Science.gov

Sample records for cardiovascular disease epidemic

  1. Tuberculosis and Cardiovascular Disease: Linking the Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Huaman, Moises A.; Henson, David; Ticona, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R.; Garvy, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    The burden of tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is enormous worldwide. CVD rates are rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Public health programs have been challenged with the overlapping tuberculosis and CVD epidemics. Monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes and cytokines involved in cellular mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also main drivers of atherogenesis, suggesting a potential pathogenic role of tuberculosis in CVD via mechanisms that have been described for other pathogens that establish chronic infection and latency. Studies have shown a pro-atherogenic effect of antibody-mediated responses against mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 through cross reaction with self-antigens in human vessels. Furthermore, subsets of mycobacteria actively replicate during latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and recent studies suggest that LTBI is associated with persistent chronic inflammation that may lead to CVD. Recent epidemiologic work has shown that the risk of CVD in persons who develop tuberculosis is higher than in persons without a history of tuberculosis, even several years after recovery from tuberculosis. Together, these data suggest that tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Further research to investigate a potential link between tuberculosis and CVD is warranted. PMID:26835156

  2. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  3. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  4. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and the importance of early life. Recommendations promoting optimal cardiovascular health in all children and youth are discussed. PMID:20190900

  5. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  6. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    PubMed

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service. PMID:23413587

  7. Mitochondrial cytopathies and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Dominic, Elizabeth A; Ramezani, Ali; Anker, Stefan D; Verma, Mukesh; Mehta, Nehal; Rao, Madhumathi

    2014-04-01

    The global epidemic of cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA and across the world. Functional and structural integrity of mitochondria are essential for the physiological function of the cardiovascular system. The metabolic adaptation observed in normal heart is lost in the failing myocardium, which becomes progressively energy depleted leading to impaired myocardial contraction and relaxation. Uncoupling of electron transfer from ATP synthesis leads to excess generation of reactive species, leading to widespread cellular injury and cardiovascular disease. Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutation has been linked to ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Mitochondria are known to regulate apoptotic and autophagic pathways that have been shown to play an important role in the development of cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options have been explored in the management of mitochondrial diseases with variable success. PMID:24449718

  8. The Economics of Epidemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic, infectious, diseases affect a large number of individuals across developing as well as developed countries. With reference to some very simple diffusion models, in this paper we consider how available economic resources could be optimally allocated by health authorities to mitigate, possibly eradicate, the disease. Optimality was defined as the minimization of the long run number of infected people. The main goal of the work has been to introduce a methodology for deciding if it would be best to concentrate resources to prevent contact between individuals and with an external source, or to develop a new treatment for curing the disease, or both. The analysis suggests that this depends on the cost functions, that is the available technology, for controlling the relevant parameters underlying the epidemics as well as on the available financial resources. In the case of the recent Ebola outbreak, the suggestions of the model have been consistent with the policies adopted. PMID:26372353

  9. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... survey. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Screenings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cardiovascular disease screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... video) Medicare & You: women's health (video) Medicare & You: heart disease (video) Medicare & You: Million Hearts initiative (video) Return ...

  11. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

  12. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  13. [Cancer and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Lahoz, Carlos; Valdivielso, Pedro; González-Alegre, María Teresa; García-Iglesias, María Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Mostaza, José M

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of cancer have a shorter survival in the long term partly due to the increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Some chemotherapy drugs, thoracic and cranial radiotherapy and above all the transplantation of hematopoietic cells are associated with an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular events compared with general population. Some of these treatments favor the development of a metabolic syndrome that could be the intermediary between these treatments and the development of CVD. It is recommended for cancer survivors to promote healthy lifestyles and the strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25772547

  14. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  15. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  16. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Webster, Andrew L H; Yan, Matthew Shu-Ching; Marsden, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    A commonly-assumed paradigm holds that the primary genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease resides within the DNA sequence of our genes. This paradigm can be challenged. For example, how do sequence changes in the non-coding region of the genome influence phenotype? Why are all diseases not shared between identical twins? Part of the answer lies in the fact that the environment or exogenous stimuli clearly influence disease susceptibility, but it was unclear in the past how these effects were signalled to the static DNA code. Epigenetics is providing a newer perspective on these issues. Epigenetics refers to chromatin-based mechanisms important in the regulation of gene expression that do not involve changes to the DNA sequence per se. The field can be broadly categorized into three areas: DNA base modifications (including cytosine methylation and cytosine hydroxymethylation), post-translational modifications of histone proteins, and RNA-based mechanisms that operate in the nucleus. Cardiovascular disease pathways are now being approached from the epigenetic perspective, including those associated with atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, ischemia-reperfusion damage, and the cardiovascular response to hypoxia and shear stress, among many others. With increasing interest and expanding partnerships in the field, we can expect new insights to emerge from epigenetic perspectives of cardiovascular health. This paper reviews the principles governing epigenetic regulation, discusses their presently-understood importance in cardiovascular disease, and considers the growing significance we are likely to attribute to epigenetic contributions in the future, as they provide new mechanistic insights and a host of novel clinical applications. PMID:23261320

  17. Alcohol and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Klatsky, Arthur L

    2009-05-01

    With respect to cardiovascular disorders, epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis of increased risks among heavy alcohol drinkers and indicate a lower risk among lighter drinkers. Increased cardiovascular risks of heavy drinking include cardiomyopathy, systemic hypertension, supraventricular arrhythmias, hemorrhagic stroke and heart failure that is not associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Light-to-moderate drinking is probably unrelated to increased risk of any cardiovascular condition and is related to lower risks of CAD, ischemic stroke and CAD-related heart failure. A protective alcohol-CAD hypothesis is supported by plausible biological mechanisms attributable to ethyl alcohol. Possible nonalcohol beneficial components in wine (especially red) could explain the extra protection of wine, but a healthier pattern of drinking or more favorable risk traits in wine drinkers may also be involved. Advice regarding the advisability of alcohol drinking for health needs to be individualized according to specific risks and benefits. PMID:19419257

  18. ENDEMIC DISEASES VS. ACUTE EPIDEMICS

    PubMed Central

    Ravenel, Mazck P.

    1920-01-01

    Epidemics are cared for through the incident terror of the people, and there is always money to fight them and investigate, but the far more important insidious endemics attract little interest or popular support. Attention to reduction in morbidity, rather than mortality, rates is the stitch in time plea of Dr. Ravenel. PMID:18010377

  19. Lycopene and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Arab, L; Steck, S

    2000-06-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that lycopene, a carotenoid without provitamin A activity found in high concentrations in a small set of plant foods, has significant antioxidant potential in vitro and may play a role in preventing prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease in humans. Tomato products, including ketchup, tomato juice, and pizza sauce, are the richest sources of lycopene in the US diet, accounting for >80% of the total lycopene intake of Americans. Unlike other carotenoids, lycopene is not consistently lower among smokers than among nonsmokers, suggesting that any possible preventive activity is not as an antioxidant. Instead, lycopene may have a cholesterol synthesis-inhibiting effect and may enhance LDL degradation. Available evidence suggests that intimal wall thickness and risk of myocardial infarction are reduced in persons with higher adipose tissue concentrations of lycopene. The question of whether lycopene helps to prevent cardiovascular disease can only be answered by a trial specifically evaluating its effectiveness in this area. PMID:10837319

  20. Arsenic and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    States, J Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2009-02-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-derived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure. PMID:19015167

  1. Arsenic and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    States, J. Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein Eknockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidasederived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure. PMID:19015167

  2. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  3. Epidemic diseases at the New York Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, W. A.; Reader, G. G.

    1991-01-01

    The New York Hospital has enjoyed a long, rich history in the development of American health care. AIDS has made relevant an understanding of the failures and successes achieved during past epidemics. Innovations in disease prevention and patient care have been essential in the conquest of pestilence. However, public indifference toward the people at greatest risk for these diseases has traditionally delayed attempts to prevent significant loss of life and socioeconomic destruction. PMID:1933070

  4. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a model of infectious diseases where a `reservoir' of infection exists that infects a susceptible host population at a constant rate. The final chapter of the thesis describes a general framework of modeling infectious diseases in a network of populations using multitype branching processes.

  5. [Inflammasome and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Connat, J-L

    2011-02-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) constitute a recently identified family of intracellular pattern recognition receptors which contains more than 20 members in mammals. Some of the NLRs, the NALP subfamily, constituted from 14 members, many of them without actual identified role, form multiproteic complex known as inflammasome, that initiate inflammation by processing inactive pro-caspase-1 to its active form, allowing the cleavage and subsequent activation of pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18. We review the identified roles of NLRs in pathologies and argue for the role of inflammasome in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The atherogenic cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 are matured in NLRPs inflammasomes. Immunocytochemistry shows that Nlrp3 inflammasome is expressed in plaques, upregulated and activated in the CD11b(+)Gr1(high) atherosclerosis-prone monocyte subset and modulated by oxLDL in murine macrophages. These results provide an unexpected role for Nlrp3 inflammasome in atherosclerosis. PMID:20800829

  6. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Kitowski, Vincent J.

    1978-01-01

    Cardiovascular related diseases are the major cause of death in the United States. The primary goal of the physician should be prevention of these diseases; however, once problems occur, a definitive rehabilitation program must be instituted in addition to the medical and surgical treatment. Although risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease are numerous, statistical reports suggest that control of these factors might delay or prevent such development. This presentation describes the recommended Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Program for high-risk patients or those with existing cardiovascular disease. The basis of the physical fitness and rehabilitation program is controlled progression-of-energy-expenditure physical activity and exercise in metabolic equivalents (METS). Education plays a key role in decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular disease, and should start at an early age. Adults at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease should be offered medically supervised physical fitness exercise programs, with monitoring where necessary. PMID:15216046

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence and deaths across the U.S. for the time periods 19972009 and 19792007, respectively. Cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S., may be partly...

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence and deaths across the U.S. for the time periods 1997–2009 and 1979–2007, respectively. Cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S., may be partly...

  9. Spread of epidemic disease on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E.

    2002-07-01

    The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on networks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community. In this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models, the so-called susceptible/infective/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly on a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case of fixed infectiveness time and fixed and uncorrelated probability of transmission between all pairs of individuals, we solve cases in which times and probabilities are nonuniform and correlated. We also consider one simple case of an epidemic in a structured population, that of a sexually transmitted disease in a population divided into men and women. We confirm the correctness of our exact solutions with numerical simulations of SIR epidemics on networks.

  10. Flavonols and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In addition to their anti-oxidant effect, flavonols interfere with a large number of biochemical signaling pathways and, therefore, physiological and pathological processes. There is solid evidence that, in vitro, quercetin and related flavonols exert endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, protective effect on nitric oxide and endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress, platelet antiaggregant effects, inhibition of LDL oxidation, reduction of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory markers and prevention of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory damage. The metabolites of quercetin show partial protective effects on endothelial function and LDL oxidation. Quercetin produces undisputed antihypertensive and antiatherogenic effects, prevents endothelial dysfunction and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It has no clear effects on serum lipid profile and on insulin resistance. Human intervention trials with isolated flavonols demonstrate an antihypertensive effect. The meta-analysis of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between flavonol (together with flavone) intake and coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, although there is no solid proof yet, a substantial body of evidence suggests that quercetin may prevent the most common forms of cardiovascular disease contributing to the protective effects afforded by fruits and vegetables. PMID:20837053

  11. Ghrelin and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaigai; Yin, Xinhua; Qi, Yongfen; Pendyala, Lakshmana; Chen, Jack; Hou, Dongming; Tang, Chaoshu

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, is a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor and initially identified as a strong stimulant for the release of GH. Subsequent research has shown that ghrelin and its various receptors are ubiquitous in many other organs and tissues. Moreover, they participate in the regulation of appetite, energy, bodyweight, metabolism of glucose and fat, as well as modulation of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, immune functions and cell proliferation/apoptosis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that ghrelin has a close relationship with cardiovascular system. Ghrelin and its receptors are widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, and there is no doubt that the effects of ghrelin in the cardiovascular system are mediated not only via its growth-hormone-releasing effect but also by its direct effects on the heart. Exogenous administration of ghrelin can dilate peripheral blood vessels, constrict coronary artery, improve endothelial function, as well as inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis. So, ghrelin may have cardiovascular protective effect, including lowering of blood pressure, regulation of atherosclerosis, and protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury as well as improving the prognosis of myocardial infarction and heart failure. Some of these new functions of ghrelin may provide new potential therapeutic opportunities for ghrelin in cardiovascular medicine. In this paper, we will review the existing evidence for cardiovascular effects of ghrelin, including the cardiovascular function, the variations in ghrelin plasma levels in pathophysiologicalogical conditions, the possible protective mechanisms of ghrelin, as well as its future potential therapeutic roles. PMID:21286280

  12. Thioredoxins in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F; Parinandi, Narasimham; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2015-11-01

    Key thioredoxin (Trx) system components are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), Trx reductase (TrxR), and Trx. TrxR catalyzes disulfide reduction in Trx with NADPH as cofactor. Because Trx is an antioxidant, oxidative stress results in an increase in Trx, which has a reduced disulfide component. If Trx is suppressed, oxidative stress in higher. In contrast a decrease in oxidative stress is associated with low Trx levels. Trx is involved in inflammation, apoptosis, embryogenesis, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review focuses on the Trx system in CVD. Abnormal Trx binding occurs in mouse familial combined hyperlipidemia; however, this has not been confirmed in humans. Congestive heart failure is a manifestation of many CVDs, which may be improved by attenuating oxidative stress through the suppression of Trx and decreased reactive oxygen species. Angiotensin II is associated with hypertension and other CVDs, and its receptor blockade results in decreased oxidative stress with reduced Trx levels. Inflammation is a major causative factor of CVDs, and myocarditis as an example, is associated with increased Trx levels. Vascular endothelial dysfunction has an association with CVD. This dysfunction is alleviated by hormone replacement therapy, which involves decreased oxidative stress and Trx levels. Diabetes mellitus has a major association with CVDs; increase in Trx levels may reflect insulin resistance. Identification of Trx system abnormalities may lead to innovative approaches to treat multiple CVDs and other pathologies. PMID:26417924

  13. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  14. Anthocyanins in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of abundant and widely consumed flavonoid constituents that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors present in many fruit- and vegetable-based food products. Their intake has been estimated to be up to 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins have become increasingly important to the food industry as their use as natural alternatives to artificial colors has become widespread and knowledge of their health-promoting properties has become more evident. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of mortality among men and women. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals, exhibiting synergistic biological effects but making contributions from individual components difficult to decipher. Over the past 2 decades, many peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated that in addition to their noted in vitro antioxidant activity, anthocyanins may regulate different signaling pathways involved in the development of CVD. This review summarizes the latest developments on the bioavailability/bioactivity and CVD preventative activities of anthocyanins, including results from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model systems as related to their multiple proposed mechanisms of action. Limited yet promising data from epidemiological studies and human clinical trials are also presented. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and characterizing their metabolic and/or breakdown products are necessary to ultimately evaluate their use for protection/prevention against the development of CVD. PMID:22211184

  15. Epidemic of coeliac disease in Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, A; Persson, L A; Nystrm, L; Ascher, H; Cavell, B; Danielsson, L; Dannaeus, A; Lindberg, T; Lindquist, B; Stenhammar, L; Hernell, O

    2000-02-01

    Coeliac disease has emerged as a public health problem. The aim of the present study was to analyse trends in the occurrence of symptomatic coeliac disease in Swedish children from 1973 to 1997, and to explore any temporal relationship to changes in infant dietary patterns. We established a population-based prospective incidence register of coeliac disease in 1991, and, in addition, retrospective data from 1973 were collected. A total of 2151 cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria. Furthermore. We collected national data on a yearly basis on duration of breastfeeding, intake of gluten-containing cereals and recommendations on when and how to introduce gluten into the diet of infants. From 1985 to 1987 the annual incidence rate in children below 2 y of age increased fourfold to 200-240 cases per 100000 person years, followed from 1995 by a sharp decline to the previous level of 50-60 cases per 100000 person years. This epidemic pattern is quite unique for a chronic disease of immunological pathogenesis, suggesting that prevention could be possible. The ecological observations made in this study are compatible with the epidemic being the result, at least in part, of a change in and an interplay among three factors within the area of infant feeding, i.e. amount of gluten given, age at introduction of gluten, and whether breastfeeding was ongoing or not when gluten was introduced. Other factor(s) may also have contributed, and the search for these should be intensified. PMID:10709885

  16. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids continue to be evaluated and new specialized targeting treatment modulating triglyceride pathways, such as inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III and angiopoietin-like proteins, are being tested with regard to their effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the role of hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and remnant cholesterol on cardiovascular disease, and the potential implications for treatment stargeting hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27014342

  17. Expression profiling of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, causing twice as many deaths as cancer in the USA. The major cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and common congenital heart disease (CHD), are caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors, as well as the interactions between them. The underlying molecular pathogenic mechanisms for these disorders are still largely unknown, but gene expression may play a central role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Microarrays are high-throughput genomic tools that allow the comparison of global expression changes in thousands of genes between normal and diseased cells/tissues. Microarrays have recently been applied to CAD/MI, CHF and CHD to profile changes in gene expression patterns in diseased and non-diseased patients. This same technology has also been used to characterise endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammatory cells, with or without various treatments that mimic disease processes involved in CAD/MI. These studies have led to the identification of unique subsets of genes associated with specific diseases and disease processes. Ongoing microarray studies in the field will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of cardiovascular disease and may generate new diagnostic and therapeutic markers. PMID:15588496

  18. Commentary: environmental disease--a preventable epidemic

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J. )

    1992-07-01

    Toxic environmental diseases are highly preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Toxic diseases in the work environment cause an estimated 50,000 to 70,000 deaths and 350,000 new cases of illness each year in the United States; the asbestos pandemic will ultimately claim at least 300,000 lives; pediatric lead poisoning is epidemic, and an estimated 3 to 4 million US preschool children have blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl and could suffer long-term neuropsychological impairment. Prevention of environmental diseases can be achieved through legislation and regulation that control common-source exposures to chemical toxins. Modification of personal behaviors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, complements but does not replace control of toxic environmental exposures.

  19. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations. PMID:24436433

  20. Stem cells and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Abbott, J Dawn; Giordano, Frank J

    2003-01-01

    Several recent discoveries have shifted the paradigm that there is no potential for myocardial regeneration and have fueled enthusiasm for a new frontier in the treatment of cardiovascular disease-stem cells. Fundamental to this emerging field is the cumulative evidence that adult bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells. This phenomenon has been termed stem cell plasticity and is the basis for the explosive recent interest in stem cell-based therapies. Directed to cardiovascular disease, stem cell therapy holds the promise of replacing lost heart muscle and enhancing cardiovascular revascularization. Early evidence of the feasibility of stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease came from a series of animal experiments demonstrating that adult stem cells could become cardiac muscle cells (myogenesis) and participate in the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis and vasculogenesis) in the heart after myocardial infarction. These findings have been rapidly translated to ongoing human trials, but many questions remain. This review focuses on the use of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular disease and will contrast how far we have come in a short time with how far we still need to go before stem cell therapy becomes routine in cardiovascular medicine. PMID:12900745

  1. Monocyte Heterogeneity in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Libby, Peter; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2013-01-01

    Only a few decades ago, students of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease paid little heed to the involvement of inflammation and immunity. Multiple lines of evidence now point to the participation of innate and adaptive immunity and inflammatory signaling in a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Hence, interest has burgeoned in this intersection. This review will focus on the contribution of innate immunity to both acute injury to the heart muscle itself, notably myocardial infarction, and to chronic inflammation in the artery wall, namely atherosclerosis, the cause of most myocardial infarctions. Our discussion of the operation of innate immunity in cardiovascular diseases will focus on functions of the mononuclear phagocytes with special attention to emerging data regarding the participation of different functional subsets of these cells in cardiovascular pathophysiology. PMID:23839097

  2. Novel Treatments for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Mark D.; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The purpose of this review is to describe novel pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic preventive therapies, as well as new strategies to improve delivery of available therapies. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and prevention plays a critical role in curbing the global epidemic. Despite available treatment for tobacco addiction, platelet inhibition, blood pressure, and lipid lowering for reduction of atherosclerotic disease, significant gaps in treatment of total CVD remain. We review a range of new preventive treatment options, including drugs for tobacco cessation, platelet/thrombotic inhibition, lipid- and blood pressure-lowering; nonpharmacologic options such as left atrial appendage closure devices and caloric restriction; and strategies such as fixed-dose combination drugs, laboratory screening for drug tailoring, and community-based prevention programs. CVD preventive research continues to evolve and provide clinicians and patients with novel pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies, including new preventive strategies. PMID:21884014

  3. Pharmacogenomics and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established critical pathways and specific loci modulating therapeutic responses to commonly used drugs such as clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins. In addition, genomic approaches have defined mechanisms and genetic variants underlying important toxicities with these and other drugs. These findings have not only resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described to date might be deployed in clinical decision making. PMID:23689943

  4. TGFβ Signaling and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pardali, Evangelia; ten Dijke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family members are involved in a wide range of diverse functions and play key roles in embryogenesis, development and tissue homeostasis. Perturbation of TGFβ signaling may lead to vascular and other diseases. In vitro studies have provided evidence that TGFβ family members have a wide range of diverse effects on vascular cells, which are highly dependent on cellular context. Consistent with these observations genetic studies in mice and humans showed that TGFβ family members have ambiguous effects on the function of the cardiovascular system. In this review we discuss the recent advances on TGFβ signaling in (cardio)vascular diseases, and describe the value of TGFβ signaling as both a disease marker and therapeutic target for (cardio)vascular diseases. PMID:22253564

  5. Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2009-05-01

    Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated fatty acids are still considered as having a "neutral" status, but any benefits may be related to the chemical environment of the source food or the associated overall food pattern. Controversy surrounds omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, because even though they lower LDL cholesterol levels, excessive intakes do not appear to be correlated with cardiovascular benefit. The omega-3 fatty acids are known to exert cardiovascular protective effects. Dairy fat and its cardiovascular impact are being evaluated. This review examines the existing literature on the relationships between the different fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19386031

  6. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hasler, C M; Kundrat, S; Wool, D

    2000-11-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic, tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and sterol ester enhanced margarine. When eaten in adequate amounts on a consistent basis, these foods may aid in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease by several potential mechanisms: lowering blood lipid levels, improving arterial compliance, reducing low-density lipoprotein oxidation, decreasing plaque formation, scavenging free radicals, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. PMID:11122780

  7. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  8. Ionizing radiation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hoel, David G

    2006-09-01

    For more than 15 years the A-bomb survivor studies have shown increased noncancer mortality due to radiation exposures. The most prominent cause of this increase is circulatory disease mortality. Although the estimated relative risk is less than for solid cancers (1.2 versus 1.6 per Sv), there are measurable increases in cardiovascular disease mortality at doses greater than 0.5 Sv. The evidence for circulatory diseases in mortality studies of occupational cohorts exposed to external radiation is less compelling. It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arteries and a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Immunological markers for inflammatory disease have been shown to be dose related in A-bomb survivors. Evidence from animal studies reveals increased cardiovascular mortality and arterial endothelial damage from both neutron and, to a lesser extent, gamma exposures. PMID:17119211

  9. [Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].

