 69 districts (39.7%) and there were epidemics in 66 districts (37.9%). Overall, the sensitivity of the threshold rate for predicting epidemics was 97%, the specificity was 95%, and the predictive value positive was 93%. Taken together, these values were equivalent or better than the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemics, and remained high regardless of district size. The estimated number of potential epidemic cases decreased by nearly 60% in the age group targeted for vaccination in one district where the guidelines were followed in a timely manner. CONCLUSION: The use of the WHO strategy was sensitive and specific for the early detection of meningococcal disease epidemics in countries of sub-Saharan Africa during 1997 and had a substantial impact on a district epidemic. Nevertheless, the burden of meningococcal disease in these countries remains formidable and additional control measures are needed. PMID:12077608

  17. The epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1951-1952.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R F; Daggupaty, S M

    1990-10-01

    The epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan in 1951 and 1952 was studied in order to determine origins of outbreaks and methods of spread. The epidemic was initially considered to be vesicular stomatitis and foot-and-mouth disease was not recognized until February 1952, three months after the initial infection. The reports prepared at that time were reviewed in order to obtain details of the numbers of animals infected and the source and date of infection for the outbreaks. Methods of spread were rated according to their likelihood. The introduction of infection by an immigrant through his clothes as well as by sausage was possible. The sequence of events from the first outbreak to the spread from a feedlot/packing plant and from a dairy farm, which failed to report the disease, were clarified. Methods of spread included movement of animals, animal products and people and the airborne route. Milk delivery and artificial insemination did not result in spread of infection. The quarantine of affected farms reduced spread by animals and deterred visits by people. The original diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis was due to misinterpretation of a lesion in an inoculated horse. Laboratory tests established the presence of foot-and-mouth disease. The limited extent of the epidemic, despite the delay in diagnosis, is attributed to (i) the low density of cattle, (ii) few infected pigs and hence less airborne virus and (iii) absence of waste food feeding and milk collection in addition to the limited quarantine imposed. PMID:2249179

  18. Telmisartan: a review of its use in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2011-04-16

    Telmisartan (Micardis®, Pritor®), a well established angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist, is indicated in the EU for the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity in patients with manifest atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) or type 2 diabetes mellitus with documented target organ damage, as well as for the treatment of hypertension. In the pivotal ONTARGET trial, which enrolled ACE inhibitor-tolerant patients at high vascular risk, telmisartan 80?mg once daily added to existing, proven therapy was noninferior to ramipril 10?mg once daily (the gold standard cardioprotective ACE inhibitor) in terms of CVD prevention. Moreover, telmisartan was better tolerated than ramipril, as reflected in, for example, lower incidences of permanent treatment discontinuations due to cough and angioedema. The placebo-controlled TRANSCEND and PRoFESS studies provided supporting evidence for the (time-dependent) effectiveness of telmisartan in preventing cardiovascular events, although the drug appeared to have neither a beneficial nor a harmful impact on cardiovascular mortality. The TRANSCEND trial also demonstrated that telmisartan was well tolerated in ACE inhibitor-intolerant patients at high vascular risk. On the basis of these findings, telmisartan can be considered an effective treatment option for CVD prevention in patients at high vascular risk. Consideration may be given to prescribing the drug as an alternative to ramipril in patients who are able to tolerate ACE inhibitors and, potentially, instead of ramipril in patients who are unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. PMID:21504246

  19. Central Adiposity and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Penelope; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Joseph, Parveen Nedra; Dorn, Joan M.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the associations between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), we evaluated a related but less well-established association between waist circumference and brachial artery reactivity (BAR), a functional measurement of subclinical CVD, where lower levels indicate dysfunction. Regression models examined trends in mean BAR across waist circumference tertiles in police officers, a high-stress occupational group with increased risk for CVD. Mean BAR decreased across increasing waist tertiles among men, but not women, and this association was stronger among officers who consumed more alcohol. Larger waist circumference may be associated with lower BAR, providing an opportunity for intervention prior to disease development. PMID:24555157

  20. Optimization Methods for Disease Prevention and Epidemic Control ...

    E-print Network

    2013-09-29

    disease transmission and human interaction. ..... To design a special instance of DPEC-B, let set F contain all the items in set I. Designate ...... This observation is in line with an intuition that vaccination does not ..... CPLEX 12.1 User's Manual.

  1. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martín R. Bustamante; Jamie A. Consuegra; Michael P. L. Fogden; Pru N. Foster; Enrique La Marca; Karen L. Masters; Andrés Merino-Viteri; Robert Puschendorf; Santiago R. Ron; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Christopher J. Still; Bruce E. Young; J. Alan Pounds

    2006-01-01

    As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of

  2. Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

  3. Hydroxytyrosol and Potential Uses in Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer, and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Vilaplana-Pérez, Cristina; Auñón, David; García-Flores, Libia A.; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol is one of the main phenolic components of olive oil. It is present in the fruit and leaf of the olive (Olea europaea L.). During the past decades, it has been well documented that this phenolic compound has health benefits and a protective action has been found in preclinical studies against several diseases. Here, we review its bioavailability in human beings and several assays showing significant results related with cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mechanisms of action include potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, among others. The importance of hydroxytyrosol in protection of low-density lipoproteins and consequently its implication in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk has been highlighted by the European Food Safety Authority, concluding that 5?mg of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives should be consumed daily to reach this effect at physiological level. We discuss the potential uses of this compound in supplements, nutraceutic foods, or topical formulations in the disease risk reduction. Finally, we conclude that more studies are needed to sustain or reject many other health claims not yet fully documented and to validate these newly available hydroxytyrosol-based products, because it seems to be a good candidate to reduce the risk of diseases mentioned. PMID:25988120

  4. Spatial transmission of Swine Vesicular Disease virus in the 2006-2007 epidemic in Lombardy.

    PubMed

    Nassuato, Claudia; Boender, Gert Jan; Eblé, Phaedra L; Alborali, Loris; Bellini, Silvia; Hagenaars, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007 pig farming in the region of Lombardy, in the north of Italy, was struck by an epidemic of Swine Vesicular Disease virus (SVDV). In fact this epidemic could be viewed as consisting of two sub-epidemics, as the reported outbreaks occurred in two separate time periods. These periods differed in terms of the provinces or municipalities that were affected and also in terms of the timing of implementation of movement restrictions. Here we use a simple mathematical model to analyse the epidemic data, quantifying between-farm transmission probability as a function of between-farm distance. The results show that the distance dependence of between-farm transmission differs between the two periods. In the first period transmission over relatively long distances occurred with higher probability than in the second period, reflecting the effect of movement restrictions in the second period. In the second period however, more intensive transmission occurred over relatively short distances. Our model analysis explains this in terms of the relatively high density of pig farms in the area most affected in this period, which exceeds a critical farm density for between-farm transmission. This latter result supports the rationale for the additional control measure taken in 2007 of pre-emptively culling farms in that area. PMID:23667534

  5. Spatial Transmission of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus in the 2006–2007 Epidemic in Lombardy

    PubMed Central

    Nassuato, Claudia; Boender, Gert Jan; Eblé, Phaedra L.; Alborali, Loris; Bellini, Silvia; Hagenaars, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007 pig farming in the region of Lombardy, in the north of Italy, was struck by an epidemic of Swine Vesicular Disease virus (SVDV). In fact this epidemic could be viewed as consisting of two sub-epidemics, as the reported outbreaks occurred in two separate time periods. These periods differed in terms of the provinces or municipalities that were affected and also in terms of the timing of implementation of movement restrictions. Here we use a simple mathematical model to analyse the epidemic data, quantifying between-farm transmission probability as a function of between-farm distance. The results show that the distance dependence of between-farm transmission differs between the two periods. In the first period transmission over relatively long distances occurred with higher probability than in the second period, reflecting the effect of movement restrictions in the second period. In the second period however, more intensive transmission occurred over relatively short distances. Our model analysis explains this in terms of the relatively high density of pig farms in the area most affected in this period, which exceeds a critical farm density for between-farm transmission. This latter result supports the rationale for the additional control measure taken in 2007 of pre-emptively culling farms in that area. PMID:23667534

  6. An SEIV Epidemic Model for Childhood Diseases with Partial Permanent Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Mei; Ren, Lishun

    2015-01-01

    An SEIV epidemic model for childhood disease with partial permanent immunity is studied. The basic reproduction number R 0 has been worked out. The local and global asymptotical stability analysis of the equilibria are performed, respectively. Furthermore, if we take the treated rate ? as the bifurcation parameter, periodic orbits will bifurcate from endemic equilibrium when ? passes through a critical value. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to support our analytic results.

  7. Risk of cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Bonapace, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Loria, Paola; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health problem of epidemic proportions worldwide. Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that NAFLD is not only associated with liver-related morbidity and mortality but also with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), abnormalities of cardiac function and structure (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy, and heart failure), valvular heart disease (e.g., aortic valve sclerosis) and arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation). Experimental evidence suggests that NAFLD itself, especially in its more severe forms, exacerbates systemic/hepatic insulin resistance, causes atherogenic dyslipidemia, and releases a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiac and arrhythmic complications. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease the risk for CHD and other cardiac/arrhythmic complications. The purpose of this clinical review is to summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that supports a strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications, to briefly examine the putative biological mechanisms underlying this association, and to discuss some of the current treatment options that may influence both NAFLD and its related cardiac and arrhythmic complications. PMID:24587651

  8. Is high pulse pressure a marker of preclinical cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    de Simone, Giovanni; Roman, Mary J; Alderman, Michael H; Galderisi, Maurizio; de Divitiis, Oreste; Devereux, Richard B

    2005-04-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that high brachial pulse pressure might constitute preclinical cardiovascular disease, rather than a risk factor. We studied 1250 subjects (472 nonobese normotensive [<135/80 mm Hg] and 778 untreated hypertensive). Central pulse pressure was estimated from brachial pulse pressure and age and divided by stroke volume (PP/SV). Brachial pulse pressure was considered high when >63 mm Hg, and peripheral resistance high when >90th percentile of normal distribution. Among hypertensive subjects, 34% had high resistance; among them, 33% had high brachial pulse pressure, as opposed to 147 of 516 patients (28.5%) with normal resistance (P=not significant). After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, heart rate, and center, left ventricular (LV) internal dimension and mass were lower with high resistance, and higher when brachial pulse pressure was high. PP/SV was 36% higher with high resistance than with normal resistance, and higher when brachial pulse pressure was high (all P<0.0001). Factorial analysis demonstrated that associations of high brachial pulse pressure with both higher PP/SV and LV mass were independent of other pressure components. Thus, because of these associations, our hypothesis is that in hypertension, pulse pressure may be considered as a marker of preclinical cardiovascular disease, similar to LV mass and PP/SV, rather than a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:15767471

  9. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  10. Role of Dietary Components in the Epidemic of Allergic Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Prescott; Sarah Jennings; David Martino; Nina D’Vaz; Henning Johannsen

    \\u000a As the source of all nutrients, diet is arguably one the most important environmental exposures during early development.\\u000a Maternal dietary exposures in utero have implications for most aspects of fetal development and there is growing evidence that this includes immune pathways\\u000a that have the capacity to influence the risk of allergic disease. In the postnatal period, oral exposures, including a

  11. Impact of the obesity epidemic on hypertension and renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Hall; Daniel W. Jones; Jay J. Kuo; Alexandre da Silva; Lakshmi S. Tallam; Jiankang Liu

    2003-01-01

    Excess weight gain is a major cause of increased blood pressure in most patients with essential hypertension, and also greatly\\u000a increases the risk for renal disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular reabsorption, impairing pressure\\u000a natriuresis, causing volume expansion due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system, and\\u000a by physical compression of the kidneys, especially

  12. [The risk of cardiovascular diseases induced by radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hudecová, K; Urbanová, D; Petrásová, H

    2008-06-01

    At present the number of cancer survivors is still increasing. However, their long-term quality of life after anticancer treatment can be decreased. Radiotherapy may represent a risk for the future of some oncologic patients. The late cardiovascular effects of radiotherapy to the area of thorax, cranium and to the abdominal area are the actual multidisciplinary problem. The unique problem is mediastinal radiotherapy which may induce the development of the cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, valvular defects, arrhythmias and other complications. Exact knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation induced cardiovascular damage after radiotherapy as well as using of new diagnostic cardiologic methods might be useful for the detection of subclinical abnormalities and their early treatment already in the asymptomatic patients. PMID:18672577

  13. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guo-Hua; Chen, Jin-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Tian-Lun

    2011-03-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 (CYP450) products of arachidonic acid and EETs are endogenous lipid mediators synthesized by the vascular endothelium which perform important biological functions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antimigratory, and cellular signaling regulations. However, EETs are rapidly degraded by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to the corresponding diols: dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), which have little active in causing vasorelaxation. A number of studies have supported that the inhibition of sEH (sEHIs) had cardiovascular protective effects in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and ischemic stroke. Moreover, sEHIs could slow the progression of inflammation, protect end-organ damage and prevent ischemic events, also, attenuate endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that the pharmacological blockade of sEH might provide a broad and novel avenue for the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21553642

  14. Effects of Some Common Food Constituents on Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Walden, Richard; Tomlinson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive. PMID:22347642

  15. Strategies for Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities. PMID:25655487

  16. Overnutrition, mTOR signaling, and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Sowers, James R

    2014-11-15

    The prevalence of obesity and associated medical disorders has increased dramatically in the United States and throughout much of the world in the past decade. Obesity, induced by excess intake of carbohydrates and fats, is a major cause of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. There is emerging evidence that excessive nutrient intake promotes signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which, in turn, may lead to alterations of cellular metabolic signaling leading to insulin resistance and obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disease, as well as cancer. While the pivotal role of mTOR signaling in regulating metabolic stress, autophagy, and adaptive immune responses has received increasing attention, there remain many gaps in our knowledge regarding this important nutrient sensor. For example, the precise cellular signaling mechanisms linking excessive nutrient intake and enhanced mTOR signaling with increased cardiovascular and kidney disease, as well as cancer, are not well understood. In this review, we focus on the effects that the interaction between excess intake of nutrients and enhanced mTOR signaling have on the promotion of obesity-associated diseases and potential therapeutic strategies involving targeting mTOR signaling. PMID:25253086

  17. Strategic Approaches to Unraveling Genetic Causes of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marian, A.J.; Belmont, John

    2011-01-01

    DNA sequence variants (DSVs) are major components of the “causal field” for virtually all-medical phenotypes, whether single-gene familial disorders or complex traits without a clear familial aggregation. The causal variants in single gene disorders are necessary and sufficient to impart large effects. In contrast, complex traits are due to a much more complicated network of contributory components that in aggregate increase the probability of disease. The conventional approach to identification of the causal variants for single gene disorders is genetic linkage. However, it does not offer sufficient resolution to map the causal genes in small size families or sporadic cases. The approach to genetic studies of complex traits entails candidate gene or Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). GWAS provides an unbiased survey of the effects of common genetic variants (common disease - common variant hypothesis). GWAS have led to identification of a large number of alleles for various cardiovascular diseases. However, common alleles account for a relatively small fraction of the total heritability of the traits. Accordingly, the focus has shifted toward identification of rare variants that might impart larger effect sizes (rare variant-common disease hypothesis). This shift is made feasible by recent advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms, which afford the opportunity to identify virtually all common as well as rare alleles in individuals. In this review, we discuss various strategies that are used to delineate the genetic contribution to medically important cardiovascular phenotypes, emphasizing the utility of the new deep sequencing approaches. PMID:21566222

  18. Targeting Cardiovascular Disease with Novel SIRT1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Wang, Shaohui; Shang, Yan Chen; Maiese, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Summary The sirtuin (the mammalian homolog of silent information regulation 2 of yeast S.cerevisiae) 1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, has emerged as a critical regulator in response to oxidative stress. Through antagonism of oxidative stress-induced cell injury and through the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the body, SIRT1 can block vascular system injury. SIRT1 targets multiple cellular proteins, such as peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) and its coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), forkhead transcriptional factors, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) to modulate intricate cellular pathways of multiple diseases. In the cardiovascular system, activation of SIRT1 can not only protect at the cellular level against oxidative stress, but also offer increased survival at the systemic level to limit coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Future knowledge of SIRT1 and its novel pathways can open new directions for the treatment of cardiovascular disease as well as offer the potential to limit disability from several related disorders. PMID:22185448

  19. Cardiovascular Disease: Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Calcification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasan Beddhu

    \\u000a Coronary artery disease is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis patients. There is strong evidence that kidney\\u000a disease is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In addition, traditional risk factors such as obesity, hypertension\\u000a and diabetes, as well as nontraditional factors such as inflammation and oxidative stress, likely contribute to the excess\\u000a risk of atherosclerosis in CKD. It

  20. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming.

    PubMed

    Pounds, J Alan; Bustamante, Martín R; Coloma, Luis A; Consuegra, Jamie A; Fogden, Michael P L; Foster, Pru N; La Marca, Enrique; Masters, Karen L; Merino-Viteri, Andrés; Puschendorf, Robert; Ron, Santiago R; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Still, Christopher J; Young, Bruce E

    2006-01-12

    As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of the 110 or so species of Atelopus, which are endemic to the American tropics, have met the same fate, and a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is implicated. Analysing the timing of losses in relation to changes in sea surface and air temperatures, we conclude with 'very high confidence' (> 99%, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) that large-scale warming is a key factor in the disappearances. We propose that temperatures at many highland localities are shifting towards the growth optimum of Batrachochytrium, thus encouraging outbreaks. With climate change promoting infectious disease and eroding biodiversity, the urgency of reducing greenhouse-gas concentrations is now undeniable. PMID:16407945

  1. Fifty-five years of international epidemic-assistance investigations conducted by CDC's disease detectives.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Italia V; Pearson, Michele L; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-12-01

    For more than 60 years, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has used its scientific expertise to help people throughout the world live healthier, safer, longer lives through science-based health action. In 1951, CDC officially established the Epidemic Intelligence Service to help build public health capacity. During 1950-2005, CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service officers conducted 462 international epidemiologic field investigations in 131 foreign countries and 7 territories. Investigations have included responding to emerging infectious and noninfectious disease outbreaks, assisting in disaster response, and evaluating core components of public health programs worldwide. Approximately 81% of investigations were responses to infectious disease outbreaks, but the proportion of investigations related to chronic and other noninfectious conditions increased 7-fold (6%-45%). These investigations have contributed to detecting and characterizing new pathogens (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus) and conditions, provided insights regarding factors that cause or contribute to disease acquisition (e.g., Ebola hemorrhagic fever), led to development of new diagnostics and surveillance technologies, and provided information upon which global health policies and regulations can be based. CDC's disease detectives will undoubtedly continue to play a critical role in global health and in responding to emerging global disease threats. PMID:22135398

  2. Disease prevention versus data privacy: using landcover maps to inform spatial epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Tildesley, Michael J; Ryan, Sadie J

    2012-01-01

    The availability of epidemiological data in the early stages of an outbreak of an infectious disease is vital for modelers to make accurate predictions regarding the likely spread of disease and preferred intervention strategies. However, in some countries, the necessary demographic data are only available at an aggregate scale. We investigated the ability of models of livestock infectious diseases to predict epidemic spread and obtain optimal control policies in the event of imperfect, aggregated data. Taking a geographic information approach, we used land cover data to predict UK farm locations and investigated the influence of using these synthetic location data sets upon epidemiological predictions in the event of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. When broadly classified land cover data were used to create synthetic farm locations, model predictions deviated significantly from those simulated on true data. However, when more resolved subclass land use data were used, moderate to highly accurate predictions of epidemic size, duration and optimal vaccination and ring culling strategies were obtained. This suggests that a geographic information approach may be useful where individual farm-level data are not available, to allow predictive analyses to be carried out regarding the likely spread of disease. This method can also be used for contingency planning in collaboration with policy makers to determine preferred control strategies in the event of a future outbreak of infectious disease in livestock. PMID:23133352

  3. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, H D

    1989-07-01

    Coronary artery disease has been demonstrated to conform to the principles of an epidemic disease. Therefore, the incidence of the occurrence of the disease is dependent in large part on "disturbances of human culture." These primarily include a cholesterol-rich diet, obesity, cigarette smoking, elevated blood pressure and sedentary life-style. It is gratifying that during the last quarter of a century, large segments of society in the United States have modified many of their adverse patterns of living. As a result, there has been a striking decline in both the incidence of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and the frequency of premature death due to the disease process. Sudden cardiac death is frequently an unexpected first clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease and, despite heroic efforts, treatment of sudden death victims is frequently unsuccessful. Furthermore, progression of coronary artery disease, even in patients who present with angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction, is unpredictable. Coronary arteriography, the "gold standard" used for evaluation, gives insight primarily into anatomy and ventricular function (under experimental conditions) existing at a given instant in time. Which lesions are serious and likely to progress are usually unknown, even to the most experienced angiographer. Therefore, surgical and catheter-directed therapeutic approaches are at best only "shotgun" or partial techniques. For these reasons, the principal and continuing therapeutic efforts to reduce the occurrence and control the ravages of coronary artery disease should be directed toward prevention. Such efforts should begin in early childhood and become a lifelong practice, one that all physicians, including the most procedure-dominated specialists, should personally adopt and teach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2661627

  4. Atrial natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular biology and disease (NPPA).

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wang, Hao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-09-10

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone that regulates salt-water balance and blood pressure by promoting renal sodium and water excretion and stimulating vasodilation. ANP also has an anti-hypertrophic function in the heart, which is independent of its systemic blood pressure-lowering effect. In mice, ANP deficiency causes salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Recent studies have shown that ANP plays an important role in regulating vascular remodeling and energy metabolism. Variants in the human NPPA gene, encoding the ANP precursor, are associated with hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF) and obesity. ANP and related peptides are used as biomarkers for heart disease. Recombinant proteins and small molecules that enhance the ANP pathway have been developed to treat patients with HF. In this review, we discuss the role of ANP in cardiovascular biology and disease. PMID:26074089

  5. Epidemic predictions in an imperfect world: modelling disease spread with partial data

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Peter M.; Werkman, Marleen; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Tildesley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Big-data’ epidemic models are being increasingly used to influence government policy to help with control and eradication of infectious diseases. In the case of livestock, detailed movement records have been used to parametrize realistic transmission models. While livestock movement data are readily available in the UK and other countries in the EU, in many countries around the world, such detailed data are not available. By using a comprehensive database of the UK cattle trade network, we implement various sampling strategies to determine the quantity of network data required to give accurate epidemiological predictions. It is found that by targeting nodes with the highest number of movements, accurate predictions on the size and spatial spread of epidemics can be made. This work has implications for countries such as the USA, where access to data is limited, and developing countries that may lack the resources to collect a full dataset on livestock movements. PMID:25948687

  6. Epidemic predictions in an imperfect world: modelling disease spread with partial data.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Peter M; Werkman, Marleen; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Tildesley, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    'Big-data' epidemic models are being increasingly used to influence government policy to help with control and eradication of infectious diseases. In the case of livestock, detailed movement records have been used to parametrize realistic transmission models. While livestock movement data are readily available in the UK and other countries in the EU, in many countries around the world, such detailed data are not available. By using a comprehensive database of the UK cattle trade network, we implement various sampling strategies to determine the quantity of network data required to give accurate epidemiological predictions. It is found that by targeting nodes with the highest number of movements, accurate predictions on the size and spatial spread of epidemics can be made. This work has implications for countries such as the USA, where access to data is limited, and developing countries that may lack the resources to collect a full dataset on livestock movements. PMID:25948687

  7. The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among high-income countries and is projected to be the leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. Much of the current research efforts have been aimed toward the identification, modification and treatment of individual-level risk factors. Despite significant advancements, gross inequalities continue to persist over space and time. Although increasing at different rates worldwide, the magnitude of increase in the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors has shifted research efforts to study the causes of the risk factors (ie, the ‘causes of the causes’), which include the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health reflect the impact of the social environment on health among people sharing a particular community. Imbalances in the social determinants of health have been attributed to the inequities in health observed between and within countries. The present article reviews the role of the social determinants of health on a global level, describing the epidemiological transition and the persistent trend known as the ‘inverse social gradient’. The impact of social determinants in Canada will also be examined, including data from ethnic and Aboriginal communities. Possible solutions and future directions to reduce the impact of social factors on cardiovascular health are proposed. PMID:20847985

  8. Diets for cardiovascular disease prevention: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher; Reamy, Brian V

    2009-04-01

    Patients often initiate commercial dietary plans to reduce obesity and prevent cardiovascular disease. Such plans include very low-carbohydrate, low-carbohydrate, very low-fat, and Mediterranean diets. Published evidence on several popular diets has made it easier for physicians to counsel patients about the health benefits and risks of such plans. Although the Atkins, Zone, Sugar Busters!, and South Beach diets have data proving that they are effective for weight loss and do not increase deleterious disease-oriented outcomes, they have little evidence of patient-oriented benefits. In contrast, the Mediterranean diet has extensive patient-oriented outcome data showing a significant risk reduction in mortality rates and in rates of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. The American Heart Association released guidelines in 2006 that integrate recommendations from a variety of diets into a single plan. Physicians should emphasize diets that are rich in fruits, vegetables, and healthful fatty acids and that limit saturated fat intake. A stepwise individualized patient approach, with incorporation of one or two dietary interventions every three to six months, may be a practical way to help reduce a patient's cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:19378874

  9. Epidemic West Nile virus encephalomyelitis: a temperature-dependent, spatial model of disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P

    2005-10-12

    Since first being detected in New York in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread throughout the United States and more than 20,000 cases of equine WNV encephalomyelitis have been reported. A spatial model of disease occurrence was developed, using data from an outbreak of serologically confirmed disease in an unvaccinated population of horses at 108 locations in northern Indiana between 3 August and 17 October 2002. Daily maximum temperature data were recorded at meteorological stations surrounding the study area. The distribution of the total number of degree-days elapsing between July 4 and the date of diagnosis of each case was best described by a normal distribution (mean=5243 degrees F, S.D.=1047). The days on which the average risk was >25, >50 and >75% were predicted (versus observed) to occur on August 23 (August 9), August 31 (September 2) and September 9 (September 9). The epidemic was predicted to occur 3 days earlier, or 4 days later, than observed if temperatures in the study area were uniformly increased, or decreased, by 5 degrees F, respectively. Maps indicated that WNV encephalomyelitis risk always remained greater in the northwest quadrant of the study area. Since WNV might exist at a hypoendemic level of infection, and occasionally re-emerge as a cause of epidemics in equine populations, by identifying factors that contributed to this epidemic, the potential impact of future epidemics can be reduced. Such studies rely on a GIS framework, availability of meteorological and possibly remotely sensed data and information on host and landscape factors. An early-warning system for WNV transmission in equine populations could be developed. PMID:16112761

  10. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.; Tamene, Mahader; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated that exposure to discrimination may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but compared to other psychosocial risk factors, large-scale epidemiologic and community based studies examining associations between reports of discrimination and CVD risk have only emerged fairly recently. This review summarizes findings from studies of self-reported experiences of discrimination and CVD risk published between 2011–2013. We document the innovative advances in recent work, the notable heterogeneity in these studies, and the considerable need for additional work with objective clinical endpoints other than blood pressure. Implications for the study of racial disparities in CVD and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24729825

  11. Recent Genetic Discoveries Implicating Ion Channels in Human Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    George, Alfred L.