    PubMed

    Picciotto, D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

  10. Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina H.; Robledo, Candace; Boghossian, Nansi; Zhang, Cuilin; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease has traditionally been viewed as a condition of aging individuals, increasing focus has turned to its developmental origins. Since birthweight has been related to cardiovascular disease risk, research into factors such as gravid conditions that affect fetal growth have grown. Associations between maternal diabetes and childhood obesity from sibling studies suggest a causal role but prospective studies of gestational diabetes remain mixed. Preeclampsia and increased offspring blood pressure has been consistently observed but evidence for other cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. While maternal obesity is associated with childhood obesity, causality remains unclear and paternal obesity should be investigated as an independent risk factor. Environmental chemical exposures in utero, particularly obesogens, are now emerging as another concern, as is conception by infertility treatment. Few studies have investigated subclinical measures of endothelial function or atherosclerosis and more research in these areas may help reveal the underlying pathogenesis. PMID:25364653

  11. [Nicotine replacement therapy in cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Szyszka, Andrzej; Religa, Lilianna; Fa?dyga, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is well established and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cessation of smoking clearly decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Nicotine is known to be the addicting component of tobacco products. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increases the probability of quitting smoking. Studies have indicating no increase in cardiovascular events in smokers with known cardiovascular disease. PMID:21360907

  12. Antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nez-Crdoba, Jorge M; Martnez-Gonzlez, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease represents an unparalleled proportion of the global burden of disease and will remain the main cause of mortality for the near future. Fortunately, most premature cardiovascular deaths are preventable. Therefore, prevention becomes vital and diet has shown beneficial effects to protect from CVD (CVD). Fruits and vegetables are dietary sources of natural antioxidants and it is generally accepted that antioxidants in these foods are key in explaining the inverse association between fruits and vegetables intake and the risk of developing a cardiovascular event or having elevated levels of cardiovascular risk factors. Available evidence supports the central role of oxidative stress in the atherosclerosis process and the correlation between increased oxidative stress and vascular disease. Theoretically, antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are important in inhibiting oxidative mechanisms that lead to various degenerative diseases including CVD. However, results from many interventional trials using antioxidants given as supplements have not been concordant with previous positive findings from observational epidemiologic cohort studies. The present manuscript gives a brief overview of the relationship between natural antioxidants (specially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene) intake and the risk of CVD. PMID:21506930

  13. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, K D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested. PMID:465378

  14. Prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.

    1992-01-01

    1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol), fibrates (eg bezafibrate and gemfibrozil) and more recently HMG CoA inhibitors (eg simvastatin). The HMG CoA inhibitors produce large falls in cholesterol and may become first line drugs in future. Because of the current controversy about the effect of lipid-lowering drugs on total mortality, many believe that they should be reserved for those at the highest risk, for example patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia or with pre-existing coronary heart disease and a high plasma cholesterol (> 7.8 mmol/L). 9. The special care group defined by the practice should be offered regular follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1345159

  15. Protein nitration in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Turko, Illarion V; Murad, Ferid

    2002-12-01

    There is growing evidence that cardiovascular disease is associated with progressive changes in the production of free radicals and radical-derived reactive species. These intermediates react with all major cellular constituents and may serve several physiological and pathophysiological functions. The nitration of protein tyrosine residues has been used as a footprint for in vivo production of radical and nonradical reactive species. Tyrosine nitration may alter protein function and metabolism and therefore, provides for further dysfunctional changes. This review focuses on an appearance of tyrosine nitrated proteins in cardiovascular tissues under different settings of cardiovascular disease. Sources of reactive species, putative mechanisms of protein nitration in vivo, as well as protein nitration under normal physiological conditions, are also described. The goal of this review is to attract more attention to identification of specific proteins, which undergo tyrosine nitration and to study a correlation between their altered function and pathology. Understanding how protein nitration affects disease progression may offer a unique option for design of antioxidant therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular complications. At the same time, protein nitration can be a biological marker of efficiency of antioxidant therapy. PMID:12429871

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Lu, Hong-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are two diseases that are common in the general population. To date, many studies have been conducted and demonstrate a direct link between NAFLD and CVD, but the exact mechanisms for this complex relationship are not well established. A systematic search of the PubMed database revealed that several common mechanisms are involved in many of the local and systemic manifestations of NAFLD and lead to an increased cardiovascular risk. The possible mechanisms linking NAFLD and CVD include inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, ectopic adipose tissue distribution, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, and adiponectin, among others. The clinical implication is that patients with NAFLD are at an increased risk of CVD and should undergo periodic cardiovascular risk assessment. PMID:25024598

  17. Genomics in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert; Marian, A.J.; Dandona, Sonny; Stewart, Alexandre F.R.

    2013-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards biology occurred in the 1990s subsequently catalyzed by the sequencing of the human genome in 2000. The cost of DNA sequencing has gone from millions to thousands of dollars with sequencing of ones entire genome costing only $1,000. Rapid DNA sequencing is being embraced for single gene disorders, particularly for sporadic cases and those from small families. Transmission of lethal genes such as associated with Huntingtons disease can, through in-vitro fertilization, avoid passing it on to ones offspring. DNA sequencing will meet the challenge of elucidating the genetic predisposition for common polygenic diseases, especially in determining the function of the novel common genetic risk variants and identifying the rare variants, which may also partially ascertain the source of the missing heritability. The challenge for DNA sequencing remains great, despite human genome sequences being 99.5% identical, the 3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for most of the unique features add up to 60 new mutations per person which, for 7 billion people, is 420 billion mutations. It is claimed that DNA sequencing has increased 10,000 fold while information storage and retrieval only 16 fold. The physician and health user will be challenged by the convergence of two major trends, whole genome sequencing and the storage/retrieval and integration of the data. PMID:23524054

  18. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD. PMID:17120060

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Surya P; Dransfield, Mark T

    2013-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease of the lung associated with progressive airflow limitation and punctuated by episodes of acute exacerbation. There is growing recognition that the inflammatory state associated with COPD is not confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs. Epidemiologic and mechanistic studies indicate that COPD is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias, independent of shared risk factors. Possible pathways include complex interrelationships between chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative stress as well as shared risk factors such as age, cigarette smoking, and environmental pollutants. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiologic data linking COPD with cardiovascular disease, comment on the interrelationships among COPD, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, and highlight diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. PMID:23727296

  20. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thomas J

    2016-01-14

    Vitamin D is best known for its influence on skeletal health. There is growing recognition, however, that vitamin D has nonskeletal actions, which could have important implications for understanding the consequences of vitamin D deficiency. In epidemiologic studies, vitamin D deficiency has been consistently associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Disruption of vitamin D signaling in animal models promotes hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. This evidence has led to the initiation of prospective randomized trials of vitamin D supplementation in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease. The results of these trials should help to guide strategies for screening and management of vitamin D deficiency in the clinic and at the population level. PMID:26768241

  1. Oral infections and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kholy, Karim El; Genco, Robert J; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2015-06-01

    Oral infections are the most common diseases of mankind. Numerous reports have implicated oral infections, particularly periodontitis, as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we examine the epidemiology and biologic plausibility of this association with an emphasis on oral bacteria and inflammation. Longitudinal studies of incident cardiovascular events clearly show excess risk for CVD in individuals with periodontitis. It is likely that systemic exposure to oral bacteria impacts upon the initiation and progression of CVD through triggering of inflammatory processes. Given the high prevalence of periodontitis, any risk attributable to future CVD is important to public health. Unraveling the role of the oral microbiome in CVD will lead to new preventive and treatment approaches. PMID:25892452

  2. The programming of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, K L

    2015-10-01

    In spite of improving life expectancy over the course of the previous century, the health of the U.S. population is now worsening. Recent increasing rates of type 2 diabetes, obesity and uncontrolled high blood pressure predict a growing incidence of cardiovascular disease and shortened average lifespan. The daily >$1billion current price tag for cardiovascular disease in the United States is expected to double within the next decade or two. Other countries are seeing similar trends. Current popular explanations for these trends are inadequate. Rather, increasingly poor diets in young people and in women during pregnancy are a likely cause of declining health in the U.S. population through a process known as programming. The fetal cardiovascular system is sensitive to poor maternal nutritional conditions during the periconceptional period, in the womb and in early postnatal life. Developmental plasticity accommodates changes in organ systems that lead to endothelial dysfunction, small coronary arteries, stiffer vascular tree, fewer nephrons, fewer cardiomyocytes, coagulopathies and atherogenic blood lipid profiles in fetuses born at the extremes of birthweight. Of equal importance are epigenetic modifications to genes driving important growth regulatory processes. Changes in microRNA, DNA methylation patterns and histone structure have all been implicated in the cardiovascular disease vulnerabilities that cross-generations. Recent experiments offer hope that detrimental epigenetic changes can be prevented or reversed. The large number of studies that provide the foundational concepts for the developmental origins of disease can be traced to the brilliant discoveries of David J.P. Barker. PMID:26173733

  3. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  4. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Recent findings Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. Summary The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing. PMID:24717670

  5. [The epidemic of metabolic diseases, a major problem of public health].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    1999-02-01

    The industrialized world is confronted to a real epidemic of metabolic diseases triggered by overeating and sedentarity. Obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome associated to insulin resistance are well-known cardiovascular risk factors which all contribute to increase both morbidity and mortality, to alter the quality of life and to markedly increase the budget of the social security. Preventive measures should be taken urgently in order to correct such a dangerous trend for the public health. PMID:10221060

  6. Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the worlds epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vectorenvironment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

  7. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ‘free-radical theory’ of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that ROS and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding or reactive oxygen species has evolved to the point that we now realize these species have important roles in physiology as well as pathophysiology. Thus, it is overly simplistic to assume a general antioxidant strategy will yield specific effects on cardiovascular disease. Indeed, there are several sources of reactive oxygen species that are known to be active in the cardiovascular system. This review will address our understanding of reactive oxygen species sources in cardiovascular disease and both animal and human data defining how reactive oxygen species contribute to physiology and pathology. PMID:21627987

  9. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  10. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D

    2015-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of cardiovascular medicine. Data indicate that iron deficiency has detrimental effects in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), and pulmonary hypertension, and possibly in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Around one-third of all patients with HF, and more than one-half of patients with pulmonary hypertension, are affected by iron deficiency. Patients with HF and iron deficiency have shown symptomatic improvements from intravenous iron administration, and some evidence suggests that these improvements occur irrespective of the presence of anaemia. Improved exercise capacity has been demonstrated after iron administration in patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, to avoid iron overload and T-cell activation, it seems that recipients of cardiac transplantations should not be treated with intravenous iron preparations. PMID:26194551

  11. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)

  12. Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future. PMID:21723289

  13. Sugars, hypertriglyceridemia, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Fried, Susan K; Rao, Salome P

    2003-10-01

    Short-term studies consistently show that raising the carbohydrate content of the diet increases serum triacylglycerol concentrations. As compared with starches, sugars (particularly sucrose and fructose) tend to increase serum triacylglycerol concentrations by approximately 60%. The magnitude of the effect depends on other aspects of the diet, including the total amount of carbohydrate and the types of fat, carbohydrate, and fiber, but definitive studies to describe the dose-response relations are not available. Longer-term studies show that some high-carbohydrate diets are not associated with increased fasting serum triacylgycerol concentrations. However, sedentary subjects with upper-body and visceral obesity who have the metabolic syndrome tend to be at higher risk for hypertriglyceridemia in response to high-sucrose and high-carbohydrate diets; moderate weight loss mitigates the effect. Hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may play a role in promoting higher rates of VLDL synthesis and hypertriglyceridemia in obesity, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The effect of fructose in promoting triacylglycerol synthesis is independent of insulinemia, however. In terms of the long-term effects of diets high in sugars on the risk of cardiovascular disease, available epidemiologic evidence indicates no association of sugars or total carbohydrate intake per se, but high dietary glycemic load is associated with higher serum triacylglycerol concentrations and greater risk of coronary heart disease in women. Studies are needed to delineate the independent effects of dietary sugars and glycemic load on serum triacylglycerol concentrations in lean and obese men and women and to determine whether the elevations in fasting and fed concentrations of serum triacylglycerol with high-carbohydrate and high-sugars diets are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:14522752

  14. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Nuver, Janine; Suter, Thomas M.; Maraldo, Maja V.; Specht, Lena; Vrieling, Conny; Darby, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we describe current knowledge of the cardiotoxicity arising from cancer treatments, outline gaps in knowledge, and indicate directions for future research and guideline development, as discussed during the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Better knowledge is needed of the late effects of modern systemic treatments and of radiotherapy to critical structures of the heart, including the effect of both radiation dose and volume of the heart exposed. Research elucidating the extent to which treatments interact in causing CVD, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results. Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines for CVD following cancer are also needed. Finally, risk prediction models should be developed to guide primary treatment choice and appropriate follow up after cancer treatment. PMID:26217163

  15. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common disorder that is characterized by elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in conjunction with free thyroxine concentrations within the normal reference range. Thyroid hormones are known to affect the heart and vasculature and, as a result, the impact of SCH on the cardiovascular (CV) system has recently become an important topic of research. Strong evidence points to a link between SCH and CV risk factors such as alterations in blood pressure, lipid levels, and atherosclerosis. Additionally, accumulating evidence indicates that SCH is associated with metabolic syndrome and heart failure. The present review proposes that SCH may be a potentially modifiable risk factor of CV disease and mortality. However, large-scale clinical trials with appropriate power investigating the risks and benefits of SCH treatment are required to determine whether these benefits can be achieved with levothyroxine therapy. PMID:26248862

  16. Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christy; Rasmussen, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and intervention trials will be reviewed. Further identification of polyphenols in foods and accurate assessment of exposures through measurement of biomarkers (i.e., polyphenol metabolites) could provide the needed impetus to examine the impact of polyphenol-rich foods on CVD intermediate outcomes (especially those signifying chronic inflammation) and hard endpoints among high risk patients. Although we have mechanistic insight into how polyphenols may function in CVD risk reduction, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for consumption can be made. PMID:23512608

  17. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon γ-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase I in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in humans primarily by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Highly toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is formed solely in the presence of superoxide anion (O2-). Neopterin and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), as an estimate of IDO enzyme activity, are robust markers of immune activation in vitro and in vivo. Both these diagnostic parameters are able to predict cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients at risk. Likewise, a significant association exists between increase of neopterin concentrations and Kyn/Trp ratio values and the lowering of plasma levels of vitamin-C, -E and -B. Vitamin-B deficiency is usually accompanied by increased plasma homoycsteine. Additional determination of NO metabolites, BH4 and plasma antioxidants in patients with CVD and related clinical settings can be helpful to improve the understanding of redox-regulation in health and disease and might provide a rationale for potential antioxidant therapies in CVD. PMID:24976919

  18. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  19. Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cannarile, Francesca; Valentini, Valentina; Mirabelli, Giulia; Alunno, Alessia; Terenzi, Riccardo; Luccioli, Filippo; Bartoloni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) system involvement is a frequent complication of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It still remains unclear if a premature atherosclerosis (ATS) occurs even in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, in the last few years a number of studies highlighted a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease in SSc patients in comparison to healthy individuals and these data have been correlated with a poorer prognosis. The mechanisms promoting ATS in SSc are not fully understood, but it is believed to be secondary to multi-system organ inflammation, endothelial wall damage and vasculopathy. Both traditional risk factors and endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to participate to the onset and progression of ATS in such patients. In particular, endothelial cell injury induced by anti-endothelial antibodies, ischemia/reperfusion damage, immune-mediated cytotoxicity represent the main causes of vascular injury together with an impaired vascular repair mechanism that determine a defective vasculogenesis. Aim of this review is to analyse both causes and clinical manifestations of macrovascular involvement and ATS in SSc. PMID:25705640

  20. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  1. Disease-induced resource constraints can trigger explosive epidemics.

    PubMed

    Bttcher, L; Woolley-Meza, O; Arajo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Helbing, D

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mathematical epidemiology have led to a better understanding of the risks posed by epidemic spreading and informed strategies to contain disease spread. However, a challenge that has been overlooked is that, as a disease becomes more prevalent, it can limit the availability of the capital needed to effectively treat those who have fallen ill. Here we use a simple mathematical model to gain insight into the dynamics of an epidemic when the recovery of sick individuals depends on the availability of healing resources that are generated by the healthy population. We find that epidemics spiral out of control into "explosive" spread if the cost of recovery is above a critical cost. This can occur even when the disease would die out without the resource constraint. The onset of explosive epidemics is very sudden, exhibiting a discontinuous transition under very general assumptions. We find analytical expressions for the critical cost and the size of the explosive jump in infection levels in terms of the parameters that characterize the spreading process. Our model and results apply beyond epidemics to contagion dynamics that self-induce constraints on recovery, thereby amplifying the spreading process. PMID:26568377

  2. Disease-induced resource constraints can trigger explosive epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bttcher, L.; Woolley-Meza, O.; Arajo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Helbing, D.

    2015-11-01

    Advances in mathematical epidemiology have led to a better understanding of the risks posed by epidemic spreading and informed strategies to contain disease spread. However, a challenge that has been overlooked is that, as a disease becomes more prevalent, it can limit the availability of the capital needed to effectively treat those who have fallen ill. Here we use a simple mathematical model to gain insight into the dynamics of an epidemic when the recovery of sick individuals depends on the availability of healing resources that are generated by the healthy population. We find that epidemics spiral out of control into explosive spread if the cost of recovery is above a critical cost. This can occur even when the disease would die out without the resource constraint. The onset of explosive epidemics is very sudden, exhibiting a discontinuous transition under very general assumptions. We find analytical expressions for the critical cost and the size of the explosive jump in infection levels in terms of the parameters that characterize the spreading process. Our model and results apply beyond epidemics to contagion dynamics that self-induce constraints on recovery, thereby amplifying the spreading process.

  3. Disease-induced resource constraints can trigger explosive epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, L.; Woolley-Meza, O.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Helbing, D.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mathematical epidemiology have led to a better understanding of the risks posed by epidemic spreading and informed strategies to contain disease spread. However, a challenge that has been overlooked is that, as a disease becomes more prevalent, it can limit the availability of the capital needed to effectively treat those who have fallen ill. Here we use a simple mathematical model to gain insight into the dynamics of an epidemic when the recovery of sick individuals depends on the availability of healing resources that are generated by the healthy population. We find that epidemics spiral out of control into “explosive” spread if the cost of recovery is above a critical cost. This can occur even when the disease would die out without the resource constraint. The onset of explosive epidemics is very sudden, exhibiting a discontinuous transition under very general assumptions. We find analytical expressions for the critical cost and the size of the explosive jump in infection levels in terms of the parameters that characterize the spreading process. Our model and results apply beyond epidemics to contagion dynamics that self-induce constraints on recovery, thereby amplifying the spreading process. PMID:26568377

  4. Polypill treatments for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Webster, Ruth; Rodgers, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality globally. Effective CVD preventive medications are available including statin, blood pressure-lowering and antiplatelet medications; however most people do not take these drugs long term. Fixed-dose combination pills ("polypills") have been shown, in several clinical trials, to improve adherence to these recommended medications, with corresponding improvements in risk factors such as blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol. In patients not taking all modalities of recommended CVD preventive therapies, polypill-based strategies could importantly contribute to global CVD control strategies. The largest benefits are seen in those who are under-treated at baseline, rather than those who are already taking the individual components separately: simplified step-up is more important than pill count reduction. Despite the potential benefits for patients and payers, only a few polypills are available due to market failure in the funding of research and development for affordable non-communicable disease medicines. Regulatory paradigms have focused on substitution indications among patients already taking component medications; however, this is the population that is likely to receive the least benefit from a polypill-based strategy. Greater health impact is likely if focus is given to patients who have indications for all polypill components, but currently do not receive the benefits of recommended medicines long term. PMID:26558898

  5. Outline of the report on cardiovascular disease in China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng Shou; Kong, Ling Zhi; Gao, Run Lin; Zhu, Man Lu; Wang, Wen; Wang, Yong Jun; Wu, Zhao Su; Chen, Wei Wei; Liu, Ming Bo

    2012-06-01

    Major and profound changes have taken place in China over the past 30 years. Rapid socioeconomic progress has exerted a great impact on lifestyle, ranging from food, clothing, working and living conditions, and means of transportation to leisure activities and entertainment. At the same time, new health problems have emerged, and health services are facing new challenges. Presently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top health problems of the Chinese people, and pose a serious challenge to all engaged in the prevention and control of these diseases. An epidemic of CVD in China is emerging as a result of lifestyle changes, urbanization and longevity. Both national policy decision-making and medical practice urgently need an authoritative report which comprehensively reflects the trends in the epidemic of CVD and current preventive measures. Since 2005, guided by the Bureau of Disease Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases of China, nationwide experts in the fields of epidemiology, clinical medicine and health economics in the realms of CVD, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, completed the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China every year. The report aims to provide a timely review of the trend of the epidemic and to assess the progress of prevention and control of CVD. In addition, as the report is authoritative, representative and readable, it will become an information platform in the CVD field and an important reference book for government, academic institutes, medical organizations and clinical physicians. This publication is expected to play a positive role in the prevention and control of CVD in China. We present an abstract from the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China (2010), including trends in CVD, morbidity and mortality of major CVDs, up-to-date assessment of risk factors, as well as health resources for CVD, and a profile of medical expenditure, with the aim of providing evidence for decision-making in CVD prevention and control programs in China, and of delivering the most authoritative information on CVD prevention and control for all citizens. PMID:22840574

  6. A novel peptide adropin in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Xie, Wei; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yin, Wei-Dong; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2016-01-30

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Adropin was first discovered in 2008 by Kumar and his coworkers. Adropin, encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated gene, is expressed in many tissues and organs, such as pancreatic tissue, liver, brain, kidney, endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium. In this review, we have summarized recent data suggesting the roles of adropin in several major cardiovascular diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that adropin is a potential regulator of cardiovascular functions and plays a protective role in the pathogenesis and development of cardiovascular diseases. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms underlying the association between adropin and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26683354

  7. Protein carbamylation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L

    2015-09-01

    Carbamylation constitutes a posttranslational modification of proteins or amino acids and results from different pathways in vivo. First is the non-enzymatic reaction between isocyanic acid, a decomposition product of urea, and either the N-terminus or the ?-amino group of lysine residues. Isocyanic acid levels, while low in vivo, are in equilibrium with urea and are thus increased in chronic and end-stage renal diseases. An alternative pathway involves the leukocyte heme protein myeloperoxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, producing isocyanate at inflammation sites. Notably, plasma thiocyanate levels are increased in smokers, and leukocyte-driven protein carbamylation occurs both within human and animal atherosclerotic plaques, as well as on plasma proteins. Protein carbamylation is considered a hallmark of molecular aging and is implicated in many pathological conditions. Recently, it has been shown that carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces endothelial dysfunction via lectin-like-oxidized LDL receptor-1 activation and increased reactive oxygen species production, leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. Moreover, carbamylated LDL harbors atherogenic activities, including both binding to macrophage scavenger receptors inducing cholesterol accumulation and foam-cell formation, as well as promoting vascular smooth muscle proliferation. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein loses its anti-apoptotic activity after carbamylation, contributing to endothelial cell death. In addition to involvement in atherogenesis, protein carbamylation levels have emerged as a particularly strong predictor of both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies also suggest that protein carbamylation may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:26061545

  8. Protein Carbamylation and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Verbrugge, Frederik H.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbamylation constitutes a posttranslational modification of proteins or amino acids and results from different pathways in vivo. First is the non-enzymatic reaction between isocyanic acid, a decomposition product of urea, and either the N-terminus or ?-amino group of lysine residues. Isocyanic acid levels, while low in vivo, are in equilibrium with urea, and are thus increased in chronic and end-stage renal diseases. An alternative pathway involves the leukocyte haem protein myeloperoxidase, which catalyses the oxidation of thiocyanate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, producing isocyanate at inflammation sites. Notably, plasma thiocyanate levels are increased in smokers, and leukocyte-driven protein carbamylation occurs both within human and animal atherosclerotic plaques, as well as on plasma proteins. Protein carbamylation is considered a hallmark of molecular aging and is implicated in many pathological conditions. Recently, it has been shown that carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces endothelial dysfunction via lectin-like-oxidized LDL receptor-1 activation and increased reactive oxygen species production, leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. Moreover, carbamylated LDL harbours atherogenic activities, including both binding to macrophage scavenger receptors inducing cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation, as well as promoting vascular smooth muscle proliferation. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein loses its anti-apoptotic activity after carbamylation, contributing to endothelial cell death. In addition to involvement in atherogenesis, protein carbamylation levels have emerged as a particularly strong predictor of both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies also suggest that protein carbamylation may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:26061545

  9. Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071915

  10. Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended analysis tools for network epidemiology, which has, to date, mostly viewed networks as static entities. We review recent results of network epidemiology for such temporal network data and discuss future developments. PMID:23513178

  11. Immunity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory condition with immune competent cells in lesions producing mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dead cells and oxidized forms of low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) are abundant. The major direct cause of CVD appears to be rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. oxLDL has proinflammatory and immune-stimulatory properties, causes cell death at higher concentrations and contains inflammatory phospholipids with phosphorylcholine (PC) as an interesting epitope. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) may be atheroprotective, one mechanism being anti-inflammatory. Bacteria and virus have been discussed, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence, and antibiotic trials have not been successful. Heat shock proteins could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. To prove that inflammation is a cause of atherosclerosis and CVD, clinical studies with anti-inflammatory and/or immune-modulatory treatment are needed. The potential causes of immune reactions and inflammation in atherosclerosis and how inflammation can be targeted therapeutically to provide novel treatments for CVD are reviewed. PMID:23635324

  12. Update on lyme disease: the hidden epidemic.

    PubMed

    Savely, Virginia R

    2008-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Diagnosis is problematic for many reasons, including unsatisfactory laboratory tests and confusion about test interpretation. When Lyme disease is diagnosed early, treatment is usually successful with oral antibiotics. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is often missed, allowing the infection to disseminate and affect every body system. When Lyme disease affects the central nervous system, it is often treated with intravenous antibiotics in the home setting. Infusion nurses who are experienced with the myriad symptoms and treatment challenges of these complex patients will be a reassuring asset to patients and physicians alike. PMID:18641487

  13. Dioxins and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Birnbaum, Linda; Rimm, Eric; Mittleman, Murray A.; Hauser, Russ

    2008-01-01

    Objective In this systematic review we evaluated the evidence on the association between dioxin exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in humans. Data sources and extraction We conducted a PubMed search in December 2007 and considered all English-language epidemiologic studies and their citations regarding dioxin exposure and CVD mortality. To focus on dioxins, we excluded cohorts that were either primarily exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls or from the leather and perfume industries, which include other cardiotoxic coexposures. Data synthesis We included results from 12 cohorts in the review. Ten cohorts were occupationally exposed. We divided analyses according to two well-recognized criteria of epidemiologic study quality: the accuracy of the exposure assessment, and whether the exposed population was compared with an internal or an external (e.g., general population) reference group. Analyses using internal comparisons with accurate exposure assessments are the highest quality because they minimize both exposure misclassification and confounding due to workers being healthier than the general population (“healthy worker effect”). The studies in the highest-quality group found consistent and significant dose-related increases in ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and more modest associations with all-CVD mortality. Their primary limitation was a lack of adjustment for potential confounding by the major risk factors for CVD. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that dioxin exposure is associated with mortality from both IHD and all CVD, although more strongly with the former. However, it is not possible to determine the potential bias, if any, from confounding by other risk factors for CVD. PMID:19057694

  14. Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: Is It Preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Thompson, Kathryn C.

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (<2.5 m, PM2.5) air pollution is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. The largest portion of adverse health effects is from cardiovascular diseases. In North America, PM2.5 concentrations have shown a steady decline over the past several decades; however, the opposite trend has occurred throughout much of the developing world whereby daily concentrations commonly reach extraordinarily high levels. While air quality regulations can reduce air pollution at a societal level, what individuals can do to reduce their personal exposures remains an active field of investigation. Here, we review the emerging evidence that several interventions (e.g., air filters) and/or behavioral changes can lower PM pollution exposure and as such, may be capable of mitigating the ensuing adverse cardiovascular health consequences. Air pollution remains a worldwide epidemic and a multi-tiered prevention strategy is required in order to optimally protect global public health. PMID:26097526

  15. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.; Hsiao, C.K.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Wu, M.-M.; Chen, C.-J.

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality.

  16. Impact of Mendelian Inheritance in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Kim L.; Garg, Vidu

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. While the etiology for the majority of cardiovascular disease is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors, developments in our understanding of the basic biology of cardiac disorders have been greatly advanced through discoveries made studying heart diseases that exhibit Mendelian forms of inheritance. Most of these diseases primarily affect children and young adults and include cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, aortic aneurysms and congenital heart defects. The discovery of the genetic etiologies for these diseases have had significant impact on our understanding of more complex forms of cardiovascular disease and in some cases led to novel diagnostic and treatment modalities. In this review, we will summarize these seminal genetic discoveries, highlighting a few that have resulted in significant impact on human disease, and discuss the potential utility of studying Mendelian-inherited heart disease with the development of new genetic technologies and our increased understanding of the human genome. PMID:20958326

  17. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Mike EJ

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  18. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  19. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  20. Optimizing infectious disease interventions during an emerging epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Wallinga, Jacco; van Boven, Michiel; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and global impact of the novel influenza A(H1N1)v highlights the continuous threat to public health posed by a steady stream of new and unexpected infectious disease outbreaks in animals and humans. Once an emerging epidemic is detected, public health authorities will attempt to mitigate the epidemic by, among other measures, reducing further spread as much as possible. Scarce and/or costly control measures such as vaccines, anti-infective drugs, and social distancing must be allocated while epidemiological characteristics of the disease remain uncertain. Here we present first principles for allocating scarce resources with limited data. We show that under a broad class of assumptions, the simple rule of targeting intervention measures at the group with the highest risk of infection per individual will achieve the largest reduction in the transmission potential of a novel infection. For vaccination of susceptible persons, the appropriate risk measure is force of infection; for social distancing, the appropriate risk measure is incidence of infection. Unlike existing methods that rely on detailed knowledge of group-specific transmission rates, the method described here can be implemented using only data that are readily available during an epidemic, and allows ready adaptation as the epidemic progresses. The need to observe risk of infection helps to focus the ongoing planning and design of new infectious disease surveillance programs; from the presented first principles for allocating scarce resources, we can adjust the prioritization of groups for intervention when new observations on an emerging epidemic become available. PMID:20080777

  1. Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Taylor C.

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of abundant and widely consumed flavonoid constituents that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors present in many fruit- and vegetable-based food products. Their intake has been estimated to be up to 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins have become increasingly important to the food industry as their use as natural alternatives to artificial colors has become widespread and knowledge of their health-promoting properties has become more evident. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of mortality among men and women. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals, exhibiting synergistic biological effects but making contributions from individual components difficult to decipher. Over the past 2 decades, many peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated that in addition to their noted in vitro antioxidant activity, anthocyanins may regulate different signaling pathways involved in the development of CVD. This review summarizes the latest developments on the bioavailability/bioactivity and CVD preventative activities of anthocyanins, including results from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model systems as related to their multiple proposed mechanisms of action. Limited yet promising data from epidemiological studies and human clinical trials are also presented. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and characterizing their metabolic and/or breakdown products are necessary to ultimately evaluate their use for protection/prevention against the development of CVD. PMID:22211184

  2. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

    2007-10-01

    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations. PMID:17990383

  3. The impacts of simultaneous disease intervention decisions on epidemic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Michael A; Bauch, Chris T

    2016-04-21

    Mathematical models of the interplay between disease dynamics and human behavioural dynamics can improve our understanding of how diseases spread when individuals adapt their behaviour in response to an epidemic. Accounting for behavioural mechanisms that determine uptake of infectious disease interventions such as vaccination and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) can significantly alter predicted health outcomes in a population. However, most previous approaches that model interactions between human behaviour and disease dynamics have modelled behaviour of these two interventions separately. Here, we develop and analyze an agent based network model to gain insights into how behaviour toward both interventions interact adaptively with disease dynamics (and therefore, indirectly, with one another) during the course of a single epidemic where an SIRV infection spreads through a contact network. In the model, individuals decide to become vaccinated and/or practice NPIs based on perceived infection prevalence (locally or globally) and on what other individuals in the network are doing. We find that introducing adaptive NPI behaviour lowers vaccine uptake on account of behavioural feedbacks, and also decreases epidemic final size. When transmission rates are low, NPIs alone are as effective in reducing epidemic final size as NPIs and vaccination combined. Also, NPIs can compensate for delays in vaccine availability by hindering early disease spread, decreasing epidemic size significantly compared to the case where NPI behaviour does not adapt to mitigate early surges in infection prevalence. We also find that including adaptive NPI behaviour strongly mitigates the vaccine behavioural feedbacks that would otherwise result in higher vaccine uptake at lower vaccine efficacy as predicted by most previous models, and the same feedbacks cause epidemic final size to remain approximately constant across a broad range of values for vaccine efficacy. Finally, when individuals use local information about others' behaviour and infection prevalence, instead of population-level information, infection is controlled more efficiently through ring vaccination, and this is reflected in the time evolution of pair correlations on the network. This model shows that accounting for both adaptive NPI behaviour and adaptive vaccinating behaviour regarding social effects and infection prevalence can result in qualitatively different predictions than if only one type of adaptive behaviour is modelled. PMID:26829313

  4. Geochemical environments, trace elements, and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masironi, R.; Miesch, A. T.; Crawford, M. D.; Hamilton, E. I.

    1972-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are often found to be associated with certain physicochemical characteristics of the environment—namely, the hardness of the water and the types of rock and soil underlying the area. Areas supplied with soft water usually have higher cardiovascular death rates than do areas supplied with hard water. Evidence linking cardiovascular diseases with the geochemistry of rocks and soils is more limited. The nature of these associations is still speculative but it is possible that certain trace elements are involved, some being beneficial and others harmful. Further epidemiological studies to identify these various trace elements are desirable. PMID:4539410

  5. A Global Perspective on Cardiovascular Disease in Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Karen; Lohfeld, Lynne; Sleeth, Jessica; Morales, Fernando; Rajkotia, Yogesh; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to the growing public health epidemic in chronic diseases. Much of the disease and disability burden from CVDs are in people younger than the age of 70 years in low- and middle-income countries, formerly "the developing world." The risk of CVD is heavily influenced by environmental conditions and lifestyle variables. In this article we review the scope of the CVD problem in low- and middle-income countries, including economic factors, risk factors, at-risk groups, and explanatory frameworks that hypothesize the multifactorial drivers. Finally, we discuss current and potential interventions to reduce the burden of CVD in vulnerable populations including research needed to evaluate and implement promising solutions for those most at risk. PMID:26321432

  6. The epidemic of asbestos-related diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord E

    2004-01-01

    New Zealand is a small country with a big asbestos disease problem. The lack of action on warnings in the 1960s and 1970s has led to epidemics of mesothelioma and asbestosis, which can be clearly documented via the death and cancer registers. In addition, an uncertain number of lung cancers due to asbestos exposure has occurred. The epidemic started in the 1980s, and will eventually have cost the lives of at least 2000 to 3000 workers. Prevention against ongoing exposures from asbestos installed in buildings is essential, and another key issue for New Zealand is to ensure that fair workers' compensation is provided to all victims of asbestos diseases. PMID:15281382

  7. [Epidemics and diseases during the Independence period in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Viesca-Trevio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The epidemics and endemic diseases in Mexico were not a problem before the Independence period. Hunger was less than in the past. The 1806 Influenza epidemics had been forgotten. Measles was considered a benign illness. In 1810, there was an increase in the number of cases of black vomit in Veracruz. Sixty percent of 541 hospitalized patients die of the disease. In 1812, an outbreak of yellow fever spread from Veracruz to Jalapa accompanying the movement of troops and killing over 300 soldiers of the Castilla's Battalion. The appearance of petechial fever, maybe typhus marketed in 1813 the onset of the most important epidemics. The preceding was the indirect effect of war: diseases of prisons and military quarters which became overwhelming in times where the movements of troops and of important groups of populations along with crowing, loss homes, hunger and bad hygiene habits. There was also Influenza or "pestilent cold." Measures of detection and quarantine were taken. "Naranjate" mixed with tartaric cremor was used against fever. Fumigation with nitric acid and burners, where they incinerated gun powder were among the health protection policies. It is noteworthy the advance and relief provided by the introduction of smallpox vaccine, the only preventive mean useful against smallpox which was a breakthrough in public health. PMID:20696106

  8. Fluctuations in epidemic modeling - disease extinction and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ira

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of infectious disease fluctuations has recently seen an increasing rise in the use of new tools and models from stochastic dynamics and statistical physics. Examples arise in modeling fluctuations of multi-strain diseases, in modeling adaptive social behavior and its impact on disease fluctuations, and in the analysis of disease extinction in finite population models. Proper stochastic model reduction [1] allows one to predict unobserved fluctuations from observed data in multi-strain models [2]. Degree alteration and power law behavior is predicted in adaptive network epidemic models [3,4]. And extinction rates derived from large fluctuation theory exhibit scaling with respect to distance to the bifurcation point of disease onset with an unusual exponent [5]. In addition to outbreak prediction, another main goal of epidemic modeling is one of eliminating the disease to extinction through various control mechanisms, such as vaccine implementation or quarantine. In this talk, a description will be presented of the fluctuational behavior of several epidemic models and their extinction rates. A general framework and analysis of the effect of non-Gaussian control actuations which enhance the rate to disease extinction will be described. In particular, in it is shown that even in the presence of a small Poisson distributed vaccination program, there is an exponentially enhanced rate to disease extinction. These ideas may lead to improved methods of controlling disease where random vaccinations are prevalent. [4pt] Recent papers:[0pt] [1] E. Forgoston and I. B. Schwartz, ``Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales,'' arXiv:0809.1345 2008.[0pt] [2] L. B. Shaw, L. Billings, I. B. Schwartz, ``Using dimension reduction to improve outbreak predictability of multi-strain diseases,'' J. Math. Bio. 55, 1 2007.[0pt] [3] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Fluctuating epidemics on adaptive networks,'' Physical Review E 77, 066101 2008.[0pt] [4] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Noise induced dynamics in adaptivenetworks with applications to epidemiology,'' arXiv:0807.3455 2008.[0pt] [5] M. I. Dykman, I. B. Schwartz, A. S. Landsman, ``Disease Extinction in the Presence of Random Vaccination,'' Phys. Rev. Letts. 101, 078101 2008.

  9. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death among U.S. women and men. Established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated total cholesterol, and risk prediction models based on such factors, perform well but do not perfectly predict future risk of CVD. Thus, there has been much recent interest among cardiovascular researchers in identifying novel biomarkers to aid in risk prediction. Such markers include alternative lipids, B-type natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, coronary artery calcium, and genetic markers. This article reviews the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, risk prediction tools, and selected novel biomarkers and other exposures in predicting risk of developing CVD in women. The predictive role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers for women in primary prevention settings requires additional study, as does the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiac troponins for acute coronary syndromes in clinical settings. Sex differences in the clinical expression and physiology of metabolic syndrome may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes. Consideration of exposures that are unique to, or more prevalent in, women may also help to refine cardiovascular risk estimates in this group. PMID:25487190

  10. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  11. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population.

    PubMed

    Craft, Meggan E; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-05-22

    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

  12. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Meggan E.; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-01-01

    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

  13. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Boullart, A C I; de Graaf, J; Stalenhoef, A F

    2012-05-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (patho)physiology of triglycerides is described, including the definition and a short summary of the primary and secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we will give an overview of the published epidemiological studies concerning hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease to support the view that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are an independently associated risk factor. Finally, treatment strategies and treatment targets are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. PMID:22015388

  14. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, J Braz

    2009-06-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) is most consistently linked with acute and chronic cardiovascular effects. Fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) particles (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 and < 0.1 microm) are able to reach the small airways and terminal alveoli, and PM0.1 can also be translocated directly into the systemic circulation. PM2.5 and PM0.1 are mainly formed by fossil fuel combustion and are the main components of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. A variety of biological mechanisms responsible for adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:19697799

  15. Method of thermography in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazyuk, D. G.; Sidorenko, I. V.; Krushevskaya, T. V.

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the possibility of using infrared thermography (IT) in diagnosing the commonest cardiovascular diseases: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and hypertensive disease (HD). We show that the IT method allows one to evaluate the condition of peripheral blood flow, but the results of examination depend greatly on the presence of accompanying diseases (osteochondrosis, varicosis). The IT method is not specific enough to evaluate the functional state of a myocardium.

  16. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Srinath Reddy K; Katan MB

    2004-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity. The interpretation of evidence needs to involve a critical appraisal of methodological issues related to measurement of exposures, nature of outcome variables, types of research design and careful separation of cause, consequence and confounding as the basis for observed associations. Adequate evidence is available, from studies conducted within and across populations, to link several nutrients, minerals, food groups and dietary patterns with an increased or decreased risk of CVD. Dietary fats associated with an increased risk of CHD include trans-fats and saturated fats, while polyunsaturated fats are known to be protective. Dietary sodium is associated with elevation of blood pressure, while dietary potassium lowers the risk of hypertension and stroke. Regular frequent intake of fruits and vegetables is protective against hypertension, CHD and stroke. Composite diets (such as DASH diets, Mediterranean diet, 'prudent' diet) have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of hypertension and CHD. Sufficient knowledge exists to recommend nutritional interventions, at both population and individual levels, to reduce cardiovascular risk. That knowledge should now be translated into policies which promote healthy diets and discourage unhealthy diets. This requires coordinated action at the level of governments, international organizations, civil society and responsible sections of the food industry.

  17. Wide-area Epidemics of Influenza and Pediatric Diseases from Infectious Disease Surveillance in Japan, 1999-2005

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Ohta, Akiko; Kawado, Miyuki; Izumida, Michiko; Tada, Yuki; Shigematsu, Mika; Yasui, Yoshinori; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Nagai, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemics of infectious diseases usually start in small areas and subsequently become widespread widely. Although a method for detecting epidemics in public health center (PHC) areas has been proposed and used in the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases in Japan, wide-area epidemics have not been fully investigated. METHODS Using the abovementioned method, we defined an epidemic as that occurring for a week in at least one PHC area in a prefecture and a wide-area epidemic as that when the number of people living in epidemic PHC areas exceeds 30% of the prefectural population. The number of weeks of an epidemic or wide-area epidemic for influenza and 11 pediatric diseases was observed in 47 prefectures in Japan from 1999 through 2005. RESULTS Epidemics and wide-area epidemics of influenza occurred for an average of 7.0 and 4.3 weeks in a year in a prefecture, respectively. The proportion of wide-area epidemics in epidemic weeks was 62%. The average number of wide-area epidemic weeks for pediatric diseases varied among diseases; it was more than 4 weeks for infectious gastroenteritis and herpangina and less than 1 week for pertussis, rubella, and measles. The proportion of wide-area epidemics in epidemic weeks was 28-41% for infectious gastroenteritis, hand-foot-mouth disease, and herpangina and less than 20% for other diseases. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of wide-area epidemics of influenza and pediatric diseases in various prefectures was observed. Epidemics of infectious diseases such as influenza and herpangina occurring in small areas were likely to spread to wide areas. PMID:18239338

  18. Cardiovascular complications in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Schicho, Rudolf; Marsche, Gunther; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, a growing number of studies have indicated that patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Both are chronic inflammatory diseases and share certain pathophysiological mechanisms that may influence each other. High levels of cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine in IBD patients may lead to endothelial dysfunction, an early sign of atherosclerosis. IBD patients, in general, do not show the typical risk factors for cardiovascular disease but changes in lipid profiles similar to the ones seen in cardiovascular events have been reported recently. Higher levels of coagulation factors frequently occur in IBD which may predispose to arterial thromboembolic events. Finally, the gut itself may have an impact on atherogenesis during IBD through its microbiota. Microbial products are released from the inflamed mucosa into the circulation through a leaky barrier. The induced rise in proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to endothelial damage, artherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although large retrospective studies favor a link between IBD and cardiovascular diseases the mechanisms behind still remain to be determined. PMID:25642719

  19. Epidemics of Influenza and Pediatric Diseases Observed in Infectious Disease Surveillance in Japan, 1999-2005

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Akiko; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Nagai, Masaki; Kawado, Miyuki; Izumida, Michiko; Tada, Yuki; Shigematsu, Mika; Yasui, Yoshinori; Taniguchi, Kiyosu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND A method for determining epidemics in small areas from the sentinel surveillance data has been proposed and applied in the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID) in Japan. We observed epidemics of influenza and 11 pediatric diseases by the method in the NESID in Japan during 1999-2005. METHODS We assumed that an epidemic in a public health center area began in a week when the number of cases reported to the NESID per sentinel clinic and hospital in the area in the week exceeded a given value, and that the epidemic ended when the number was lower than another given value. The proportion of public health center areas with epidemics (epidemic area proportion) by week in fiscal 1999-2005 was calculated. Total public health center area-weeks observed were about 30,000 each year. RESULTS The mean epidemic area proportion in the 7 years was 6.0% for influenza and 0.2-7.4% for pediatric diseases. The proportion increased in pharyngoconjunctival fever and group A streptococcal pharyngitis, decreased in measles and was less than 1.0% in pertussis and rubella. In influenza, the height of the peak in the weekly epidemic area proportion varied between 6 and 90% in the 7 years and the week of the peak varied widely. In some pediatric diseases, the height of the peak varied, while the week of the peak was relatively constant. CONCLUSION The frequency and temporal change were described in the epidemics of influenza and pediatric diseases in public health center areas from the NESID data in Japan, 1999-2005. PMID:18239337