    2014-01-01

    The term channelopathy refers to human genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels or their interacting proteins. Recent advances in this field have been enabled by next-generation DNA sequencing strategies such as whole exome sequencing with several intriguing and unexpected discoveries. This review highlights important discoveries implicating ion channels or ion channel modulators in cardiovascular disorders including cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility, cardiac conduction phenotypes, pulmonary and systemic hypertension. These recent discoveries further emphasize the importance of ion channels in the pathophysiology of human disease and as important druggable targets. PMID:24721653

  12. Penile Doppler ultrasound predicting cardiovascular disease in men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nikhil; Herati, Amin; Gilbert, Bruce R

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. Traditional risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, and diet are used to screen for cardiovascular disease. However, these risk factors miss a significant population who are at risk for future cardiac events. Erectile dysfunction (ED) has many associated conditions in common with cardiovascular disease and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular. Measurements made on penile Doppler ultrasound (PDU), such as cavernosal artery peak systolic velocity (PSV), cavernosal artery intima-medial thickness, and the finding of cavernosal artery calcification, are indicators of generalized vascular disease. Thus, elements of PDU can identify men at higher risk for cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the proper technique for PDU and the literature supporting the use of PDU to predict cardiovascular disease in men with erectile dysfunction. PMID:25677231

  13. p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, Björn K.I.; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; de Loor, Henriette; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain the high cardiovascular disease prevalence. Free p-cresol serum concentrations, mainly circulating as its derivative p-cresyl sulfate, are associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. It is not known if p-cresol is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In a prospective observational study in 499 patients with mild-to-moderate kidney disease, we examined the multivariate association between p-cresol free serum concentrations and cardiovascular events. Results: After a mean follow-up of 33 mo, 62 patients reached the primary end point of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Higher baseline concentrations of free p-cresol were directly associated with cardiovascular events (univariate hazard ratio [HR] 1.79, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, p-cresol remained a predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of GFR and independent of Framingham risk factors (full model, HR 1.39, P = 0.04). Conclusions: These findings suggest that p-cresol measurements may help to predict cardiovascular disease risk in renal patients over a wide range of residual renal function, beyond traditional markers of glomerular filtration. Whether p-cresol is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in CKD patients remains to be proven. PMID:20430946

  14. Review of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy M. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of mortality in the United States. Nearly 2,400 Americans die of cardiovascular\\u000a disease each day, an average of 1 every 37 s [1]. One in three Americans has been diagnosed with one or more forms of cardiovascular disease. Most recent estimates show\\u000a that, in the United States alone, 16 million people have coronary artery

  15. The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the UK 2014.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Williams, Julianne; Rayner, Mike; Townsend, Nick

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a significant burden to the UK. This review presents data from nationally representative datasets to provide up-to-date statistics on mortality, prevalence, treatment and costs. Data focus on CVD as a whole, coronary heart disease (International Classification of Diseases (ICD):I20-25) and cerebrovascular disease (ICD:I60-69); however, where available, other cardiovascular conditions are also presented. In 2012, CVD was the most common cause of death in the UK for women (28% of all female deaths), but not for men, where cancer is now the most common cause of death (32% of all male deaths). Mortality from CVD varies widely throughout the UK, with the highest age-standardised CVD death rates in Scotland (347/100?000) and the North of England (320/100?000 in the North West). Prevalence of coronary heart disease is also highest in the North of England (4.5% in the North East) and Scotland (4.3%). Overall, around three times as many men have had a myocardial infarction compared with women. Treatment for CVD is increasing over time, with prescriptions and operations for CVD having substantially increased over the last two decades. The National Health Service in England spent around £6.8 billion on CVD in 2012/2013, the majority of which came from spending on secondary care. Despite significant declines in mortality in the UK, CVD remains a considerable burden, both in terms of health and costs. Both primary and secondary prevention measures are necessary to reduce both the burden of CVD and inequalities in CVD mortality and prevalence. PMID:26041770

  16. Interactions between drugs for erectile dysfunction and drugs for cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Simonsen

    2002-01-01

    The association of erectile dysfunction (ED) and cardiovascular disease is well-documented in the literature and both conditions share risk factors. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish the effect of underlying disease and adverse effects of the drugs and\\/or interactions between ED drugs and drugs implemented for cardiovascular disease. The known interactions of systemic administered drugs for ED with drugs for

  17. Cardiovascular Involvement in Connective Tissue Disease: The Role of Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoBing; Lou, MeiNa; Li, Yongji; Ye, WenJing; Zhang, ZhiYong; Jia, Xiufen; Shi, HongYing; Zhu, XiaoChun; Wang, LiangXing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular involvement in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD), and determine whether interstitial lung disease (ILD) in these patients is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. Methods This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of 436 CTD patients admitted to a large teaching hospital in Zhejiang province, China, along with an additional 436 participants of an annual community health screening conducted in the physical examination center who served as age- and gender-matched controls. Demographic, clinical, serologic and imaging characteristics, as well as medications used by each participant were recorded. Cardiovascular involvement was defined by uniform criteria. Correlations between clinical/serologic factors and cardiovascular involvement were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results CTD patients had a significantly higher cardiovascular involvement rate than controls (64.7% vs 23.4%), with higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, elevated systolic and diastolic pressures, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower albumin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, CTP patients with cardiovascular involvement were significantly older, had higher systolic and diastolic pressures, C-reactive protein, glucose, and uric acid, higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and use of moderate- to high-dose glucocorticoids, and longer disease duration compared to patients without involvement (all p < 0.05). Moreover, CTD in patients with cardiovascular involvement was more likely to be complicated by ILD (p < 0.01), which manifested as a higher alveolar inflammation score (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, cardiovascular involvement in CTD patients was associated with age, systolic pressure, body mass index, uric acid, disease duration > 2 years, use of moderate- to high-dose glucocorticoids, and ILD with a high alveolar inflammation score. Conclusion Cardiovascular involvement is increased in CTD patients, and is associated with ILD with a higher alveolar inflammation score. Thus, early-stage echocardiography and CT scans should be used to detect potential cardiovascular complications in these patients. PMID:25775471

  18. Co-morbid Depression and Cardiovascular Disease in the Older Adult Homecare Patient.

    PubMed

    Acee, Anna M

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cardiovascular disease are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally. Depression significantly increases the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease and increases the risk of mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. Patients receiving home healthcare are disproportionally affected by depression. Comorbid depression can occur in two time frames: precardiac and postcardiac. It is imperative that home care patients be adequately screened and monitored for depressive symptoms. Home care patients with cardiac disease who are under treatment for depression should be carefully monitored for adherence to their medical care, drug efficacy, and safety with respect to their cardiovascular as well as mental health. PMID:26034825

  19. Intercontinental spread of a genetically distinctive complex of clones of Neisseria meningitidis causing epidemic disease.

    PubMed

    Caugant, D A; Frøholm, L O; Bøvre, K; Holten, E; Frasch, C E; Mocca, L F; Zollinger, W D; Selander, R K

    1986-07-01

    Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for an epidemic of meningococcal disease occurring in Norway since the mid-1970s and for recent increases in the incidence of disease in several other parts of Europe have been identified by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis as members of a distinctive group of 22 closely related clones (the ET-5 complex). Clones of this complex have also colonized South Africa, Chile, Cuba, and Florida, where they have been identified as the causative agents of recent outbreaks of meningococcal disease. There is strong circumstantial evidence that outbreaks of disease occurring in Miami in 1981 and 1982 were caused in large part by bacteria that reached Florida via human immigrants from Cuba. PMID:3088568

  20. miRNA therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases: promises and problems

    PubMed Central

    Nouraee, Nazila; Mowla, Seyed J.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of non-coding RNAs which found their way into the clinic due to their fundamental roles in cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Recently, miRNAs have been known as micromodulators in cellular communications being involved in cell signaling and microenvironment remodeling. In this review, we will focus on the role of miRNAs in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and their reliability as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in these conditions. CVDs comprise a variety of blood vessels and heart disorders with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This necessitates introduction of novel molecular biomarkers for early detection, prevention, or treatment of these diseases. miRNAs, due to their stability, tissue-specific expression pattern and secretion to the corresponding body fluids, are attractive targets for cardiovascular-associated therapeutics. Explaining the challenges ahead of miRNA-based therapies, we will discuss the exosomes as delivery packages for miRNA drugs and promising novel strategies for the future of miRNA-based therapeutics. These approaches provide insights to the future of personalized medicine for the treatment of CVDs.

  1. Lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease among premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    MCCLURE, Candace K.; CATOV, Janet M.; NESS, Roberta B.; SCHWARZ, Eleanor Bimla

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine the association between lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD). Study Design The Women and Infants Study of Healthy Hearts enrolled 607 mothers who delivered a singleton between 1997 and 2002. In 2007, participating mothers underwent measurements of carotid intima-media thickness, lumen diameter (LD), adventitial diameter (AD), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to estimate the associations between lactation and sCVD. Results Compared with mothers who breastfed for ?3 months after every birth, mothers who never breastfed exhibited a 0.13mm larger LD (95%CI 0.04,0.22) and a 0.12mm larger AD (95%CI 0.02,0.22) in models adjusting for age, parity, birth outcome, sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, family history, gestational weight gain, early adult BMI, current BMI, CRP, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, glucose and insulin levels. Conclusions Mothers who do not breastfeed have vascular characteristics associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22727348

  2. Adiposopathy and thyroid disease: tracing the pathway to cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas; Micic, Dragan

    2012-06-01

    Adiposopathy, defined as functionally disturbed adipose tissue mainly composed of large adipocytes and induced by chronic excess of food intake, has been associated with immune, metabolic and endocrine derangements promoting inflammation and, eventually, cardiovascular disease. Adiposopathy may positively influence thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, by raising leptin levels, and triggering autoimmunity. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the increased thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is independent of the negative regulation of the thyroid hormone, thereby constituting a secondary phenomenon and not a causal effect. Replacement therapy with thyroid hormones should therefore be applied following strict individualized consideration. Leptin is involved in the immune response and neuroendocrine appetite regulation, while leptin resistance may further promote autoimmune disease. The lipid derangement in adiposopathy may be aggravated in the presence of hypothyroidism and thus considerably augment cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle-modification counselling, including low-fat dietary intake and regular physical exercise, is today the cornerstone of adiposopathy treatment. Meanwhile, new drug formulations, such as leptin and leptin analogs, 5-HT2C-receptor agonist, and potent thyromimetics, currently comprise a promising armamentarium against adiposity and adiposopathy. PMID:22894634

  3. Microvesicles at the crossroads between infection and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jing; Miller, Virginia M.; Li, Yunman; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2011-01-01

    Observational and experimental studies continue to support the association of infection and infection-stimulated inflammation with development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Microvesicles (MV) are heterogeneous populations of sealed membrane-derived vesicles shed into circulation by activated mammalian cells and/or pathogenic microbes that may represent an interface between bacterial/microbial infection and increased risk of CVD. This review evaluates how MV act to modulate and intersect immunological and inflammatory responses to infection with particular attention to progression of CVD. While infection-related stimuli provoke release of MV from blood and vascular cells, MV express phosphatidylserine (PS) and other procoagulant factors on their surface which initiate and amplify blood coagulation. In addition, MV mediate cell-cell adhesion which may stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vascular cells, which in turn aggravate progression of CVD and propagate atherothrombosis. MV transfer membrane receptors, RNA and proteins among cells, and present auto-antigens from their cells of origin to proximal or remote target cells. Because MV harbor cell surface proteins and contain cytoplasmic components of the parent cell, they mediate biological messages and play a pivotal role in the crossroad between infection-stimulated inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21242813

  4. Evidence For and Against Dietary Recommendations to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based dietary guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have changed significantly over the past 9 years. Now less emphasis is placed on total dietary fat and cholesterol restriction and more emphasis on restricting saturated fat. The public outcry to stop demonizing saturated fats has been around for some time. We are now hearing more agreement from medical researchers and clinicians alike, as they become aware of evidence that some saturated fatty acids are not harmful and some are actually beneficial. Another criticism of the dietary guidelines is their failure to look at more meaningful outcomes in research. Instead of using low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol to measure risk, they should use markers for inflammation, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome—all well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the recommendations that arise from dietary research would be more meaningful if they were presented more simply: in terms of whole foods (like dairy products and fresh meat), rather than nutrients (like saturated fat). PMID:26175635

  5. Genetic determinants of the stress response in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2002-06-01

    Originating from Hans Selye's general concept, the biological notion of the stress response implicates neuroendocrine and endocrine pathways as well as their cellular mediators as components of the general adaptation syndrome and its consequences. A highly variable degree of response to psychological and physical stresses has been noted in experimental animals and in human populations. Some stressors, such as the "cold pressor test," have been developed as tools for disease prediction. They apply to variable conditions, from hypertension to insulin resistance, but mostly in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Other environmental factors, including the degree of salt intake, potentiate the stress response in animals and humans. Our group has undertaken to explore the genetic determinants of the stress response in inbred strains, recombinant congenic and congenic strains, as well as founder human populations. We have succeeded, initially, in linking increased body temperature, a major phenotypic response to stress, to the quantitative trait loci (QTL), one at myh3 on chromosome (Chr) 10, one at hsp27 on Chr 12, and one on Chr Y in the rat. The expression of several stress proteins is under the dominant influence of hstf1 at the rat Chr 7 locus (Mit3). The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases with traits of enhanced stress responsiveness is discussed here in the context of a paradigm, such as hypertension, in the general population. PMID:12040536

  6. Review: the role of paraoxonase in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Socha, Ewelina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-03-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is a group of proteins present in three forms (PON1, PON2, PON3) encoded by genes PON1, PON2, and PON3. PON1 and PON3 are plasma enzymes, structurally and functionally related to HDL, while PON2 is characterized by an intracellular location. Many polymorphisms of PON have been observed. The most widely and accurately described is the single nucleotide polymorphism, which impacts the conversion of glutamine (Q) to arginine (R) and has the effect of altering the hydrolytic activity of the PON1 form. Each PON form plays an important role in the human body, and they exhibit antioxidant, antiatherosclerotic, and anti-inflammatory influences. The PON family inhibits LDL oxidative modification and suppresses the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, which is the first stage in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, PON1 prevents the accumulation of oxidized LDL and stimulates cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Establishing these functions has led researchers to study the relationship between PON family and lipids in healthy subjects and in patients with diagnosed cardiovascular diseases. There is a certain relation between PON1 polymorphism and HDL and LDL particles. The PON1192RR genotype is associated with lower HDL levels and higher LDL levels. Lower concentrations of LDL in people with genotype PON155LL have been noted. These dependencies have been observed among healthy people, but the relation disappears in patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25887882

  7. Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

  8. The Hispanic paradox in cardiovascular disease and total mortality.

    PubMed

    Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Jean, Nathalie; Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Health statistics and epidemiologic studies have shown that Hispanics live longer than Non Hispanic Whites, despite a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and an average low socioeconomic status, both strong predictors of CVD and mortality. This phenomenon has been dubbed "The Hispanic paradox" and has been demonstrated in old and contemporary cohorts. To date, no factor has been identified that could explain this phenomenon, but socio demographic factors, dietary intake and genetic predisposition have been proposed as possible explanations for the Hispanic paradox. As with the French paradox, where French were found to have a lower rate of coronary heart disease (CHD), helped to identify the role of the Mediterranean diet and wine consumption in the prevention of CHD, the Hispanic paradox could help identify protective factors against CHD. This article describes the current evidence supporting the existence of the Hispanic paradox and provides a brief review on the possible explanations. PMID:25246267

  9. Genetic analysis in cardiovascular disease: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ho, Edwin; Bhindi, Ravinay; Ashley, Euan A; Figtree, Gemma A

    2011-01-01

    Many forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD) demonstrate heritability and thus a genetic contribution is likely. This is most evident when considering the "simple" Mendelian traits such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, family history also influences our assessment of patients with complex traits such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, and common forms of hypercholesterolemia, as observed in clinical practice. Recent research has led to advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of both the simple and complex forms of CVD. This review presents the current state of knowledge regarding major gene disorders, as well as more common, complex forms of CVD such as coronary artery disease. It discusses the fundamental approaches being used to identify the genetic basis of the various disease states, as well as the practical implications of the discoveries to clinicians. It also focuses on our need to assess the extent by which genetic analysis can alter our calculation of an individual's risk of disease, and our ability to successfully target treatment that will modify this process. PMID:21285668

  10. Fighting disease and epidemics: Ricardo Jorge and the internationalization of Portuguese science.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maria Antónia Pires

    2013-06-01

    Ricardo Jorge was one of the principal doctors responsible for the sanitary transition in Portugal. He created and enforced the most important policies for disease control, both endemic and epidemic, which scourged the western world between the mid nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth. His professional training and academic and scientific performances reveal Ricardo Jorge's value in Portuguese science and his efforts for its internationalization. His capacities were confirmed by the emergency of the sanitary situations with which he was confronted and by the authorities' confidence in him, by putting him in charge of the bubonic plague elimination process. PMID:26050285

  11. The bidirectional relation between psychiatric disorders with selected cardiovascular and endocrinal diseases: an Egyptian perspective.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Tarek; Radwan, Ash-Shayma

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular and endocrine diseases may act as burdens for individuals suffering from one of these medical illnesses, and whether through the ensuing psychological distress, or some biological mechanisms, these medical diseases can eventually lead to the development of psychiatric morbidities. Moreover, psychiatric morbidities negatively affect the prognosis of both cardiovascular and endocrine diseases. Despite transcultural differences, Egyptian patients with ischemic heart diseases (ISHD), heart failure (HF), diabetes mellitus (DM), or thyroid diseases (TD) endure the same psychological distress as their Western counterparts. Psychiatric assessment and evaluation should be regularly repeated among patients with cardiovascular and endocrinal diseases, and patients who are at risk should be closely followed up. PMID:25413635

  12. Role of toll-like receptors in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Jesus G

    2011-07-01

    The discovery and characterization of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family has led to a better understanding of the innate immune system. The strategy of innate immune recognition is based on the detection of constitutive and conserved products of micro-organisms. However, host molecules that are released during injury can also activate TLRs. Engagement of TLRs by microbial or host-derived molecules induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the host. In addition to being expressed in immune cells, TLRs are expressed in other tissues such as those of the cardiovascular system. In the present review, the role of TLRs in septic cardiomyopathy, viral myocarditis, atherosclerosis, ischaemia/reperfusion injury and cardiac remodelling after myocardial infarction are outlined, with attention paid to genetically modified murine models. Although much has been learned about stress-induced TLR activation in the tissues of the cardiovascular system, the role of individual TLRs in initiating and integrating homoeostatic responses within the heart remains to be defined. Accumulating evidence indicates that TLRs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, viral myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac allograft rejection and sepsis-induced left ventricular dysfunction. Moreover, heart failure of diverse aetiology is also now recognized to have an important immune component, with TLR signalling influencing the process of cardiac remodelling and prognosis. In the present review, we outline the biology of TLRs as well as the current experimental and clinical evidence for the role of TLRs in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21413930

  13. On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the emerging landscape of cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials evaluating the effects of blood glucose lowering drugs in individuals with type 2 diabetes, it is becoming increasingly apparent that since the promising signals coming from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) no unequivocal benefits have been established for any single therapy thus far. There is an unmet need for introducing an effective pharmacological agent which could target both correlates of glycaemic regulation and CV risk factors, to ameliorate the enormous burden of fatal and non-fatal CV events in diabetic patients. Acarbose, like other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), has been proven to be an effective antidiabetic treatment for decades, but the overall significant impact of this class of drugs on modulating CV risk has only recently been appreciated. Accumulating evidence has shown that apart from its multiple effects on primarily postprandial glucose dysmetabolism, a key component of mechanisms linked to increased incidence of CV events, acarbose therapy also associates with a favorable impact on an array of surrogate markers of CV disease. Data stemming from in vitro testing of human cell lines as well as from preliminary trials in diabetic populations, like the Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) trial, have highlighted – though not undisputed – the potential beneficial effects of the drug on CV morbidity. Large scale trials, like the ongoing Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial, aim at conclusively establishing such a positive effect in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance. In view of its usually acceptable level of side effects that are, if they occur, mostly limited to transient gastrointestinal symptoms, acarbose could well be a strong future player in CV disease secondary prevention. Current discouraging results from many trials of antidiabetic medications to significantly lower CV event rates in diabetic patients, should only draw further attention on alternative glucose lowering agents, among which acarbose is indeed promising. PMID:24742256

  14. Cardiovascular disease in US firefighters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Smith, Denise L; Tsismenakis, Antonios J; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of on-duty death among firefighters (45% of on-duty fatalities) and a major cause of morbidity. CVD in the fire service also has adverse public safety implications as well as significant cost impacts on government agencies. Over the last decade, our understanding of CVD among firefighters has significantly improved and provides insight into potential preventive strategies. The physiology of cardiovascular arousal and other changes that occur in association with acute firefighting activities have been well-characterized. However, despite the strenuous nature of emergency duty, firefighters' prevalence of low fitness, obesity, and other CVD risk factors are high. Unique statistical approaches have documented that on-duty CVD events do not occur at random in the fire service. They are more frequent at certain times of day, certain periods of the year, and are overwhelmingly more frequent during strenuous duties compared with nonemergency situations. Moreover, as expected on-duty CVD events occur almost exclusively among susceptible firefighters with underlying CVD. These findings suggest that preventive measures with proven benefits be applied aggressively to firefighters. Furthermore, all fire departments should have entry-level medical evaluations, institute periodic medical and fitness evaluations, and require rigorous return to work evaluations after any significant illness. Finally, on the basis of the overwhelming evidence supporting markedly higher relative risks of on-duty death and disability among firefighters with established coronary heart disease, most firefighters with clinically significant coronary heart disease should be restricted from participating in strenuous emergency duties. PMID:21646874

  15. Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

  16. Mortality and cardiovascular disease among older live kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Reese, P P; Bloom, R D; Feldman, H I; Rosenbaum, P; Wang, W; Saynisch, P; Tarsi, N M; Mukherjee, N; Garg, A X; Mussell, A; Shults, J; Even-Shoshan, O; Townsend, R R; Silber, J H

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, live kidney donation by older individuals (?55 years) has become more common. Given the strong associations of older age with cardiovascular disease (CVD), nephrectomy could make older donors vulnerable to death and cardiovascular events. We performed a cohort study among older live kidney donors who were matched to healthy older individuals in the Health and Retirement Study. The primary outcome was mortality ascertained through national death registries. Secondary outcomes ascertained among pairs with Medicare coverage included death or CVD ascertained through Medicare claims data. During the period from 1996 to 2006, there were 5717 older donors in the United States. We matched 3368 donors 1:1 to older healthy nondonors. Among donors and matched pairs, the mean age was 59 years; 41% were male and 7% were black race. In median follow-up of 7.8 years, mortality was not different between donors and matched pairs (p?=?0.21). Among donors with Medicare, the combined outcome of death/CVD (p?=?0.70) was also not different between donors and nondonors. In summary, carefully selected older kidney donors do not face a higher risk of death or CVD. These findings should be provided to older individuals considering live kidney donation. PMID:25039276

  17. New Diseases and EPidemics11L First Report of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini on Pine Seedlings in South Africa

    E-print Network

    New Diseases and EPidemics11L First Report of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini on Pine Seedlings subglurinans f. sp. pini on pine seedlings in South Africa. Plant Dis. 78:309-312. A study of fungi responsible report of F. s. pini causing root disease of pine seedlings and is also the first record of the fungus

  18. The effects of metabolic diseases on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E F

    1987-01-01

    Many metabolic diseases result in pathological changes within the cardiovascular system, often with the most severe effects on the function of the heart and great vessels. Metabolic disorders affecting the heart include disorders of amino acid metabolism, storage diseases, neuromuscular diseases, diseases of metal and pigment metabolism, carnitine deficiency, and connective tissue disorders. Several inborn errors of metabolism may involve the myocardium due to the accumulation of abnormal metabolites in the myocardial cells. In addition, the heart valves and coronary vessels may be involved. If the predominant effect is in the myocardial cell, it will be manifested clinically as a cardiomyopathy. Some disorders, in particular oxalosis, may involve the conduction system as a result of the deposition of oxalate crystals and result in conduction disturbances such as in alkaptonuria, primary oxalosis, and homocystinuria. Myocardial involvement may result in cardiomyopathy of the three functional types: (1) congestive, as in Fabry's disease, (2) hypertrophic, as in glycogen storage disease, type II, or (3) restrictive, as in Gaucher's disease. In the storage disease severe valvular as well as myocardial involvement occur predominantly in the glycogen storage diseases, types II-IV, mucolipidoses, sphingolipidoses, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. There are a variety of neuromuscular disorders that may be associated with cardiomyopathy, including the muscular dystrophies, Friedreich's ataxia, and Kugelberg-Welander syndrome. The pathological features of these conditions are not specific, but result usually in a congestive form of cardiomyopathy. Patients with metal and pigment metabolic disorders include iron storage disease, either hemochromatosis or transfusional hemosiderosis, Menkes' kinky hair syndrome, and Dubin-Johnson syndrome. Either a restrictive or a congestive form of cardiomyopathy may occur. The systemic form of carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder and may present as a cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure and lipid accumulation in the myocardial cells. Connective tissue disorders are generalized diseases that may involve the heart and valvular tissue, but also the blood vessels. These include Marfan's syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and pseudo-xanthoma elasticum. PMID:3333140

  19. NOS3 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Craig R.; North, Kari E.; Bray, Molly S.; Avery, Christy L.; Mosher, Mary Jane; Couper, David J.; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Gerardo; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) activity and cigarette smoking significantly influence endothelial function. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking modified the association between NOS3 polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. Methods All 1085 incident coronary heart disease cases, all 300 incident ischemic stroke cases, and 1065 reference individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study were genotyped for the T-786C and E298D polymorphisms in NOS3. Using a case–cohort design, associations between genotype/haplotype and disease risk were evaluated by multivariable proportional hazards regression. Multiplicative scale interaction testing evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking history at baseline on these associations. Results In Caucasians, association between E298D genotype and risk of coronary heart disease was significantly modified by current smoking status (interaction P = 0.013), with the highest risk observed in smokers carrying the variant D298 allele relative to nonsmokers carrying two E298 alleles (adjusted hazard rate ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.39?3.07). In African-Americans, association between T-786C genotype and risk of ischemic stroke was significantly modified by pack-year smoking history (interaction P = 0.037), with the highest risk observed in ? 20 pack-year smokers carrying the variant C-786 allele relative to < 20 pack-year smokers carrying two T-786 alleles (adjusted hazard rate ratio 4.03, 95% confidence interval 1.54?10.6). Conclusions An interaction between the E298D and T-786C polymorphisms in NOS3, cigarette smoking, and risk of incident coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke events appears to exist, suggesting a potential complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:17108813

  20. The importance of endothelin-1 for vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Böhm; John Pernow

    2007-01-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide originally isolated from endothelial cells. Its production is stimulated in a variety of different cell types under the influence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and during the development of cardiovascular disease. Based on these observations and the biological effects induced by ET-1, including profound vasoconstriction, pro-inflammatory actions, mitogenic and proliferative effects, stimulation

  1. Guanidino Compounds as Cause of Cardiovascular Damage in Chronic Kidney Disease: An in vitro Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Schepers; Griet Glorieux; Laetitia Dou; Claire Cerini; Nathalie Gayrard; Loïc Louvet; Charlotte Maugard; Pierre Preus; Maria Rodriguez-Ortiz; Angel Argiles; Philippe Brunet; Gerald Cohen; Joachim Jankowski; Vera Jankowski; Ziad Massy; Mariano Rodriguez; Raymond Vanholder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered a major cause of cardiovascular risk and non-traditional risk factors remain largely unknown. The in vitro toxicity of 10 guanidino compounds (GCs) was evaluated via a standardized approach on different cell systems of relevance in cardiovascular disease. The parameters evaluated were production of reactive oxygen species, expression of surface molecules, cell proliferation, cytotoxicity and calcification.

  2. Integrated training in Cardiovascular Diseases Sponsored by the Division of Cardiology

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Integrated training in Cardiovascular Diseases Sponsored by the Division of Cardiology Dr. Kirk. The Rounds are with the attending physician, cardiology fellows, medical residents, and pharmacy the trainee to observe the acute nature of cardiovascular disease management. 2. Inpatient cardiology consult

  3. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a hot remedy for cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Rachel; Henein, Michael Y

    2009-01-24

    Ginger is now exciting considerable interest for its potential to treat many aspects of cardiovascular disease. This letter reviews the more recent trials, which suggest that ginger shows considerable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet, hypotensive and hypolipidemic effect in in vitro and animal studies. Human trials have been few and generally used a low dose with inconclusive results, however dosages of 5 g or more demonstrated significant anti-platelet activity. More human trials are needed using an appropriate dosage of a standardised extract. Should these prove positive, ginger has the potential to offer not only a cheaper natural alternative to conventional agents but one with significantly lower side effects. PMID:18037515

  4. Surveillance of cardiovascular diseases using a multivariate dynamic screening system.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peihua; Xiang, Dongdong

    2015-06-30

    In the SHARe Framingham Heart Study of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, one major task is to monitor several health variables (e.g., blood pressure and cholesterol level) so that their irregular longitudinal pattern can be detected as soon as possible and some medical treatments applied in a timely manner to avoid some deadly cardiovascular diseases (e.g., stroke). To handle this kind of applications effectively, we propose a new statistical methodology called multivariate dynamic screening system (MDySS) in this paper. The MDySS method combines the major strengths of the multivariate longitudinal data analysis and the multivariate statistical process control, and it makes decisions about the longitudinal pattern of a subject by comparing it with other subjects cross sectionally and by sequentially monitoring it as well. Numerical studies show that MDySS works well in practice. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25757653

  5. Saturated fat intake and cardiovascular disease in Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-20

    The evidence for the impact of saturated fat intake on cardiovascular disease remains inconsistent. One reason for this inconsistency may be the large difference in the distribution of saturated fat intake between the East and West. In this review, we focus on the published literature on this topic among Japanese population. Three studies have examined the link between saturated fat intake and intraparenchymal hemorrhage, consistently showing an inverse association. However, the association for ischemic stroke is less clear, although it is generally inverse. As for myocardial infarction, the findings in Japanese studies are inconsistent, as are those of Western studies. The JPHC study, however, found a positive association, the first report in Asia. Taken together with the results of the JPHC and Western studies, a saturated fat intake of around 20 g/day (approximately 10% of total energy) may be optimal, which corresponds to 200 g of milk a day and 150 g of meat every other day. PMID:25797501

  6. Internet-Based Support for Cardiovascular Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Bates, Joanna; Araki, Yuriko; Lear, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    With significant declines in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, attention has shifted to patient management. Programs designed to manage CVD require the involvement of health professionals for comanagement and patients' self-management. However, these programs are commonly limited to large urban centers, resulting in limited access for rural patients. The use of telehealth potentially overcomes geographical barriers and can improve access to care for patients. The current research explores how an Internet-based platform might facilitate collaboration among healthcare providers comanaging patients and enhance behavioural change in patients. Forty-eight participants were interviewed including: (a) patients (n = 12), (b) physicians (n = 11), (c) nurses (n = 13), and (d) allied health professionals (n = 10). The results were organized and analyzed in three central themes: (1) role of technology for CVD management, (2) challenges to technology adoption, and (3) incentives for technology adoption. Health care providers and patients supported future implementation of Internet-based technology support for CVD management. PMID:21822430

  7. Chronic non-communicable disease as a new epidemic in Africa: focus on The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Omoleke, Semeeh A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent epidemiological data suggest increasing burden of NCDs in many African countries but these diseases have not been given adequate attention due to the overwhelming burden of infectious diseases. There are no recent reports or studies on NCDs or related issues in The Gambia, consequently, this report intends to stimulate further epidemiological studies and also policy initiatives to forestall an epidemic. Methods Routine data on morbidity (in and out-patients), hospitalisation and mortality due to NCDs from health facilities in The Gambia between 2008 and 2011 were used. Other relevant data from multiple sources were also used. Results There is an increasing trend in the morbidity, hospitalisation and mortality due to NCDs in the Gambia between 2008 and 2011; 19.8%, 9.9% and 23.4% increments respectively. There is evidence of gender differences in these variables; more males suffer higher mortality from NCDs than females (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there is dearth of highly skilled health workforce as well as poor health infrastructures in The Gambia. Conclusion NCDs are becoming a public health challenge and the capacity to respond to NCDs in most African countries, particularly, The Gambia is very weak. There is need for a population-based study to accurately quantify the burden and their risk factors as a first step towards policy formulation and effective implementation. Furthermore, there is dire need for increased investments on health workforce as well as medical products and technologies towards addressing the consequences of this emerging epidemic. PMID:23646223

  8. Ivabradine: A Unique and Intriguing Medication for Treating Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Nawarskas, James J; Bowman, Brandi N; Anderson, Joe R

    2015-01-01

    There has been much research linking elevated resting heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Based on these findings, a lower resting heart rate would be of theoretical benefit in patients with cardiovascular disease. From a pathophysiologic perspective, a lower resting heart rate would be of particular benefit in patients with ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure. Although ?-blockers and nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are effective at lowering heart rate, they have many other pharmacologic effects that may not be desirable in some patients, such as negative inotropy. Ivabradine is a drug designed to lower heart rate without any other demonstrable pharmacologic effects; in other words, a pure heart rate-lowering drug. It functions by blocking the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels (f-channels) specific for the sinoatrial node and disrupting If ion current flow. This effectively prolongs diastolic depolarization and slows firing in the sinoatrial node, which lowers heart rate. The effects of ivabradine are most pronounced at higher heart rates (use-dependence), which is important in minimizing the development of symptomatic bradycardia. Clinical trials have demonstrated ivabradine to be an effective antianginal drug both alone and in combination with ?-blocker therapy, although it has not been shown to produce a demonstrable effect on reducing major adverse cardiovascular events. In patients with heart failure, ivabradine has demonstrated many hemodynamic benefits, but its effect on clinical outcomes have been mixed and dependent on baseline heart rate, ie, the drug may be of benefit with higher baseline heart rates, but detrimental with low baseline heart rates. The adverse effects of ivabradine are not uncommon, but are rarely severe and include visual disturbances, bradycardia, and atrial fibrillation. Although ivabradine is a very interesting new agent, its variable benefits in large-scale clinical trials leave its exact place in therapy still somewhat nebulous. Unanswered questions include which patient populations would benefit most from this drug, and which concomitant medications would produce the best clinical outcomes when used with ivabradine. PMID:25839989

  9. [Gender aspects of socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas; Kiefer, Ingrid; Kunze, Michael; Rieder, Anita

    2004-09-01

    Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors exert influence on health as well as the development, the progression and the prevention of diseases. Social factors regarding cardiovascular diseases have been widely researched. Whilst characteristics of classic type A behaviour increase cardiovascular risk among men, characteristics of type B behaviour represent a protective value, especially among women. Depression--a disease that is particularly prevalent among women and is associated with socioeconomic factors--negatively influences the development of cardiovascular diseases, triggers cardiovascular events and influences rehabilitation. Lifestyle factors, which are positively or negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease, show a gender-specific prevalence and are related to psychosocial factors. More women than men report healthy nutrition, whereas more men report partaking in physical exercise. Obesity is--depending on the occupational group and the social level--more prevalent among women compared to men. PMID:15552231

  10. P21-activated kinase in inflammatory and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Taglieri, Domenico M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Monasky, Michelle M

    2014-09-01

    P-21 activated kinases, or PAKs, are serine-threonine kinases that serve a role in diverse biological functions and organ system diseases. Although PAK signaling has been the focus of many investigations, still our understanding of the role of PAK in inflammation is incomplete. This review consolidates what is known about PAK1 across several cell types, highlighting the role of PAK1 and PAK2 in inflammation in relation to NADPH oxidase activation. This review explores the physiological functions of PAK during inflammation, the role of PAK in several organ diseases with an emphasis on cardiovascular disease, and the PAK signaling pathway, including activators and targets of PAK. Also, we discuss PAK1 as a pharmacological anti-inflammatory target, explore the potentials and the limitations of the current pharmacological tools to regulate PAK1 activity during inflammation, and provide indications for future research. We conclude that a vast amount of evidence supports the idea that PAK is a central molecule in inflammatory signaling, thus making PAK1 itself a promising prospective pharmacological target. PMID:24794532

  11. Early renal failure as a cardiovascular disease: Focus on lipoprotein(a) and prothrombotic state

    PubMed Central

    Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, GianLuca; Nait, Francesca; Pezzutto, Francesca; Martinis, Flavia; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with renal failure are at increased risk of cardiovascular events even at the earliest stages of disease. In addition to many classic cardiovascular risk factors, many conditions that are commonly identified as emerging risk factors might contribute to occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Changes in circulating levels of many of these emerging risk factors have been demonstrated in patients with early stages of renal failure caused by different types of renal disease and have been associated with detection of cardiovascular complications. However, for most of these factors evidence of benefits of correction on cardiovascular outcome is missing. In this article, we comment on the role of lipoprotein(a) and prothrombotic factors as potential contributors to cardiovascular events in patients with early renal failure.

  12. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, D; Furlong, N J; Wilding, J P H; MacFarlane, I A

    2007-01-01

    Objective Adults with hypothalamic?pituitary disease have increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the prevalence of CVD and adequacy of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (according to current treatment guidelines) was studied in a large group of patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease. Study design In 2005, 152 consecutive adult patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease attending our neuro?endocrine centre were clinically examined and blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body composition and smoking status were assessed. Results Of the 152 patients, 36.8% had treated hypertension and 28.2% had treated dyslipidaemia. Many of these patients had inadequate BP control (BP >140/85?mm?Hg, 44.6%) and undesirable lipid levels (total cholesterol >4.0?mmol/l, 69%). Also, many of the untreated patients had BP and lipid levels which should have been considered for treatment (26 patients (27%) and 83 patients (76%), respectively). Smoking was admitted in 18% of patients. Central adiposity was present in 86% and obesity (body mass index ?30) was present in 50%. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent and often inadequately treated in adult patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease. Aggressive treatment of these factors is essential to reduce mortality and morbidity from CVD in these patients. PMID:17403957

  13. Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in early-stage chronic kidney disease: cause or association?

    PubMed

    Moody, William E; Edwards, Nicola C; Madhani, Melanie; Chue, Colin D; Steeds, Richard P; Ferro, Charles J; Townend, Jonathan N

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); a graded inverse relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cardiovascular event rates has emerged from large-scale observational studies. Chronic kidney disease is also associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) although the precise relationship with GFR and the "threshold" at which ED begins are contentious. Abnormal endothelial function is certainly present in late-stage CKD but data in early-stage CKD appear confounded by disease states such as diabetes and hypertension which themselves promote ED. Thus, the direct effect of a reduction in GFR on endothelial function and, therefore, cardiovascular (CV) risk is far from completely established. In human studies, the precise duration of kidney impairment is seldom known and the onset of CVD often insidious, making it difficult to determine exactly when CVD first appears in the context of CKD. Kidney donors provide a near-ideal experimental model of CKD; subjects undergo an acute change from normal to modestly impaired renal function at the time of nephrectomy and lack the confounding co-morbidity that has made observational studies of CKD patients so challenging to interpret. By examining changes in endothelial function in living kidney donors before and after nephrectomy, useful insight might be gained into the pathophysiology of CVD in CKD and help determine whether targeting ED or the renal disease itself has the potential to reduce CV risk. PMID:22349087

  14. So! What's aging? Is cardiovascular aging a disease?

    PubMed

    Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-06-01

    "Inside every old person is a young person wondering what happened." So, what is aging? Aging is a manifestation of progressive, time-dependent failure of molecular mechanisms that create disorder within a system of DNA and its environment (nuclear, cytosolic, tissue, organ, organism, other organisms, society, terra firma, atmosphere, universe). Continuous signaling, transmitted with different kinetics across each of these environments, confers a "mutual enslavement" that creates ordered functions among the components within the system. Accrual of this molecular disorder over time, i.e. during aging, causes progressive changes in the structure and function of the heart and arteries that are quite similar in humans, non-human primates, rabbits and rats that compromise cardiovascular reserve function, and confer a marked risk for incident cardiovascular disease. Nearly all aspects of signaling within the DNA environment system within the heart and arteries become disordered with advancing age: Signals change, as does sensing of the signals, transmission of signals and responses to signals, impaired cell renewal, changes in the proteome due to alterations in genomic transcription, mRNA translation, and proteostasis. The density of some molecules becomes reduced, and post-translational modifications, e.g. oxidation and nitration phosphorylation, lead to altered misfolding and disordered molecular interactions. The stoichiometry and kinetics of enzymatic and those reactions which underlie crucial cardiac and vascular cell functions and robust reserve mechanisms that remove damaged organelles and proteins deteriorate. The CV cells generate an inflammatory defense in an attempt to limit the molecular disorder. The resultant proinflammatory milieu is not executed by "professional" inflammatory cells (i.e. white blood cells), however, but by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone endothelin signaling cascades that leads to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle and cardiac cells' phenotype shifts, resulting in production of inflammatory cytokines. Progressive molecular disorder within the heart and arteries over time leads to an excessive allostatic load on the CV system, that results in an increase and "overshoot" in the inflammatory defense signaling. This age-associated molecular disorder-induced inflammation that accrues in the heart and arteries does not, itself, cause clinical signs or symptoms of CVD. Clinical signs and symptoms of these CVDs begin to emerge, however, when the age-associated inflammation in the heart and arteries exceeds a threshold. Thus, an emerging school of thought is that accelerated age-associated alterations within the heart and arteries, per se, ought to be considered to be a type of CVD, because the molecular disorder and the inflammatory milieu it creates within the heart and arteries with advancing age are the roots of the pathophysiology of most cardiovascular diseases, e.g. athersclerosis and hypertension. Because many effects of aging on the CV system can be delayed or attenuated by changes in lifestyle, e.g. diet and exercise, or by presently available drugs, e.g. those that suppress Ang II signaling, CV aging is a promising frontier in preventive cardiology that is not only ripe for, but also in dire need of attention! There is an urgency to incorporate the concept of cardiovascular aging as a disease into clinical medicine. But, sadly, the reality of the age-associated molecular disorder within the heart and ateries has, for the most part, been kept outside of mainstream clinical medicine. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled CV Aging. PMID:25870157

  15. Persistent pathogens linking socioeconomic position and cardiovascular disease in the US

    PubMed Central

    Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer Beam; Aiello, Allison E

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented a strong inverse association between cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic position (SEP). Several infections are associated with both cardiovascular disease and SEP; hence infection may form an important link between SEP and cardiovascular disease. This study examines whether seropositivity to cytomegalovirus (CMV), to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and/or to both pathogens mediates the relationship between SEP and cardiovascular disease history in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of subjects ?45 years of age, who were tested for seropositivity to CMV, HSV-1 or both pathogens and assessed for cardiovascular disease history in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Cardiovascular disease history was defined as history of stroke, heart attack and/or congestive heart failure and SEP as education level. Results SEP was associated with CMV, HSV-1 and seropositivity to both pathogens. CMV seropositivity was associated with cardiovascular disease history even after adjusting for confounders as well as SEP. The odds of reporting a history of cardiovascular disease for those with less than a high school education compared with those with more than a high school education decreased by 7.7% after adjusting for CMV (Sobel mediation test for CMV, P = 0.0006). In contrast, neither seropositivity to HSV-1 nor to both pathogens was associated with cardiovascular disease history after adjusting for SEP. Conclusions Persistent pathogens such as CMV infection may explain a portion of the relationship between SEP and cardiovascular disease in the United States. Further studies examining additional pathogens and sociobiological mechanisms are warranted. PMID:19109247

  16. Plasma Phospholipid Trans?Fatty Acids Levels, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Total Mortality: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianyi; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Rimm, Eric B.; Wang, Molin; King, Irena B.; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Background While self?reported trans–fatty acid (TFA) consumption is linked to coronary heart disease (CHD), relationships between objective biomarkers of TFA subtypes (t?16:1n9, total t?18:1, and cis/trans?(c/t?), t/c? and t/t?18:2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or total mortality are not well established. Methods and Results We evaluated 2742 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged 74±5 years and free of prevalent CVD, with plasma phospholipid TFA measures in 1992. Incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events, CVD and non?CVD mortality, and total mortality were centrally adjudicated through 2010. Risks were assessed using Cox proportional hazards. During 31 494 person?years, 1735 total deaths and 639 total CHD events occurred. In the multivariate model including mutual adjustment for the 5 TFA subtypes, circulating t/t?18:2 was associated with higher total mortality (extreme quintile hazard ratio (HR)=1.23, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.44, P?trend=0.01), CVD mortality (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.86, P?trend=0.02), and total CHD (HR=1.39, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.83, P?trend=0.01). t/c?18:2 was positively related to total mortality (HR=1.19, P?trend=0.05), total CHD (HR=1.67, P?trend=0.002), and nonfatal CHD (HR=2.06, P?trend=0.002) after mutual adjustment; these associations were insignificant without mutual adjustment. Neither t?16:1n9 nor t?18:1 was significantly associated with total mortality or CVD, nor was c/t?18:2 if we excluded early cases. Conclusions Among circulating TFAs, t/t?18:2 was most adversely associated with total mortality, mainly due to the increased risk of CVD. t/c?18:2 was also positively associated with total mortality and CHD, but only after adjustment for other TFAs. These results highlight the need for further investigation of dietary sources, nondietary determinants, and health effects of specific TFA subtypes, especially t?18:2 isomers. PMID:25164946

  17. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Dynamic and Life-Threatening Triad

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Mário; Lopes, José António

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have both become global public health problems, with increasing social and economic impact due to their high prevalence and remarkable impact on morbidity and mortality. The causality between MS and CKD, and its clinical implications, still does remain not completely understood. Moreover, prophylactic and therapeutic interventions do need to be properly investigated in this field. Herein, we critically review the existing clinical evidence that associates MS with renal disease and cardiovascular disease, as well as the associated pathophysiologic mechanisms and actual treatment options. PMID:21403897

  18. Outdoor temperature, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease mortality among 23 000 individuals with diagnosed cardiovascular diseases from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Li, Liming; Lewington, Sarah; Guo, Yu; Sherliker, Paul; Bian, Zheng; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Liu, Yun; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Yongrui; Li, Guangchun; Liu, Shumei; Chen, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and both may increase as outdoor temperatures fall. However, there are still limited data about seasonal variation in blood pressure and CVD mortality among patients with prior-CVD. Methods We analysed data on 23 000 individuals with prior-CVD who were recruited from 10 diverse regions into the China Kadoorie Biobank during 2004–8. After 7 years of follow-up, 1484 CVD deaths were recorded. Baseline survey data were used to assess seasonal variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its association with outdoor temperature. Cox regression was used to examine the association of usual SBP with subsequent CVD mortality, and seasonal variation in CVD mortality was assessed by Poisson regression. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and region. Results Mean SBP was significantly higher in winter than in summer (145 vs. 136 mmHg, P < 0.001), especially among those without central heating. Above 5°C, each 10°C lower outdoor temperature was associated with 6.2 mmHg higher SBP. Systolic blood pressure predicted subsequent CVD mortality, with each 10 mmHg higher usual SBP associated with 21% (95% confidence interval: 16–27%) increased risk. Cardiovascular disease mortality varied by season, with 41% (21–63%) higher risk in winter compared with summer. Conclusion Among adult Chinese with prior-CVD, there is both increased blood pressure and CVD mortality in winter. Careful monitoring and more aggressive blood pressure lowering treatment in the cold months are needed to help reduce the winter excess CVD mortality in high-risk individuals. PMID:25690792

  19. Coronary Artery Calcification and Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Sara; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review Cardiovascular diseasae is the leading cause of death in children and young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRDS). As adults, children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have extremily high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcification is one of the earliest cardiovascular markers detected in children with ESRD. The purpose of this review is to examine new development in pathogenesis of coronary artery calcification and to describe recently published studies on this topic in children with CKD. Recent findings There is growing evidence that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho factor play a key role in the development of coronary artery calcification in ESRD. Recent studies have shown that induction of vascular calcification begins in early normophosphatemic CKD by reduction of vascular Klotho and increased FGF23 secretion. Pediatric studies confirmed the presence of abnormal FGF23 and Klotho metabolism and the association of increased circulating FGF23 with coronary artery calcification in children with CKD. Summary New development in our understanding of the mechanisms of vascular calcification in patients with early CKD require a further investigation whether control of FGF23/Klotho metabolism will prevent or delay the development of CC and other cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:24632542

  20. Redesigning primary care to tackle the global epidemic of noncommunicable disease.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Nigenda, Gustavo; Knaul, Felicia M

    2015-03-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the major contributors to death and disability worldwide. Nearly 80% of the deaths in 2010 occurred in low- and middle-income countries, which have experienced rapid population aging, urbanization, rise in smoking, and changes in diet and activity. Yet the health systems of low- and middle-income countries, historically oriented to infectious disease and often severely underfunded, are poorly prepared for the challenge of caring for people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease. We have discussed how primary care can be redesigned to tackle the challenge of NCDs in resource-constrained countries. We suggest that four changes will be required: integration of services, innovative service delivery, a focus on patients and communities, and adoption of new technologies for communication. PMID:25602898

  1. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J.W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N.M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C.M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A.A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Paré, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is causal. A recent phase III clinical trial of an sPLA2 inhibitor (varespladib) was stopped prematurely for lack of efficacy. Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis of 19 general population studies (8,021 incident, 7,513 prevalent major vascular events [MVE] in 74,683 individuals) and 10 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohorts (2,520 recurrent MVE in 18,355 individuals) using rs11573156, a variant in PLA2G2A encoding the sPLA2-IIA isoenzyme, as an instrumental variable. Results PLA2G2A rs11573156 C allele associated with lower circulating sPLA2-IIA mass (38% to 44%) and sPLA2 enzyme activity (3% to 23%) per C allele. The odds ratio (OR) for MVE per rs11573156 C allele was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98 to 1.06) in general populations and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.03) in ACS cohorts. In the general population studies, the OR derived from the genetic instrumental variable analysis for MVE for a 1-log unit lower sPLA2-IIA mass was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.13), and differed from the non-genetic observational estimate (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.79). In the ACS cohorts, both the genetic instrumental variable and observational ORs showed a null association with MVE. Instrumental variable analysis failed to show associations between sPLA2 enzyme activity and MVE. Conclusions Reducing sPLA2-IIA mass is unlikely to be a useful therapeutic goal for preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:23916927