  20. Optimal Sampling Strategies for Detecting Zoonotic Disease Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jake M.; Langebrake, Jessica B.; Cannataro, Vincent L.; Garcia, Andres J.; Hamman, Elizabeth A.; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests. PMID:24968100

  1. Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Hoarau-Vchot, Jessica; Fakhro, Khalid; Rafii, Arash; Abi Khalil, Charbel

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes has become a major health issue worldwide. Chronic hyperglycemia induces a low-grade inflammation that, on top of other mechanisms, leads to endothelial dysfunction. Mounting evidence suggests that DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histones, and long non-coding RNAs play an important role in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of both macro- and micro-vascular complications of diabetes. Long-term exposure to hyperglycemia induces epigenetic changes that could become irreversible, a phenomenon known as the 'metabolic memory.' Whether epigenetic-based therapies could be used to slow or limit the progression of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. While non-coding RNAs are currently investigated as potential biomarkers that predict diabetic cardiovascular disease incidence and progression, their therapeutic role is only hypothetical. In this review, we highlight the latest findings in experimental and clinical studies relevant to epigenetics and cardiovascular disease in diabetes. PMID:26458379

  2. Autophagy and oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yu; Thompson, Melissa D.; Cohen, Richard A.; Tong, XiaoYong

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process by which intracellular components, including soluble macromolecules (e.g. nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and dysfunctional organelles (e.g. mitochondria, ribosomes, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum) are degraded by the lysosome. Autophagy is orchestrated by the autophagy related protein (Atg) composed protein complexes to form autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes to generate autolysosomes where the contents are degraded to provide energy for cell survival in response to environmental and cellular stress. Autophagy is an important player in cardiovascular disease development such as atherosclerosis, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, cardiomyopathy, heart failure and hypertension. Autophagy in particular contributes to cardiac ischemia, hypertension and diabetes by interaction with reactive oxygen species generated in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. This review highlights the dual role of autophagy in cardiovascular disease development. Full recognition of autophagy as an adaptive or maladaptive response would provide potential new strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention and management. PMID:24834848

  3. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    França, Carolina Nunes; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; do Amaral, Jônatas Bussador; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:25626759

  4. Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to give on overview of the profile of cardiovascular disease, vascular pathology and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japanese. Compared with the United States and Europe, the higher mortality from stroke and lower mortality from coronary heart disease constitute a unique cardiovascular profile for Japan. A selective review of population-based pathology, trend and prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the characteristics of cardiovascular disease and vascular pathology, trends in the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease, and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease among Japanese adults. Since the 1970s, mortality from coronary heart disease as well as stroke has declined substantially in Japan, probably due to a major decline in blood pressure levels and for men a more recent decline in smoking, in spite of an increase in body mass index and total cholesterol levels. However, the decline in mortality was smaller and plateaued in middle-aged men aged 30-49 in the metropolitan cities of Tokyo and Osaka. The incidence of coronary heart disease has increased among middle-aged men residing in the suburbs of Osaka. As for the associations between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease, higher sodium, lower calcium and lower animal protein content in the diet and for men higher alcohol consumption may account for the higher prevalence of hypertension and higher risk of stroke for Japanese than for western populations. On the other hand, lower saturated fat (meat) and higher n3 polyunsaturated fat (fish) in the Japanese diet may contribute to the lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and lower risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese. Japan is unique among developed countries in that coronary heart disease mortality has been low and has continued to decline, while stroke mortality has declined substantially. However, a recent trend for coronary heart disease incidence to increase among urban men is a cause for concern as a potential source of future problems for public health and clinical practice in Japan. PMID:21307610

  5. Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Small, Dylan S.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has low chronic pathogenicity. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence of clinical cases in Arequipa: transmission in the city may be so recent that most infected individuals have yet to progress to late stage disease. Here we describe a new method, epicenter regression, that allows us to infer the spatial and temporal history of disease transmission from a snapshot of a population's infection status. We show that in a community of Arequipa, transmission of T. cruzi by the insect vector Triatoma infestans occurred as a series of focal micro-epidemics, the oldest of which began only around 20 years ago. These micro-epidemics infected nearly 5% of the community before transmission of the parasite was disrupted through insecticide application in 2004. Most extant human infections in our study community arose over a brief period of time immediately prior to vector control. According to our findings, the symptoms of chronic Chagas disease are expected to be absent, even if the strain is pathogenic in the chronic phase of disease, given the long asymptomatic period of the disease and short history of intense transmission. Traduccin al espaol disponible en Alternative Language Text S1/A Spanish translation of this article is available in Alternative Language Text S1 PMID:21935346

  6. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  7. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. PMID:25841599

  9. Cardiovascular disease in the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) varies from one series to another depending on the definition of CVD and tools used for its detection. Atherosclerosis, the usual cause of CVD, starts when the endothelium becomes damaged and is considered to be an autoimmune-inflammatory disease. The excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with APS are not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Therefore, several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature CVD and accelerated vascular damage in those patients. Herein, the significance and outcomes of CVD in APS are reviewed. PMID:25228729

  10. Understanding impacts of climatic extremes on diarrheal disease epidemics: Insights from mechanistic disease propagation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    An epidemic outbreak of diarrheal diseases (primarily cholera) in Haiti in 2010 is a reminder that our understanding on disease triggers, transmission and spreading mechanisms is incomplete. Cholera can occur in two forms - epidemic (defined as sudden outbreak in a historically disease free region) and endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years). Examples of countries with epidemic cholera include Pakistan (2008), Congo (2008), and most recently Haiti (2010). A significant difference between endemic and epidemic regions is the mortality rate, i.e., 1% or lower in an endemic regions versus 3-7% during recent epidemic outbreaks. A fundamentally transformational approach - a warning system with several months prediction lead time - is needed to prevent disease outbreak and minimize its impact on population. Lack of information on spatial and temporal variability of disease incidence as well as transmission in human population continues to be significant challenge in the development of early-warning systems for cholera. Using satellite data on regional hydroclimatic processes, water and sanitation infrastructure indices, and biological pathogen growth information, here we present a Simple, Mechanistic, Adaptive, Remote sensing based Regional Transmission or SMART model to (i) identify regions of potential cholera outbreaks and (ii) quantify mechanism of spread of the disease in previously disease free region. Our results indicate that epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for the growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. We discuss the above findings in light of increased climatic variability, such as acceleration of hydrological cycle, hydroclimatic hazards, etc on diarrheal disease outbreaks.

  11. Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

    1987-06-01

    An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

  12. Regulatory T cells in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao; Yang, Jianmin; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Kai; Tu, Eric; Gao, Qi; Chen, Wanjun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation is essential in the initial development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases involving innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T (TREG) cells in the modulation of inflammation and immunity has received increasing attention. Given the important role of TREG cells in the induction and maintenance of immune homeostasis and tolerance, dysregulation in the generation or function of TREG cells can trigger abnormal immune responses and lead to pathology. A wealth of evidence from experimental and clinical studies has indicated that TREG cells might have an important role in protecting against cardiovascular disease, in particular atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. In this Review, we provide an overview of the roles of TREG cells in the pathogenesis of a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischaemic stroke, abdominal aortic aneurysm, Kawasaki disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction and remodelling, postischaemic neovascularization, myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Although the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of TREG cells are still to be elucidated, targeted therapies with TREG cells might provide a promising and novel future approach to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26525543

  13. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

    2013-01-01

    Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins-1, -6, and -17, C-reactive protein, coagulation molecules, cellular adhesion molecules, and visfatin. Finally, a discussion of the limitations of current studies and future directions is provided. PMID:23901303

  14. Metabolic biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Jana E; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac and peripheral vascular biomarkers are increasingly becoming targets of both research and clinical practice. As of 2008, cardiovascular-related medical care accounts for greater than 20% of all the economic costs of illness in the United States. In the age of burgeoning financial pressures on the entire health care system, never has it been more important to try to understand who is at risk for cardiovascular disease in order to prevent new events. In this paper, we will discuss the cost of cardiovascular disease to society, clarify the definition of and need for biomarkers, offer an example of a current biomarker, namely high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and finally examine the approval process for utilizing these in clinical practice. PMID:23386789

  15. Modeling the spatial spread of infectious diseases: the GLobal Epidemic and Mobility computational model

    PubMed Central

    Balcan, Duygu; Gonalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, Jos J.; Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Here we present the Global Epidemic and Mobility (GLEaM) model that integrates sociodemographic and population mobility data in a spatially structured stochastic disease approach to simulate the spread of epidemics at the worldwide scale. We discuss the flexible structure of the model that is open to the inclusion of different disease structures and local intervention policies. This makes GLEaM suitable for the computational modeling and anticipation of the spatio-temporal patterns of global epidemic spreading, the understanding of historical epidemics, the assessment of the role of human mobility in shaping global epidemics, and the analysis of mitigation and containment scenarios. PMID:21415939

  16. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Ergonomics Vascular Diseases About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association. PMID:25877901

  18. Advanced Tracers in PET Imaging of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Hua; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the noninvasive detection and characterization of biological changes at the molecular level, leading to earlier disease detection, objective monitoring of therapies, and better prognostication of cardiovascular diseases progression. Here we review, the current role of PET in cardiovascular disease, with emphasize on tracers developed for PET imaging of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25389529

  19. Advanced tracers in PET imaging of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yesen; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Hua; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the noninvasive detection and characterization of biological changes at the molecular level, leading to earlier disease detection, objective monitoring of therapies, and better prognostication of cardiovascular diseases progression. Here we review, the current role of PET in cardiovascular disease, with emphasize on tracers developed for PET imaging of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25389529

  20. Epidemic characterization and modeling within herd transmission dynamics of an "emerging trans-boundary" camel disease epidemic in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Bekele; Biffa, Demelash; Abunna, Fufa; Regassa, Alemayehu; Bohlin, Jon; Skjerve, Eystein

    2012-10-01

    A highly acute and contagious camel disease, an epidemic wave of unknown etiology, referred to here as camel sudden death syndrome, has plagued camel population in countries in the Horn of Africa. To better understand its epidemic patterns and transmission dynamics, we used epidemiologic parameters and differential equation deterministic modeling (SEIR/D-model) to predict the outcome likelihood following an exposure of susceptible camel population. Our results showed 45.7, 17.6, and 38.6 % overall morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates of the epidemic, respectively. Pregnant camels had the highest mortality and case fatality rates, followed by breeding males, and lactating females, implying serious socioeconomic consequences. Disease dynamics appeared to be linked to livestock trade route and animal movements. The epidemic exhibited a strong basic reproductive number (R (0)) with an average of 16 camels infected by one infectious case during the entire infectious period. The epidemic curve suggested that the critical moment of the disease development is approximately between 30 and 40 days, where both infected/exposed and infectious camels are at their highest numbers. The lag between infected/infectious curves indicates a time-shift of approximately 3-5 days from when a camel is infected and until it becomes infectious. According to this predictive model, of all animals exposed to the infection, 66.8 % (n = 868) and 33.2 % (n = 431) had recovered and died, respectively, at the end of epidemic period. Hence, if early measures are not taken, such an epidemic could cause a much more devastative effect, within short period of time than the anticipated proportion. PMID:22415402

  1. Tetrahydrobiopterin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bendall, Jennifer K.; Douglas, Gillian; McNeill, Eileen; Channon, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) functions as a cofactor for several important enzyme systems, and considerable evidence implicates BH4 as a key regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the setting of cardiovascular health and disease. BH4 bioavailability is determined by a balance of enzymatic de novo synthesis and recycling, versus degradation in the setting of oxidative stress. Augmenting vascular BH4 levels by pharmacological supplementation has been shown in experimental studies to enhance NO bioavailability. However, it has become more apparent that the role of BH4 in other enzymatic pathways, including other NOS isoforms and the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, may have a bearing on important aspects of vascular homeostasis, inflammation, and cardiac function. This article reviews the role of BH4 in cardiovascular development and homeostasis, as well as in pathophysiological processes such as endothelial and vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy. We discuss the therapeutic potential of BH4 in cardiovascular disease states and attempt to address how this modulator of intracellular NO-redox balance may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 3040–3077. PMID:24294830

  2. Breast cancer therapy-associated cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Timothy M; Cardinale, Daniela M; Marks, Lawrence B

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer treatments have evolved over the past decades, although several widely used treatments have adverse cardiac effects. Radiotherapy generally improves the survival of women with breast cancer, although its deleterious cardiovascular effects pose competing risks of morbidity and/or mortality. In the past, radiation-associated cardiovascular disease was a phenomenon considered to take more than a decade to manifest, but newer research suggests that this latency is much shorter. Knowledge of coronary anatomy relative to the distribution of the delivered radiation dose has improved over time, and as a result, techniques have enabled this risk to be decreased. Studies continue to be performed to better understand, prevent and mitigate against radiation-associated cardiovascular disease. Treatments such as anthracyclines, which are a mainstay of chemotherapy for breast cancer, and newer targeted agents such as trastuzumab both have established risks of cardiotoxicity, which can limit their effectiveness and result in increased morbidity and/or mortality. Interest in whether β-blockers, statins and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors might have therapeutic and/or preventative effects in these patients is currently increasing. This Review summarizes the incidence, risks and effects of treatment-induced cardiovascular disease in patients with breast cancer and describes strategies that might be used to minimize this risk. PMID:26598943

  3. MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baldn, ngel

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding to their targets and promoting RNA degradation and/or inhibiting protein translation. In recent years, miRNAs have revolutionized our understanding of gene regulatory networks, providing new prospective tools to manage disease. Atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of disability and death in the US and in other western populations and pose an enormous burden on our healthcare system. Altered lipid homeostasis in liver or in the artery wall, and disruption of endothelial and smooth muscle cell function have been shown to contribute to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of vascular biology- and lipid metabolism-related miRNomics. PMID:24563824

  4. Adipocytokines in relation to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Van de Voorde, Johan; Pauwels, Bart; Boydens, Charlotte; Decaluw, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    Adipose tissue can be considered as a huge gland producing paracrine and endocrine hormones, the adipo(cyto)kines. There is growing evidence that these adipo(cyto)kines may link obesity to cardiovascular diseases. The excessive adipocyte hypertrophy in obesity induces hypoxia in adipose tissue. This leads to adiposopathy, the process that converts "healthy" adipose tissue to "sick" adipose tissue. This is accompanied by a change in profile of adipo(cyto)kines released, with less production of the "healthy" adipo(cyto)kines such as adiponectin and omentin and more release of the "unhealthy" adipo(cyto)kines, ultimately leading to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present review provides a concise and general overview of the actual concepts of the role of adipo(cyto)kines in endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherosclerosis and heart diseases. The knowledge of these concepts may lead to new tools to improve health in the next generations. PMID:23866981

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Methods Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this casecontrol study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Students t-test for independent samples or the MannWhitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. Results All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. Conclusion These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk. PMID:24011175

  6. [Endogenous formaldehyde and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Wen; Du, Jun-Bao; Tang, Chao-Shu

    2010-02-01

    Endogenous formaldehyde is produced via semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase-catalyzed deamination of methylamine. It widely exists in a variety of tissues and cells in animals. It has been confirmed that endogenous formaldehyde is involved in the neural degeneration, immune disease and tumor process. Adipocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells are rich in enzyme to generate formaldehyde-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). Formaldehyde may cause cytotoxicity, which induces vascular endothelial injury and mediates multiple factor-induced pathogenic process of vascular injury. It plays important role in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication. PMID:21417009

  7. Studies on the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Hugh-Jones, M. E.; Wright, P. B.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic with reference to the initial spread, the origin of outbreaks more than 60 km. from the main epidemic area, the series of outbreaks near Worcester, a specific case history and the daily rate of spread of the epidemic, strongly suggests that the weather played a major part in the spread of disease. The two main factors involved in this type of spread are wind and precipitation. It is noted that after the epidemic had been checked, following anticyclonic weather, the association between the weather and the spread of disease was less apparent. PMID:5270205

  8. Myocardial Biomarkers for Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrm, Johan

    2009-01-01

    The identification of those persons in the population who have the highest risk of future cardiovascular events is important for targeting intensive preventive efforts. This can be reliably done using a handful of long since established risk factors. The unmet need for new molecular biomarkers for prediction of cardiovascular events in the general population is therefore low. In order for a new biomarker to be used clinically for risk prediction, a statistically significant association of levels of the biomarker to adverse outcome is not enough, but the biomarker should also be demonstrated to add discriminative capacity beyond established risk factors. In contrast to the limited value of new biomarkers for risk prediction, their usefulness for unraveling the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is large. The myocardium is the source of a vast number of interesting biomarkers, of which a few may be useful for risk prediction in the general population. Two of these, troponin-I and the N-terminal fragment of brain natriuretic peptide, have passed tests of added discriminatory value. Numerous other biomarkers produced by cardiomyocytes or non-cardiomyocytes in the myocardium are promising, and if they are not proven useful for risk prediction, they will unquestionably enhance our understanding of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19773613

  9. Diterpenes: a therapeutic promise for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Carlos R; Ambrosio, Sergio R; da Costa, Fernando B; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2008-01-01

    The research, development and use of natural products as therapeutic agents, especially those derived from plants, have been increasing in recent years. There has been great deal of focus on the naturally occurring antispasmodic phytochemicals as potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring diterpenes exert several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory action, antimicrobial and antispasmodic activities. Several diterpenes have been shown to have pronounced cardiovascular effects, for example, grayanotoxin I produces positive inotropic responses, forskolin is a well-known activator of adenylate cyclase, eleganolone and 14-deoxyandrographolide exhibit vasorelaxant properties and marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels. In the last few years, we have investigated the biological activity of kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes, which are the main secondary metabolites isolated from the roots of Viguiera robusta and V. arenaria, respectively. These diterpenoids exhibit vasorelaxant action and inhibit the vascular contractility mainly by blocking extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Moreover, kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes decreased mean arterial blood pressure in normotensive rats. Diterpenes likely fulfil the definition of a pharmacological preconditioning class of compounds and give hope for the therapeutic use in cardiovascular diseases. This article will review patents, structure-activity relationship, pharmacology, antihypertensive efficiency, and the vascular mechanisms underlying the effects of diterpenes. Careful examination of the cardiovascular effects exhibited by kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes will be provided. PMID:18221123

  10. Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.

    PubMed

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

    2014-01-01

    Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage. PMID:25581946

  11. The Hampshire epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, 1967.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R F; Forman, A J

    1973-03-01

    An analysis was made of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease during the epidemic in Hampshire in January and February 1967. To explain the pattern of spread, it had to be postulated that virus was present seven days before the first outbreak was reported. It is suggested that the disease occurred initially in pigs fed on infected meat and that the virus was subsequently disseminated from the local abattoir, where the pigs were killed, to four farms by movement of animals, slaughterhouse waste, people or vehicles, and to fifteen by the airborne route. Subsequent spread from these farms was by movement in two instances and by the airborne route in five. The source and route of infection of the last farm in the outbreak were not determined.The risk of spread through movement was associated more with carriage of infected slaughterhouse waste, movement of animals, people or vehicles carrying animals than through collection of milk, artificial insemination or movement of other types of vehicles. Outbreaks of disease among pigs gave rise to more secondary spread than outbreaks in cattle. Secondary outbreaks attributed to airborne spread occurred only in ruminants. Most airborne spread was into areas of high livestock density and cattle in the larger herds became infected. Airborne spread could be correlated with wind direction and speed but not with rain. The reduction in the number of outbreaks at the end of the epidemic could be attributed to the elimination of the largest sources of virus, the control of movements and the fact that in all instances except two the wind was blowing virus over towns and out to sea, to areas of low stock density and to areas where animals had been killed. PMID:4511946

  12. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  13. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  14. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  15. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  16. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  17. The link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Sarmad; Hernandez, German T.

    2014-01-01

    Context: It is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a strong risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the excess risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD is only partially explained by the presence of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: Chronic kidney disease even in its early stages can cause hypertension and potentiate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the practice of intensive blood pressure lowering was criticized in recent systematic reviews. Available evidence is inconclusive but does not prove that a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg as recommended in the guidelines improves clinical outcomes more than a target of less than 140/90 mmHg in adults with CKD. Conclusions: The association between CKD and CVD has been extensively documented in the literature. Both CKD and CVD share common traditional risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, cardiovascular disease remains often underdiagnosed und undertreated in patients with CKD. It is imperative that as clinicians, we recognize that patients with CKD are a group at high risk for developing CVD and cardiovascular events. Additional studies devoted to further understand the risk factors for CVD in patients with CKD are necessary to develop and institute preventative and treatment strategies to reduce the high morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. PMID:25093157

  18. Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cedzy?ski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a double-edge sword, sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host. PMID:24877121

  19. Strain Echocardiography in Acute Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Favot, Mark; Courage, Cheryl; Ehrman, Robert; Khait, Lyudmila; Levy, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography has become a critical tool in the evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute cardiovascular diseases and undifferentiated cardiopulmonary symptoms. New technological advances allow clinicians to accurately measure left ventricular (LV) strain, a superior marker of LV systolic function compared to traditional measures such as ejection fraction, but most emergency physicians (EPs) are unfamiliar with this method of echocardiographic assessment. This article discusses the application of LV longitudinal strain in the ED and reviews how it has been used in various disease states including acute heart failure, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and pulmonary embolism. It is important for EPs to understand the utility of technological and software advances in ultrasound and how new methods can build on traditional two-dimensional and Doppler techniques of standard echocardiography. The next step in competency development for EP-performed focused echocardiography is to adopt novel approaches such as strain using speckle-tracking software in the management of patients with acute cardiovascular disease. With the advent of speckle tracking, strain image acquisition and interpretation has become semi-automated making it something that could be routinely added to the sonographic evaluation of patients presenting to the ED with cardiovascular disease. Once strain imaging is adopted by skilled EPs, focused echocardiography can be expanded and more direct, phenotype-driven care may be achievable for ED patients with a variety of conditions including heart failure, ACS and shock. PMID:26823931

  20. Global cardiovascular disease prevention: a call to action for nursing executive summary.

    PubMed

    Berra, Kathy; Fletcher, Barbara; Hayman, Laura L; Miller, Nancy Houston

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) calls for multidisciplinary and multiprofessional approaches to the management of this condition, with strategic emphasis on prevention, treatment, and control. In addition, there is increasing recognition that effective prevention and management of CVD requires a diverse workforce skilled in the social, environmental, and policy determinants of health. Nowhere are these approaches and strategies brought together and more closely aligned than in the field of preventive cardiovascular nursing. This executive summary of "Global Cardiovascular Prevention: A Call to Action for Nursing" includes key points from the 6 papers written by the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association and published in July-August 2011 as a supplement to the Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing and the European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. This supplement addresses innovative efforts to stem the current global epidemic of CVD and emphasizes the need for effective team-based interventions for lifestyle and behavior changes across the life span. Social solutions, strategies for working with key players to develop interactive models, as well as coordinated multilevel policies, partnerships, and programs that are culturally relevant and context specific are examined. Such approaches are urgently needed to reduce death and disability from CVD in the United States and globally. Nurse leaders and other members of the healthcare team are well positioned internationally to meet these challenges. PMID:22955185

  1. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  2. Immunological probes in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haber, E