  2. MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease: an introduction for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Romaine, Simon P R; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Samani, Nilesh J

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, RNA molecules approximately 22 nucleotides in length which act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Individual miRNAs have been shown to regulate the expression of multiple genes. Conversely, the expression of individual genes can be regulated by multiple miRNAs. Consequently, since their discovery just over 20?years ago, miRNAs have been identified as key regulators of complex biological processes linked to multiple cardiovascular pathologies, including left ventricular hypertrophy, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, hypertension and arrhythmias. Furthermore, since the finding that miRNAs are present in the circulation, they have been investigated as novel biomarkers, especially in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure. While there is little convincing evidence that miRNAs can outperform traditional biomarkers, such as cardiac troponins, in the diagnosis of AMI, there is potential for miRNAs to complement existing risk prediction models and act as valuable markers of post-AMI prognosis. Encouragingly, the concept of miRNA-based therapeutics is developing, with synthetic antagonists of miRNAs (antagomiRs) currently in phase II trials for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. In the cardiovascular field, promising preclinical studies suggest that they could be useful in treating disorders ranging from heart failure to dyslipidaemia, although several challenges related to specificity and targeted delivery remain to be overcome. Through this review, we provide clinicians with a brief overview of the ever-expanding world of miRNAs. PMID:25814653

  3. The neuronal noradrenaline transporter, anxiety and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Esler, Murray; Alvarenga, Marlies; Pier, Ciaran; Richards, Jeff; El-Osta, Assam; Barton, David; Haikerwal, Deepak; Kaye, David; Schlaich, Markus; Guo, Ling; Jennings, Garry; Socratous, Flora; Lambert, Gavin

    2006-07-01

    Panic disorder can serve as a clinical model for testing whether mental stress can cause heart disease. Potential neural mechanisms of cardiac risk are the sympathetic activation during panic attacks, continuing release of adrenaline as a co-transmitter in the cardiac sympathetic nerves, and impairment of noradrenaline neuronal reuptake, augmenting sympathetic neural respnses. The phenotype of impaired neuronal reuptake of noradrenaline: an epigenetic mechanism? We suspect that this phenotype, in sensitizing people to heart symptom development, is a cause of panic disorder, and by magnifying the sympathetic neural signal in the heart, underlies increased cardiac risk. No loss of function mutations of the coding region of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) are evident, but we do detect hypermethylation of CpG islands in the NET gene promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation methodology demonstrates binding of the inhibitory transcription factor, MeCP2, to promoter region DNA in panic disorder patients. Cardiovascular illnesses co-morbid with panic disorder. Panic disorder commonly coexists with essential hypertension and the postural tachycardia syndrome. In both of these cardiovascular disorders the impaired neuronal noradrenaline reuptake phenotype is also present and, as with panic disorder, is associated with NET gene promoter region DNA hypermethylation. An epigenetic 'co-morbidity' perhaps underlies the clinical concordance. Brain neurotransmitters. Using internal jugular venous sampling, in the absence of a panic attack we find normal norepinephrine turnover, but based on measurements of the overflow of the serotonin metabolite, 5HIAA, a marked increase (six to sevenfold) in brain serotonin turnover in patients with panic disorder. This appears to represent the underlying neurotransmitter substrate for the disorder. Whether this brain serotonergic activation is a prime mover, or consequential on other primary causes of panic disorder, including cardiac sensitization by faulty neuronal noradrenaline reuptake leading to cardiac symptoms and the enhanced vigilance which accompanies them, is unclear at present. PMID:16785272

  4. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items. Literature sources: Google and US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health were the sources of papers cited in this review article. PMID:24639860

  5. Arterial stiffness and increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhou, Lin; Dong, Jinghui; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Yan, Shi

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity and a major cause of mortality in CKD population. While CVD-related mortality is relatively uncommon in young population, it accounts for most deaths in young CKD adults. There are numerous risk factors for CVD in CKD patients including conventional (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia) and nonconventional (oxidative stress, inflammation, anemia, mineral metabolism disorder) factors. Recent studies have placed great emphasis on the association of arterial stiffness (AS) and CVD. AS is traditionally known as an aging marker of the artery; however, increased AS is observed in young and even in pediatric CKD patients; it is also shown that AS progresses in consistent with kidney function decline. Unparallel AS in young CKD population and excessive risk of CVD in young CKD adults show an indication that AS probably offers one of the underlying mechanisms for linking CKD and CVD. AS in CKD patients has multifactorial causes. Comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and mineral metabolism disorder which are risk factors for CVD also show great contribution to AS in CKD patients. Increased systolic blood pressure and decreased diastolic blood pressure resulting from AS cause elevated ventricular afterload, lead to impaired coronary perfusion, myocardial ischemia, and ventricular hypertrophy, and consequently develop into CVD event. In this review, we summarized the role of AS in CKD and CVD, aiming to explore the linkage of AS between CKD and CVD. PMID:25991557

  6. Salusins: Potential Use as a Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kengo; Watanabe, Rena; Itoh, Fumiko; Shichiri, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Human salusin-? and salusin-? are related peptides produced from prosalusin. Bolus injection of salusin-? into rats induces more profound hypotension and bradycardia than salusin-?. Central administration of salusin-? increases blood pressure via release of norepinephrine and arginine-vasopressin. Circulating levels of salusin-? and salusin-? are lower in patients with essential hypertension. Salusin-? exerts more potent mitogenic effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and fibroblasts than salusin-?. Salusin-? accelerates inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Human macrophage foam cell formation is stimulated by salusin-? but suppressed by salusin-?. Chronic salusin-? infusion into apolipoprotein E-deficient mice enhances atherosclerotic lesions; salusin-? infusion reduces lesions. Salusin-? is expressed in proliferative neointimal lesions of porcine coronary arteries after stenting. Salusin-? and salusin-? immunoreactivity have been detected in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques, with dominance of salusin-? in macrophage foam cells, VSMCs, and fibroblasts. Circulating salusin-? levels increase and salusin-? levels decrease in patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that salusin-? and salusin-? may contribute to proatherogenesis and antiatherogenesis, respectively. Increased salusin-? and/or decreased salusin-? levels in circulating blood and vascular tissue are closely linked with atherosclerosis. Salusin-? and salusin-? could be candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24251033

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: evidence and underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    JEAN-LOUIS, G; ZIZI, F; BROWN, DB; OGEDEGBE, G; BORER, JS; McFARLANE, SI

    2011-01-01

    A body of epidemiologic and clinical evidence dating back to the early 1960s establishes the relationships between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, the most common type of sleep-disordered breathing, are at increased risk for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke. Evidence that treatment of sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure reduces blood pressure, improves left ventricular systolic function, and diminishes platelet activation further supports linkage between obstructive sleep apnea and CVD. Notwithstanding, complex associations between these two conditions remain largely unexplained due to dearth of systematic experimental studies. Arguably, several intermediary mechanisms including sustained sympathetic activation, intrathoracic pressure changes, and oxidative stress might be involved. Other abnormalities such as dysfunctions in coagulation factors, endothelial damage, platelet activation, and increased systemic inflammation might also play a fundamental role. This review examines evidence for the associations between obstructive sleep apnea and CVD and suggested underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. Specific issues pertaining to definition, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep apnea are also discussed. Consistent with rising interest in the potential role of the metabolic syndrome, this review explores the hypothesized mediating effects of each of the components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21643544

  8. Tradeoffs in cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment, and research.

    PubMed

    Miller, George; Daly, Matthew; Roehrig, Charles

    2013-06-01

    It is widely believed that the US health care system needs to transition from a culture of reactive treatment of disease to one of proactive prevention. As a tool for understanding the appropriate allocation of spending to prevention versus treatment (including research into improved prevention and treatment), a simple Markov model is used to represent the flow of individuals among states of health, where the transition rates are governed by the magnitude of appropriately-lagged expenditures in each of these categories. The model estimates the discounted cost and discounted effectiveness (measured in quality adjusted life years or QALYs) associated with a given spending mix, and it allows computing the marginal cost-effectiveness associated with additional spending in a category. We apply the model to explore interactions of alternative investments in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to identify an optimal spending mix. Under the assumptions of our model structure, we find that the marginal cost-effectiveness of prevention of CVD varies with changes in spending on treatment (and vice versa), and that the optimal mix of CVD spending (i.e., the spending mix that maximizes the overall QALYs achieved) would, indeed, shift spending from treatment to prevention. PMID:23090664

  9. Managing tobacco use: the neglected cardiovascular disease risk factor.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Clair, Carole

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the leading avoidable cause of death worldwide. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases the risk of CVD among non-smokers. Smoking cessation benefits all smokers, regardless of age or amount smoked. The excess risk of CVD is rapidly reversible, and stopping smoking after a myocardial infarction reduces an individual's risk of CVD mortality by 36% over 2 years. Smoking cessation is a key component of primary and secondary CVD prevention strategies, but tobacco use often receives less attention from cardiologists than other risk factors, despite the availability of proven treatments that improve smoking cessation rates. Both psychosocial counselling and pharmacotherapy are effective methods to help smokers quit, but they are most effective when used together. The first-line medications licensed to aid smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, are effective in and appropriate for patients with CVD. An evidence-based approach for physicians is to routinely ask all patients about smoking status and SHS exposure, advise all smokers to quit and all patients to adopt smoke-free policies for their home and car, and offer all smokers in the office or hospital brief counselling, smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, and referral to local programmes where psychosocial support can be sustained in person or by telephone. Like other chronic diseases, tobacco use requires a long-term management strategy. It deserves to be managed as intensively as other CVD risk factors. PMID:24014389

  10. Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa: lessons learned and issues arising from West African countries.

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna O; Salako, Babatunde L; Ka, M Mourtalla; Akpalu, Albert; McConnochie, Mairi; Foster, Matthew; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-02-01

    The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak ravaging three nations in West Africa has affected more than 14,000 persons and killed over 5,000. It is the longest and most widely spread Ebola epidemic ever seen. At the time of this overview (written November 2014), having affected eight different nations, Nigeria and Senegal were able to control and eliminate the virus within a record time. Ghana has successfully, to date, kept the virus away from the country, despite economic and social relationships with affected nations. What lessons can we learn from Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana in the current epidemic? How can the world improve the health systems in low- and middle-income countries to effectively manage future outbreaks? Recently, the Royal College of Physicians launched a new partnership with the West African College of Physicians to curtail the effects of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in the region. We believe that strengthened health systems, skilled human resources for health and national ownership of problems are key to effective management of outbreaks such as EVD. PMID:25650199

  11. The response of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dietz, William H

    2015-03-18

    The recognition of the obesity epidemic as a national problem began in 1999 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) publication of a series of annual state-based maps that demonstrated the rapid changes in the prevalence of obesity. Increasing rates of obesity had been noted in earlier CDC studies, but the maps provided evidence of a rapid, nationwide increase. The urgent need to respond to the epidemic led to the identification of state targets and the first generation of interventions for obesity prevention and control. The CDC's role was to provide setting- and intervention-specific guidance on implementing these strategies, and to assess changes in targeted policies and behaviors. The CDC's efforts were augmented by Congressional funding for community initiatives to improve nutrition and increase physical activity. Complementary investments by Kaiser Permanente, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Institute of Medicine improved the evidence base and provided policy recommendations that reinforced the need for a multisectoral approach. Legislative, regulatory, and voluntary initiatives enacted by President Obama's administration translated many of the strategies into effective practice. Whether current efforts to address obesity can be sustained will depend on whether they can be translated into greater grass-roots engagement consistent with a social movement. PMID:25581155

  12. Cardiovascular Disease in CKD in Children: Update on Risk Factors, Risk Assessment, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Amy C; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2009-01-01

    In young adults with onset of chronic kidney disease in childhood, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. The likely reason for increased cardiovascular disease in these patients is high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors during childhood chronic kidney disease. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness and coronary artery calcification are frequently found in this patient population. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent advances in the understanding and management of cardiovascular disease risks in this population. PMID:19619845

  13. Epidemic assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention involving American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1946-2005.

    PubMed

    Cheek, James E; Hennessy, Thomas W; Redd, John T; Cobb, Nat; Bryan, Ralph T

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe 169 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention epidemic-assistance investigations involving American Indians and Alaska Natives that occurred during 1946-2005. The unique relation between the US federal government and American Indian and Alaska Native tribes is described in the context of transfer in the 1950s of responsibility for Indian health to the US Public Health Service, which at the time included the Communicable Disease Center, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's precursor. The vast majority of epidemic-assistance investigations were for infectious disease outbreaks (86%), with a relatively limited number, since 1980 only, involving environmental exposures and chronic disease. Although outbreaks investigated were often widespread geographically, the majority were limited in scope, typically involving fewer than 100 patients. Epidemic-assistance investigations for hepatitis A, gastrointestinal and foodborne infectious diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases, zoonotic and vectorborne diseases, acute respiratory tract infections, environmental exposures, and chronic diseases are described chronologically in more detail. PMID:22135397

  14. Adiponectin, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease: emerging data on complex interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan M. Lo; Mark Mitsnefes

    Over the past decade, adiponectin has been a subject of interest in many fields of medicine. The effect of adiponectin in\\u000a metabolism and inflammation has been described for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in animal studies and the general population,\\u000a generally as a protective factor. Extensive literature pertaining to adult studies indicates that low adiponectin levels are\\u000a associated with increased CVD morbidity

  15. Medicare Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Have a High Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and a High Rate of Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. MCCLELLAN; ROBERT D. LANGSTON; RODNEY PRESLEY

    2004-01-01

    The risk of progression to ESRD among individuals with cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of ESRD among patients with cardiovascular disease. Charts were abstracted for randomly selected hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of either congestive heart failure (CHF) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

  16. High prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in parents of IDDM patients with albuminuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Cosmo; S. Bacci; G. P. Piras; M. Cignarelli; G. Placentino; M. Margaglione; D. Colaizzo; G. Di Minno; R. Giorgino; A. Liuzzi; G. C. Viberti

    1997-01-01

    Summary   Life expectancy is shorter in the subset of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients who are susceptible to kidney disease.\\u000a Familial factors may be important. In this study the prevalence of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity and of risk\\u000a factors for cardiovascular disease was compared in the parents of 31 IDDM patients with elevated albumin excretion rate (AER\\u000a > 45 ?g\\/min;

  17. Cardiovascular events in chronic dialysis patients: emphasizing the importance of vascular disease prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosmas I. Paraskevas; Ioannis Kotsikoris; Sotirios A. Koupidis; Alexandros A. Tzovaras; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both chronic kidney disease and peritoneal dialysis\\/hemodialysis patients.\\u000a Vascular disease prevention in these patients is therefore important to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events and\\u000a the high morbidity and mortality. This Editorial discusses the traditional, (1) smoking, (2) dyslipidemia, (3) body mass index,\\u000a (4) glycemic control and (5) blood pressure, and

  18. The Role of Redox Signaling in Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John J.; Archer, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The term epigenetics refers to the changes in the phenotype and gene expression that occur without alterations in the DNA sequence. There is a rapidly growing body of evidence that epigenetic modifications are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which intersect with many of the pathways involved in oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Most studies relating epigenetics and human pathologies have focused on cancer. There has been a limited study of epigenetic mechanisms in CVDs. Although CVDs have multiple established genetic and environmental risk factors, these explain only a portion of the total CVD risk. The epigenetic perspective is beginning to shed new light on how the environment influences gene expression and disease susceptibility in CVDs. Known epigenetic changes contributing to CVD include hypomethylation in proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis, changes in estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) and ER-? methylation in vascular disease, decreased superoxide dismutase 2 expression in pulmonary hypertension (PH), as well as trimethylation of histones H3K4 and H3K9 in congestive heart failure. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss the epigenetic modifications in CVDs, including atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and PH, with a focus on altered redox signaling. Future Directions: As advances in both the methodology and technology accelerate the study of epigenetic modifications, the critical role they play in CVD is beginning to emerge. A fundamental question in the field of epigenetics is to understand the biochemical mechanisms underlying reactive oxygen species-dependent regulation of epigenetic modification. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1920–1936. PMID:23480168

  19. Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2014-08-11

    Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)'s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers' costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30-41 to US$52-71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO's absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers' costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: 'what is', that is the current practice, and 'what if', reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in the regression analysis; further research on the influence of other provider characteristics on these costs is important. PMID:25113027

  20. Caffeinated coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease, and heart valve disease in the elderly (from the Framingham Study).

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Chow, Grant; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2008-12-01

    The relation between caffeinated coffee consumption and heart disease morbidity and mortality is of great interest given the extensive use of this beverage. A recent prospective epidemiologic study found a strong protective association in elderly subjects without moderate to severe hypertension in the NHANES. To test this association in the Framingham Heart Study population, in which cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors were carefully documented, Cox regression analyses were conducted for 1,354 subjects aged 65.4 to 96.6 years at study entry. There were 210 deaths from cardiovascular disease and 118 from coronary heart disease (CHD) during 10.1 years of follow-up. A significant negative association between caffeinated coffee consumption and CHD mortality was observed for subjects with systolic blood pressure (BP) <160 mm Hg and diastolic BP <100 mm Hg. The decrease in risk of CHD mortality for any caffeinated coffee versus none was 43% (95% confidence interval 9 to 64). This decreased risk appeared to be caused primarily by an inverse prospective relation between caffeinated coffee consumption and the development or progression of heart valve disease. The decrease in risk of heart valve disease for subjects with systolic BP <160 mm Hg and diastolic BP <100 mm Hg for any caffeinated coffee versus none was 43% (95% confidence interval 4 to 66). In conclusion, caffeinated coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of CHD mortality and heart valve disease development or progression in older Framingham subjects without moderate or severe hypertension. PMID:19026304

  1. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: Mediterranean Diets supplemented with nuts or extra-virgin olive oil, or a control low-fat diet. The present analysis was conducted as an observational prospective cohort study. The median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death) and mortality were ascertained by medical records and National Death Index. Olive oil consumption was evaluated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline and yearly repeated measurements of olive oil intake, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Results During follow-up, 277 cardiovascular events and 323 deaths occurred. Participants in the highest energy-adjusted tertile of baseline total olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil consumption had 35% (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.89) and 39% (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85) cardiovascular disease risk reduction, respectively, compared to the reference. Higher baseline total olive oil consumption was associated with 48% (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.93) reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. For each 10 g/d increase in extra-virgin olive oil consumption, cardiovascular disease and mortality risk decreased by 10% and 7%, respectively. No significant associations were found for cancer and all-cause mortality. The associations between cardiovascular events and extra virgin olive oil intake were significant in the Mediterranean diet intervention groups and not in the control group. Conclusions Olive oil consumption, specifically the extra-virgin variety, is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration This study was registered at controlled-trials.com (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639). International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005. PMID:24886626

  2. Impact of discontinuous treatments on disease dynamics in an SIR epidemic model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenyuan; Huang, Lihong; Zou, Xingfu

    2012-01-01

    We consider an SIR epidemic model with discontinuous treatment strategies. Under some reasonable assumptions on the discontinuous treatment function, we are able to determine the basic reproduction number R?, confirm the well-posedness of the model, describe the structure of possible equilibria as well as establish the stability/instability of the equilibria. Most interestingly, we find that in the case that an equilibrium is asymptotically stable, the convergence to the equilibrium can actually be achieved in finite time, and we can estimate this time in terms of the model parameters, initial sub-populations and the initial treatment strength. This suggests that from the view point of eliminating the disease from the host population, discontinuous treatment strategies would be superior to continuous ones. The methods we use to obtain the mathematical results are the generalized Lyapunov theory for discontinuous differential equations and some results on non-smooth analysis. PMID:22229398

  3. A clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae is the aetiologic agent of an emerging avian epidemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; John, Shinto K; Bunbury, Nancy; Bell, Diana J; Tyler, Kevin M

    2011-10-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that is well characterised as a cause of trichomonosis in columbid and raptor species world-wide. The parasite emerged as a novel infection of British passerines in 2005, leading to epidemic mortality associated with significant declines of breeding populations of greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs). We characterised the extent of T. gallinae genotypic heterogeneity within the affected wild British avifauna by analysing individual isolates from 17 of the species affected. To do so, we employed improved platform-based multilocus typing tools as well as the hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase gene as a single marker locus for fine-typing. We found no evidence of heterogeneity amongst the parasites infecting British passerines, indicating that a clonal strain of T. gallinae is the causative agent of this emerging infectious disease. PMID:21712099

  4. Clinical applications of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease: the long road ahead.

    PubMed

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic processes, defined as heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes to the DNA sequence, have emerged as a promising area of cardiovascular disease research. Epigenetic information transcends that of the genotype alone and provides for an integrated etiologic picture of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis because of the interaction of the epigenome with the environment. Epigenetic biomarkers, which include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-based mechanisms, are both modifiable and cell-type specific, which makes them not only responsive to the environment, but also an attractive target for drug development. However, the enthusiasm surrounding possible applications of cardiovascular epigenetics currently outpaces available evidence. In this review, the authors synthesize the evidence linking epigenetic changes with cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the gap between the translational potential and the clinical reality of cardiovascular epigenetics. PMID:24768945

  5. Uric acid and xanthine oxidase: future therapeutic targets in the prevention of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jesse; Walters, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Serum uric acid may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review examines this association, potential mechanisms, and explores whether strategies to reduce uric acid will improve outcomes. The recent studies of xanthine oxidase inhibition are given particular focus. Epidemiological evidence supports the theory that uric acid is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies of losartan, atorvastatin and fenofibrate suggest that uric acid reduction contributes to the risk reduction offered by these therapies. Several small studies of xanthine oxidase inhibition have shown improvements in measures of cardiovascular function of a similar magnitude to that of other proven preventative treatments. These trial data and the convincing epidemiological evidence mandate that large clinical trials of uric acid-lowering strategies are performed in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease. If such approaches are shown to be effective in reducing cardiovascular events, they would represent a novel and cost-effective preventative approach. PMID:21894646

  6. Cardiovascular Cerebrovascular Diseases Diabetes Mellitus: Co-morbidities that Affect Dental Care for the Older Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neerja Bhardwaj; Shelly Dubin; Huai Cheng; Mathew S. Maurer; Evelyn Granieri

    The prevalence of chronic disease increases with age. Consistent with the high prevalence is often substantial morbidity and mortality. Among the most common chronic diseases in older adults are those associated with micro- and macrovascular disorders. This chapter emphasizes those syndromes, and focuses on diabetes, major cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, and on cerebrovascular disease. Each of these disorders has

  7. Resting heart rate: risk indicator and emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Michael; Reil, Jan-Christian; Deedwania, Prakash; Kim, Jae B; Borer, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Resting heart rate is central to cardiac output and is influenced by changes occurring in numerous diseases. It predicts longevity and cardiovascular diseases, and current evidence suggests that it is also an important marker of outcome in cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. Beta-blockers improve outcomes in heart failure; however, they have effects outside reducing heart rate. Ivabradine has demonstrated efficacy in reducing rehospitalizations and mortality in heart failure and in improving exercise tolerance and reducing angina attacks in patients with coronary artery disease, whereas selective heart rate reduction may also prove to be beneficial in therapeutic areas outside those in which ivabradine has already demonstrated clinical efficacy. This review provides an update on the associations between heart rate and cardiovascular outcomes in various conditions, the experimental effects of heart rate reduction with ivabradine, and the potential new indications in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25447617

  8. Antioxidant-based therapies for angiotensin II-associated cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaugh, Erin G.; Savalia, Krupa K.; Manickam, Devika S.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and heart failure, are associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and increased circulating and tissue levels of ANG II, a primary effector peptide of the RAS. Through its actions on various cell types and organ systems, ANG II contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases by inducing cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, vasoconstriction, sodium and water reabsorption in kidneys, sympathoexcitation, and activation of the immune system. Cardiovascular research over the past 15–20 years has clearly implicated an important role for elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating these pathophysiological actions of ANG II. As such, the use of antioxidants, to reduce the elevated levels of ROS, as potential therapies for various ANG II-associated cardiovascular diseases has been intensely investigated. Although some antioxidant-based therapies have shown therapeutic impact in animal models of cardiovascular disease and in human patients, others have failed. In this review, we discuss the benefits and limitations of recent strategies, including gene therapy, dietary sources, low-molecular-weight free radical scavengers, polyethylene glycol conjugation, and nanomedicine-based technologies, which are designed to deliver antioxidants for the improved treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Although much work has been completed, additional research focusing on developing specific antioxidant molecules or proteins and identifying the ideal in vivo delivery system for such antioxidants is necessary before the use of antioxidant-based therapies for cardiovascular diseases become a clinical reality. PMID:23552499

  9. The Association Between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Torre; Karen J. Cruickshanks; Barbara E. K. Klein; Ronald Klein; David M. Nondahl

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were asked about their cardiovascular medical history. CVD history

  10. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  11. The Multifaceted Functions of CXCL10 in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quax, Paul H. A.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10), or interferon-inducible protein-10, is a small chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Its members are responsible for leukocyte trafficking and act on tissue cells, like endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. CXCL10 is secreted by leukocytes and tissue cells and functions as a chemoattractant, mainly for lymphocytes. After binding to its receptor CXCR3, CXCL10 evokes a range of inflammatory responses: key features in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The role of CXCL10 in CVD has been extensively described, for example for atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, and myocardial infarction. However, there seems to be a discrepancy between experimental and clinical settings. This discrepancy occurs from differences in biological actions between species (e.g. mice and human), which is dependent on CXCL10 signaling via different CXCR3 isoforms or CXCR3-independent signaling. This makes translation from experimental to clinical settings challenging. Furthermore, the overall consensus on the actions of CXCL10 in specific CVD models is not yet reached. The purpose of this review is to describe the functions of CXCL10 in different CVDs in both experimental and clinical settings and to highlight and discuss the possible discrepancies and translational difficulties. Furthermore, CXCL10 as a possible biomarker in CVD will be discussed. PMID:24868552

  12. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Adam A.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Faulkner, James A.; Tarrant, Michael A.; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A.; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

  13. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake. PMID:18302966

  14. Dietary strategies, policy and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in England.

    PubMed

    Levy, L B

    2013-11-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are major public health concerns in England and the associated costs to the National Health Service and society are considerable. Poor diet and other lifestyle factors are estimated to account for about one-third of all deaths from CVD in England. UK dietary recommendations were set by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy and are now set by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. For cardiovascular health, dietary recommendations are set for nutrients (saturated fat, trans-fat and carbohydrates), foods (fruits, vegetables and oily fish) and salt. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey demonstrates that the majority of the UK population have poor diets. Average intakes of saturated fat and salt are above recommendations while fruit, vegetables, fibre and oily fish are below recommendations. The Department of Health in England is committed to working to improve diet and lifestyle. Current work includes the Public Health Responsibility Deal, under which organisations pledge to increase fruits and vegetables and reduce levels of salt, trans-fat and energy in manufactured foods and menus, the provision of information to help improve food choice through better food labels and provision of information, including a NHS Choices website and the social marketing campaign Change4Life. PMID:23842106

  15. Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors among indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Adam A; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James A; Fryer, Simon; Tarrant, Michael A; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jump, Donald B; Depner, Christopher M; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C(20-22) ? 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ? 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ? 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ? 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ? 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ? 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ? 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  17. A Naturopathic Approach to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Patricia M.; Szczurko, Orest; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Dugald

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of a worksite-based naturopathic (individualized lifestyle counseling and nutritional medicine) approach to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Economic evaluation alongside a pragmatic, multi-worksite, randomized controlled trial comparing enhanced usual care (EUC; usual care plus biometric screening) to the addition of a naturopathic approach to CVD prevention (NC+EUC). Results: After 1 year, NC+EUC resulted in a net decrease of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7 to 4.8) percentage points in 10-year CVD event risk (number needed to treat = 30). These risk reductions came with average net study-year savings of $1138 in societal costs and $1187 in employer costs. There was no change in quality-adjusted life years across the study year. Conclusions: A naturopathic approach to CVD primary prevention significantly reduced CVD risk over usual care plus biometric screening and reduced costs to society and employers in this multi-worksite—based study. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00718796. PMID:24451612

  18. Salivary biomarkers indicate obstructive sleep apnea patients with cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Li, Ruoxuan; Zhang, Jieni; Zhou, Shaonan; Ma, Qingwei; Zhou, Yanheng; Chen, Feng; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2014-01-01

    Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), only a small proportion is currently diagnosed. To explore and identify the differentially expressed proteins/peptides of OSA patients with CVDs, a mass spectrometry-based salivary analysis was performed. In our study, eleven peaks were observed differentially expressed in saliva from the non-CVD and CVD groups. Five masses mass peaks (1594.1, 1673.7, 1196.6, 1290.5, and 1447.0?Da) showed an upregulated trend in the CVD group, whereas six mass peaks (3038.6, 2164.3, 2301.4, 3195.0, 2628.4, and 1721.9?Da) were downregulated in the CVD group. In addition, the alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) levels in saliva were verified to be decreased in CVD group compared to non-CVD group. Analysis of the salivary peptidome provides a promising approach to screening for novel biomarkers before further identification, and may contribute to early diagnosis of CVD patients with OSA. PMID:25395095

  19. MicroRNAs as mediators of cardiovascular disease: Targets to be manipulated.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seahyoung; Choi, Eunhyun; Kim, Sung-Man; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2015-05-26

    Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death worldwide for the last few decades. Even with the rapid progression of the biomedical field, conquering/managing cardiovascular disease is not an easy task because it is multifactorial disease. One of the key players of the development and progression of numerous diseases is microRNA (miRNA). These small, non-coding RNAs bind to target mRNAs to inhibit translations of and/or degrade the target mRNAs, thus acting as negative regulators of gene expressions. Accumulating evidence indicates that non-physiological expressions of miRNAs contribute to both development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Since even a single miRNA can have multiple targets, dysregulation of miRNAs can lead to catastrophic changes of proteins that may be important for maintaining physiologic conditions of cells, tissues, and organs. Current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease is mostly based on the observational data such as microarray of miRNAs in animal disease models, thus relatively lacking insight of how such dysregulation of miRNAs is initiated and regulated. Consequently, future research should aim to elucidate the more comprehensive mechanisms of miRNA dysregulation during pathogenesis of the cardiovascular system so that appropriate counter-measures to prevent/manage cardiovascular disease can be developed. PMID:26009702

  20. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential bioactivity. PMID:22456725

  1. [Psychocardiology: clinically relevant recommendations regarding selected cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Albus, C; Ladwig, K-H; Herrmann-Lingen, C

    2014-03-01

    Psychosocial risk factors (work stress, low socioeconomic status, impaired social support, anger, anxiety and depression), certain personality traits (e.g. hostility) and post-traumatic stress disorders may negatively influence the incidence and course of multiple cardiovascular disease conditions. Systematic screening for these factors may help to adequately assess the psychosocial risk pattern of a given patient and may also contribute to the treatment of these patients. Recommendations for treatment are based on current guidelines. The physician-patient interaction should basically follow the principle of a patient centered communication and should gender and age specific aspects into consideration. Integrated biopsychosocial care is an effective, low threshold option to treat psycho-social risk factors and should be offered on a regular basis. Patients with high blood pressure may profit from relaxation programs and biofeedback procedures (however with moderate success). An individually adjusted multimodal treatment strategy should be offered to patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure and after heart surgery. It may incorporate educational tools, exercise therapy, motivational modules, relaxation and stress management programs. In case of affective comorbidity, psychotherapy may be indicated. Anti-depressant pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the first line should only be offered to patients with at least moderate severe depressive episodes. Psychotherapy and SSRIs, particularly sertraline, have been proven to be safe and effective with regard to improvements of the patient's quality of life. A prognostic benefit has not been clearly proven so far. Patients with an implanted cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) should receive psychosocial support on a regular basis. Concomitant psychotherapy and/or psychopharmacotherapy (SSRIs) should be offered in case of a severe mental comorbidity. Generally, tricyclic antidepressants should be avoided in cardiac patients because of adverse side effects. PMID:24619718

  2. Lipid-Related Markers and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Context The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated. Objective To determine whether adding information on apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), or lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 to total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction. Design, Setting, and Participants Individual records were available for 165 544 participants without baseline CVD in 37 prospective cohorts (calendar years of recruitment: 1968–2007) with up to 15 126 incident fatal or nonfatal CVD outcomes (10 132 CHD and 4994 stroke outcomes) during a median follow-up of 10.4 years (interquartile range, 7.6–14 years). Main Outcome Measures Discrimination of CVD outcomes and reclassification of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (<10%), intermediate (10%–<20%), and high (?20%) risk. Results The addition of information on various lipid-related markers to total cholesterol, HDL-C, and other conventional risk factors yielded improvement in the model’s discrimination: C-index change, 0.0006 (95% CI, 0.0002–0.0009) for the combination of apolipoprotein B and A-I; 0.0016 (95% CI, 0.0009–0.0023) for lipoprotein(a); and 0.0018 (95% CI, 0.0010–0.0026) for lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass. Net reclassification improvements were less than 1% with the addition of each of these markers to risk scores containing conventional risk factors. We estimated that for 100 000 adults aged 40 years or older, 15 436 would be initially classified at intermediate risk using conventional risk factors alone. Additional testing with a combination of apolipoprotein B and A-I would reclassify 1.1%; lipoprotein(a), 4.1%; and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass, 2.7% of people to a 20% or higher predicted CVD risk category and, therefore, in need of statin treatment under Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Conclusion In a study of individuals without known CVD, the addition of information on the combination of apolipoprotein B and A-I, lipoprotein(a), or lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass to risk scores containing total cholesterol and HDL-C led to slight improvement in CVD prediction. PMID:22797450

  3. A multiplicative hazard regression model to assess the risk of disease transmission at hospital during community epidemics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Voirin; Sylvain Roche; Philippe Vanhems; Marine Giard; Sandra David-Tchouda; Béatrice Barret; René Ecochard

    2011-01-01

    Background  During community epidemics, infections may be imported within hospital and transmitted to hospitalized patients. Hospital\\u000a outbreaks of communicable diseases have been increasingly reported during the last decades and have had significant consequences\\u000a in terms of patient morbidity, mortality, and associated costs. Quantitative studies are thus needed to estimate the risks\\u000a of communicable diseases among hospital patients, taking into account the

  4. The Emerging Role of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzoigwe, Jacinta C.; Prum, Thavaleak; Bresnahan, Eric; Garelnabi, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system. PMID:24083218

  5. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: from evidence to clinical practice – position statement 2014 of Brazilian Diabetes Society

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is a very well known correlation between diabetes and cardiovascular disease but many health care professionals are just concerned with glycemic control, ignoring the paramount importance of controlling other risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of serious cardiovascular diseases. This Position Statement from the Brazilian Diabetes Society was developed to promote increased awareness in relation to six crucial topics dealing with diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Glicemic Control, Cardiovascular Risk Stratification and Screening Coronary Artery Disease, Treatment of Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Antiplatelet Therapy and Myocardial Revascularization. The issue of what would be the best algorithm for the use of statins in diabetic patients received a special attention and a new Brazilian algorithm was developed by our editorial committee. This document contains 38 recommendations which were classified by their levels of evidence (A, B, C and D). The Editorial Committee included 22 specialists with recognized expertise in diabetes and cardiology. PMID:24855495

  6. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has ...

  7. Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: United States, 1999-2010

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: United States, 1999–2010 On This Page Key findings Did ... is the leading cause of death in the United States ( 1 ). High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking ...

  8. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON NATIONWIDE STUDY OF DRINKING WATER AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to further investigate the association(s) of cardiovascular diseases and drinking water constituents. A sample of 4200 adults were randomly selected from 35 geographic areas to represent the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the contiguous United...

  9. Rosuvastatin, inflammation, C-reactive protein, JUPITER, and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease – a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The major public health concern worldwide is coronary heart disease, with dyslipidemia as a major risk factor. Statin drugs are recommended by several guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention. Rosuvastatin has been widely accepted because of its efficacy, potency, and superior safety profile. Inflammation is involved in all phases of atherosclerosis, with the process beginning in early youth and advancing relentlessly for decades throughout life. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-studied, nonspecific marker of inflammation which may reflect general health risk. Considerable evidence suggests CRP is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, but direct involvement in atherosclerosis remains controversial. Rosuvastatin is a synthetic, hydrophilic statin with unique stereochemistry. A large proportion of patients achieve evidence-based lipid targets while using the drug, and it slows progression and induces regression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions. Rosuvastatin lowers CRP levels significantly. The Justification for Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial was designed after the observation that when both low density lipoprotein and CRP were reduced, patients fared better than when only LDL was lowered. Advocates and critics alike acknowledge that the benefits of rosuvastatin in JUPITER were real. After a review, the US Food and Drug Administration extended the indications for rosuvastatin to include asymptomatic JUPITER-eligible individuals with one additional risk factor. The American Heart Association and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention had previously recognized the use of CRP in persons with “intermediate risk” as defined by global risk scores. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines went further and recommended use of statins in persons with low LDL and high CRP levels at intermediate risk. The JUPITER study focused attention on ostensibly healthy individuals with “normal” lipid profiles and high CRP values who benefited from statin therapy. The backdrop to JUPITER during this period was an increasing awareness of a rising cardiovascular risk burden and imperfect methods of risk evaluation, so that a significant number of individuals were being denied beneficial therapies. Other concerns have been a high level of residual risk in those who are treated, poor patient adherence, a need to follow guidelines more closely, a dual global epidemic of obesity and diabetes, and a progressively deteriorating level of physical activity in the population. Calls for new and more effective means of reducing risk for coronary heart disease are intensifying. In view of compelling evidence supporting earlier and aggressive therapy in people with high risk burdens, JUPITER simply offers another choice for stratification and earlier risk reduction in primary prevention patients. When indicated, and in individuals unwilling or unable to change their diet and lifestyles sufficiently, the benefits of statins greatly exceed the risks. Two side effects of interest are myotoxicity and an increase in the incidence of diabetes. PMID:21267417

  10. The elephant in uremia: Oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Himmelfarb; Peter Stenvinkel; T Alp Ikizler; Raymond M Hakim

    2002-01-01

    “And so these men of IndostanDisputed loud and long,Each in his own opinionExceeding stiff and strong,Though each was partly in the right,And all were in the wrong!”JOHN GODFREY SAXEThe elephant in uremia: Oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in uremic patients. In large cross-sectional studies of dialysis

  11. Pharmacogenetic Associations of MMP9 and MMP12 Variants with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rikki M. Tanner; Amy I. Lynch; Victoria H. Brophy; John H. Eckfeldt; Barry R. Davis; Charles E. Ford; Eric Boerwinkle; Donna K. Arnett

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesMMP-9 and -12 function in tissue remodeling and may play roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed associations of four MMP polymorphisms and three antihypertensive drugs with cardiovascular outcomes.MethodsHypertensives (n = 42,418) from a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial were randomized to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, lisinopril, or doxazosin treatment (mean follow up, 4.9 years). The primary outcome was coronary heart disease (CHD).

  12. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Quanhe; Zhang, Zefeng; Gregg, Edward W; Flanders, W Dana; Merritt, Robert; Hu, Frank B

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher intake of added sugar is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Few prospective studies have examined the association of added sugar intake with CVD mortality. OBJECTIVE To examine time trends of added sugar consumption as percentage of daily calories in the United States and investigate the association of this consumption with CVD mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1988-1994 [III], 1999-2004, and 2005-2010 [n?=?31,147]) for the time trend analysis and NHANES III Linked Mortality cohort (1988-2006 [n?=?11?733]), a prospective cohort of a nationally representative sample of US adults for the association study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular disease mortality. RESULTS Among US adults, the adjusted mean percentage of daily calories from added sugar increased from 15.7% (95% CI, 15.0%-16.4%) in 1988-1994 to 16.8% (16.0%-17.7%; P?=?.02) in 1999-2004 and decreased to 14.9% (14.2%-15.5%; P?

  13. Cardiovascular disease in CKD in 2013: Reducing cardiovascular risk--light at the end of the tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel

    2014-02-01

    During 2013, a meta-analysis provided evidence that cystatin C improves estimated glomerular filtration rate in cardiovascular risk categorization in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Another study showed that low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is harmful in patients with CKD, challenging the paradigm of treating elevated systolic blood pressure regardless of DBP. Overall, mortality rates in CKD have decreased but further improvement is required. PMID:24322975

  14. Kennedy Space Center Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A

    2008-01-01

    This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors. PMID:18561517

  15. Nicorandil and cardiovascular performance in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Suryapranata, H; MacLeod, D

    1992-01-01

    To establish the cardiovascular profile of nicorandil in patients with coronary artery disease, we recently conducted three studies at our institution. In two groups of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, the effects of 20 mg nicorandil sublingually (s.l.) on, first, left ventricular hemodynamics (n = 10) and, second, coronary vasodilatation (n = 11) were investigated. In the first group, despite a significant decrease of 12% in left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate did not increase significantly after nicorandil. Both left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (-43%) and the time constant of early isovolumic relaxation (-11%) decreased, whereas peak Vce and Vmax increased (+19%) (all significantly). In the second group, as mean aortic pressure decreased (-13%, p < 0.05), coronary sinus blood flow did not change significantly, and calculated coronary vascular resistance tended to decrease (-10%). Myocardial oxygen consumption decreased significantly by 14%. Quantitative coronary angiography confirmed a significant increase in the mean diameter of nonstenotic coronary artery segments (+ 14%, n = 43) and, importantly, in mean obstruction diameter of stenotic segments (+ 14%, n = 7) after s.l. nicorandil. In a third continuing study, the effects of intracoronary (i.c.) nicorandil (6 micrograms/kg) and isosorbide dinitrate (2 mg) on the epicardial coronary arteries were investigated in 10 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. In nonstenotic coronary artery segments, mean coronary diameter increased significantly after either nicorandil (+ 12%) or isosorbide dinitrate (+ 17%). In stenotic segments, however, where the increase in obstruction diameter (+ 20%) after i.c. nicorandil was significant, the 8% increase of isosorbide dinitrate was not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1282175

  16. FINE AMBIENT AIR PARTICULAR MATTER EXPOSURE INDUCES MOLECULAR ALTERATIONS INDICATIVE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PROGRESSION IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC SUSCEPTIBLE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) can alter cardiovascular function and may influence cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been shown that exposure to concentrated ambient air particles (CA...

  17. The Global Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Epidemic: What a Radiologist Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Keith; Salsamendi, Jason; Casillas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from a benign steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metabolic syndrome, mainly obesity, plays an important role, both as an independent risk factor and in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications is expected to increase dramatically. Therapeutic strategies for treating NAFLD and metabolic syndrome, particularly obesity, are continuously being refined. Their goal is the prevention of NAFLD by the management of risk factors, prevention of progression of the disease, as well as management of complications, ultimately preventing morbidity and mortality. Optimal management of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome requires a multidisciplinary collaboration between the government as well as the health system including the nutritionist, primary care physician, radiologist, hepatologist, oncologist, and transplant surgeon. An awareness of the clinical presentation, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management is of paramount importance to a radiologist, both from the clinical perspective as well as from the imaging standpoint. With expertise in imaging modalities as well as minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies, radiologists play an essential role in the comprehensive management, which is highlighted in this article, with cases from our practice. We also briefly discuss transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method that promises to have an enormous potential in the minimally invasive management of obesity, with details of a case from our practice. PMID:26167390

  18. Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalees Rehman; Keith L. March

    Few topics in cardiovascular research have generated as much promise and controversy as that of using stem cells or progenitor\\u000a cells to improve cardiovascular function. The first section of this chapter will discuss general principles of stem and progenitor\\u000a cell biology and therapy. The second section will illustrate these principles with specific stem and progenitor cell types\\u000a used or proposed

  19. Soluble epoxide hydrolase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Imig; Bruce D. Hammock

    2009-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) include vasodilation, antimigratory actions on vascular smooth muscle cells and anti-inflammatory actions. These endogenous lipid mediators are broken down into diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), and so inhibiting this enzyme would be expected to enhance the beneficial cardiovascular properties of EETs. sEH inhibitors (sEHIs) that are based on 1,3-disubstituted urea have been

  20. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in two major Indian cities and projections for associated cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shuchi; Shivashankar, Roopa; Ali, Mohammed K; Kondal, Dimple; Binukumar, B; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Pradeepa, R; Deepa, M; Gupta, Ruby; Mohan, Viswanathan; Narayan, K M Venkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Chertow, Glenn M; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-07-01

    India is experiencing an alarming rise in the burden of noncommunicable diseases, but data on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse. Using the Center for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia surveillance study (a population-based survey of Delhi and Chennai, India) we estimated overall, and age-, sex-, city-, and diabetes-specific prevalence of CKD, and defined the distribution of the study population by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification scheme. The likelihood of cardiovascular events in participants with and without CKD was estimated by the Framingham and Interheart Modifiable Risk Scores. Of the 12,271 participants, 80% had complete data on serum creatinine and albuminuria. The prevalence of CKD and albuminuria, age standardized to the World Bank 2010 world population, was 8.7% (95% confidence interval: 7.9-9.4%) and 7.1% (6.4-7.7%), respectively. Nearly 80% of patients with CKD had an abnormally high hemoglobin A1c (5.7 and above). Based on KDIGO guidelines, 6.0, 1.0, and 0.5% of study participants are at moderate, high, or very high risk for experiencing CKD-associated adverse outcomes. The cardiovascular risk scores placed a greater proportion of patients with CKD in the high-risk categories for experiencing cardiovascular events when compared with participants without CKD. Thus, 1 in 12 individuals living in two of India's largest cities have evidence of CKD, with features that put them at high risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:25786102

  1. Combination pharmacotherapy to prevent cardiovascular disease: present status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Salim; Attaran, Amir; Bosch, Jackie; Joseph, Philip; Lonn, Eva; McCready, Tara; Mente, Andrew; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Pais, Prem; Rodgers, Anthony; Schwalm, J-D; Smith, Richard; Teo, Koon; Xavier, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Combination pills containing aspirin, multiple blood pressure (BP) lowering drugs, and a statin have demonstrated safety, substantial risk factor reductions, and improved medication adherence in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The individual medications in combination pills are already recommended for use together in secondary CVD prevention. Therefore, current information on their pharmacokinetics, impact on the risk factors, and tolerability should be sufficient to persuade regulators and clinicians to use fixed-dose combination pills in high-risk individuals, such as in secondary prevention. Long-term use of these medicines, in a polypill or otherwise, is expected to reduce CVD risk by at least 50-60% in such groups. This risk reduction needs confirmation in prospective randomized trials for populations for whom concomitant use of the medications is not currently recommended (e.g. primary prevention). Given their additive benefits, the combined estimated relative risk reduction (RRR) in CVD from both lifestyle modification and a combination pill is expected to be 70-80%. The first of several barriers to the widespread use of combination therapy in CVD prevention is physician reluctance to use combination pills. This reluctance may originate from the belief that lifestyle modification should take precedence, and that medications should be introduced one drug at a time, instead of regarding combination pills and lifestyle modification as complementary and additive. Second, widespread availability of combination pills is also impeded by the reluctance of large pharmaceutical companies to invest in development of novel co-formulations of generic (or 'mature') drugs. A business model based on 'mass approaches' to drug production, packaging, marketing, and distribution could make the combination pill available at an affordable price, while at the same time providing a viable profit for the manufacturers. A third barrier is regulatory approval for novel multidrug combination pills, as there are few precedents for the approval of combination products with four or more components for CVD. Acceptance of combination therapy in other settings suggests that with concerted efforts by academics, international health agencies, research funding bodies, governments, regulators, and pharmaceutical manufacturers, combination pills for prevention of CVD in those with disease or at high risk (e.g. those with multiple risk factors) can be made available worldwide at affordable prices. It is anticipated that widespread use of combination pills with lifestyle modifications can lead to substantial risk reductions (as much as an 80% estimated RRR) in CVD. Heath care systems need to deploy these strategies widely, effectively, and efficiently. If implemented, these strategies could avoid several millions of fatal and non-fatal CVD events every year worldwide. PMID:24288261

  2. Sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Appelman, Yolande; van Rijn, Bas B; Ten Haaf, Monique E; Boersma, Eric; Peters, Sanne A E

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a men's disease for decades, however it is more common in women than in men. It is generally assumed in medicine that the effects of the major risk factors (RF) on CVD outcomes are the same in women as in men. Recent evidence has emerged that recognizes new, potentially independent, CVD RF exclusive to women. In particular, common disorders of pregnancy, such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, as well as frequently occurring endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age (e.g. polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and early menopause) are associated with accelerated development of CVD and impaired CVD-free survival. With the recent availability of prospective studies comprising men and women, the equivalency of major RF prevalence and effects on CVD between men and women can be examined. Furthermore, female-specific RFs might be identified enabling early detection of apparently healthy women with a high lifetime risk of CVD. Therefore, we examined the available literature regarding the prevalence and effects of the traditional major RFs for CVD in men and women. This included large prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and registries, as randomised trials are lacking. Furthermore, a literature search was performed to examine the impact of female-specific RFs on the traditional RFs and the occurrence of CVD. We found that the effects of elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and elevated cholesterol on CVD outcomes are largely similar between women and men, however prolonged smoking is significantly more hazardous for women than for men. With respect to female-specific RF only associations (and no absolute risk data) could be found between preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and menopause onset with the occurrence of CVD. This review shows that CVD is the main cause of death in men and women, however the prevalence is higher in women. Determination of the CV risk profile should take into account that there are differences in impact of major CV RF leading to a worse outcome in women. Lifestyle interventions and awareness in women needs more consideration. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that female-specific RF are of influence on the impact of major RF and on the onset of CVD. Attention for female specific RF may enable early detection and intervention in apparently healthy women. Studies are needed on how to implement the added RF's in current risk assessment and management strategies to maximize benefit and cost-effectiveness specific in women. PMID:25670232

  3. Vitamin D receptor polymorphism in chronic kidney disease patients with complicated cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Lucisano, Silvia; Gagliostro, Giorgia; Alibrandi, Angela; Benvenga, Salvatore; Ientile, Riccardo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Buemi, Michele; Caccamo, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate a relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Pleiotropic actions of vitamin D and its analogs are mediated by vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDRs have been identified in almost all tissues, including vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and endothelial cells. The FokI and BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene are regarded as strong markers of disturbed vitamin D signaling pathway. Studies investigating the relationship between VDR genotypes and left ventricular hypertrophy revealed a highly significant association with the BsmI Bb heterozygous genotype. There are conflicting data on the action of vitamin D in left ventricular hypertrophy. Experimental as well as observational studies and small clinical trials have suggested that vitamin D administration may favorably influence left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas large randomized clinical trials have shown negative results. However, a beneficial effect on the left atrial volume index and the duration of hospitalization were observed in patients treated with vitamin D analogs. Larger clinical trials with robust clinical end points are needed to confirm that vitamin D is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients and in general population. PMID:25499229

  4. Racial impact of diurnal variations in blood pressure on cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Ciaran J; Yano, Yuichiro; Bakris, George L; Kario, Kazuomi; Phillips, Robert A; Forman, John P