    1982-01-01

    The immune system has long been recognised as playing a central role in the organism's defence against infectious diseases and possibly the development of neoplasia. The active stimulation of the immune system by immunisation and the passive administration of antitoxins have a venerable history in medicine. Yet the concept that antibodies may be used to modify physiological or pharmacological effects or may act as diagnostic agents in the living organisms has only recently come to be recognised. Advances, both in an understanding of the structural chemistry of the antibody molecule and in the ability to culture antibody-producing cells, now permit the selection and production of homogeneous antibodies and their smaller fragments in quantity by means other than conventional immunisation. These innovations will allow the development of a new pharmacology based on the remarkable resolving power of the antibody combining site. Antibodies or their fragments are shown to inhibit the pressor action of renin, to neutralise the pharmacological actions of digitalis, to block the beta-adrenergic receptor, and to detect and image myocardial infarcts. Images PMID:6119995

  3. Lycopene and cardiovascular diseases: an update.

    PubMed

    Mordente, A; Guantario, B; Meucci, E; Silvestrini, A; Lombardi, E; Martorana, G E; Giardina, B; Bhm, V

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Western societies and accounts for up to a third of all deaths worldwide. In comparison to the Northern European or other Western countries, the Mediterranean area has lower rates of mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and this is attributed, at least in part, to the so-called Mediterranean diet, which is rich in plantderived bioactive phytochemicals. Identification of the active constituents of the Mediterranean diet is therefore crucial to the formulation of appropriate dietary guidelines. Lycopene is a natural carotenoid found in tomato, an essential component of the Mediterranean diet, which, although belonging to the carotenoid family, does not have pro-vitamin A activity but many other biochemical functions as an antioxidant scavenger, hypolipaemic agent, inhibitor of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic factors, thus potentially of benefit in CVD. In particular, the review intends to conduct a systematic analysis of the literature (epidemiological studies and interventional trials) in order to critically evaluate the association between lycopene (or tomato products) supplementation and cardiovascular diseases and/or cardiovascular disease risk factors progression, and to prepare provision of evidence-based guidelines for patients and clinicians. Several reports have appeared in support of the role of lycopene in the prevention of CVD, mostly based on epidemiological studies showing a dose-response relationship between lycopene and CVD. A less clear and more complex picture emerges from the interventional trials, where several works have reported conflicting results. Although many aspects of lycopene in vivo metabolism, functions and clinical indications remain to be clarified, supplementation of low doses of lycopene has been already suggested as a preventive measure for contrasting and ameliorating many aspects of CVD. PMID:21291369

  4. Brain and cardiovascular diseases: common neurogenic background of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Szczepanska-Sadowska, E; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, A; Ufnal, M; Zera, T

    2010-10-01

    In spite of significant progress in pharmacotherapy the incidence of newly diagnosed cases of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular morbidity is alarmingly high. Treatment of hypertension or heart failure still remains a serious challenge. Continuous attempts are made to identify the mechanisms that decide about susceptibility to pathogenic factors, and to determine effectiveness of a specific therapeutic approach. Coincidence of cardiovascular diseases with metabolic disorders and obesity has initiated intensive research for their common background. In the recent years increasing attention has been drawn to disproportionately greater number of depressive disorders and susceptibility to stress in patients with coronary artery disease. An opposite relationship, i.e. a greater number of sudden cardiovascular complications in patients with depression, has been also postulated. Progress in functional neuroanatomy and neurochemistry provided new information about the neural network responsible for regulation of cardiovascular functions, metabolism and emotionality in health and under pathological conditions. In this review we will focus on the role of neuromodulators and neurotransmitters engaged in regulation of the cardiovascular system, neuroendocrine and metabolic functions in health and in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and obesity. Among them are classical neurotransmitters (epinephrine and norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA), classical (CRH, vasopressin, neuropeptide Y) and newly discovered (orexins, apelin, leptin IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, ghrelin) neuropeptides, gasotransmitters, eicozanoids, endocannabinoids, and some other compounds involved in regulation of neuroendocrine, sympatho-adrenal and parasympathetic nervous systems. Special attention is drawn to those factors which play a role in immunology and inflammatory processes. Interaction between various neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory systems which may be involved in integration of metabolic and cardiovascular functions is analyzed. The survey gives evidence for significant disturbances in release or action of the same mediators in hypertension heart failure, obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, starvation, chronic stress, depression and other psychiatric disorders. With regard to the pathogenic background of the cardiovascular diseases especially valuable are the studies showing inappropriate function of angiotensin peptides, vasopressin, CRH, apelin, cytokines and orexins in chronic stress, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The studies surveyed in this review suggest that multiple brain mechanisms interact together sharing the same neural circuits responsible for adjustment of function of the cardiovascular system and metabolism to current needs. PMID:21081794

  5. [Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Zeman, M; Zk, A; Vecka, M; Tvrzick, E

    2005-01-01

    The article summarizes the nature and causes of the insulin resistance, its relation to the metabolic syndrome, and to the cardiovascular diseases. Insulin resistance can be defined as a set of abnormal clinical symptoms accompanied by lower tissue sensitivity to insulin. Metabolic syndrome, whose major components are impairments of glucose homeostase, obesity, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, represents an important risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Possible factors, which can influence those relations, e.g., chronic inflammations, endothelial dysfunction and oxidation stress are discussed. The primary aims for the positive influencing the metabolic syndrome is the prevention of the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and that of cardiovascular diseases. To approach those goals, the use of non-pharmacologic means (diet, appropriate physical activity) and pharmacologic (treatment of dyslipidemia, namely by statins and fibrates; management of hypertension, specifically by angiotensin-converging enzyme inhibitors, by angiotensin-receptor blockers, by glitazoe administration and by antithrombotic treatment) can be recommended. PMID:15981981

  6. Aptamers as Therapeutics in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Yang, Yunan; Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo; Fang, Dianchun

    2011-01-01

    With many advantages over other therapeutic agents such as monoclonal antibodies, aptamers have recently emerged as a novel and powerful class of ligands with excellent potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Typically generated through Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX), aptamers have been selected against a wide range of targets such as proteins, phospholipids, sugars, nucleic acids, as well as whole cells. DNA/RNA aptamers are single-stranded DNA/RNA oligonucleotides (with a molecular weight of 5–40 kDa) that can fold into well-defined 3D structures and bind to their target molecules with high affinity and specificity. A number of strategies have been adopted to synthesize aptamers with enhanced in vitro/in vivo stability, aiming at potential therapeutic/diagnostic applications in the clinic. In cardiovascular diseases, aptamers can be developed into therapeutic agents as anti-thrombotics, anti-coagulants, among others. This review focuses on aptamers that were selected against various molecular targets involved in cardiovascular diseases: von Willebrand factor (vWF), thrombin, factor IX, phospholamban, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor, integrin αvβ3, CXCL10, vasopressin, among others. With continued effort in the development of aptamer-based therapeutics, aptamers will find their niches in cardiovascular diseases and significantly impact clinical patient management. PMID:21848510

  7. Phytochemicals from plants to combat cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, H R; ShriShriMal, N; Das, D K

    2012-01-01

    For many decades, the use of synthetic chemicals as drugs has been effective in the treatment of most diseases. Moreover, from ancient to modern history, many traditional plant based medicines are playing an important role in health care. Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, aromatic plants, leaves, flowers and roots which act as a defense system to combat against diseases. The phytochemicals from natural products cover a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organosulphur compounds and vitamins. A number of bioactive compounds generally obtained from terrestrial plants such as isoflavones, diosgenin, resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, sulforaphane, tocotrienols and carotenoids are proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and aid in cardioprotection which is the leading cause of death globally. The cardioprotective effects of the various phytochemicals are perhaps due to their antioxidative, antihypercholesteroemic, antiangiogenic, anti-ischemic, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti inflammatory activities that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The multi-faceted role of the phytochemicals is mediated by its structure-function relationship and can be considered as leads for cardiovascular drug design in future. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on selected phytochemicals as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in cardioprotection. PMID:22414106

  8. Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

    2014-09-01

    Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

  9. Concise Review: Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developed countries. Various therapies for cardiovascular disease are investigated actively and are performed clinically. Recently, cell-based regenerative medicine using several cell sources has appeared as an alternative therapy for curing cardiovascular diseases. Scaffold-based or cell sheet-based tissue engineering is focused as a new generational cell-based regenerative therapy, and the clinical trials have also been started. Cell-based regenerative therapies have an enormous potential for treating cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the recent research of cell sources and cell-based-regenerative therapies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23197760

  10. [Resistance training for patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Wonisch, Manfred; Marko, Christiane; Niebauer, Josef; Pokan, Rochus; Schmid, Peter; Wiesinger, Elmar

    2012-05-01

    Physical training is part of the recommendations for prevention and rehabilitation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The main focus was on endurance training for a long time. However, a positive effect of strength training has also been found for patients with with a wide spectrum of diseases. Beside the improvement of muscle strength similar positive effects as with endurance training have been documented. Moreover, improvements of quality of life and mobility have been found, mainly for older patients. Resistance training is safe and can be recommended to a wide range of patients including those with reduced left ventricular function. PMID:22623045

  11. Parameter estimation and prediction for the course of a single epidemic outbreak of a plant disease.

    PubMed

    Kleczkowski, A; Gilligan, C A

    2007-10-22

    Many epidemics of plant diseases are characterized by large variability among individual outbreaks. However, individual epidemics often follow a well-defined trajectory which is much more predictable in the short term than the ensemble (collection) of potential epidemics. In this paper, we introduce a modelling framework that allows us to deal with individual replicated outbreaks, based upon a Bayesian hierarchical analysis. Information about 'similar' replicate epidemics can be incorporated into a hierarchical model, allowing both ensemble and individual parameters to be estimated. The model is used to analyse the data from a replicated experiment involving spread of Rhizoctonia solani on radish in the presence or absence of a biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride. The rate of primary (soil-to-plant) infection is found to be the most variable factor determining the final size of epidemics. Breakdown of biological control in some replicates results in high levels of primary infection and increased variability. The model can be used to predict new outbreaks of disease based upon knowledge from a 'library' of previous epidemics and partial information about the current outbreak. We show that forecasting improves significantly with knowledge about the history of a particular epidemic, whereas the precision of hindcasting to identify the past course of the epidemic is largely independent of detailed knowledge of the epidemic trajectory. The results have important consequences for parameter estimation, inference and prediction for emerging epidemic outbreaks. PMID:17638651

  12. The Role of Immunogenicity in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Michael; Virtue, Anthony T.; Pansuria, Meghanaben; Liu, Jingshan; Xiong, Xinyu; Fang, Pu; Meng, Shu; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many of the complexities associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been unlocked. However, despite these breakthroughs, CVD and its related complications are the leading contributors of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which indicates the shortcomings of current treatment regimens and the need for continued research. Published data within the field clearly indicates that CVD are built on inflammation and autoimmune platforms, though a strong, fundamental understanding of the mechanisms remains elusive. Areas such as the mechanisms underlying increased immunogenicity of self-proteins in the cardiovascular system, the roles of immunogenic auto-antigens in eliciting inflammatory autoimmune responses, and the immunosuppressive mechanisms involved in controlling inflammatory and autoimmune cardiovascular diseases remain to be well-understood. We will delve into these topics and the advancements made within the field in this review. Specifically, we will concentrate on the innate and adaptive immune responses mediating immunogenicity; the mechanisms of inflammation and autoimmunity in atherogenesis; the mechanisms of inflammation and autoimmunity in diabetic atherosclerosis; immunogenicity and stem cell therapy; as well as immunogenicity and immunosuppression. In depth examination and comprehension of these topics will provide insight into the recent progress of the field and bring to the forefront potentially novel therapeutic avenues. PMID:24511305

  13. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  14. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

  15. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signaling modulates the protein function, the various sources of increased oxidative stress in CVD, and the labyrinth of redox-sensitive molecular mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and ischemia–reperfusion injury. Advances in redox biology and pharmacology for inhibiting ROS production in specific cell types and subcellular organelles combined with the development of nanotechnology-based new in vivo imaging systems and targeted drug delivery mechanisms may enable fine-tuning of redox signaling for the treatment and prevention of CVD. PMID:23583330

  16. Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Dwyer, James; Nordstrom, Cheryl K.; Walton, Kenneth G.; Salerno, John W.; Schneider, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable decline in cardiovascular disease (CVD) experienced in developed countries over the last 40 years appears to have abated. Currently, many CVD patients continue to show cardiac events despite optimal treatment of traditional risk factors. This evidence suggests that additional interventions, particularly those aimed at nontraditional factors, might be useful for continuing the decline. Psychosocial stress is a newly recognized (nontraditional) risk factor that appears to contribute to all recognized mechanisms underlying cardiac events, specifically, (a) clustering of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, (b) endothelial dysfunction, (c) myocardial ischemia, (d) plaque rupture, (e) thrombosis, and (f) malignant arrhythmias. A better understanding of the behavioral and physiologic associations between psychosocial stress and CVD will assist researchers in identifying effective approaches for reducing or reversing the damaging effects of stress and may lead to further reductions of CVD morbidity and mortality. PMID:12165968

  17. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-12-24

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  18. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  19. Human-mediated foot-and-mouth disease epidemic dispersal: disease and vector clusters.

    PubMed

    Rivas, A L; Kunsberg, B; Chowell, G; Smith, S D; Hyman, J M; Schwager, S J

    2006-02-01

    Disease clusters were retrospectively explored at national level using a geo-referenced dataset from the 2001 Uruguayan Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) epidemic. Disease location and time (first 11 epidemic weeks) were analysed across 250 counties (of which 160 were infected), without and with control for human mobility related factors (human population and road densities). The null hypothesis of random disease distribution over space and/or time was assessed with: (i) purely temporal; (ii) purely spatial; and (iii) space/time tests. At least within epidemic weeks 2 and 6, a principal disease cluster was observed in 33 contiguous counties (P < 0.01). Two secondary clusters, located at >100 km from each other, were also observed (P < 0.01). The purely spatial test that controlled for human population density identified two non-contiguous clusters (P < 0.01). Space and time analysis also revealed the same 33 counties as members of the principal cluster, of which 31 were also clustered when human population was controlled (P < 0.01). No clusters were reported by the spatial test when road density was assessed. The hypothesis that human mobility related factors autocorrelate with disease was empirically supported by two pieces of information: (i) removal of human population/road densities eliminated >93.9% of the counties included in the principal disease cluster; and (ii) statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed in the first three epidemic weeks between road density and the number of cases. Clusters where human population density was associated with 47% greater number of cases/sq. km than that of the principal cluster indicated possible roles as disease vectors (vector clusters). Selective control policy in vector clusters is recommended. Periodic (i.e. weekly) cluster and correlation analyses of both disease and other covariates may facilitate disease surveillance and help design space-specific control policy. PMID:16460349

  20. Risk Assessment and Management of the Mother with Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hebson, Camden; Saraf, Anita; Book, Wendy M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic medical conditions account for most nonobstetrical pregnancy-related maternal complications. Preconception counseling of women with cardiovascular disease can be aided by an understanding of cardiovascular physiology in pregnancy and risk scores to guide management. PMID:26876118

  1. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Yosuke; Raaz, Uwe; Jagger, Ann; Adam, Matti; Schellinger, Isabel N; Sakamoto, Masaya; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Toyama, Kensuke; Spin, Joshua M; Tsao, Philip S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF). HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease. PMID:26512646

  2. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kayama, Yosuke; Raaz, Uwe; Jagger, Ann; Adam, Matti; Schellinger, Isabel N.; Sakamoto, Masaya; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Toyama, Kensuke; Spin, Joshua M.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF). HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease. PMID:26512646

  3. Inflammation modulation and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zuhier; Genest, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Heart disease and stroke represent the major burden of health worldwide and account for a staggering 17 million deaths yearly. This pandemic is, in great part preventable through simple and modifiable preventive measures such as smoking cessation, healthy eating, regular activity and weight loss. In patients with established atherosclerotic vascular disease, lipid lowering agent have had a major impact on reducing risk, along with pharmacological treatment of elevated blood pressure and the use of anti-thrombotic medication. Despite these advances, there remains a significant residual risk and newer approaches are required to decrease atherosclerosis. Innate and acquired immunity play a pivotal role in the initiation, progression and instability of the atherosclerotic plaque. The remarkable complexity of the immune system makes it difficult to target a single pathway for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, recent data points to possible therapeutic targets that may decrease atherosclerosis, without increasing the risk of infection, decreasing immune surveillance for cancers and without undue toxicity. Here we discuss the clinical trials and registry data associated with the use of inflammation modulation and cardiovascular disease and the ongoing major clinical trial that may change the clinical medicine and preventive cardiology. The selective inhibition of interleukin 1? and the use of low-dose methotrexate are now undergoing large outcome-driven clinical trials to answer these questions. PMID:24711609

  4. Colchicine for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nidorf, Stefan M; Eikelboom, John W; Thompson, Peter L

    2014-03-01

    Preliminary evidence demonstrating that adding 0.5 mg of colchicine per day to statin and antiplatelet therapy reduced the risk of acute coronary events in patients with stable coronary artery disease has raised the hope that it may prove effective for the long-term secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The ability of colchicine to suppress blood levels of inflammatory mediators and prevent cholesterol-crystal-induced neutrophil-mediated inflammation implicated in the progression and instability of atherosclerosis adds plausibility to this clinical observation. Early intestinal intolerance in some patients is well recognized, but clinical experience gained over more than half a century with the continuous use of colchicine for the prevention of neutrophil-mediated inflammation in patients with familial Mediterranean fever and gout indicates that low-dose long-term therapy is safe. Nonetheless, before colchicine can be recommended for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, further studies are required to confirm its safety and efficacy in a broad range of patients with coronary disease, and to determine whether doses of colchicine less than 0.5 mg/day might be effective and even better tolerated. Trials exploring the role of colchicine in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes would also be of special interest but may require the use of doses higher than those used for long-term secondary prevention. PMID:24425060

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, C; Bertolami, A; Bertolami, M; Amodeo, C; Calhoun, D

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial (hypopnea) or complete interruption (apnea) in breathing during sleep due to airway collapse in the pharyngeal region. OSA and its cardiovascular consequences have been widely explored in observational and prospective studies. Most evidence verifies the positive relationship between OSA and hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, stroke and heart failure. However, more studies are needed to better assess the impact of OSA, and possible benefit of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular mortality. The leading pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the changes triggered by OSA, include intermittent hypoxemia and re-oxygenation, arousals and changes in intrathoracic pressure. Hypertension is strongly related with activation of the sympathetic nervous system, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and impairment of endothelial function. The high prevalence of OSA in the general population, hypertensive patients and especially obese individuals and patients resistant to antihypertensive therapy, highlights the need for effective screening, diagnosis and treatment of OSA to decrease cardiovascular risk. PMID:25761667

  6. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Forman, Daniel E; Alexander, Karen; Brindis, Ralph G; Curtis, Anne B; Maurer, Mathew; Rich, Michael W; Sperling, Laurence; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age. Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization) and uncertainty of outcomes. In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed. Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients. PMID:26918183

  7. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Daniel E.; Alexander, Karen; Brindis, Ralph G.; Curtis, Anne B.; Maurer, Mathew; Rich, Michael W.; Sperling, Laurence; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization) and uncertainty of outcomes.  In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed.  Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients. PMID:26918183

  8. Use of complementary therapies in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kavita; Sharma, Varun; Lackore, Kandace; Jenkins, Sarah M; Prasad, Abhiram; Sood, Amit

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments in outpatients with cardiovascular disease and their interest in future use. The increasing popularity of CAM therapies highlights the need to explore their use among patients with cardiovascular disease. Data were collected with a prospective, point-of-care, anonymous, 17-question survey about basic medical information and previous use and interest in the future use of dietary supplements and other CAM interventions among patients undergoing outpatient cardiology evaluation at a Midwestern tertiary care center. The survey was completed by 1,055 patients (655 men, 351 women; mean age 63.5 years) of whom 98.1% were white. Of these, 36.8% had cardiac symptoms for >10 years, 48.2% had coronary artery disease, and 82.5% reported use of CAM therapies. Of these patients, 75.4% reported using dietary supplements, 31.5% chiropractic therapy, 23.9% mind-body therapies, and 19.2% massage. Only 14.4% had discussed the use of CAM treatments with their physicians. The top 4 treatments used for cardiac symptoms were relaxation techniques, stress management, meditation, and guided imagery. Also, 48.6% were interested in participating in a future clinical trial of an alternative treatment. The great majority of patients seen in current practice use CAM therapies, and a large proportion expressed an interest in participating in research with CAM therapies. In conclusion, research directed with an integrative approach to cardiovascular care might prove beneficial when designing future studies. PMID:23186602

  9. Alcohol, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Klatsky, Arthur L

    2007-03-01

    Disparities in associations of alcohol consumption to various cardiovascular conditions lead to separate consideration of several. These include (1) Alcoholic cardiomyopathy from chronic heavy drinking in susceptible persons. (2) Higher blood pressure (hypertension) in some heavier drinkers. (3) A relation of drinking to higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke but to lower risk of ischemic stroke. (4) Certain arrhythmias, especially among binge drinkers. (5) An inverse relation of alcohol use to coronary artery disease. A causal hypothesis of protection is strengthened by plausible mechanisms. The coronary disease data impact upon total mortality statistics, such that lighter drinkers are at slightly lower risk than abstainers of death within a given time period. (6) An inverse relation of drinking to type 2 (adult onset) diabetes mellitus in several recent studies. Because of close relations to cardiovascular disorders, diabetes is considered virtual cardiovascular "equivalent". (7) Composites of (1-6) result in a complex association between alcohol and the common heart failure syndrome. International comparisons suggest wine is more protective against coronary disease than liquor or beer. Reports of antioxidants, endothelial relaxants, and antithrombotic activity in wine (especially red) support hypothetical benefit from non-alcohol wine components. However, prospective population studies show apparent protection from beer, wine, or liquor. Thus, some suggest that favorable traits or drinking patterns of wine drinkers might explain the international comparison findings. Amount of alcohol taken is a crucial consideration in alcohol-health relations. Advice to concerned persons needs to take into account individual risk/benefit factors in drinkers or potential drinkers. PMID:17363263

  10. Mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Vsquez-Trincado, Csar; Garca-Carvajal, Ivonne; Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; Hill, Joseph A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is often initiated as an adaptive response to haemodynamic stress or myocardial injury, and allows the heart to meet an increased demand for oxygen. Although initially beneficial, hypertrophy can ultimately contribute to the progression of cardiac disease, leading to an increase in interstitial fibrosis and a decrease in ventricular function. Metabolic changes have emerged as key mechanisms involved in the development and progression of pathological remodelling. As the myocardium is a highly oxidative tissue, mitochondria play a central role in maintaining optimal performance of the heart. 'Mitochondrial dynamics', the processes of mitochondrial fusion, fission, biogenesis and mitophagy that determine mitochondrial morphology, quality and abundance have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease. Studies link mitochondrial dynamics to the balance between energy demand and nutrient supply, suggesting that changes in mitochondrial morphology may act as a mechanism for bioenergetic adaptation during cardiac pathological remodelling. Another critical function of mitochondrial dynamics is the removal of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy, which is dependent on the fission/fusion cycle. In this article, we discuss the latest findings regarding the impact of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy on the development and progression of cardiovascular pathologies, including diabetic cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, damage from ischaemia-reperfusion, cardiac hypertrophy and decompensated heart failure. We will address the ability of mitochondrial fusion and fission to impact all cell types within the myocardium, including cardiac myocytes, cardiac fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. Finally, we will discuss how these findings can be applied to improve the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26537557