    2015-04-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure parameters, nocturnal dipping and morning surge, are associated with cardiovascular outcomes in several populations. While significant variation exists between racial groups in ambulatory blood pressure measurements and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, the effect of race on the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In a prospective analysis of 197 African American and 197 Japanese individuals with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease matched by age and renal function, we analyzed the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular events for both races and assessed whether these relations differed by race. Higher sleep-trough morning surge was independently associated with cardiovascular events in Japanese (hazard ratio, 1.93 per 10 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.10) but not in African American participants, with race an effect modifier (P-value <.01). Dipping was not associated with cardiovascular events in either racial group. In individuals with chronic kidney disease, the association between morning surge and cardiovascular events appears to be dependent upon race, with higher morning surge a risk factors in Japanese but not in African Americans. PMID:25891362

  5. Renalase, kidney and cardiovascular disease: are they related or just coincidentally associated?

    PubMed

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Bachorzewska-Gajewska, Hanna; Dobrzycki, Slawomir

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension are the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Diabetes and chronic kidney disease became also more prevalent reaching almost the level of epidemy. Researchers are looking eagerly for the new risk and/or pathogenetic factors, as well as therapeutic option in these disease. It has been suggested that human kidney releases a protein named renalase into the bloodstream. It is supposed to be an enzyme which breaks down catecholamines in the blood circulation and regulate blood pressure. However, there were several doubts whether renalase exerts monoaminooxidase activity, or if it is monoaminooxidase at all. Recently, a hypothesis that it is also a cytokine was postulated. Studies on renalase polymorphisms in hypertension, cardiovascular disease or diabetes are inconsistent. Similarly, there are several discrepancies in the animal on the possible role of renalase in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies report a protective role of renalase in acute kidney injury, whereas others showed that renalase levels were mainly dependent on kidney function, indicating rather a role of kidney in excretion of this substance. Moreover, validated assays are needed to evaluate renalase levels and activity. On one hand a deeper and more accurate link between renalase and cardiovascular diseases require further profound research, on the other hand whether or not renalase protein could be a new therapeutic target in these pathologies should also be considered. Whether renalase, discovered in 2005, might be a Holy Grail of hypertension, linking kidney and cardiovascular diseases, remains to be proven. PMID:25461379

  6. Mast Cell Chymase and Tryptase as Targets for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    He, Aina; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are critical effectors in inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and their associated complications. These cells exert their physiological and pathological activities by releasing granules containing histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, including mast cell-specific chymases and tryptases. Several recent human and animal studies have shown direct or indirect participation of mast cell-specific proteases in atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, obesity, diabetes, and their complications. Animal studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of highly selective and potent chymase and tryptase inhibitors in several experimental cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries from in vitro cell-based studies to experimental animal disease models, from protease knockout mice to treatments with recently developed selective and potent protease inhibitors, and from patients with preclinical disorders to those affected by complications. We hypothesize that inhibition of chymases and tryptases would benefit patients suffering from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:23016684

  7. Effect of trapidil on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (results from the Japan Multicenter Investigation for Cardiovascular Diseases-Mochida [JMIC-M])

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Hirayama; Kazuhisa Kodama; Yoshiki Yui; Hiroshi Nonogi; Tetsuya Sumiyoshi; Hideki Origasa; Saichi Hosoda; Chuichi Kawai

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale study was conducted to assess the effect of long-term administration of trapidil on the prognosis of patients with angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). A large-scale, multicenter study, the Japan Multicenter Investigation for Cardiovascular Diseases-Mochida was an open-label, randomized trial of 1,743 patients with CAD who were ?70 years old and had angiographic evidence of >25% stenosis

  8. Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Hemodialysis Patients: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nicolau, Carlos; Pons, Mercedes; Cruzado, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the predictive value of carotid atherosclerotic disease (CAD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) on incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Methods Multicenter, observational, prospective study including 110 patients, followed-up to 6 years. Carotid doppler ultrasonographic findings were classified in 4 degrees of severity: 1) IMT <0.9 mm, 2) IMT >0.9 mm, 3) carotid plaque with stenosis <50% and 4) plaque with stenosis >50%. The associations between IMT and CAD and cardiovascular events, total and cardiovascular mortality were assessed. Results 83% of the patients had atherosclerotic plaques (CAD degrees 3-4). During follow-up, 29.1% of patients experienced cardiovascular events, and 28.2% died, 38.7% of cardiovascular origin. The presence of plaques was associated with cardiovascular events (p = 0.03) while calcified plaques were associated with both cardiovascular events (p = 0.01), cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.03) and non-significantly with overall mortality (p = 0.08) in the survival analysis. Carotid IMT was not associated with outcomes. Cardiovascular events correlated with CAD severity (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.13-4.54), age (HR 1.04, 1.01-1.06), previous cardiovascular disease (HR 1.75, 1.05-4.42), dyslipidemia (HR 2.25, 1.11-4.53), lipoprotein (a) (HR 1.01, 1.00-1.02), troponin I (HR 3.89, 1.07-14.18), fibrinogen levels (HR 1.38, 0.98-1.94) and antiplatelet therapy (HR 2.14, 1.04-4.4). In an age-adjusted multivariate model, cardiovascular events were independently associated with previous coronary artery disease (HR 3.29, 1.52-7.15) and lipoprotein (a) (HR 1.01, 1.00-1.02). Conclusions The presence of carotid plaques and, especially, calcified plaques, are predictors of new cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, while IMT was not. The prognostic value of calcified plaques should be confirmed in future studies. PMID:26029907

  9. An office-based approach to emotional and behavioral risk factor reduction for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C

    2013-01-01

    There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process. PMID:23535528

  10. Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Late Onset Pompe Disease and Response to Enzyme Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Forsha, Daniel; Li, Jennifer S.; Smith, P. Brian; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Kishnani, Priya; Pasquali, Sara K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities and the efficacy and safety of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with late onset Pompe disease. Methods Ninety patients were randomized 2:1 to ERT or placebo in a double-blind protocol. Electrocardiograms (ECG) and echocardiograms were obtained at baseline and scheduled intervals over the 78-week study period. Baseline cardiovascular abnormalities, and efficacy and safety of ERT were described. Three pediatric patients were excluded. Results Eighty-seven patients were included. Median age was 44 years; 51% were male. At baseline, a short PR interval was present in 10%, 7% had decreased left ventricular systolic function, and 5% had elevated left ventricular mass on echocardiogram (all in mild range). There was no change in cardiovascular status associated with ERT. No significant safety concerns related to ERT were identified. Conclusions Although some patients with late onset Pompe disease had abnormalities on baseline ECG or echocardiogram, those classically seen in infantile Pompe disease, such as significant ventricular hypertrophy, were not noted. Cardiovascular parameters were not impacted by ERT and there were no cardiovascular safety concerns. The cardiovascular abnormalities identified may be related to Pompe disease or other comorbid conditions. PMID:21543987

  11. Pediatric patients with renal disease and cardiovascular complications: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Saburi, Amin; Taheri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular burden of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in children has recently received more attention, and some authors have recommended that the origins of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality be found in childhood. In this comprehensive review of the literature, we aim to review the main and most recent studies evaluating cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric kidney disease patients. The literature suggests that ESRD, even in the pediatric population, is associated with a high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and needs serious attention. Unfortunately, there is extreme scarcity of data on the efficacy of preventive strategies on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with renal disease. Therefore, authors of the current article recommend future studies to be directed to find beneficial and/or potential harmful effects of different interventions conventionally used in this population, including lifestyle modifications and pharmaceutical therapy on cardiovascular indices. Moreover, the effects of these drugs on the renal function of children with minimal kidney disease should be evaluated. PMID:25161680

  12. Imbalance between endothelial damage and repair: a gateway to cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mak, Anselm; Kow, Nien Yee

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and it leads to excessive cardiovascular complications in these patients. Despite the improved awareness of cardiovascular disease and advent of clinical diagnostics, the process of atherogenesis in most patients remains clinically silent until symptoms and signs of cardiovascular complications develop. As evidence has demonstrated that vascular damage is already occurring before clinically overt cardiovascular disease develops in lupus patients, intervention at the preclinical stage of atherogenesis would be plausible. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction, one of the earliest steps of atherogenesis, has been demonstrated to occur in lupus patients even when they are naïve for cardiovascular disease. Currently known "endothelium-toxic" factors including type 1 interferon, proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cells, immune complexes, costimulatory molecules, neutrophils extracellular traps, lupus-related autoantibodies, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia, coupled with the aberrant functions of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) which are crucial to vascular repair, likely tip the balance towards endothelial dysfunction and propensity to develop cardiovascular disease in lupus patients. In this review, altered physiology of the endothelium, factors leading to perturbed vascular repair contributed by lupus EPC and the impact of proatherogenic factors on the endothelium which potentially lead to atherosclerosis in lupus patients will be discussed. PMID:24790989

  13. Imbalance between Endothelial Damage and Repair: A Gateway to Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and it leads to excessive cardiovascular complications in these patients. Despite the improved awareness of cardiovascular disease and advent of clinical diagnostics, the process of atherogenesis in most patients remains clinically silent until symptoms and signs of cardiovascular complications develop. As evidence has demonstrated that vascular damage is already occurring before clinically overt cardiovascular disease develops in lupus patients, intervention at the preclinical stage of atherogenesis would be plausible. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction, one of the earliest steps of atherogenesis, has been demonstrated to occur in lupus patients even when they are naïve for cardiovascular disease. Currently known “endothelium-toxic” factors including type 1 interferon, proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cells, immune complexes, costimulatory molecules, neutrophils extracellular traps, lupus-related autoantibodies, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia, coupled with the aberrant functions of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) which are crucial to vascular repair, likely tip the balance towards endothelial dysfunction and propensity to develop cardiovascular disease in lupus patients. In this review, altered physiology of the endothelium, factors leading to perturbed vascular repair contributed by lupus EPC and the impact of proatherogenic factors on the endothelium which potentially lead to atherosclerosis in lupus patients will be discussed. PMID:24790989

  14. The Epidemiological Study of Coxsackievirus A6 revealing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Epidemic patterns in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hanri; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Huanying; Yi, Lina; Guo, Xue; Liu, Leng; Rutherford, Shannon; Sun, Limei; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Hui; Ke, Changwen; Lin, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are regarded as the two major causative pathogens in hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics. However, CVA6, previously largely ignored, became the predominant pathogen in China in 2013. In this study, we describe the epidemiological trendsofCVA6 during the annual HFMD outbreaks from 2008 to 2013 in Guangdong, China. The study results show that CVA6 has been one of three major causative agents of HFMD epidemics since 2009. The periodic rotation and dominance of the three pathogens, EVA71, CVA16 and CVA6, may have contributed to the continuously increasing HFMD epidemics. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene shows that major circulating CVA6 strains collected from 2009 to 2013 are distinct from the earlier strains collected before 2009. In conclusion, the discovery from this research investigating epidemiological trends of CVA6 from 2008 to 2013 explains the possible pattern of the continuous HFMD epidemic in China. The etiological change pattern also highlights the need for improvement for pathogen surveillance and vaccine strategies for HFMD control in China. PMID:25993899

  15. Influence of spatial heterogeneity on an emerging infectious disease: the case of dengue epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Charly; Schmit, Delphine; Müller-Graf, Christine D.M; Cazelles, Bernard; Degallier, Nicolas; Mondet, Bernard; Dubois, Marc A

    2005-01-01

    The importance of spatial heterogeneity and spatial scales (at a village or neighbourhood scale) has been explored with individual-based models. Our reasoning is based on the Chilean Easter Island (EI) case, where a first dengue epidemic occurred in 2002 among the relatively small population localized in one village. Even in this simple situation, the real epidemic is not consistent with homogeneous models. Conversely, including contact heterogeneity on different scales (intra-households, inter-house, inter-areas) allows the recovery of not only the EI epidemiological curve but also the qualitative patterns of Brazilian urban dengue epidemic in more complex situations. PMID:16024379

  16. [Textual research on circulated versions of Wen re lun (On epidemic warm diseases) and its related problems].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-bin

    2007-10-01

    The Wen re lun (On Epidemic Warm Diseases), written by Ye Tian-shi, a famous physician of epidemic warm diseases in the Qing dynasty, was originally a teaching record between the tutors and disciples. The book was originally anonymous, and there were two different circulated versions compiled by two different scholars. The Wen zheng lun zhi (Treatment of Warm Syndromes) was arranged by Tang Da-lie, and its first edition was Wu yi hui jiang (Collected Discourses of Physicians in Wu Region), an xylographic edition of Tang's Wenxin Thatched Cottage in Wu region block-printed in the 57th year of Qianlong (1792). The Wen re lun (On Epidemic Warm Diseases) was arranged by Hua Xiu-yun, and its first edition was Weisheng Tang edition probably in the 42nd year of Qianlong of the Qing dynasty (1777) with disordered book names, which should be unified and marked. Hua Xiu-yun wasn't Ye's follower, and he looked for and arranged Ye's medical cases because of the adoration to Ye Tian-shi. The texts of these two editions were the same, while the academic style differed substantially. PMID:19127849

  17. Psychosocial effects of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease epidemic in a rural population: qualitative diary based study

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Maggie; Convery, Ian; Baxter, Josephine; Bailey, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To understand the health and social consequences of the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic for a rural population. Design Longitudinal qualitative analysis. Setting North Cumbria, the worst affected area in Britain. Sample Purposive sample of 54 respondents divided in six demographically balanced rural occupational and population groups. Main outcome measures 3071 weekly diaries contributed over 18 months; 72 semistructured interviews (with the 54 diarists and 18 others); 12 group discussions with diarists Results The disease epidemic was a human tragedy, not just an animal one. Respondents' reports showed that life after the foot and mouth disease epidemic was accompanied by distress, feelings of bereavement, fear of a new disaster, loss of trust in authority and systems of control, and the undermining of the value of local knowledge. Distress was experienced across diverse groups well beyond the farming community. Many of these effects continued to feature in the diaries throughout the 18 month period. Conclusions The use of a rural citizens' panel allowed data capture from a wide spectrum of the rural population and showed that a greater number of workers and residents had traumatic experiences than has previously been reported. Recommendations for future disaster management include joint service reviews of what counts as a disaster, regular NHS and voluntary sector sharing of intelligence, debriefing and peer support for front line workers, increased community involvement in disposal site or disaster management, and wider, more flexible access to regeneration funding and rural health outreach work. PMID:16214809

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in children with obesity, hypertension and diabetes: lipoprotein(a) levels and body mass index correlate with family history of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Glowinska; Miroslawa Urban; Alicja Koput

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the study were to compare atherosclerosis risk factors in obese, hypertensive and diabetic children with positive and negative family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to find which of the new atherosclerosis risk factors may be of clinical value in predicting future cardiovascular events. A total of 285 children and adolescents were divided into groups: obese,

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays a significant role in many aspects of healthcare worldwide, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review describes some of the challenges of CAM in terms of scientific research. Biologically-based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies, whole medical systems, and energy medicine are reviewed in detail with regard to cardiovascular risk factors and mediation or modulation of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. CAM use among patients with CVD is prevalent and in many instances provides positive and significant effects, with biologically-based and mind-body therapies being the most commonly used treatment modalities. More rigorous research to determine the precise physiologic effects and long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with CAM usage, as well as more open lines of communication between patients and physicians regarding CAM use, is essential when determining optimal treatment plans. PMID:23710229

  20. HDL and cardiovascular disease: atherogenic and atheroprotective mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasa T. Reddy; Brian J. Van Lenten; Alan M. Fogelman; Mohamad Navab

    2011-01-01

    The lipoprotein HDL has two important roles: first, it promotes reverse cholesterol transport, and second, it modulates inflammation. Epidemiological studies show that HDL-cholesterol levels are inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. However, many patients who experience a clinical event have normal, or even high, levels of HDL cholesterol. Measuring HDL-cholesterol levels provides information about the size of the

  1. Pharmacogenomics: Application to the Management of Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Johnson; L H Cavallari; A L Beitelshees; J P Lewis; A R Shuldiner; D M Roden

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen substantial advances in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics. Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and warfarin have been defined, resulting in changes to the product labels for these drugs that suggest the use of genetic information as a guide for therapy. Genetic tests are available, as are guidelines for incorporation of genetic information into patient-care decisions. These guidelines

  2. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality Due to Cardiovascular Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baijun; Zhang, Liwen; Chen, Xi; Ma, Nannan; Yu, Fei; Guo, Huimin; Huang, Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo; Tang, Naijun; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective cohort study among humans to examine the association between compound-air pollutants [particulate matter <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and mortality in Shenyang, China, using 12 years of data (1998–2009). Also, stratified analysis by sex, age, education, and income was conducted for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The results showed that an increase of 10 µg/m3 in a year average concentration of PM10 corresponds to 55% increase in the risk of a death cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51 to 1.60) and 49% increase in cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.53), respectively. The corresponding figures of adjusted HR (95%CI) for a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 was 2.46 (2.31 to 2.63) for cardiovascular mortality and 2.44 (2.27 to 2.62) for cerebrovascular mortality, respectively. The effects of air pollution were more evident in female that in male, and nonsmokers and residents with BMI<18.5 were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion/Significance Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the death of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese populations. PMID:21695220

  3. The Role of Type 1 Angiotensin Receptors on T Lymphocytes in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiandong; Crowley, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases, largely through activation of type I angiotensin (AT1) receptors by angiotensin II. Treatment with AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) is a proven successful intervention for hypertension and progressive heart and kidney disease. However, the divergent actions of AT1 receptors on individual cell lineages in hypertension may present novel opportunities to optimize the therapeutic benefits of ARBs. For example, T lymphocytes make important contributions to the induction and progression of various cardiovascular diseases, but new experiments indicate that activation of AT1 receptors on T cells paradoxically limits inflammation and target organ damage in hypertension. Future studies should illustrate how these discrepant functions of AT1 receptors in target organs versus mononuclear cells can be exploited for the benefit of patients with recalcitrant hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23160867

  4. Association between Low to Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine A.; Guallar, Eliseo; Umans, Jason G.; Devereux, Richard B.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Pollak, Jonathan; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Howard, Barbara V.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic exposure in water and food is a global public health problem. Chronic exposure to high levels of arsenicis consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, whereas prospective data on low to moderate chronic arsenic exposure (<100?g/L in drinking water) are lacking. Objective To evaluate the association between chronic low to moderate arsenic exposure and incident cardiovascular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Strong Heart Study baseline visit in 1989-1991, with follow-up through 2008. Patients 3,575 American Indian men and women aged 45-74 years living in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Measurements The sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in urine at baseline was used as a biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure. Participants were followed for incident fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Results 1,184 participants developed fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and 439 participants developed fatal cardiovascular disease. Comparing the highest to lowest quartile arsenic concentrations (>15.7 vs. <5.8 ?g/g creatinine), the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, smoking, body mass index, and lipids were 1.65 (1.20, 2.27; p-trend<0.001), 1.71 (1.19, 2.44; p-trend<0.001) and 3.03 (1.08, 8.50; p-trend=0.061), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were 1.32 (1.09, 1.59; p-trend=0.002), 1.30 (1.04, 1.62; p-trend=0.006), and 1.47 (0.97, 2.21; p-trend=0.032), respectively. These associations varied by study region and were attenuated following further adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and measures of kidney disease. Limitations Direct measurement of individual arsenic in drinking water was unavailable. Residual confounding and differences in potential confounders across study regions may exist. Conclusions Low to moderate chronic arsenic exposure, as measured in urine, was prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. PMID:24061511

  5. A review of health utilities using the EQ-5D in studies of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The EQ-5D has been extensively used to assess patient utility in trials of new treatments within the cardiovascular field. The aims of this study were to review evidence of the validity and reliability of the EQ-5D, and to summarise utility scores based on the use of the EQ-5D in clinical trials and in studies of patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods A structured literature search was conducted using keywords related to cardiovascular disease and EQ-5D. Original research studies of patients with cardiovascular disease that reported EQ-5D results and its measurement properties were included. Results Of 147 identified papers, 66 met the selection criteria, with 10 studies reporting evidence on validity or reliability and 60 reporting EQ-5D responses (VAS or self-classification). Mean EQ-5D index-based scores ranged from 0.24 (SD 0.39) to 0.90 (SD 0.16), while VAS scores ranged from 37 (SD 21) to 89 (no SD reported). Stratification of EQ-5D index scores by disease severity revealed that scores decreased from a mean of 0.78 (SD 0.18) to 0.51 (SD 0.21) for mild to severe disease in heart failure patients and from 0.80 (SD 0.05) to 0.45 (SD 0.22) for mild to severe disease in angina patients. Conclusions The published evidence generally supports the validity and reliability of the EQ-5D as an outcome measure within the cardiovascular area. This review provides utility estimates across a range of cardiovascular subgroups and treatments that may be useful for future modelling of utilities and QALYs in economic evaluations within the cardiovascular area. PMID:20109189

  6. S100A1: A Multifaceted Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rohde; Julia Ritterhoff; Mirko Voelkers; Hugo A. Katus; Thomas G. Parker; Patrick Most

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, showing a dramatically growing prevalence. It is still associated\\u000a with a poor clinical prognosis, indicating insufficient long-term treatment success of currently available therapeutic strategies.\\u000a Investigations of the pathomechanisms underlying cardiovascular disorders uncovered the Ca2+ binding protein S100A1 as a critical regulator of both cardiac performance and vascular biology. In cardiomyocytes, S100A1

  7. Is Type D personality here to stay? Emerging evidence across cardiovascular disease patient groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne S. Pedersen; Johan Denollet

    2006-01-01

    The distressed personality (Type D) is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that incurs a risk on par with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease. Type D is defined as the co-occurring tendencies to experience increased negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interactions. Evidence is ac- cumulating that Type D may also be

  8. Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from observational studies has suggested that carbohydrate quality rather than absolute intake is associated with greater risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease...

  9. Influence of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Diseases Prevalence in Developing Countries: An Eco-Social Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lateef O. Olayanju; Raouf N. G. Naguib; Quynh T. Nguyen; Mohyi H. Shaker; Jerry S. Pantuvo

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, there has been increased concern about the apparent rise in the occurrence of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs), particularly in developing countries. Research conducted, mainly in developed countries, has suggested possible links between the occurrence of these diseases and air pollution exposures, different risk estimates that support policy making on air pollution regulation in these regions have also been

  10. The role of Nrf2 in the attenuation of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Danielle J; McCord, Joe M; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2013-07-01

    Oxidative stress is a component of many human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Exercise and various phytochemicals activate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), the master regulator of antioxidant defenses, and attenuate CVD. This review highlights Nrf2 regulation by exercise and phytochemicals and the role of Nrf2 as a therapeutic target in CVD. PMID:23558695

  11. Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from observational studies has suggested that carbohydrate quality rather than absolute intake is associated with greater risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease risk f...