  11. Glycemic index, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Morris, K L; Zemel, M B

    1999-09-01

    Although Americans have decreased the percent of energy they consume from fat, obesity and obesity-related comorbidities have progressively increased. Less attention has been paid to the role of carbohydrates, especially carbohydrate source, in these metabolic diseases. However, recent epidemiologic studies demonstrate consistently higher rates of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes in individuals deriving a greater percentage of energy from refined grains and simple carbohydrates than from whole grains. Differences in the metabolic response to carbohydrates can be classified by glycemic index (GI), the blood glucose response to a given food compared with a standard (typically white bread or glucose). Classification of carbohydrates as "simple" or "complex" is of little use in predicting GI, because GI is influenced by starch structure (amylose versus amylopectin), fiber content, food processing, physical structure of the food, and other macronutrients in the meal. Low-GI diets have been reported to lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses, improve lipid profiles, and increase insulin sensitivity. Moreover, high-GI diets stimulate de novo lipogenesis and result in increased adipocyte size, whereas low-GI diets have been reported to inhibit these responses. Thus, the GI of dietary carbohydrates appears to play an important role in the metabolic fate of carbohydrates and, consequently, may significantly affect the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. PMID:10568336

  12. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P-Y; Xu, X; Li, X-C

    2014-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here. PMID:25392110

  13. Native American medicine and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nauman, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Native American medicine provides an approach to the treatment of cardiovascular disease that is unique and that can complement modern medicine treatments. Although specific practices among the various Native American tribes (Nations) can vary, there is a strong emphasis on the power of shamanism that can be supplemented by the use of herbal remedies, sweat lodges, and special ceremonies. Most of the practices are passed down by oral tradition, and there is specific training regarding the Native American healer. Native American medicine has strong testimonial experiences to suggest benefit in cardiac patients; however, critical scientific scrutiny is necessary to confirm the validity of the benefits shown to date. PMID:17172882

  14. Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP): A marker of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Niroumand, Shabnam; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Abrishami, Maryam; Juya, Mohammadreza; Khodaee, Gholamhasan; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the cause of one third of deaths worldwide and this will progress because of increasing CVD's risk factors. The most basic task of dealing with the epidemic of CVD is primary prevention of risk factors. As Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) is a strong marker to predict the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, we assessed the correlation between AIP and other important factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was a part of national non-communicable risk factors surveillance system data that has been established since 2004 in Iran. This was done on 1000 people between 2008 and 2010. The study was approved by Ethics Committee of Mashhad University of Medical Science. Chi square, Mann-Whitney U, correlation tests were used in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11. In all calculations, p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: The study population consisted of 500 men and 500 women with meanSD age 41.914.2 years. According to the AIP category, 9.8% (98) were in low risk group, 12.7% (127) were in intermediate risk and 77.5% (775) were in increased risk of CVD. AIP was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r=0.35, p<0.001), BMI (r=0.33, p<0.001) and physical activity (r=-0.09, p<0.01). Conclusion: AIP can be used as a regular monitoring index of CVD in every day practice, especially in persons with other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26793631

  15. [Physical exercise training for cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Wienbergen, H; Hambrecht, R

    2012-08-01

    Clinical application of physical exercise has developed into an evidence-based therapeutic option for cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). In CAD regular physical exercise training partially corrects endothelial dysfunction and leads to an economization of left ventricular function. Meta-analyses have shown a reduction of angina pectoris symptoms and a decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality by regular aerobic exercise training. Endurance training for CHF reduces cardiac afterload by correcting peripheral endothelial dysfunction und leads to a better left ventricular function. In addition exercise training reduces the adrenergic tone and the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in CHF. Exercise training provides positive effects on the metabolism and function of skeletal muscle (e.g. reduced inflammation and oxidative stress). Supervised regular physical exercise training in CHF is safe and has improved the morbidity in clinical studies. Thus aerobic exercise training is an important component of therapeutic management of stable CAD and CHF with a class 1a recommendation in the current guidelines. PMID:22760599

  16. MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-03-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly with coronary artery calcifications. Hence an early detection of aortic calcified plaques helps to predict the risk of related coronary diseases. Also since two thirds of the adverse events have no prior symptoms, possibilities to screen for risk in low cost imaging are important. To this end the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index was developed. In the following several potential severity scores relating to the geometrical outline of the calcified deposits in the lumbar aortic region are introduced. Their individual as well as their combined predictive power is examined and a combined marker, MACD, is constructed. This is done using a Cox regression analysis, also known as survival analysis. Furthermore we show how a Cox regression yields MACD to be the most efficient marker. We also demonstrate that MACD has a larger individual predictive power than any of the other individual imaging markers described. Finally we present that the MACD index predicts cardiovascular death with a hazard ratio of approximately four.

  17. Mitochondria, myocardial remodeling, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Hugo E; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Toms; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Pedrozo, Zully; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Garcia, Lorena; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The process of muscle remodeling lies at the core of most cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac adaptation to pressure or volume overload is associated with a complex molecular change in cardiomyocytes which leads to anatomic remodeling of the heart muscle. Although adaptive at its beginnings, the sustained cardiac hypertrophic remodeling almost unavoidably ends in progressive muscle dysfunction, heart failure and ultimately death. One of the features of cardiac remodeling is a progressive impairment in mitochondrial function. The heart has the highest oxygen uptake in the human body and accordingly it has a large number of mitochondria, which form a complex network under constant remodeling in order to sustain the high metabolic rate of cardiac cells and serve as Ca(2+) buffers acting together with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, this high dependence on mitochondrial metabolism has its costs: when oxygen supply is threatened, high leak of electrons from the electron transport chain leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. These three aspects of mitochondrial function (Reactive oxygen species signaling, Ca(2+) handling and mitochondrial dynamics) are critical for normal muscle homeostasis. In this article, we will review the latest evidence linking mitochondrial morphology and function with the process of myocardial remodeling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22972531

  18. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. PMID:23910371

  19. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  20. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  1. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The U.S. Preventive Services ... PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) in Adults . This final recommendation ...

  2. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  3. Degree of host susceptibility in the initial disease outbreak influences subsequent epidemic spread

    PubMed Central

    Severns, Paul M.; Estep, Laura K.; Sackett, Kathryn E.; Mundt, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Disease epidemics typically begin as an outbreak of a relatively small, spatially explicit population of infected individuals (focus), in which disease prevalence increases and rapidly spreads into the uninfected, at-risk population. Studies of epidemic spread typically address factors influencing disease spread through the at-risk population, but the initial outbreak may strongly influence spread of the subsequent epidemic.We initiated wheat stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici epidemics to assess the influence of the focus on final disease prevalence when the degree of disease susceptibility differed between the at-risk and focus populations.When the focus/at-risk plantings consisted of partially genetic resistant and susceptible cultivars, final disease prevalence was statistically indistinguishable from epidemics produced by the focus cultivar in monoculture. In these experimental epidemics, disease prevalence was not influenced by the transition into an at-risk population that differed in disease susceptibility. Instead, the focus appeared to exert a dominant influence on the subsequent epidemic.Final disease prevalence was not consistently attributable to either the focus or the at-risk population when focus/at-risk populations were planted in a factorial set-up with a mixture (~28% susceptible and 72% resistant) and susceptible individuals. In these experimental epidemics, spatial heterogeneity in disease susceptibility within the at-risk population appeared to counter the dominant influence of the focus.Cessation of spore production from the focus (through fungicide/glyphosate application) after 1.3 generations of stripe rust spread did not reduce final disease prevalence, indicating that the focus influence on disease spread is established early in the epidemic.Synthesis and applications. Our experiments indicated that outbreak conditions can be highly influential on epidemic spread, even when disease resistance in the at-risk population is greater than that of the focus. Disease control treatments administered shortly after the initial outbreak within the focus may either prevent an epidemic from occurring or reduce its severity. PMID:25512677

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Among Alaska Native Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    Although Alaska Native peoples were thought to be protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), data now show that this is not the case, despite traditional lifestyles and high omega-3 fatty acid intake. In this article, the current understanding of CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples, particularly among the Yupik and Inupiat populations, will be discussed, using data from three major studies funded by the National Institutes of Health: Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease among Alaska Natives (GOCADAN), Center for Native Health Research (CANHR), and Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH). Data from these epidemiologic studies have focused concern on CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples. This review will summarize the findings of these three principal studies and will suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. PMID:24367710

  5. Role of connexin 43 in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Michela, Pecoraro; Velia, Verrilli; Aldo, Pinto; Ada, Popolo

    2015-12-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) channels provide the basis for intercellular communication in the cardiovascular system for maintenance of the normal cardiac rhythm, regulation of vascular tone and endothelial function as well as metabolic interchange between the cells. They allow the transfer of small molecules and may enable slow calcium wave spreading, transfer of "death" or of "survival" signals. In the cardiomyocytes the most abundant isoform is Connexin 43 (Cx43). Alterations in Cx43 expression and distribution were observed in myocardium disease; i.e. in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, heart failure and ischemia. Recent reports suggest the presence of Cx43 in the mitochondria as well, at least in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it plays a central role in ischemic preconditioning. In this review, the current knowledge on the relationship between the remodeling of cardiac gap junctions and cardiac diseases are summarized. PMID:26499977

  6. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

  7. [Epidemics and disease during the Revolution Period in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo-Borrs, Jos

    2010-01-01

    The health condition in Mexico was bad around de beginning of the revolutionary period. The movement of troops led the development of epidemics like yellow fever, typhus, smallpox, and influenza that were enhance with natural disasters and hunger in whole country, from cost to cost and in the north big cities like Monterrey, Guadalajara and Saltillo. Doctor Liceaga conducted a well planned campaign against yellow fever eradicating water stagnant deposits in order to combat the vector transmission, the Aedes aegypti, mosquito with satisfactory results. The first smallpox epidemic in the XX Century in Mexico was in 1916. The Mexican physicians used the smallpox vaccine against this epidemic. An American physician named Howard Taylor Ricketts arrived to Mexico for studying the typhus transmission. Accidentally he had been infected and finally, he died from typhus. Definitively, the epidemics predominate along de revolutionary period in Mexico. PMID:20929620

  8. Skin microvascular endothelial function as a biomarker in cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Marcin; Roustit, Matthieu; Cracowski, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-01

    Skin microvascular endothelial function is impaired in many cardiovascular diseases, and could be therefore considered as a representative vascular bed. However, today, available evidence allows considering skin microvascular endothelial function neither as a diagnostic biomarker nor as a prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases. Large follow-up studies using standardized methods should now be conducted to assess the potential predictive value of skin microvascular function in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26321284

  9. Sex Differences in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Intapad, Suttira; Ojeda, Norma B.; Dasinger, John Henry

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) proposes that adverse events during early life program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Experimental models provide proof of concept but also indicate that insults during early life program sex differences in adult blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. This review will highlight the potential mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24583768

  10. [Epidemic neuropathy: proposal and arguments to rename Strachan disease as Strachan and Madan disease].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Santiesteban-Freixas R; Pamias-González E; Luis-González S; Serrano-Verdecia C; González-Quevedo A; Alfaro-Capdegelle I; Francisco-Plasencia M; Suárez-Hernández J

    1997-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Strachan's disease is a condition which mainly affects the nervous system. It is characterized by optic, auditory and peripheral neuropathies and lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. In 1955 Miller Fisher gave it this name, since the clinical condition described by Henry Strachan in Jamaica during the nineteenth century was similar to that seen in Canadian prisoners-of-war in Japanese concentration camps during the Second World War.DEVELOPMENT: Since there are similarities between these clinical disorders and the major neuropathic epidemic seen recently in Cuba, we have reviewed and compared the endemic and epidemic conditions of similar characteristics seen in Cuba during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We also make a detailed review of a similar condition described in 1898-1900 by Doctors Madan, López and Santos Fernández, during the last Cuban War of Independence. This seems to be one of the earliest descriptions of the disorder. We also consider the so-called Strachan's syndrome or disease, and descriptions from the same period of tobacco-alcohol amblyopia and beriberi. These conditions seem to have been very similar to the so-called optical and peripheral forms of the current Cuban epidemic. It is concluded that the clinical characteristics of the recent Cuban neuropathic epidemic, at least in the optical form, were seen to be endemic during the nineteenth century. In many cases this was considered to be alcoholic amblyopia or some other obscure neuropathy which became epidemic during periods of severe economic depression.CONCLUSION: Madan gave a full description of the disorder at the same time as Strachan did. In 1898 he also suggested its true cause and died trying to relieve it. We therefore consider that Strachan's syndrome should be renamed the Strachan-Madan syndrome.

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Jan; Francone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases. PMID:19413898

  12. The global epidemic of noncommunicable disease: the role of early-life factors.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Atul

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is probably the most important global health problem of the 21st century. Already in every region except Africa, NCDs account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle behaviors in adult life are the main risk factors, substantial evidence now suggests that factors in early life also have a major role in the development of NCDs. For instance, breastfeeding and a slower pattern of infant weight gain have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in both low-income and high-income countries. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but include epigenetic changes and resetting of endocrine systems that affect energy metabolism and appetite. These early life factors may interact with and exacerbate the detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle and energy-dense diets later in life. As a consequence, the impact of early-life factors on long-term health may be particularly important in low- and middle-income countries, which face the fastest increases in urbanization and greatest changes to lifestyle. Strategies to optimize infant nutrition could therefore make a major contribution to stemming the current global epidemic of NCD. PMID:24504213

  13. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient's risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications. PMID:22312218

  14. Access to Care and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Alcal, Hctor E.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Roby, Dylan H.; Beckerman, Jacob; Champagne, Philippe; Brookmeyer, Ron; Prelip, Michael L.; Glik, Deborah C.; Inkelas, Moira; Garcia, Rosa-Elenna; Ortega, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading killer of Americans. CVD is understudied among Latinos, who have high levels of CVD risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether access to health care (ie, insurance status and having a usual source of care) is associated with 4 CVD prevention factors (ie, health care utilization, CVD screening, information received from health care providers, and lifestyle factors) among Latino adults and to evaluate whether the associations depended on CVD clinical risk/disease. Data were collected as part of a community-engaged food environment intervention study in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, CA. Logistic regressions were fitted with insurance status and usual source of care as predictors of the 4 CVD prevention factors while controlling for demographics. Analyses were repeated with interactions between self-reported CVD clinical risk/disease and access to care measures. Access to health care significantly increased the odds of CVD prevention. Having a usual source of care was associated with all factors of prevention, whereas being insured was only associated with some factors of prevention. CVD clinical risk/disease did not moderate any associations. Although efforts to reduce CVD risk among Latinos through the Affordable Care Act could be impactful, they might have limited impact in curbing CVD among Latinos, via the law's expansion of insurance coverage. CVD prevention efforts must expand beyond the provision of insurance to effectively lower CVD rates. PMID:26313803

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25720716

  16. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the cause' versus effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

  17. Therapeutic potential of midkine in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kadomatsu, Kenji; Bencsik, Pter; Grbe, Anik; Csonka, Csaba; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Kishida, Satoshi; Ferdinandy, Pter

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, stroke and their pathological consequences are life-threatening conditions that account for about half of deaths in developed countries. Pathology of these diseases includes cell death due to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, vascular stenosis and cardiac remodelling. The growth factor midkine plays a pivotal role in these events. Midkine shows an acute cytoprotective effect in ischaemia/reperfusion injury at least in part via its anti-apoptotic effect. Moreover, while midkine promotes endothelial cell proliferation, it also recruits inflammatory cells to lesions. These activities eventually enhance angiogenesis, thereby preventing cardiac tissue remodelling. However, midkine's activity in recruiting inflammatory cells into the vascular wall also triggers neointima formation, and consequently, vascular stenosis. Moreover, midkine is induced in cancer tissues where it enhances angiogenesis. Therefore, midkine may promote tumour formation through its angiogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. This review focuses on the roles of midkine in ischaemic cardiovascular disease and their pathological consequences, that is angiogenesis, vascular stenosis, and cardiac remodelling, and discusses the possible therapeutic potential of modulation of midkine in these diseases. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24286213

  18. Mutator clones of Neisseria meningitidis in epidemic serogroup A disease

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Anthony R.; Yu, Zhong; Popovic, Tanja; Stojiljkovic, Igor

    2002-01-01

    Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has repeatedly caused widespread epidemics of meningitis and septicemia throughout the 20th century. Recently, in a limited collection of strains, epidemic serogroup A isolates were found to have elevated mutation rates that was caused by defects in mismatch repair pathways. To ascertain the role of these mutators in the epidemic spread of this serogroup, the prevalence of hypermutability in a collection of 95 serogroup A N. meningitidis invasive isolates was determined. Overall mutability in Neisseriae can be described by measuring both missense mutation rates as well as phase variation frequencies of contingency loci. Fifty-seven percent of serogroup A isolates possessed elevated mutability, which could be divided into two classes: intermediate and high level. Eleven of 20 high-level mutators, with phase variation rates >100-fold higher than wild-type isolates, were defective in mismatch repair. Ten of the 34 intermediate mutators possessing >10-fold increases in phase variation rates could be partially complemented by a wild-type mutL allele. A high prevalence of mutators in epidemic isolates indicates that hypermutability may play a major role in the transmission of this pathogen. The added diversity derived from increased phase variation rates may allow fixation of mutator alleles more frequently during epidemic spread. PMID:11983903

  19. The Link Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Fr; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Hertegonne, Katrien B C; Chirinos, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in the general population and highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we review (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA that may causally contribute to cardiovascular disease; (2) current evidence regarding the association between OSA and hypertension, stroke, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and cardiovascular mortality; and (3) the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes. We emphasize the importance of obesity as a comorbidity of OSA and a confounder in the association between OSA and cardiovascular disease. We also discuss the importance of addressing obesity in patients with OSA, as a strategy to reduce the burden of cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Implications for the approach of patients' OSA in clinical practice and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26710793

  20. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    PubMed

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, Jos

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  1. Roles of STATs signaling in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Raj; Verma, Suresh K.

    2012-01-01

    In cardiac and many other systems, chronic stress activates avfamily of structurally and functionally conserved receptors and their downstream signaling molecules that entail tyrosine, serine or threonine phosphorylation to transfer the messages to the genetic machinery. However, the activation of the Janus kinases (JAKs) and their downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) proteins is both characteristic of and unique to cytokine and growth factor signaling which plays a central role in heart physiology. Dysregulation of JAK-STAT signaling is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. The molecular signaling and specificity of the JAK-STAT pathway are modulated at many levels by distinct regulatory proteins. Here, we review recent studies on the regulation of the STAT signaling pathway that will enhance our ability to design rational therapeutic strategies for stress-induced heart failure. PMID:24058760

  2. New and emerging biomarkers in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Leah E; Bertoia, Monica L; Aroner, Sarah A; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Jensen, Majken K

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death and disability worldwide. Therefore, great importance has been placed on the discovery of novel risk factors and metabolic pathways relevant in the prevention and management of CVD. Such research is ongoing and may continue to lead to better risk stratification of individuals and/or the development of new intervention targets and treatment options. This review highlights emerging biomarkers related to lipid metabolism, glycemia, inflammation, and cardiac damage, some of which show promising associations with CVD risk and provide further understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. However, their measurement methodology and assays will require validation and standardization, and it will take time to accumulate evidence of their role in CVD in various population settings in order to fully assess their clinical utility. Several of the novel biomarkers represent intriguing, potentially game-changing targets for therapy. PMID:26370699

  3. Sexual Therapy of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scalzi, Cynthia C.; Golden, Joshua S.; Loya, Fred

    1977-01-01

    Physical illness or disability inevitably has a damaging effect on sexual relationships. Physicians are usually unaware of the sexual consequences of illness on their patients, and lack experience in treating sexual dysfunctions. The report of treatment of a couple with serious cardiovascular disease illustrates the potential efficacy of brief sex therapy for improving the quality of a patient's life. If a primary physician lacks the skills to conduct sex therapy, he may collaborate with nonphysician therapists. The physician's knowledge of the physiological and psychological effects of a specific illness on his patient is essential to successful therapy. Often, simple education, encouragement or reassurance by the physician is enough to overcome the damaging effects of illness on a patient's sex life. PMID:613543

  4. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

  5. Nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-09-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

  6. Dietary fibre, nuts and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvad, Jordi; Bull, Mnica; Prez-Heras, Ana; Ros, Emilio

    2006-11-01

    Dietary fibre has a range of metabolic health benefits. Through a variety of mechanisms, dietary fibre, and the viscous variety in particular, slows down gastric emptying and intestinal transit, decreases the rate of intestinal carbohydrate absorption, and increases faecal bile acid excretion. Therefore, consumption of some types of soluble fibre can enhance satiety, which is associated with a lower BMI, and reduce blood cholesterol and the postprandial glucose response. Surprisingly, the consumption of insoluble fibre from whole grains, though metabolically inert, has been associated with a reduction in the risk of developing coronary heart disease and diabetes in epidemiological studies. The likely reason is that whole grains, like nuts, legumes and other edible seeds, contain many bioactive phytochemicals and various antioxidants. After cereals, nuts are the vegetable foods that are richest in fibre, which may partly explain their benefit on the lipid profile and cardiovascular health. PMID:17125533

  7. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hollan, I; Dessein, P H; Ronda, N; Wasko, M C; Svenungsson, E; Agewall, S; Cohen-Tervaert, J W; Maki-Petaja, K; Grundtvig, M; Karpouzas, G A; Meroni, P L

    2015-10-01

    The increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been recognized for many years. However, although the characteristics of CVD and its burden resemble those in diabetes, the focus on cardiovascular (CV) prevention in RA has lagged behind, both in the clinical and research settings. Similar to diabetes, the clinical picture of CVD in RA may be atypical, even asymptomatic. Therefore, a proactive screening for subclinical CVD in RA is warranted. Because of the lack of clinical trials, the ideal CVD prevention (CVP) in RA has not yet been defined. In this article, we focus on challenges and controversies in the CVP in RA (such as thresholds for statin therapy), and propose recommendations based on the current evidence. Due to the significant contribution of non-traditional, RA-related CV risk factors, the CV risk calculators developed for the general population underestimate the true risk in RA. Thus, there is an enormous need to develop adequate CV risk stratification tools and to identify the optimal CVP strategies in RA. While awaiting results from randomized controlled trials in RA, clinicians are largely dependent on the use of common sense, and extrapolation of data from studies on other patient populations. The CVP in RA should be based on an individualized evaluation of a broad spectrum of risk factors, and include: 1) reduction of inflammation, preferably with drugs decreasing CV risk, 2) management of factors associated with increased CV risk (e.g., smoking, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, kidney disease, depression, periodontitis, hypothyroidism, vitamin D deficiency and sleep apnea), and promotion of healthy life style (smoking cessation, healthy diet, adjusted physical activity, stress management, weight control), 3) aspirin and influenza and pneumococcus vaccines according to current guidelines, and 4) limiting use of drugs that increase CV risk. Rheumatologists should take responsibility for the education of health care providers and RA patients regarding CVP in RA. It is immensely important to incorporate CV outcomes in testing of anti-rheumatic drugs. PMID:26117596