  12. Relationship between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The components of the human body are closely interdependent; as a result, disease conditions in some organs or components can influence the development of disease in other body locations. The effect of oral health upon health in general has been investigated for decades by many epidemiological studies. In this context, there appears to be a clear relationship between deficient oral hygiene and different systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The precise relationship between them is the subject of ongoing research, and a variety of theories have been proposed, though most of them postulate the mediation of an inflammatory response. This association between the oral cavity and disease in general requires further study, and health professionals should be made aware of the importance of adopting measures destined to promote correct oral health. The present study conducts a Medline search with the purpose of offering an update on the relationship between oral diseases and cardiovascular diseases, together with an evaluation of the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease. Most authors effectively describe a moderate association between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases, though they also report a lack of scientific evidence that oral alterations constitute an independent cause of cardiovascular diseases, or that their adequate treatment can contribute to prevent such diseases. In the case of metabolic syndrome, obesity and particularly diabetes mellitus may be associated to an increased susceptibility to periodontitis. However, it is not clear whether periodontal treatment is able to improve the systemic conditions of these patients. Key words:Cardiovascular diseases, periodontitis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus. PMID:24121926

  13. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older adults: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Halter, Jeffrey B; Musi, Nicolas; McFarland Horne, Frances; Crandall, Jill P; Goldberg, Andrew; Harkless, Lawrence; Hazzard, William R; Huang, Elbert S; Kirkman, M Sue; Plutzky, Jorge; Schmader, Kenneth E; Zieman, Susan; High, Kevin P

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes increases with age, driven in part by an absolute increase in incidence among adults aged 65 years and older. Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, and age strongly predicts cardiovascular complications. Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play some role in the mechanisms underlying aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other complications of diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in risk for diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, because of the heterogeneity of the older population, a lack of understanding of the biology of aging, and inadequate study of the effects of treatments on traditional complications and geriatric conditions associated with diabetes, no consensus exists on the optimal interventions for older diabetic adults. The Association of Specialty Professors, along with the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the American Diabetes Association, held a workshop, summarized in this Perspective, to discuss current knowledge regarding diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older adults, identify gaps, and propose questions to guide future research. PMID:25060886

  14. Cardiovascular Diseases and Panax ginseng: A Review on Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginseng may also be potentially valuable in treating cardiovascular diseases. Research concerning cardiovascular disease is focusing on purified individual ginsenoside constituents of ginseng to reveal specific mechanisms instead of using whole ginseng extracts. The most commonly studied ginsenosides are Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd. The molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of cardiovascular disease have attracted much attention and been the subject of numerous publications. Here, we review the current literature on the myriad pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in this area. In vitro investigations using cell cultures and in vivo animal models have indicated ginseng's potential cardiovascular benefits through diverse mechanisms that include antioxidation, modifying vasomotor function, reducing platelet adhesion, influencing ion channels, altering autonomic neurotransmitters release, and improving lipid profiles. Some 40 ginsenosides have been identified. Each may have different effects in pharmacology and mechanisms due to their different chemical structures. This review also summarizes results of relevant clinical trials regarding the cardiovascular effects of ginseng, particularly in the management of hypertension and improving cardiovascular function. PMID:23717100

  15. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of ginseng root for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Chai, Hong; Lin, Peter H; Lumsden, Alan B; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi Johnny

    2004-08-01

    Ginseng root is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine for its alleged tonic effect and possible curative and restorative properties. There are increasing evidences in the literature on the potential role of ginseng in treating cardiovascular diseases. We herein examine the history of ginseng usage and review the current literature on a myriad pharmacological function of ginseng on the cardiovascular system. From the published studies involving cell cultures and animal models, ginseng is shown to have potential benefits on the cardiovascular system through diverse mechanisms, including antioxidant, modifying vasomotor function, reducing platelet adhesion, influencing ion channels, altering autonomic neurotransmitters release, improving lipid profiles, and involving in glucose metabolism and glycemic control. In addition, the relevant clinical trials regarding the effects of ginseng on the cardiovascular disease are summarized, particularly in managing hypertension and improving cardiovascular function. Finally, the controversies in the literature and the possible adverse interactions between ginseng and other drugs are discussed. This review underscores the potential benefit effects of ginseng on cardiovascular diseases, highlights the gaps in our current research, and emphasizes the necessity for more rigorous systemic investigation. PMID:15278009

  16. An approach to the arsenic status in cardiovascular tissues of patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Román, D A; Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Cámara, C; Palacios, M A; Gómez, M M; Solar, C

    2011-09-01

    Among non-cancer effects of arsenic, cardiovascular diseases have been well documented; however, few are known about the arsenic fate in cardiovascular tissues. We studied the analytic bioinorganic arsenic behaviour in cardiovascular tissues from an arsenic exposure coronary heart disease patient group from Antofagasta-Chile against a small unexposed arsenic coronary heart patient group. Total arsenic concentrations were measured in pieces of cardiovascular tissues of the arsenic-exposed and unexposed coronary heart patient groups by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS); speciation analysis was made by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Pieces of auricle (AU), mammary artery (MAM), saphenous vein (SAP) and fat residuals (FAT) were considered in this study. The arsenic concentrations in AU and MAM tissues were significantly different between both groups of patients. Also, it was demonstrated that the AU is an 'As(3+) target tissue.' Otherwise, linking of the total concentrations of arsenic with conditional variables and variables related to medical geology factors allowed us to infer that the latter are more important for the cardiovascular risk of arsenic exposure in the Antofagasta region. Knowledge of total arsenic and the prevalence of the trivalent ion (As(3+)) in the AU of patients could contribute to understanding the effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21088065

  17. Cardiovascular Diseases and Panax ginseng: A Review on Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginseng may also be potentially valuable in treating cardiovascular diseases. Research concerning cardiovascular disease is focusing on purified individual ginsenoside constituents of ginseng to reveal specific mechanisms instead of using whole ginseng extracts. The most commonly studied ginsenosides are Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd. The molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of cardiovascular disease have attracted much attention and been the subject of numerous publications. Here, we review the current literature on the myriad pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in this area. In vitro investigations using cell cultures and in vivo animal models have indicated ginseng’s potential cardiovascular benefits through diverse mechanisms that include antioxidation, modifying vasomotor function, reducing platelet adhesion, influencing ion channels, altering autonomic neurotransmitters release, and improving lipid profiles. Some 40 ginsenosides have been identified. Each may have different effects in pharmacology and mechanisms due to their different chemical structures. This review also summarizes results of relevant clinical trials regarding the cardiovascular effects of ginseng, particularly in the management of hypertension and improving cardiovascular function. PMID:23717100

  18. Toothbrushing, inflammation, and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from Scottish Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if self reported toothbrushing behaviour is associated with cardiovascular disease and markers of inflammation (C reactive protein) and coagulation (fibrinogen). Design National population based survey. Setting Scottish Health Survey, which draws a nationally representative sample of the general population living in households in Scotland. Participants 11?869 men and women, mean age 50 (SD 11). Main outcome measures Oral hygiene assessed from self reported frequency of toothbrushing. Surveys were linked prospectively to clinical hospital records, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease events or death according to oral hygiene. The association between oral hygiene and inflammatory markers and coagulation was examined in a subsample of participants (n=4830) by using general linear models with adjustments. Results There were a total of 555 cardiovascular disease events over an average of 8.1 (SD 3.4) years of follow-up, of which 170 were fatal. In about 74% (411) of cardiovascular disease events the principal diagnosis was coronary heart disease. Participants who reported poor oral hygiene (never/rarely brushed their teeth) had an increased risk of a cardiovascular disease event (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.3; P<0.001) in a fully adjusted model. They also had increased concentrations of both C reactive protein (? 0.04, 0.01 to 0.08) and fibrinogen (0.08, ?0.01 to 0.18). Conclusions Poor oral hygiene is associated with higher levels of risk of cardiovascular disease and low grade inflammation, though the causal nature of the association is yet to be determined. PMID:20508025

  19. L-Arginine and its metabolites in kidney and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Ada; Adesso, Simona; Pinto, Aldo; Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania

    2014-10-01

    L-Arginine is a semi essential amino acid synthesised from glutamine, glutamate and proline via the intestinal-renal axis in humans and most mammals. L-Arginine degradation occurs via multiple pathways initiated by arginase, nitric-oxide synthase, Arg: glycine amidinotransferase, and Arg decarboxylase. These pathways produce nitric oxide, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine with each having enormous biological importance. Several disease are associated to an L-arginine impaired levels and/or to its metabolites: in particular various L-arginine metabolites may participate in pathogenesis of kidney and cardiovascular disease. L-Arginine and its metabolites may constitute both a marker of pathology progression both the rationale for manipulating L-arginine metabolism as a strategy to ameliorate these disease. A large number of studies have been performed in experimental models of kidney disease with sometimes conflicting results, which underlie the complexity of Arg metabolism and our incomplete knowledge of all the mechanisms involved. Moreover several lines of evidence demonstrate the role of L-arg metabolites in cardiovascular disease and that L-arg administration role in reversing endothelial dysfunction, which is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. This review will discuss the implication of the mains L-arginine metabolites and L-arginine-derived guanidine compounds in kidney and cardiovascular disease considering the more recent literature in the field. PMID:25161088

  20. Pathogen persistence in the environment and insect-baculovirus interactions: disease-density thresholds, epidemic burnout, and insect outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Emma; Elderd, Bret D; Dwyer, Greg

    2012-03-01

    Classical epidemic theory focuses on directly transmitted pathogens, but many pathogens are instead transmitted when hosts encounter infectious particles. Theory has shown that for such diseases pathogen persistence time in the environment can strongly affect disease dynamics, but estimates of persistence time, and consequently tests of the theory, are extremely rare. We consider the consequences of persistence time for the dynamics of the gypsy moth baculovirus, a pathogen transmitted when larvae consume foliage contaminated with particles released from infectious cadavers. Using field-transmission experiments, we are able to estimate persistence time under natural conditions, and inserting our estimates into a standard epidemic model suggests that epidemics are often terminated by a combination of pupation and burnout rather than by burnout alone, as predicted by theory. Extending our models to allow for multiple generations, and including environmental transmission over the winter, suggests that the virus may survive over the long term even in the absence of complex persistence mechanisms, such as environmental reservoirs or covert infections. Our work suggests that estimates of persistence times can lead to a deeper understanding of environmentally transmitted pathogens and illustrates the usefulness of experiments that are closely tied to mathematical models. PMID:22322229

  1. Pathogen Persistence in the Environment and Insect-Baculovirus Interactions: Disease-Density Thresholds, Epidemic Burnout and Insect Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Emma; Elderd, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Classical epidemic theory focuses on directly transmitted pathogens, but many pathogens are instead transmitted when hosts encounter infectious particles. Theory has shown that for such diseases pathogen persistence time in the environment can strongly affect disease dynamics, but estimates of persistence time, and consequently tests of the theory, are extremely rare. We consider the consequences of persistence time for the dynamics of the gypsy moth baculovirus, a pathogen transmitted when larvae consume foliage contaminated with particles released from infectious cadavers. Using field-transmission experiments, we are able to estimate persistence time under natural conditions, and inserting our estimates into a standard epidemic model suggests that epidemics are often terminated by a combination of pupation and burnout, rather than by burnout alone as predicted by theory. Extending our models to allow for multiple generations, and including environmental transmission over the winter, suggests that the virus may survive over the long term even in the absence of complex persistence mechanisms, such as environmental reservoirs or covert infections. Our work suggests that estimates of persistence times can lead to a deeper understanding of environmentally transmitted pathogens, and illustrates the usefulness of experiments that are closely tied to mathematical models. PMID:22322229

  2. Anti-inflammatory Strategies to Prevent Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Jialal, I; Devaraj, S

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes is a proinflammatory state and inflammation is crucial in the genesis of vascular complications. While there are many anti-inflammatory strategies, most of which have been shown to reduce inflammation in diabetes, there is sparse data on reduction in cardiovascular events (CVEs). To date, the only anti-inflammatory strategies that have been shown to reduce CVE in diabetes include statins, angiotensin receptor blockers, metformin, and pioglitazone. We also discuss the role of novel emerging therapies. PMID:25732108

  3. Leptin: Linking obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev B. Patel; Garry P. Reams; Robert M. Spear; Ronald H. Freeman; Daniel Villarreal

    2008-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome have risen markedly in the past decade, representing a\\u000a serious cardiovascular health hazard with significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of the metabolic syndrome and\\u000a its various pathogenic mechanisms are incompletely defined and under intense investigation. Contemporary research suggests\\u000a that the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin may be an important factor linking

  4. Therapy Insight: cardiovascular disease in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy P Ardoin; Laura Schanberg; Christy Sandborg

    2008-01-01

    In 15–20% of cases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presents before the age of 18 years, and such early-onset SLE seems to be particularly severe. SLE is an independent risk factor for premature atherosclerosis and death in young, premenopausal women with SLE, even after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Children and adolescents with SLE are particularly susceptible to this long-term

  5. Statin therapy in cardiovascular diseases other than atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Beaudry; Kenneth E. Stone; Suzanne Wetherold; John Hemphill; Dat Do; John McClish; Robert Chilton

    2007-01-01

    Statins are drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, thereby blocking the synthesis of\\u000a cholesterol. Since being discovered in Japan in the mid 1970s, statins have been widely used to lower low-density lipoprotein\\u000a cholesterol. However, analysis of cardiovascular research has revealed other important effects beyond changes in lipid parameters,\\u000a referred to as pleiotropic effects. This paper focuses on

  6. Prognostic Value of Adiponectin for Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline M. Dekker; Tohru Funahashi; Giel Nijpels; Stefan Pilz; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Marieke B. Snijder; Lex M. Bouter; Yuji Matsuzawa; Iichiro Shimomura; Robert J. Heine

    the risk of nonfatal CVD in women (HR with 95% confidence interval 0.72 (0.61-0.90) in women and 0.92 (0.79-1.06) in men), but not the risk of all-cause or CVD mortality. In contrast, after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, higher adiponectin was a significant predictor of all- cause and CVD mortality (HR for CVD mortality 1.45 (1.10-1.92) in women and 1.30

  7. Screening for Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Thoracic Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jacob Adams; Robert G. Prosnitz; Louis S. Constine; Lawrence B. Marks; Steven E. Lipshultz

    \\u000a \\u000a Background and purpose  A solid body of evidence demonstrates that therapeutic thoracic radiotherapy can injure the cardiovascular system. However,\\u000a there is little consensus on how to screen survivors who received this therapy. This review intends to assess recent evidence\\u000a on radiotherapy-related cardiac injury with the goal of formulating evidence-based guidelines.

  8. Delivering a safe and effective strain-specific vaccine to control an epidemic of group B meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    O'Hallahan, Jane; McNicholas, Anne; Galloway, Yvonne; O'Leary, Eileen; Roseveare, Christine

    2009-03-13

    In response to a devastating group B meningococcal disease epidemic in New Zealand, a case was prepared for new health funding and a new outer membrane vesicle vaccine, MeNZB, developed. Following clinical trials demonstrating satisfactory immunogenicity and safety profiles a national implementation strategy was prepared. MeNZB was introduced halfway through the 14th year of the epidemic with a campaign targeting children and young people aged under 20 years delivered over 2 years. By its completion in June 2006, the vaccine had been delivered to more than 1 million young people. All of the above steps were achieved within 5 years. This unique endeavour was possible due to a private/public partnership between the New Zealand Ministry of Health and Chiron Vaccines. This paper summarises the outcomes of this campaign including coverage levels achieved, evidence of vaccine effectiveness and safety, and the strategies used to manage key events and risks that emerged during the campaign. PMID:19322255

  9. Sleep and its Relationship to Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, John H.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease in the U.S., but few mechanisms have emerged as feasible intervention targets. A growing body of research suggests that racial/ethnic differences in sleep deficiency, including extreme sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and insomnia, may help explain disparities in cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in sleep. In this article, we review the extant literature on sleep and cardiovascular outcomes (e.g., hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular disease) and racial/ethnic differences in these relations. We also discuss possible mechanisms that might help explain racial/ethnic sleep disparities, including neighborhood disadvantage, psychosocial and occupational stressors, acculturation, and treatment access and adherence. More research is needed to establish causal linkages among race/ethnicity, sleep, and these mechanisms, but existing evidence suggests that targeting these factors in interventions may reduce racial/ethnic sleep disparities and improve primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among all racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24244756

  10. Sex-specific risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline: pregnancy and menopause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the biology of sex differences is integral to personalized medicine. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline are two related conditions, with distinct sex differences in morbidity and clinical manifestations, response to treatments, and mortality. Although mortality from all-cause cardiovascular diseases has declined in women over the past five years, due in part to increased educational campaigns regarding the recognition of symptoms and application of treatment guidelines, the mortality in women still exceeds that of men. The physiological basis for these differences requires further research, with particular attention to two physiological conditions which are unique to women and associated with hormonal changes: pregnancy and menopause. Both conditions have the potential to impact life-long cardiovascular risk, including cerebrovascular function and cognition in women. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of hypertensive pregnancy disorders on cardiovascular disease and cognitive function later in life, and examines the effects of post-menopausal hormone treatments on cardiovascular risk and cognition in midlife women. We suggest that hypertensive pregnancy disorders and menopause activate vascular components, i.e., vascular endothelium and blood elements, including platelets and leukocytes, to release cell-membrane derived microvesicles that are potential mediators of changes in cerebral blood flow, and may ultimately affect cognition in women as they age. Research into specific sex differences for these disease processes with attention to an individual’s sex chromosomal complement and hormonal status is important and timely. PMID:23537114

  11. Jeremiah Metzger Lecture: Cholesterol, Inflammation and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Is It All LDL?

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific investigation of the relationship between atherosclerosis, inflammation, and lipoprotein metabolism originated in the mid-19th century and has increased exponentially over the past 50 years. Basic research that characterized the lipoproteins and their metabolism was followed by clinical and epidemiologic studies that began to link elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood to the development of atherosclerosis and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The link between elevated serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease, known as the “lipid hypothesis,” was confirmed with the discoveries of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and of the statins. Subsequent results of multiple clinical trials, particularly with statins, have established that reductions in LDL cholesterol are associated with reduced risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A growing body of evidence suggests that measures of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), may enhance cardiovascular risk assessment and help guide clinical decision-making. Reductions in CRP in individuals with low serum levels of LDL cholesterol have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events. A variety of agents designed to further reduce LDL cholesterol, increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and target inflammation are currently in development. Future research can help clarify the roles of emerging biomarkers and lipid fractions other than LDL cholesterol in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21686232

  12. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and altered autophagy in cardiovascular aging and disease: from mechanisms to therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Csiszar, Anna; Dutta, Debapriya; Balagopal, Gauthami; Calvani, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with a disproportionate prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Intrinsic alterations in the heart and the vasculature occurring over the life course render the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to various stressors in late life, ultimately favoring the development of CVD. Several lines of evidence indicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a major contributor to cardiovascular senescence. Besides being less bioenergetically efficient, damaged mitochondria also produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, with detrimental structural and functional consequences for the cardiovascular system. The age-related accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondrial likely results from the combination of impaired clearance of damaged organelles by autophagy and inadequate replenishment of the cellular mitochondrial pool by mitochondriogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about relevant mechanisms and consequences of age-related mitochondrial decay and alterations in mitochondrial quality control in the cardiovascular system. The involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular conditions especially prevalent in late life and the emerging connections with neurodegeneration are also illustrated. Special emphasis is placed on recent discoveries on the role played by alterations in mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission), mitophagy, and their interconnections in the context of age-related CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we discuss pharmacological interventions targeting mitochondrial dysfunction to delay cardiovascular aging and manage CVD. PMID:23748424

  13. Apolipoprotein B attenuates albuminuria-associated cardiovascular disease in prevention of renal and vascular endstage disease (PREVEND) participants.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, James P; Gansevoort, Ron T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Sparks, Charles E; Vart, Priya; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2014-12-01

    Whether urinary albumin excretion relates to higher levels of atherogenic apolipoprotein B fractions in the nondiabetic population is uncertain. Such a relationship could explain, in part, the association of elevated urinary albumin excretion with cardiovascular disease risk. We assessed the relationship of urinary albumin excretion with apolipoprotein B fractions and determined whether the association of elevated urinary albumin excretion with incident cardiovascular events is modified by high apolipoprotein B fraction levels. We performed a prospective study on 8286 nondiabetic participants (580 participants with cardiovascular disease; 4.9 years median follow-up time) with fasting lipids, apolipoprotein B, and urinary albumin excretion determined at baseline. With adjustment for sex and age, micro- and macroalbuminuria were associated with increased apolipoprotein B fractions (non-HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B). All four apolipoprotein B fractions modified associations of urinary albumin excretion with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratios for interaction terms ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 0.84 to 0.99 and P values ranging from 0.001 to 0.02 by Cox proportional hazards modeling). These interactions remained present after additional adjustment for conventional risk factors, eGFR, cardiovascular history, and lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drug treatments. Such modification was also observed when urinary albumin excretion was stratified into normo-, micro-, and macroalbuminuria. We conclude that there is an association between elevated urinary albumin excretion and apolipoprotein B fraction levels and a negative interaction between these variables in their associations with incident cardiovascular events. Elevated urinary albumin excretion may share common causal pathways with high apolipoprotein B fractions in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24854276

  14. The Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (4C) Study: Objectives, Design, and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Anarat, Ali; Bayazit, Aysun K.; Bakkaloglu, Aysin S.; Bilginer, Yelda; Caliskan, Salim; Civilibal, Mahmut; Doyon, Anke; Duzova, Ali; Kracht, Daniela; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Melk, Anette; Mir, Sevgi; Sözeri, Betül; Shroff, Rukshana; Zeller, René; Wühl, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A systemic arteriopathy and cardiomyopathy has been characterized in pediatric dialysis patients by the presence of morphologic and functional abnormalities. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C) Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational study aiming to recruit more than 600 children, aged 6 to 17 years, with initial GFR of 10 to 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence, degree, and progression of cardiovascular comorbidity as well as its association with CKD progression will be explored through longitudinal follow-up. The morphology and function of the heart and large arteries will be monitored by sensitive noninvasive methods and compared with aged-matched healthy controls. Multiple clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and pharmacologic risk factors will be monitored prospectively and related to the cardiovascular status. A whole-genome association study will be performed to identify common genetic variants associated with progression of cardiovascular alterations and/or renal failure. Monitoring will be continued as patients reach end-stage renal disease and undergo different renal replacement therapies. Results: While cardiovascular morbidity in adults is related to older age and additional risk factor load (e.g., diabetes), the role of CKD-specific factors in the initiation and progression of cardiac and vascular disease are likely to be characterized with greater sensitivity in the pediatric age group. Conclusions: The 4C study is expected to provide innovative insight into cardiovascular and renal disease progression in CKD. PMID:20576824

  15. Experimental Models of Oxidative Stress Related to Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria D. Mesa; Concepcion M. Aguilera; Angel Gil

    \\u000a In this chapter we summarize the commonly used animal models employed in the study of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes,\\u000a two of the most prevalent oxidative stress-induced diseases. A number of animal models of atherosclerosis support the notion\\u000a that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have a causal role in atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Experimental\\u000a atherosclerosis is induced by specific lipid-rich

  16. Which Interventions Offer Best Value for Money in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Cobiac, Linda J.; Magnus, Anne; Lim, Stephen; Barendregt, Jan J.; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite many decades of declining mortality rates in the Western world, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. In this research we evaluate the optimal mix of lifestyle, pharmaceutical and population-wide interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Findings In a discrete time Markov model we simulate the ischaemic heart disease and stroke outcomes and cost impacts of intervention over the lifetime of all Australian men and women, aged 35 to 84 years, who have never experienced a heart disease or stroke event. Best value for money is achieved by mandating moderate limits on salt in the manufacture of bread, margarine and cereal. A combination of diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor and low-cost statin, for everyone with at least 5% five-year risk of cardiovascular disease, is also cost-effective, but lifestyle interventions aiming to change risky dietary and exercise behaviours are extremely poor value for money and have little population health benefit. Conclusions There is huge potential for improving efficiency in cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia. A tougher approach from Government to mandating limits on salt in processed foods and reducing excessive statin prices, and a shift away from lifestyle counselling to more efficient absolute risk-based prescription of preventive drugs, could cut health care costs while improving population health. PMID:22844529

  17. Adiponectin: merely a bystander or the missing link to cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Hatzis, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Anatoliotakis, Nikolaos; Tsounis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, a newly discovered adipose-tissue secreting hormone, is a major regulator of a wide spectrum of physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, inflammation and vascular homeostasis. Emerging data suggest that adiponectin is the link between obesity and obesity-related disorders with cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is a dominant insulin-sensitive adipokine and, in contrast to other adipose-tissue derived cytokines, it has major anti-diabetic, antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin has been extensively studied in the context of several aspects and risk factors of cardiovascular disease such as obesity, diabetes type I and II, coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease and smoking. The aim of this article is to summarize the acquired so far knowledge on adiponectin in relation to cardiovascular disease, to review its main biological and biochemical characteristics, to highlight the main mechanisms of adiponectin-driven beneficial effects on vasculature and briefly to refer to the basic correlations of adiponectin with the important aforementioned aspects of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23470075

  18. Andropause and the development of cardiovascular disease presentation—more than an epi-phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ernst R.; Phan, Anita; Willix, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Andropause refers to a generalized decline of male hormones, including testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in middle-aged and aging men. This decline in hormones has been associated with changes such as depression, loss of libido, sexual dysfunction, and changes in body composition. Aging has been associated with an abundance of concomitant diseases, in particular cardiovascular diseases, and although andropause is correlated to aging, a causal relationship between reduction of androgens and the development of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and heart failure has not been convincingly established yet. On the other hand, increasing data has emerged that revealed the effects of low levels of androgens on cardiovascular disease progression. As an example, low levels of testosterone have been linked to a higher incidence of coronary artery disease. Whether hormone replacement therapy that is used for andropausal men to alleviate symptoms of “male menopause” can halt progression of cardiovascular disease, remains controversially discussed, primarily due to the lack of well-designed, randomized controlled trials. At least for symptom improvement, the use of androgen replacement therapy in andropausal men may be clinically indicated, and with the appropriate supervision and follow up may prove to be beneficial with regard to preservation of the integrity of cardiovascular health at higher ages. PMID:22783283

  19. Possible health effects of caffeinated coffee consumption on Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    You, Dong-Chul; Kim, Young-Soon; Ha, Ae-Wha; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Soo-Min; Kim, Chun-Heum; Lee, Seung-Ha; Choi, Dalwoong; Lee, Jae-Min

    2011-03-01

    Coffee has been known to have both beneficial and harmful effects upon health. Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, worldwide. Dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are public health problems that are rapidly increasing in the aging population. Due to the high consumption of coffee, even small effects on an individual's health could have a large effect on public health.The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of previously published studies of coffee consumption on health. Herein, we focus on epidemiological and experimental findings to investigate whether coffee-drinking habits, and/or the quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship to CVD, dementia/AD, and other chronic diseases. Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, when comparing coffee drinkers with non-drinkers, moderate doses of caffeine showed protective effects against CVD and AD. We hypothesized that caffeine may be a novel therapy to treat CVD and dementia/AD. PMID:24278543

  20. Health benefits of blue-green algae: prevention of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chai Siah; Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-02-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, ?-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic lipogenic gene expression. BGA can also reduce inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor ? B activity, consequently reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BGA inhibit lipid peroxidation and have free radical scavenging activity, which can be beneficial for the protection against oxidative stress. The aforementioned effects of BGA can contribute to the prevention of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health-promoting functions of BGA against cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which are major health threats in the developed countries. PMID:23402636

  1. Study of cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural schoolchildren in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ghannem, H; Trabelsi, L; Gaha, R; Harrabi, I; Essoussi, A S

    2001-01-01

    We undertook an epidemiological survey based on a representative sample of 793 rural schoolchildren in Sousse, Tunisia to assess the prevalence of certain cardiovascular disease risk factors. The prevalence of hypertension (11.2%), hypercholesterolaemia (2.9%), hypertriglyceridaemia (1.0%), high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.6%) and obesity (4.0%) showed no statistically significant difference based on sex. However, smoking (4%) showed a significant gender difference (boys: 7.3%; girls 1.2%). The relatively low cardiovascular disease risk factor profile of Tunisian children needs to be encouraged through to adulthood. Thus a school programme of heart health promotion should be established. PMID:15332757

  2. Ethnicity and Onset of Cardiovascular Disease: A CALIBER Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease; Sudden Cardiac Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest

  3. The Representative Porcine Model for Human Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Yeung, Alan C.; Ikeno, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    To improve human health, scientific discoveries must be translated into practical applications. Inherent in the development of these technologies is the role of preclinical testing using animal models. Although significant insight into the molecular and cellular basis has come from small animal models, significant differences exist with regard to cardiovascular characteristics between these models and humans. Therefore, large animal models are essential to develop the discoveries from murine models into clinical therapies and interventions. This paper will provide an overview of the more frequently used large animal models, especially porcine models for preclinical studies. PMID:21253493