  8. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk. PMID:25710019

  9. CT angiography in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: a transformation in cardiovascular CT practice

    PubMed Central

    Al Moudi, Mansour; Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) angiography represents the most important technical development in CT imaging and it has challenged invasive angiography in the diagnostic evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities. Over the last decades, technological evolution in CT imaging has enabled CT angiography to become a first-line imaging modality in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic applications of CT angiography (CTA) in cardiovascular disease, with a focus on selected clinical challenges in some common cardiovascular abnormalities, which include abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism (PE) and coronary artery disease. An evidence-based review is conducted to demonstrate how CT angiography has changed our approach in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease. Radiation dose reduction strategies are also discussed to show how CT angiography can be performed in a low-dose protocol in the current clinical practice. PMID:25392823

  10. Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes

    PubMed Central

    Stojković, Neda; Radak, Djordje; Pržulj, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    The structure of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has already been successfully used as a source of new biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major global cause of death, many CVD genes still await discovery. We explore ways to utilize the structure of the human PPI network to find important genes for CVDs that should be targeted by drugs. The hope is to use the properties of such important genes to predict new ones, which would in turn improve a choice of therapy. We propose a methodology that examines the PPI network wiring around genes involved in CVDs. We use the methodology to identify a subset of CVD-related genes that are statistically significantly enriched in drug targets and “driver genes.” We seek such genes, since driver genes have been proposed to drive onset and progression of a disease. Our identified subset of CVD genes has a large overlap with the Core Diseasome, which has been postulated to be the key to disease formation and hence should be the primary object of therapeutic intervention. This indicates that our methodology identifies “key” genes responsible for CVDs. Thus, we use it to predict new CVD genes and we validate over 70% of our predictions in the literature. Finally, we show that our predicted genes are functionally similar to currently known CVD drug targets, which confirms a potential utility of our methodology towards improving therapy for CVDs. PMID:23977067

  11. Functional Foods as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular intakes of fatty fish rich in the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids that compete with the more pervasive membrane fatty acid, arachidonic acid, disrupting the metabolic cascades that stimulate inflammation. Another effective dietary strategy is to consume less arachidonic acid by reducing beef, poultry, fish, and eggs from the diet (e.g., adopting a vegetarian-like diet). Since oxidative stress plays a prominent role in immune system activation, regular ingestion of ample amounts of fruits and vegetables (8+ servings/d) rich in antioxidant compounds, the polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C (e.g., citrus, tomatoes, berries, carrots, and greens), lowers inflammatory mediators and risk for chronic disease. Whole grains, legumes, and nuts have also been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively reduce inflammatory mediators and risk for CVD. Hence, as proclaimed in antiquity, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food. PMID:20368755

  12. Cardiovascular disease in lupus: insights and updates

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jason S.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review With improved management of the classical disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. This review in particular focuses on progress over the past year in clinical and basic aspects of SLE-driven accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent findings Both subclinical CVD and CV events continue to be recognized at increased frequency in previously unstudied lupus cohorts and populations. Novel associations have been identified between lupus CVD and cognitive impairment, depression, and low income status. In terms of pathogenesis, there is an ever-increasing focus on the innate immune system and, in particular, type I interferons (IFNs). Recent studies have drawn connections in both human and murine models between neutrophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, type I IFNs, and endothelial dysfunction. Whether treatments such as mycophenolate mofetil or statins have a role in prevention of lupus CVD is an area of intensive study. Summary CVD is a major complication of lupus and is now a leading cause of death among people living with this disease. As such, additional studies are needed in order to identify the most effective preventive strategies and most predictive vascular risk biomarkers. Type I IFNs may play a critical role in lupus CVD pathogenesis, and it is recommended that vascular outcomes be included in ongoing trials testing the efficacy of anti-IFN biologics. PMID:23846339

  13. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart

  15. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  16. Emergence of Western diseases in the tropical world: the experience with chronic cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Forrester, T; Cooper, R S; Weatherall, D

    1998-01-01

    Our knowledge of the disease burden components of tropical populations is fragmentary. Historically, the infectious diseases have been emphasized but, as some populations have undergone socio-economic changes, vital statistics have described a change in the pattern of disease. The picture is of a decline in infectious and a rise in chronic non-communicable disease. We focus here on the emergence of chronic cardiovascular diseases, and use hypertension as the paradigmic example. Early blood pressure surveys showed a virtual absence of hypertension among rural Africans and moderate prevalences in the Caribbean. Prevalence was highest among US and UK blacks. In a recent comparative study of blood pressure and its determinants in Nigeria, Jamaica and the US there was a steep gradient in prevalence from 15% through 26% to 33%. Body mass index and salt intake were the major determinants, accounting for 70% of the variance in hypertension prevalence. Additional information on mechanism comes from the exploration of the renin-angiotensin system across these populations. Angiotensinogen levels rise steadily from Africa to the US and are modestly associated with body mass index (BMI), and even more modestly with polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen gene. 30% of the variation in angiotensin-converting enzyme levels is attributable to the insertion/deletion polymorphism, and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels are modestly related to BMI and blood pressure. Thus, the steep gradient in prevalence is not attributable to the genetics as manifested in the renin-angiotensin system. The usefulness of these and other data on cardiovascular diseases include planning for primordial prevention in Africa and amelioration of existing epidemics in the Caribbean, the US and the UK. Additional long term surveillance data to define the burden and distribution of causes are necessary in Africa. Lastly, education and advocacy to transfer the information to policy makers and planners is required. PMID:9830210

  17. Viruliferous rate of small brown planthopper is a good indicator of rice stripe disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    He, Dun-Chun; Zhan, Jiasui; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), its vector insect (small brown planthopper, SBPH) and climatic conditions in Jiangsu, China were monitored between 2002 and 2012 to determine key biotic and abiotic factors driving epidemics of the disease. Average disease severity, disease incidence and viruliferous rate of SBPH peaked in 2004 and then gradually decreased. Disease severity of RSV was positively correlated with viruliferous rate of the vector but not with the population density of the insect, suggesting that the proportion of vectors infected by the virus rather than the absolute number of vectors plays an important role in RSV epidemics and could be used for disease forecasting. The finding of a positive correlation of disease severity and viruliferous rate among years suggests that local infection is likely the main source of primary inoculum of RSV. Of the two main climatic factors, temperature plays a more important role than rainfall in RSV epidemics. PMID:26898155

  18. Viruliferous rate of small brown planthopper is a good indicator of rice stripe disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    He, Dun-Chun; Zhan, Jiasui; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), its vector insect (small brown planthopper, SBPH) and climatic conditions in Jiangsu, China were monitored between 2002 and 2012 to determine key biotic and abiotic factors driving epidemics of the disease. Average disease severity, disease incidence and viruliferous rate of SBPH peaked in 2004 and then gradually decreased. Disease severity of RSV was positively correlated with viruliferous rate of the vector but not with the population density of the insect, suggesting that the proportion of vectors infected by the virus rather than the absolute number of vectors plays an important role in RSV epidemics and could be used for disease forecasting. The finding of a positive correlation of disease severity and viruliferous rate among years suggests that local infection is likely the main source of primary inoculum of RSV. Of the two main climatic factors, temperature plays a more important role than rainfall in RSV epidemics. PMID:26898155

  19. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  20. A speedy cardiovascular diseases classifier using multiple criteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wah Ching; Hung, Faan Hei; Tsang, Kim Fung; Tung, Hoi Ching; Lau, Wing Hong; Rakocevic, Veselin; Lai, Loi Lei

    2015-01-01

    Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC) for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented. PMID:25587978

  1. Anaphylaxis and cardiovascular disease: therapeutic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, P; Simons, F E R

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases the risk of severe or fatal anaphylaxis, and some medications for CVD treatment can exacerbate anaphylaxis. The aim of this article is to review the effect of anaphylaxis on the heart, the potential impact of medications for CVD on anaphylaxis and anaphylaxis treatment, and the cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. The therapeutic dilemmas arising from these issues are also discussed and management strategies proposed. PubMed searches were performed for the years 1990-2014 inclusive, using terms such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, adrenaline, allergic myocardial infarction, anaphylaxis, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-adrenergic blockers, epinephrine, and Kounis syndrome. Literature analysis indicated that: cardiac mast cells are key constituents of atherosclerotic plaques; mast cell mediators play an important role in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); patients with CVD are at increased risk of developing severe or fatal anaphylaxis; and medications for CVD treatment, including beta-adrenergic blockers and ACE inhibitors, potentially exacerbate anaphylaxis or make it more difficult to treat. Epinephrine increases myocardial contractility, decreases the duration of systole relative to diastole, and enhances coronary blood flow. Its transient adverse effects include pallor, tremor, anxiety, and palpitations. Serious adverse effects (including ventricular arrhythmias and hypertension) are rare, and are significantly more likely after intravenous injection than after intramuscular injection. Epinephrine is life-saving in anaphylaxis; second-line medications (including antihistamines and glucocorticoids) are not. In CVD patients (especially those with ACS), the decision to administer epinephrine for anaphylaxis can be difficult, and its benefits and potential harms need to be carefully considered. Concerns about potential adverse effects need to be weighed against concerns about possible death from untreated anaphylaxis, but there is no absolute contraindication to epinephrine injection in anaphylaxis. PMID:25711241

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mechanical engineering field for analyzing fluid flow, heat transfer, and associated phenomena, using computer-based simulation. CFD is a widely adopted methodology for solving complex problems in many modern engineering fields. The merit of CFD is developing new and improved devices and system designs, and optimization is conducted on existing equipment through computational simulations, resulting in enhanced efficiency and lower operating costs. However, in the biomedical field, CFD is still emerging. The main reason why CFD in the biomedical field has lagged behind is the tremendous complexity of human body fluid behavior. Recently, CFD biomedical research is more accessible, because high performance hardware and software are easily available with advances in computer science. All CFD processes contain three main components to provide useful information, such as pre-processing, solving mathematical equations, and post-processing. Initial accurate geometric modeling and boundary conditions are essential to achieve adequate results. Medical imaging, such as ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for modeling, and Doppler ultrasound, pressure wire, and non-invasive pressure measurements are used for flow velocity and pressure as a boundary condition. Many simulations and clinical results have been used to study congenital heart disease, heart failure, ventricle function, aortic disease, and carotid and intra-cranial cerebrovascular diseases. With decreasing hardware costs and rapid computing times, researchers and medical scientists may increasingly use this reliable CFD tool to deliver accurate results. A realistic, multidisciplinary approach is essential to accomplish these tasks. Indefinite collaborations between mechanical engineers and clinical and medical scientists are essential. CFD may be an important methodology to understand the pathophysiology of the development and progression of disease and for establishing and creating treatment modalities in the cardiovascular field. PMID:21949524

  3. Cardiovascular biomarkers in acute Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichiro Z.; Molkara, Delaram P.; Daniels, Lori B.; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Shimizu, Chisato; Kanegaye, John T.; Best, Brookie M.; Snider, James V.; Frazer, Jeffrey R.; Maisel, Alan; Burns, Jane C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Endomycocardial biopsies have demonstrated that subclinical myocarditis is a universal feature of acute Kawasaki disease (KD). Methods We investigated biochemical evidence of myocardial strain, oxidative stress, and cardiomyocyte injury in 55 acute KD subjects (30 with paired convalescent samples), 54 febrile control (FC), and 50 healthy control (HC) children by measuring concentrations of cardiovascular biomarkers. Results Levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and soluble ST2 (sST2) were elevated in acute vs. convalescent KD, FC, and HC (p≤0.0002), while γ-glutamyl transferase and alanine amino transferase as measures of oxidative stress were increased in acute vs. FC (p≤0.0008). Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, using a highly sensitive assay, were elevated in 30% and 40% of paired acute and convalescent KD subjects, respectively, and normalized within two years of disease onset. NT-proBNP and sST2 negatively correlated with measures of diastolic function (MV E:A ratio and deceleration time), but only NT-proBNP positively correlated with the coronary artery Z score. Conclusions NT-proBNP and sST2 were elevated in acute KD subjects and correlated with impaired myocardial relaxation. These findings, combined with elevated levels of cTnI, suggest that both cardiomyocyte stress and cell death are associated with myocardial inflammation in acute KD. PMID:21777987

  4. Lipoprotein(a) in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Michele; Vacante, Marco; Russo, Cristina; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Antic, Tijana; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Bella, Rita; Pennisi, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Frigiola, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an LDL-like molecule consisting of an apolipoprotein B-100 (apo(B-100)) particle attached by a disulphide bridge to apo(a). Many observations have pointed out that Lp(a) levels may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a) inhibits the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF) and contributes to the growth of arterial atherosclerotic lesions by promoting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the migration of smooth muscle cells to endothelial cells. Moreover Lp(a) inhibits plasminogen binding to the surfaces of endothelial cells and decreases the activity of fibrin-dependent tissue-type plasminogen activator. Lp(a) may act as a proinflammatory mediator that augments the lesion formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Elevated serum Lp(a) is an independent predictor of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Furthermore, Lp(a) levels should be a marker of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, saphenous vein bypass graft atherosclerosis, and accelerated coronary atherosclerosis of cardiac transplantation. Finally, the possibility that Lp(a) may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke has been assessed in several studies. Recent findings suggest that Lp(a)-lowering therapy might be beneficial in patients with high Lp(a) levels. A future therapeutic approach could include apheresis in high-risk patients in order to reduce major coronary events. PMID:23484137

  5. Chemerin in renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bonomini, Mario; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2016-02-01

    The potential involvement of chemerin in cardiovascular and renal dysfunction has recently been acknowledged. There are indeed many links between this protein and inflammation, atherosclerosis, and multiple obesity- and diabetes-related parameters such as body mass index, insulin resistance, and blood levels of insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. In addition, in the last few years, several reports have investigated the circulating chemerin levels and their pathophysiologic significance in chronic kidney disease populations. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of this matter, in particular as to whether elevated chemerin might be the cause behind, or simply mirror, a reduced renal function. The limitations of the present knowledge on chemerin may partly relate to the lack of specific antibodies for assessing the different active isoforms of the protein. Measuring its bioactive serum concentration, and achieving a precise overall pattern of the tissue-specific formation of different isoforms, with the use of suitable technology, will ultimately help define the role of chemerin in disease pathophysiology, or as a diagnostic or therapeutic marker. PMID:26545628

  6. A legal framework for preventing cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Wendy C; Mensah, George A; Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, Anthony D

    2005-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major contributors to death, disability, disparities, and reduced quality of life in the United States. Successful prevention and control of these diseases requires a comprehensive approach applied across multiple public health settings and in all life stages. Individual lifestyle and behavior change, as well as the broader social, environmental, and policy changes that enable healthy lifestyles, are necessary. Legal strategies can be powerful tools in this endeavor. This review presents seven such strategies applicable at the federal, state, and local levels that can be employed by healthcare providers, public health practitioners, legislators, and other policymakers. They include direct regulation, economic incentives and disincentives, indirect regulation through private enforcement, government as information provider, government as direct provider of services, government as employer and landlord, and laws directed at other levels of government. These strategies may be accomplished through legislation or administrative changes in practices or procedures. Effective use of these strategies requires a broader understanding of the advantages and limitations of legal frameworks and the importance of tailoring strategies to local conditions and resources. Examples of key roles that health professionals can play in advancing such an understanding are presented. PMID:16389140

  7. Type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Cappuccio, Francesco; Genovese, Stefano; Standl, Eberhard; Valensi, Paul; Ceriello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Type 1 diabetes largely impairs life expectancy. Hyperglycemia leading to an increase in oxidative stress is considered to be the key pathophysiological factor of both micro- and macrovascular complications. In Type 1 diabetes, the presence of coronary calcifications is also related to coronary artery disease. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy, which significantly impairs myocardial function and blood flow, also enhances cardiac abnormalities. Also hypoglycemic episodes are considered to adversely influence cardiac performance. Intensive insulin therapy has been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence and progression of both micro- and macrovascular complications. This has been evidenced by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. The concept of a metabolic memory emerged based on the results of the study, which established that intensified insulin therapy is the standard of treatment of Type 1 diabetes. Future therapies may also include glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-based treatment therapies. Pilot studies with GLP-1-analogues have been shown to reduce insulin requirements. PMID:24165454

  8. The impact of epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease on vaccine uptake: lessons from the 2011-2012 US pertussis epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Elizabeth R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Opel, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that if there is a vaccine that is effective in preventing a disease, vaccine uptake will increase when the disease risk is high. Recent evidence, however, suggests that this may not always be the case. In a study we conducted in Washington State, we found no population-level increase in pertussis vaccination of infants during a pertussis epidemic. In this paper, we aim to review what is known about the history of vaccine uptake during epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease, the challenges facing public health campaigns responding to these epidemics, and how the effect of a vaccine-preventable disease epidemic on vaccine uptake can be studied. PMID:25872609

  9. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations. PMID:16283930

  10. Positive emotion and cardiovascular disease in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Li, Yun; Feng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in elderly people is a psychosomatic disease, but the research on the relationship between positive emotion and cardiovascular diseases is few. Most previous studies have focused on a range of health status changes caused by negative emotion but have ignored the role of positive emotion in elderly people. Positive emotion has been considered a protective factor against health problems in elderly people. Research shows that a significant relationship between positive emotion and blood pressure remains after adjusting for depression in elderly people. In this paper, we summarize the relationship between positive emotion and cardiovascular diseases in elderly people. PMID:26221206

  11. Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: cardiovascular links.

    PubMed

    Laratta, Cheryl R; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  12. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    PubMed Central

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  13. Endurance exercise and resistance training in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Meka, Naga; Katragadda, Srikanth; Cherian, Biju; Arora, Rohit R

    2008-04-01

    Contrary to the age old taboo of exercise in cardiac patients, resistance training has been gaining importance recently as a safe, healthy fitness option in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the leading killer disease in the population above 45 years in the United States. Endurance or aerobic exercise helps improve overall stamina and the ability of the heart to pump oxygenated blood in those with and without prior cardiovascular disease. In addition to modifying cardiovascular risks, resistance training has profound beneficial effects on improving muscle strength and endurance, preventing osteoporosis and improving quality of life both in the healthy and cardiovascular patients including women and heart failure patients. So resistance training should be regarded as a complementary fitness program rather that a substitute to endurance training. This review discusses the physiological phenomenon and benefits of exercise training programs on cardiovascular disease patients focusing on endurance exercise and resistance training. PMID:19124415

  14. HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie A.; Chang, Chung?Chou H.; So?Armah, Kaku A.; Alcorn, Charles; Baker, Jason V.; Brown, Sheldon T.; Budoff, Matthew; Butt, Adeel A.; Gibert, Cynthia; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gottdiener, John; Gottlieb, Stephen; Justice, Amy C.; Leaf, David; McGinnis, Kathleen; Rimland, David; Rodriguez?Barradas, Maria C.; Sico, Jason; Skanderson, Melissa; Tindle, Hilary; Tracy, Russell P.; Warner, Alberta; Freiberg, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men. Whether HIV is an independent risk factor for CVD in women has not yet been established. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on 2187 women (32% HIV infected [HIV+]) who were free of CVD at baseline. Participants were followed from their first clinical encounter on or after April 01, 2003 until a CVD event, death, or the last follow?up date (December 31, 2009). The primary outcome was CVD (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], unstable angina, ischemic stroke, and heart failure). CVD events were defined using clinical data, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, and/or death certificate data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between HIV and incident CVD, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, lipids, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, renal disease, obesity, hepatitis C, and substance use/abuse. Median follow?up time was 6.0 years. Mean age at baseline of HIV+ and HIV uninfected (HIV?) women was 44.0 versus 43.2 years (P<0.05). Median time to CVD event was 3.1 versus 3.7 years (P=0.11). There were 86 incident CVD events (53%, HIV+): AMI, 13%; unstable angina, 8%; ischemic stroke, 22%; and heart failure, 57%. Incident CVD/1000 person?years was significantly higher among HIV+ (13.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]=10.1, 18.1) than HIV? women (5.3; 95% CI=3.9, 7.3; P<0.001). HIV+ women had an increased risk of CVD, compared to HIV? (hazard ratio=2.8; 95% CI=1.7, 4.6; P<0.001). Conclusions HIV is associated with an increased risk of CVD in women. PMID:25324353

  15. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavcek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medov, Eva; Konecn, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalov, Alena; Novk, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  16. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Liu, Mu-En; Ku, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Shoa-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may be associated with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we analyze the association between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction in cardiovascular disease. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still controversial, and larger scale, randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to investigate whether oral vitamin D supplementation can reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the low cost, safety, and demonstrated benefit of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority for combating common and costly chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24109497

  17. Genetic risk factors and Mendelian randomization in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Daniel I; Hingorani, Aroon D; Humphries, Steve E

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease encompasses several diverse pathological states that place a heavy burden on individual and population health. The aetiological basis of many cardiovascular disorders is not fully understood. Growing knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias and peripheral vascular disease has confirmed some suspected causal pathways in these conditions but also uncovered many previously unknown mechanisms. Here, we consider the contribution of genetics to the understanding of cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluate the utility and relevance of findings from genome-wide association studies and explore the role that Mendelian randomisation has to play in exploiting these. Mendelian randomisation permits robust causal inference in an area of research where this has been hampered by bias and confounding in observational studies. In doing so, it provides evidence for causal processes in cardiovascular disease that could represent novel targets for much-needed new drugs for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:25894797

  18. Angiotensin II receptors and drug discovery in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is a syndrome beyond high blood pressure alone. Hypertension is one of the cardiovascular diseases that may cause cardiovascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) receptors are expressed in most organs and tissues and are implicated in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic and epigenetic manipulations of the renin angiotensin system play a critical role in programming of cardiovascular diseases, and certain variants of AT1R and AT2R are constitutively predisposed to higher cardiovascular risk and hypertension. The structure-function relationship of angiotensin receptors has been reviewed previously. So, in this review we focused on the structure, expression of angiotensin II receptors, their mode of action, role in cardiovascular pathobiology, and how cardiovascular diseases are programmed in utero. In addition, we described genetic variants of angiotensin receptors, and also discussed possible ways of therapeutic intervensions of Ang II stimulation. Collectively, this information may lead us to future new drug design against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21147255