  4. Prostanoids and NSAIDs in cardiovascular biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Weksler, Babettte B

    2015-07-01

    Prostanoids and related arachidonic acid derivatives are important physiologic modulators in arteries, as well as mediators of inflammation, hemostasis, and cell proliferation. Their participation in atherosclerosis and in acute thrombotic events is complex, as demonstrated by untoward cardiovascular (CV) effects associated with clinical use of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis for treatment of chronic pain, inflammatory states, or cancer prophylaxis. Newer understanding of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the pharmacology of prostanoids promises potential resolution of current problems resulting from the hazards of available prostanoid-altering drugs. PMID:26017392

  5. Association among 5-year changes in weight, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, D L; Mitchell, B D; Comuzzie, A G; VandeBerg, J L; Stern, M P; MacCluer, J W

    2000-11-15

    Recent changes in lifestyle have led to a global epidemic of obesity. To determine the associations of these changes with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, the authors correlated changes in CVD risk factors with changes in weight and physical activity in a population-based sample of 539 Mexican Americans in the San Antonio Heart Study in 1992-1999 who were examined twice approximately 5 years apart. Average weight change during that interval was 2.7 kg. While change in physical activity (expressed as percent change) was associated modestly only with change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol median diameter (p = 0.017), weight change was strongly and positively associated with unfavorable changes in lipid and lipoprotein traits, insulin levels, and blood pressure, explaining 2-10% of the variation in the risk factor changes during the interval. The unfavorable associations with weight gain tended to be more pronounced in lean compared with obese individuals and in men compared with women. However, the associations were significant for most CVD risk factors in all groups. In Mexican Americans, a population at high risk for obesity, weight change was positively correlated with metabolic variables associated with risk of CVD. Therefore, increasing adiposity in this population may tend to slow, or even reverse, the decline in CVD morbidity and mortality. PMID:11092439

  6. Estimating Coextinction Risks from Epidemic Tree Death: Affiliate Lichen Communities among Diseased Host Tree Populations of Fraxinus excelsior

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Mari T.; Thor, Göran

    2012-01-01

    At least 10% of the world’s tree species are threatened with extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated in tree threats. Coextinction and threats to affiliates as a consequence of the loss or decline of their host trees is a poorly understood phenomenon. Ash dieback is an emerging infectious disease causing severe dieback of common ash Fraxinus excelsior throughout Europe. We utilized available empirical data on affiliate epiphytic lichen diversity (174 species and 17,800 observations) among 20 ash dieback infected host tree populations of F. excelsior on the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden. From this, we used structured scenario projections scaled with empirical data of ash dieback disease to generate probabilistic models for estimating local and regional lichen coextinction risks. Average coextinction probabilities (?) were 0.38 (95% CI ±0.09) for lichens occurring on F. excelsior and 0.14 (95% CI ±0.03) when considering lichen persistence on all tree species. ? was strongly linked to local disease incidence levels and generally increasing with lichen host specificity to F. excelsior and decreasing population size. Coextinctions reduced affiliate community viability, with significant local reductions in species richness and shifts in lichen species composition. Affiliates were projected to become locally extirpated before their hosts, illuminating the need to also consider host tree declines. Traditionally managed open wooded meadows had the highest incidence of ash dieback disease and significantly higher proportions of affiliate species projected to go extinct, compared with unmanaged closed forests and semi-open grazed sites. Most cothreatened species were not previously red-listed, which suggest that tree epidemics cause many unforeseen threats to species. Our analysis shows that epidemic tree deaths represent an insidious, mostly overlooked, threat to sessile affiliate communities in forested environments. Current conservation and management strategies must account for secondary extinctions associated with epidemic tree death. PMID:23049840

  7. Estimating coextinction risks from epidemic tree death: affiliate lichen communities among diseased host tree populations of Fraxinus excelsior.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Mari T; Thor, Göran

    2012-01-01

    At least 10% of the world's tree species are threatened with extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated in tree threats. Coextinction and threats to affiliates as a consequence of the loss or decline of their host trees is a poorly understood phenomenon. Ash dieback is an emerging infectious disease causing severe dieback of common ash Fraxinus excelsior throughout Europe. We utilized available empirical data on affiliate epiphytic lichen diversity (174 species and 17,800 observations) among 20 ash dieback infected host tree populations of F. excelsior on the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden. From this, we used structured scenario projections scaled with empirical data of ash dieback disease to generate probabilistic models for estimating local and regional lichen coextinction risks. Average coextinction probabilities (?) were 0.38 (95% CI ± 0.09) for lichens occurring on F. excelsior and 0.14 (95% CI ± 0.03) when considering lichen persistence on all tree species. ? was strongly linked to local disease incidence levels and generally increasing with lichen host specificity to F. excelsior and decreasing population size. Coextinctions reduced affiliate community viability, with significant local reductions in species richness and shifts in lichen species composition. Affiliates were projected to become locally extirpated before their hosts, illuminating the need to also consider host tree declines. Traditionally managed open wooded meadows had the highest incidence of ash dieback disease and significantly higher proportions of affiliate species projected to go extinct, compared with unmanaged closed forests and semi-open grazed sites. Most cothreatened species were not previously red-listed, which suggest that tree epidemics cause many unforeseen threats to species. Our analysis shows that epidemic tree deaths represent an insidious, mostly overlooked, threat to sessile affiliate communities in forested environments. Current conservation and management strategies must account for secondary extinctions associated with epidemic tree death. PMID:23049840

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide gene variants and circulating levels: implications in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Rubattu, Speranza; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Volpe, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), discovered 30 years ago in rat cardiac atria, has been extensively investigated with regard to physiology, pathophysiology, cardiovascular disease therapeutics and molecular genetic aspects. Besides its diuretic, natriuretic and vasorelaxant effects, novel properties of this hormone have been described. Thus anti-hypertrophic, anti-fibrotic, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions suggest that ANP contributes not only to haemodynamic homoeostasis and adjustments, but has also a role in cardiovascular remodelling. Circulating ANP levels represent a valuable biomarker in cardiovascular diseases. ANP structure is highly conserved among species, indicating a key role in cardiovascular health. Thus an abnormal ANP structure may contribute to an increased risk of disease due to altered functions at either the vascular or cardiac level. Among others, the 2238T>C exon 3 variant has been associated with endothelial cell damage and dysfunction and with an increased risk of acute cardiovascular events, a frameshift mutation within exon 3 has been related to increased risk of atrial fibrillation, and ANP gene variants have been linked to increased risk of hypertension in different ethnic groups. On the other hand, the rs5068 variant, falling within the 3' UTR and associated with higher circulating ANP levels, has been shown to have a beneficial cardioprotective and metabolic effect. Dissecting out the disease mechanisms dependent on specific ANP molecular variants may reveal information useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes. Furthermore, insights from molecular genetic analysis of ANP may well integrate advancing knowledge on the role of ANP as a significant biomarker in patients affected by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611929

  9. Consensus Review of the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in People With Hemophilia A and B

    PubMed Central

    Boral, Leonard I.; Cohen, Alice J.; Smyth, Susan S.; White, Gilbert C.

    2015-01-01

    With advances in care, increasing numbers of people with hemophilia (PWH) achieve near-normal life expectancies and present with typical age-related cardiovascular conditions. Evidence-based guidelines for medical or surgical management of cardiovascular conditions in individuals with hemophilia are limited. Published recommendations exist for the management of some common cardiovascular conditions (eg, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation), but identifying optimal strategies for anticoagulant or antithrombotic therapy constitutes the primary challenge of managing nonoperative cardiovascular disease (CVD) in PWH. In general, as long as factor concentrates or other hemostatic therapies maintain adequate hemostasis, the recommended medical and surgical management of CVD in PWH parallels that in individuals without hemophilia. The presence of factor inhibitors complicates hemophilia management. Published outcomes of CVD treatment in PWH are similar to those in the general population. Specific knowledge about factor replacement, factor inhibitors, and disease-specific treatment distinguishes the cardiovascular care of PWH from similar care of individuals without this rare bleeding disorder. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach incorporating a hematologist with an onsite coagulation laboratory, ideally associated with a hemophilia treatment center, is integral to the management of CVD in PWH. PMID:25436468

  10. Atmospheric Spread of Foot-and-mouth Disease During The Early Phase of The Uk Epidemic 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, J. H.; Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Alexandersen, S.; Donaldson, A. I.

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease in cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of species which are susceptible, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of virus that can initiate infection in susceptible hosts. One of the routes for the spread of the disease is the atmospheric dispersion of virus exhaled by infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have occurred over a distance of several hundred kilometres. For the FMD epidemic in UK in 2001, atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to describe the atmospheric dispersion of virus for the larger outbreaks of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is first of all to identify risk zones, which is helpful to the emergency management. The paper addresses the modelling techniques and presents results related with the epidemic in UK in 2001.

  11. Mercury Exposure and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Two U.S. Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J. Steven; Spiegelman, Donna; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects. METHODS Among subjects from two U.S. cohorts (a total of 51,529 men and 121,700 women) whose toenail clippings had been stored, we prospectively identified incident cases of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke) in 3427 participants and matched them to risk-set–sampled controls according to age, sex, race, and smoking status. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were assessed with the use of neutron-activation analysis. Other demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, fish consumption, and lifestyle habits were assessed by means of validated questionnaires. Associations between mercury exposure and incident cardiovascular disease were evaluated with the use of conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Median toenail mercury concentrations were 0.23 µg per gram (interdecile range, 0.06 to 0.94) in the case participants and 0.25 µg per gram (interdecile range, 0.07 to 0.97) in the controls. In multivariate analyses, participants with higher mercury exposures did not have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. For comparisons of the fifth quintile of mercury exposure with the first quintile, the relative risks were as follows: coronary heart disease, 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.04; P = 0.10 for trend); stroke, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.14; P = 0.27 for trend); and total cardiovascular disease, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.01; P = 0.06 for trend). Findings were similar in analyses of participants with low selenium concentrations or low overall fish consumption and in several additional sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of any clinically relevant adverse effects of mercury exposure on coronary heart disease, stroke, or total cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults at the exposure levels seen in this study. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:21428767

  12. Physical Activity and Obesity: Their Interaction and Implications for Disease Risk and the Role of Physical Activity in Healthy Weight Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Zoeller Jr

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an epidemic rate. Increased adiposity, especially central or visceral adiposity, is predictive of cardiovascular disease\\/coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The increased risk for cardiovascular disease\\/coronary heart disease and metabolic abnormalities associated with abdominal obesity may be mediated, at least in part, by increased systemic inflammation. Greater

  13. The fibrillin-1 gene: unlocking new therapeutic pathways in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Paddy M; Topol, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    The dramatic reductions in DNA sequencing costs allow us to delve deeper into the genomic alterations that increase susceptibility to many polygenic cardiovascular diseases. One such condition is an abnormal proximal aorta. Until recently, many believed that dilated, distorted or dissected proximal aortas might represent a forme fruste of Marfan syndrome or a continuum of aortopathy. Although an FBN-1 mutation does not guarantee the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome it is clear however that FBN-1 mutations independently confer additional risk for many of the cardiovascular complications classically associated with the disease. Furthermore, treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker has proven effective in reducing rates of thoracic aortic root dilatation in preliminary studies of Marfan syndrome patients. Awareness of an FBN-1 mutation then highlights the need for increased vigilance for the associated cardiovascular phenotypes. Knowledge of an FBN-1 gene mutation may allow actionable interventions earlier in the natural history of the condition. PMID:22942299

  14. Role of Peripheral Vascular Resistance for the Association Between Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bouzinova, Elena V.; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial character including a number of neuronal, humoral, immune, and circulatory pathways. Depression-associated cardiovascular abnormalities associate with cardiac dysfunctions and with changes in peripheral resistance. Although cardiac dysfunction in association with depression has been studied in detail, little attention was given to structural and functional changes in resistance arteries responsible for blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. This review discusses recent achievements in studies of depression-associated abnormalities in resistance arteries in humans and animal experimental models. The changes in arterial structure, contractile and relaxing functions associated with depression symptoms are discussed, and the role of these abnormalities for the pathology of major depression and cardiovascular diseases are suggested. PMID:25469807

  15. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaochen; Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Heran; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25152758

  16. Endothelial function testing and cardiovascular disease: focus on peripheral arterial tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Gori, Tommaso; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, a number of methods have been developed to assess endothelial function, contributing to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Recently, the advent of noninvasive, reproducible techniques for assessment of endothelial function has opened novel possibilities of application in the clinical setting. Peripheral arterial tonometry is a relatively novel, user-friendly technique measuring finger pulse volume amplitude changes induced by reactive hyperemia following 5 minutes of ischemia in the upper limb. Current evidence indicates that this technique has the potential to significantly impact the field of cardiovascular research and prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, a number of methodological, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects still need to be clarified before widespread application of this promising technique. This review focuses on the current knowledge and future perspectives of peripheral arterial tonometry, in comparison with the most widely used noninvasive technique, ie, flow-mediated dilation. PMID:25328403

  17. Low-Dose Aspirin for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ae Jin; Lim, Hye Jin; Ro, Han; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Han, Song Yi; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung; Jung, Ji Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous trials have investigated the effects of low-dose aspirin on CVD prevention in patients with diabetes; however, patients with CKD were not examined. The role of aspirin in diabetics is controversial, and the available literature is contradictory. Therefore, we studied whether low-dose aspirin would be beneficial for patients with CKD, a group that is at high risk for CVD. Method From a total of 25340 patients with CKD, 1884 recipients of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) were paired 1?1 with non-recipients for analysis using propensity score matching. The primary endpoint was the development of atherosclerotic CVD, including coronary arterial disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Secondary endpoints included death from any cause, bleeding events, doubling of serum creatinine, and renal death. Results The incidence of a primary endpoint of any atherosclerotic CVD was significantly higher in the aspirin users than in the non-users (P<0.001). Secondary endpoints, including all-cause mortality and composite bleeding events, were not significantly different between the aspirin users and the non-users. However, the doubling of serum creatinine levels (P?=?0.001) and renal death (P?=?0.042) were significantly associated with the use of aspirin. Conclusion These results suggest that the use of low-dose aspirin in patients with CKD may have harmful consequences related to the development of CVD and renal progression. PMID:25093403

  18. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Updates in noninvasive diagnosis and correlation with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kuang-Chun; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Liu, Sung-Chen; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Bair, Ming-Jong; Liu, Chun-Jen; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Shih, Shou-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to the accumulation of fat (mainly triglycerides) within hepatocytes. Approximately 20%-30% of adults in the general population in developed countries have NAFLD; this trend is increasing because of the pandemicity of obesity and diabetes, and is becoming a serious public health burden. Twenty percent of individuals with NAFLD develop chronic hepatic inflammation [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)], which can be associated with the development of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma in a minority of patients. And thus, the detection and diagnosis of NAFLD is important for general practitioners. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD and confirming the presence of NASH. However, the invasiveness of this procedure limits its application to screening the general population or patients with contraindications for liver biopsy. The development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for NAFLD is of paramount importance. This review focuses on the updates of noninvasive diagnosis of NAFLD. Besides, we review clinical evidence supporting a strong association between NAFLD and the risk of cardiovascular disease because of the cross link between these two disorders. PMID:24976709

  19. Non-Stroke Cardiovascular Disease and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Ulrika K.; Bennet, Anna M.; Gatz, Margaret; Dickman, Paul W.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Unresolved issues in dementia research include 1) the association between non-stroke cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 2) whether the association between CVD and dementia is mediated by familial factors (i.e. genes and early life environment). We therefore conducted a study with both a longitudinal and a co-twin control design in 2,214 Swedish twins with clinical dementia evaluation and APOE4 genotyping. The analyses were then replicated in a register-based cohort of 18,405 individuals. Results show that CVD increases the risk of AD in carriers (but not non-carriers) of the APOE4 allele (Hazard Ratio [HR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval 1.15-4.96). CVD was also associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of developing late-life dementia (HR 1.83, 1.23-2.72). Within twin pairs, the dementia-affected twin was more likely to have had CVD than the non-demented twin partner (Odds Ratio 1.86, 1.11-3.13). In conclusion, this study shows that 1) non-stroke CVD increases the risk of late-life dementia but that it is only a risk factor for AD in carriers of the APOE4 allele and 2) the association between CVD and dementia is not explained by genetic or early life environmental factors in common to both disorders. PMID:20473139

  20. The power of Pasteur's quadrant: cardiovascular disease at the turn of the century

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard I.; Fishman, Glenn I.

    2011-01-01

    During the life span of The FASEB Journal, the decline in cardiovascular mortality was astonishing as the fundamental bases of the complex syndromes of cardiovascular disease were illuminated. In this Silver Anniversary Review, we highlight a few pivotal advances in the field and relate them to research in Pasteur's quadrant, the region of investigation driven by both a desire for fundamental understanding and the consideration of its use. In the second half of the 20th century, we advanced from little pathophysiologic understanding to a near-complete understanding and effective, evidence-based therapeutics for vascular disorders and a similar development of pharmacotherapy to address heart failure, primarily through agents that antagonize the excessive concentration of circulating neurohumoral agents. In the current era, we have witnessed “the rise of the machines,” from stents to cardiac resynchronization therapy. The next wave of treatments will build on an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the molecular determinants of cardiovascular disorders. We briefly consider the promise of regenerative medicine and are intrigued by the possibility for the direct reprogramming of resident cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. As for the future, genomic profiling should help physicians recommend individualized risk factor modification targeted to prevent specific manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Transcriptional and biomarker analyses will almost surely be used individually to tailor therapy for those at risk of or experiencing cardiovascular disease. Given the ongoing exponential expansion of scientific knowledge, all of human ingenuity will be needed to fully utilize the power of Pasteur's quadrant and to unleash another quarter century in cardiology as scientifically fruitful and effective on human health as the last.—Levin, R. I., Fishman, G. I. The power of Pasteur's quadrant: cardiovascular disease at the turn of the century. PMID:21622696

  1. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. Methods In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ?18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. Results The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ?1, ?2, and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ?2 and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become a major disease burden among Tibetans. PMID:26047133

  2. Network-based association of hypoxia-responsive genes with cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Oldham, William M.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Molecular oxygen is indispensable for cellular viability and function. Hypoxia is a stress condition in which oxygen demand exceeds supply. Low cellular oxygen content induces a number of molecular changes to activate regulatory pathways responsible for increasing the oxygen supply and optimizing cellular metabolism under limited oxygen conditions. Hypoxia plays critical roles in the pathobiology of many diseases, such as cancer, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, stroke, and chronic lung diseases. Although the complicated associations between hypoxia and cardiovascular (and cerebrovascular) diseases (CVD) have been recognized for some time, there are few studies that investigate their biological link from a systems biology perspective. In this study, we integrate hypoxia genes, CVD genes, and the human protein interactome in order to explore the relationship between hypoxia and cardiovascular diseases at a systems level. We show that hypoxia genes are much closer to CVD genes in the human protein interactome than that expected by chance. We also find that hypoxia genes play significant bridging roles in connecting different cardiovascular diseases. We construct a hypoxia-CVD bipartite network and find several interesting hypoxia-CVD modules with significant gene ontology similarity. Finally, we show that hypoxia genes tend to have more CVD interactors in the human interactome than in random networks of matching topology. Based on these observations, we can predict novel genes that may be associated with CVD. This network-based association study gives us a broad view of the relationships between hypoxia and cardiovascular diseases and provides new insights into the role of hypoxia in cardiovascular biology.

  3. Predicting cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes: the heterogeneity challenges.

    PubMed

    Gore, M Odette; McGuire, Darren K; Lingvay, Ildiko; Rosenstock, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions around the world, and the increase in cardiovascular risk attributable to diabetes estimated to range from 2- to 4-fold poses grave public health concern. Though in some contexts type 2 diabetes has been equated with coronary heart disease equivalent risk, there is considerable evidence that incremental cardiovascular risk does not uniformly affect all people with type 2 diabetes. This heterogeneity in cardiovascular risk is multifactorial and only partially understood but is a key consideration for our understanding of the nexus of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and for the development of optimal and individualized cardiovascular risk reduction strategies. This review provides a brief synopsis of the concept of cardiovascular risk heterogeneity in diabetes, including epidemiologic evidence, discussion of established and potential determinants of heterogeneity, and clinical, research, and regulatory implications. PMID:26031671

  4. Apolipoprotein E, cholesterol metabolism, diabetes, and the convergence of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Martins; Eugene Hone; Jonathan Foster; S I Sünram-Lea; Anastazija Gnjec; Stephanie Fuller; David A Nolan; Sam Gandy; Ralph Martins

    2006-01-01

    High fat diets and sedentary lifestyles are becoming major concerns for Western countries. They have led to a growing incidence of obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and a condition known as the insulin-resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome. These health conditions are well known to develop along with, or be precursors to atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Recent studies have found

  5. High-density lipoproteins: an emerging target in the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belinda A Cutri; Neil J Hime; Stephen J Nicholls

    2006-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have been well established to protect against the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It has become apparent that in addition to the promotion of reverse cholesterol transport, HDLs possess a number of additional functional properties that may contribute to their beneficial influence on the arterial wall. A number of exciting therapeutic strategies have been developed that target

  6. Dietary Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Beyond Saturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Nicolosi; Thomas A. Wilson; Carl Lawton; Garry J. Handelman

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a significant risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While diet intervention remains the initial choice for the prevention and treatment of CVD, the nature of the dietary modification remains controversial. For example, reducing calories from total fat, without decreasing saturated fat intake results in insignificant changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Similarly, diet interventions that focus solely on

  7. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

  8. ?-1 and ?-2 adrenoceptor polymorphisms: Functional importance, impact on cardiovascular diseases and drug responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto-Erich Brodde

    2008-01-01

    ?-1 and ?-2 adrenoceptors (AR) play a pivotal role in regulation of the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and agonists and antagonists at both ? AR subtypes are frequently used in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Both ?-1 and ?-2 AR genes have several polymorphisms that encode different amino acids. This review summarizes new insights into the functional importance of

  9. Physical Activity: Depression, Anxiety, Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular Disease: What's the Connection?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Zoeller

    2007-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are major public health problems and have been shown to be associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety are lower in those who are regularly active. Regular physical activity has also been shown to reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety in those who already suffer from these disorders. Depression

  10. Cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China: a case control study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of arsenic exposure through drinking water. Increasingly, non-cancer effects such as cardiovascular disease have been associated with drinking water arsenic exposures. However, most studies have been conducted in...

  11. Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging

  12. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by people with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may offer benefits as well as risks to people with cardiovascular disease. Understanding the prevalence and the nature of CAM use will encourage beneficial CAM therapies, prevent potential herb-drug interactions and foster communication between patients and physicians. Methods A systematic search of eight bibliographic databases was conducted for studies that investigated CAM use in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Two independent reviewers selected relevant abstracts and evaluated the quality of included studies. Results Twenty-seven studies were included. Prevalence of CAM use in cardiac patients ranged from 4% - 61%. Biologically-based therapies usage ranged from 22% to 68%. Herbal medicines were used by between 2% and 46%. A large proportion of patients did not inform medical practitioners about their CAM use and up to 90% of treating physicians did not discuss CAM use with their patients. Conclusions CAM use in patients with cardiovascular disease appears common. The findings suggest that the effects of CAM on medical management of cardiovascular disease may be overlooked and that patient-physician communication need to be strengthened. PMID:22536991

  13. The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

  14. Insights and perspectives on dietary modifications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes presentations from, “Insights and Perspectives on Dietary Modifications to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease”, a symposium held at the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in conjunction with Experimental Biology 2014 in San Dieg...

  15. Work and diet-related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases: comparison of two occupational groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle Hartung; Martina Stadeler; Romano Grieshaber; Sylvia Keller; Gerhard Jahreis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although work related risk factors associated with Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) have been well researched, there is no detailed knowledge regarding disparate occupational groups each with a different risk exposition. Therefore, two occupational groups (chefs and office workers) were compared with a focus on nutritional and psychosocial factors. METHODS: Two groups of subjects were tested for work and diet-related risks

  16. Research report Therapeutic drug and cardiovascular disease risk monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy M. Kilbourne; Edward P. Post; Mark S. Bauer; John E. Zeber; Laurel A. Copeland; Chester B. Good; Harold Alan Pincus

    Objectives: We assessed whether patients with bipolar disorder received serum drug level and toxicity monitoring for mood stabilizers and assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related risk factors attributed to atypical antipsychotic medications. Methods: A population-based study of individuals with bipolar disorder was conducted between July 2004 and July 2006. Based on American Psychiatric and American Diabetes Association guidelines, we assessed whether

  17. Stress, behavior, and biology: Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychological stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis during childhood. Stress promotes atherogenic behaviors in children including snacking of energy dense foods and reduced physical activity; and it also increases adiposity. Stress-induced CV reactivity may also be athe...

  18. Stress, behavior, and biology: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychological stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis during childhood. Stress promotes atherogenic behaviors in children including snacking of energy dense foods and reduced physical activity; and it also increases adiposity. Stress-induced CV reactivity may also be athe...

  19. Environmental and Policy Approaches to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Through Nutrition: Opportunities for State and Local Action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Glanz; Becky Lankenau; Susan Foerster; Sally Temple; Rebecca Mullis; Thomas Schmid

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews environmental and policy intervention approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention through nutrition and recommends opportunities for state and local health departments to initiate and participate in environmental and nutrition policy initiatives. By addressing these complementary aims, the authors hope to stimulate further efforts to achieve progress in nutrition promotion among state and local health-related organizations. Key categories of

  20. Burnout and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence, Possible Causal Paths, and Promising Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, Samuel; Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, resulting from prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The authors review the accumulated evidence suggesting that burnout and the related concept of vital exhaustion are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and…