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Asian Indian population: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally and are the leading cause of death in India also. Several surveys conducted across the country over the past few decades have shown a rising prevalence of major risk factors for CVD in Asian Indian population. The problem of increasing risk factors for CVD in India is because of lack of surveillance system and lack of proper diagnosis. This study will help to point out the need of research so that some advanced diagnosis system may be developed for proper diagnosis of CVDs and to reduce the growing burden of CVDs in the country. Methods We did a literature search for the period from 1968 to 2012 using PUBMED search to identify all relevant studies of cardiovascular diseases. Besides PUBMED searching, manual searching has also been done. This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, particularly, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and related risk factors in Asian Indian population. Results Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among Asian Indian population, which may explain their high rate of stroke and heart attack in India. The increasing rate of CVD may be explained by the high rates of other risk factors including adverse lipid profile. The etiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is multifactorial and no single factor is an absolute cause. Conclusion The cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors are increasing with a rapid pace in Asian Indian population. Though the prevalence of CVD risk factors is found higher in urban population, yet it is increasing at an alarming rate in rural population also, which is a serious threatening to the nation. Since majority of the Indians live in rural area, CVD may lead to epidemic proportions. We need health promotion programs and reorientation of primary health care to improve CVD detection in earlier stage and its management. PMID:24653585

  20. Homocysteine, Iron and Cardiovascular Disease: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Baggott, Joseph E.; Tamura, Tsunenobu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations (hyperhomocysteinemia) have been regarded as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, several large clinical trials to correct hyperhomocysteinemia using B-vitamin supplements (particularly folic acid) have largely failed to reduce the risk of CVD. There is no doubt that a large segment of patients with CVD have hyperhomocysteinemia; therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that circulating tHcy concentrations are in part a surrogate marker for another, yet-to-be-identified risk factor(s) for CVD. We found that iron catalyzes the formation of Hcy from methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and cystathionine. Based on these findings, we propose that an elevated amount of non-protein-bound iron (free Fe) increases circulating tHcy. Free Fe catalyzes the formation of oxygen free radicals, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a well-established risk factor for vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our findings on iron-catalyzed formation of Hcy from thioethers as well as recent findings by other investigators on this issue. Collectively, these support our hypothesis that circulating tHcy is in part a surrogate marker for free Fe, which is one of the independent risk factors for CVD. PMID:25668155

  1. n-3 PUFAs in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Marchioli, Roberto; Levantesi, Giacomo

    2013-12-20

    Many large, randomised clinical trials and some meta-analyses have shown that treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) is associated with consistent benefits on cardiovascular (CV) events, primarily due to a reduction of coronary and CV deaths in patients with coronary heart disease. At variance with such evidence, some clinical trials and meta-analyses showing a neutral effect of n-3 PUFAs have been recently published, raising concern about the consistency of the evidence on the CV benefits of n-3 PUFAs. Several methodological and clinical aspects of these recent trials deserve to be considered. Indeed, the low rate of events or the overoptimistic expectations of the benefit of n-3 PUFAs used for sample size calculation led to an inadequate statistical power of several studies. The improvement of background medical therapy, serum baseline levels of n-3 PUFAs, and different doses and/or treatment duration might have downplayed the benefit of n-3 PUFAs. Similarly to old drugs shown to be effective some years ago, it is possible that the benefits of treatment with n-3 PUFAs are not as great in a modern CV prevention strategy so rich in many effective drugs compared with past trials testing CV drugs when less effective therapies were available. PMID:24012154

  2. Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W

    2003-02-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the most common cause of death in most Western countries. Nutrition factors contribute importantly to this high risk for ASCVD. Favourable alterations in diet can reduce six of the nine major risk factors for ASCVD, i.e. high serum LDL-cholesterol levels, high fasting serum triacylglycerol levels, low HDL-cholesterol levels, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Wholegrain foods may be one the healthiest choices individuals can make to lower the risk for ASCVD. Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with higher levels (in the highest quintile) of whole-grain intake have a 29 % lower risk for ASCVD than individuals with lower levels (lowest quintile) of whole-grain intake. It is of interest that neither the highest levels of cereal fibre nor the highest levels of refined cereals provide appreciable protection against ASCVD. Generous intake of whole grains also provides protection from development of diabetes and obesity. Diets rich in wholegrain foods tend to decrease serum LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels as well as blood pressure while increasing serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Whole-grain intake may also favourably alter antioxidant status, serum homocysteine levels, vascular reactivity and the inflammatory state. Whole-grain components that appear to make major contributions to these protective effects are: dietary fibre; vitamins; minerals; antioxidants; phytosterols; other phytochemicals. Three servings of whole grains daily are recommended to provide these health benefits. PMID:12740068

  3. Positron emission tomography in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Beanlands, R

    1996-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) represents an advanced form of nuclear imaging technology. The use of positron emitting isotopes, such as C-11, O-15, N-13, and F-18 permit radiolabelling of naturally occurring compounds in the body or close analogues. This, combined with technical advantages of PET imaging, allow quantification of physiological processes in humans. PET has become established as the most accurate noninvasive means for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease using myocardial perfusion radiotracers, which include rubidium-82, N-13-amonia, and O-15-water. These approaches have also been applied for long term evaluation of the effects of therapy and for the quantification of myocardial bloodflow. Radiolabelling of metabolic substrates, including C-11 palmitate, C-11 acetate and F-18 flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) have permitted evaluation of myocardial metabolism. F-18 FDG PET imaging has been established as the best means for defining viable myocardium in patients with reduced ventricular function being considered for revascularization. FDG PET can also identify patients being considered for cardiac transplant, who may be candidates for revascularization. In this review, other applications for metabolic, autonomic nervous system and receptor imaging are also discussed. The availability of cardiac PET in Canada is currently limited. However, with the reducing costs of capital and more cost effectiveness data, PET may become more widely available. Cardiac PET imaging is established as a tremendous diagnostic tool for defining viable myocardium, assessment of perfusion and long term evaluation of therapy without invasive procedures. PET is also a vital research tool capable of evaluating flow, metabolism, myocardial receptors, autonomic nervous system and potentially radiolabelled drugs. Cardiac PET imaging will continue to provide important insight, expanding our understanding and treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:9191475

  4. Timing of antimicrobial use influences the evolution of antimicrobial resistance during disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mark M.; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance have been well studied for endemic infections, comparably little is understood for epidemic infections such as influenza. The availability of antimicrobial treatments for epidemic diseases raises the urgent question of how to deploy treatments to achieve maximum benefit despite resistance evolution. Recent simulation studies have shown that the number of cases prevented by antimicrobials can be maximized by delaying the use of treatments during an epidemic. Those studies focus on indirect effects of antimicrobial use: preventing disease among untreated individuals. Here, we identify and examine direct effects of antimicrobial use: the number of successfully treated cases. Methodology: We develop mathematical models to study how the schedule of antiviral use influences the success or failure of subsequent use due to the spread of resistant strains. Results: Direct effects are maximized by postponing drug use, even with unlimited stockpiles of drugs. This occurs because the early use of antimicrobials disproportionately drives emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, leading to subsequent treatment failure. However, for antimicrobials with low effect on transmission, the relative benefit of delaying antimicrobial deployment is greatly reduced and can only be reaped if the trajectory of the epidemic can be accurately estimated early. Conclusions and implications: Health planners face uncertainties during epidemics, including the possibility of early containment. Hence, despite the optimal deployment time near the epidemic peak, it will often be preferable to initiate widespread antimicrobial use as early as possible, particularly if the drug is ineffective in reducing transmission. PMID:25376480

  5. Gender differences in developmental programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Although multiple factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, studies by Dr David Barker reporting an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure led to the hypothesis that slow growth during fetal life increased blood pressure and the risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. It is now recognized that growth during infancy and childhood, in addition to exposure to adverse influences during fetal life, contributes to the developmental programming of increased cardiovascular risk. Numerous epidemiological studies support the link between influences during early life and later cardiovascular health; experimental models provide proof of principle and indicate that numerous mechanisms contribute to the developmental origins of chronic disease. Sex has an impact on the severity of cardiovascular risk in experimental models of developmental insult. Yet, few studies examine the influence of sex on blood pressure and cardiovascular health in low-birth weight men and women. Fewer still assess the impact of ageing on sex differences in programmed cardiovascular risk. Thus, the aim of the present review is to highlight current data about sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26814204

  6. Role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sewon; Kwak, Hyo-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Under disease conditions including obesity (insulin resistance) and diabetes, dysregulation of adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin contribute to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Unlike other adipokines, adiponectin has been shown to be a therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Circulating levels of adiponectin are markedly reduced in obese, diabetic, hypertensive, and coronary artery disease patients as well as experimental animal models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Recently, the small molecule adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) agonist was discovered and suggested that the agonist is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes linked to obesity in an experimental mouse model. This review will focus on signaling pathways involved in adiponectin and its receptors and the role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease including insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24877038

  7. Protection motivation theory and social distancing behaviour in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lynn; Rasmussen, Susan; Kleczkowski, Adam; Maharaj, Savi; Cairns, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of respiratory infectious disease remain one of the most serious health risks facing the population. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. hand-washing or wearing face masks) can have a significant impact on the course of an infectious disease epidemic. The current study investigated whether protection motivation theory (PMT) is a useful framework for understanding social distancing behaviour (i.e. the tendency to reduce social contacts) in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic. There were 230 participants (109 males, 121 females, mean age 32.4 years) from the general population who completed self-report measures assessing the components of PMT. In addition, participants completed a computer game which simulated an infectious disease epidemic in order to provide a measure of social distancing behaviour. The regression analyses revealed that none of the PMT variables were significant predictors of social distancing behaviour during the simulation task. However, fear (? = .218, p < .001), response efficacy (? = .175, p < .01) and self-efficacy (? = .251, p < .001) were all significant predictors of intention to engage in social distancing behaviour. Overall, the PMT variables (and demographic factors) explain 21.2% of the variance in intention. The findings demonstrated that PMT was a useful framework for understanding intention to engage in social distancing behaviour, but not actual behaviour during the simulated epidemic. These findings may reflect an intention-behaviour gap in relation to social distancing behaviour. PMID:25835044

  8. Description of recent foot and mouth disease outbreaks in nonendemic areas: exploring the relationship between early detection and epidemic size.

    PubMed

    McLaws, Melissa; Ribble, Carl

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe the detection of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in nonendemic areas, and to consider how events early in an epidemic influence the epidemic's course. We identified 24 epidemics that occurred between 1992 and 2003 in areas officially considered free of FMD. We obtained information about these epidemics from many sources, including the scientific literature, the grey (non peer-reviewed) literature, and individuals involved with the outbreaks. While most of the epidemics consisted of fewer than 150 infected premises, there were 4 extremely large epidemics, each consisting of more than 2000 infected premises. There was no direct relationship between the time to detection and either the total number of infected premises or the number of animals killed for disease control purposes. We believe that the movement of infected animals through markets was the most critical factor that contributed to the unusual magnitude of the very large epidemics. PMID:17987967

  9. Nonviral gene delivery methods in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ruponen, Marika; Hyvnen, Zanna; Urtti, Arto; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    Nonviral gene delivery methods with naked plasmids and various plasmid carrier complexes have been used for intravascular, intramuscular and periadventitial gene delivery to cardiovascular system. Efficacy, homogenity and quality of the nonviral gene delivery complexes can be significantly affected by the way they are produced. This chapter presents basic methods to produce nonviral gene delivery complexes and describes common models to test their properties in cardiovascular applications in vivo. PMID:16028692

  10. MODELING OF CEREAL RUST EPIDEMICS IN RUSSIA: DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE EPIDEMICS IN TIME AND SPACE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To control quantity of settling spores and complex of photometric parameters, initial infection process by Puccinia graminis, P. triticina, P. striiformis fungi was studied. Factors determining speed of rust development on wheat crops in time and space and disease damage were studied. More than 400 ...

  11. Adipokines: A link between obesity and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuto; Fuster, Jos J.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. Recent studies aimed at understanding the microenvironment of adipose tissue and its impact on systemic metabolism have shed light on the pathogenesis of obesity-linked cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by secreting multiple immune-modulatory proteins known as adipokines. Obesity leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and diminished expression of anti-inflammatory adipokines, resulting in the development of a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state. This adipokine imbalance is thought to be a key event in promoting both systemic metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. This review will focus on the adipose tissue microenvironment and the role of adipokines in modulating systemic inflammatory responses that contribute to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24355497

  12. Nutrient supplements and cardiovascular disease – A heartbreaking story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observational data have identified negative associations between carotenoids, folic acid and vitamin E, or metabolites altered by these nutrients, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Despite biological plausibility, for the most part, data derived from nutrient supplement trials using moderate t...

  13. Cardiovascular Disease and Diet: Research Findings for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major public health problem in the U.S. today. Health education teachers should take the initiative to teach others about the relationships of diet, personal attributes, metabolic disorders, and lifestyle characteristics to CVD. (JN)

  14. Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly. Facts and Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Grau, Maria; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor that increases the incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in adults, although the association is less well established in the elderly. The role of statins is well characterized for the reduction of myocardial infarction incidence or death in individuals with a history or high risk of cardiovascular diseases, regardless of age. Therapeutic measures recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce cholesterol levels in the elderly, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, are based on studies conducted in younger adults. This narrative review aims to summarize the main observational studies and randomized clinical trials that have studied the relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and the potential benefits and drawbacks of statins use in elderly patients. PMID:23730531

  15. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a novel predictor of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamaguchi, Masahide; Kojima, Takao; Takeda, Noriyuki; Nagata, Chisato; Takeda, Jun; Sarui, Hiroshi; Kawahito, Yutaka; Yoshida, Naohisa; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Kato, Takahiro; Okuda, Junichi; Ida, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational study with a total of 1637 apparently healthy Japanese men and women who were recruited from a health check-up program. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) ATP III criteria. Five years after the baseline evaluations, the incidence of cardiovascular disease was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 1221 participants available for outcome analyses, the incidence of cardiovascular disease was higher in 231 subjects with NAFLD at baseline (5 coronary heart disease, 6 ischemic stroke, and 1 cerebral hemorrhage) than 990 subjects without NAFLD (3 coronary heart disease, 6 ischemic stroke, and 1 cerebral hemorrhage). Multivariate analyses indicated that NAFLD was a predictor of cardiovascular disease independent of conventional risk factors (odds ratio 4.12, 95% CI, 1.58 to 10.75, P = 0.004). MS was also independently associated with cardiovascular events. But simultaneous inclusion of NAFLD and MS in a multivariate model revealed that NAFLD but not MS retained a statistically significant correlation with cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION: Although both of them were predictors of cardiovascular disease, NAFLD but not MS retained a statistically significant correlation with cardiovascular disease in a multivariate model. NAFLD is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and may play a central role in the cardiovascular risk of MS. PMID:17461452

  16. Cardiovascular disease in survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Armenian, Saro H.; Chow, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is increasingly offered as a curative option for many patients with hematologic malignancies. Improvements in HCT strategies and supportive care have resulted in a growing number of long-term survivors. However, these survivors are at increased risk of developing long-term debilitating chronic health conditions, including premature cardiovascular disease. These complications are more common than in the general population, and there are well-described associations between therapeutic exposures, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent cardiovascular disease risk. We present here an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenesis and risk factors for some of the more commonly occurring cardiovascular complications following HCT, highlighting existing surveillance recommendations and future directions for research to minimize cardiovascular morbidity in these survivors. PMID:24166350

  17. TRAIL as biomarker and potential therapeutic tool for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Stella; Milani, Daniela; Fabris, Bruno; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also called Apo2 ligand, a protein belonging to the TNF superfamily. TRAIL can be found either in its transmembrane or circulating form, and its mostly studied peripheral effect is the induction of cellular apoptosis. Here, we discuss the evidences supporting the use of TRAIL as biomarker of cardiovascular diseases as well as the evidences showing the potential beneficial therapeutic effects of TRAIL on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:22676911

  18. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in an individual's mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism. PMID:26495139

  19. Cardiovascular disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus: a review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lusa Amado; Almeida, Ana G

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have changed significantly following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. On one hand, HAART has altered the course of HIV disease, with longer survival of HIV-infected patients, and cardiovascular complications of HIV infection such as myocarditis have been reduced. On the other hand, HAART is associated with an increase in the prevalence of both peripheral and coronary arterial disease. As longevity increases in HIV-infected individuals, long-term effects, such as cardiovascular disease, are emerging as leading health issues in this population. In the present review article, we discuss HIV-associated cardiovascular disease, focusing on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, management and therapy. Cardiovascular involvement in treatment-naive patients is still important in situations such as non-adherence to treatment, late initiation of treatment, and/or limited access to HAART in developing countries. We therefore describe the cardiovascular consequences in treatment-naive patients and the potential effect of antiretroviral treatment on their regression, as well as the metabolic and cardiovascular implications of HAART regimens in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:26162286

  20. HDL particle number and size as predictors of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kontush, Anatol

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that reduced concentrations of circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles can be superior to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Measurements of HDL particle numbers, therefore, bear a potential for the improved assessment of cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, such measurement can be relevant for the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches targeting HDL. Modern in-depth analyses of HDL particle profile may further improve evaluation of cardiovascular risk. Although clinical relevance of circulating concentrations of HDL subpopulations to cardiovascular disease remains controversial, the negative relationship between the number of large HDL particles and cardiovascular disease suggests that assessment of HDL particle profile can be clinically useful. Reduced mean HDL size is equally associated with cardiovascular disease in large-scale clinical studies. Since HDL-C is primarily carried in the circulation by large, lipid-rich HDL particles, the inverse relationship between HDL size and cardiovascular risk can be secondary to those established for plasma levels of HDL particles, HDL-C, and large HDL. The epidemiological data thereby suggest that HDL particle number may represent a more relevant therapeutic target as compared to HDL-C. PMID:26500551

  1. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  2. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular disease: Which methods, which diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Jonathan R.; Sinusas, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Techniques for in vivo assessment of disease-related molecular changes are being developed for all forms of non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. The ability to evaluate tissue molecular or cellular phenotype in patients has the potential to not only improve diagnostic capabilities but to enhance clinical care either by detecting disease at an earlier stage when it is more amenable to therapy, or by guiding most appropriate therapies. These new techniques also can be used in research programs in order to characterize pathophysiology and as a surrogate endpoint for therapeutic efficacy. The most common approach for molecular imaging involves the creation of novel-targeted contrast agents that are designed so that their kinetic properties are different in disease tissues. The main focus of this review is not to describe all the different molecular imaging approaches that have been developed, but rather to describe the status of the field and highlight some of the clinical and research applications that molecular imaging will likely provide meaningful benefit. Specific target areas include assessment of atherosclerotic disease, tissue ischemia, and ventricular and vascular remodeling. PMID:24092271

  3. Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.76.2?mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 19451956. PMID:21091078

  4. Extracellular Ribonucleic Acids (RNA) Enter the Stage in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Zernecke, Alma; Preissner, Klaus T

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory and ischemic cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, remain the number one cause of death in the Western world, whereas the therapeutic options currently available are still limited. Several recent findings have indicated that nucleic acids, particularly extracellular ribosomal RNA and micro-RNAs, significantly contribute to the adverse outcome of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular RNAs act as novel danger-associated molecular pattern signals and potent cofactors in cardiovascular inflammation and thrombosis, particularly when accumulating in the extracellular space under tissue-damaging or pathological conditions. In this concise review article, the different entities of extracellular RNAs, their cellular sources, and their putative functional contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases will be discussed. In fact, it remains a tightrope walk for these polyanionic molecules outside cells to promote defense reactions on the one side but to provoke cardiovascular disease development on the other side, dependent on their concentration, the environmental conditions, and the cellular stimuli engaged. Thus, we will discuss the mechanisms and cellular responses by which extracellular RNAs operate between defense and disease. Finally, natural counteracting molecules, such as RNase1, will be focused on to elaborate their protective functions in the context of inflammatory and ischemic cardiovascular diseases with the possibility to apply them as novel interventional strategies. PMID:26846641

  5. Emerging and reemerging epidemic-prone diseases among settling nomadic pastoralists in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Matthew J; Wamala, Joseph F; Komakech, Innocent; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa

    2014-09-01

    Epidemic-prone diseases have traditionally been uncommon among nomadic pastoralists as mobility allows already dispersed populations to migrate away from epidemic threats. In the Karamoja region of Uganda, nomadic pastoralists are transitioning to an increasingly settled lifestyle due to cattle raiding and associated civil insecurity. In attempts to reduce conflict in the region, the Ugandan government has instituted disarmament campaigns and encouraged sedentism in place of mobility. In Karamoja, this transition to sedentism has contributed to the emergence and reemergence of epidemic-prone diseases such as cholera, hepatitis E, yellow fever, and meningococcal meningitis. The incidence of these diseases remains difficult to measure and several challenges exist to their control. Challenges to communicable disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists are related to nomadic mobility, remote geography, vaccination and immunity, and poor sanitation and safe water access. In addition to improving gaps in infrastructure, attracting well-trained government health workers to Karamoja and similar areas with longstanding human resource limitations is critical to address the challenges to epidemic-prone disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists. In conjunction with government health workers, community health teams provide a sustainable method by which public health programs can be improved in the austere environments inhabited by mobile and settling pastoralists. PMID:24784434

  6. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    PubMed Central

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems. PMID:21403882

  7. [Cardiovascular diseases after kidney transplantation: an analysis of predisposing factors].

    PubMed

    Heule, H; Keusch, G; Uhlschmid, G; Largiadr, F; Binswanger, U

    1981-05-16

    Out of 512 recipients of kidney allotransplants 36 patients exhibiting cardiovascular complications (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular accident, aneurysm of aorta, peripheral arterial occlusions) were compared with an age and sex matched group of recipients without cardiovascular problems. The following significant differences were observed in the study group versus the controls: high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, longer duration of hypertension before renal allografting, higher serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, and an increased incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and preexisting cardiovascular disease. No differences were found between the two groups as regards smoking habits, overweight, hyperparathyroidism, duration of hemodialysis treatment and type of kidney disease. Diabetes mellitus, family history of cardiovascular complications and hypertonic alterations of the eye fundus were more frequent, but not to a statistically significant extent, in the study group as compared to control patients. These findings show the need for regulation of blood pressure, hyperlipemia and hyperuricemia to ensure successful longterm rehabilitation after kidney allografting. PMID:6454962

  8. [Importance of dyslipidaemia in cardiovascular disease: a point of view].

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Juan F; Carmena, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The authors present their view on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, accepting the European ESC/EAS guidelines. They consider that the aim of the lipid control, based on LDL-C goals, is essential for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In subjects with metabolic syndrome (mainly, abdominal obesity, pre-diabetes and diabetes), the primary objective should be apoB or Non-HDL-C, which are better associated with cardiovascular risk. The treatment must be lifestyle changes and control of other risk factors. After calculating cardiovascular risk, statins are the first therapeutic step, with the strength and dose needed to achieve LDL-C goals. If targets are not achieved, ezetimibe or resins should be added. A new group of potent cholesterol-lowering agents, the PCSK-9 monoclonal antibodies, have recently been approved in Spain. Subjects at very high cardiovascular risk that have achieved LDL-C goals, or other objectives (apoB, Non-HDL-C), other drugs (fibrates, omega-3) capable of modifying triglycerides and HDL-C could be added, if necessary. Treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk and prevent cardiovascular disease has proven effective in all populations and at all age groups. Subjects older than 80years should be individually assessed, taking into consideration possible comorbidities. PMID:26363575

  9. Cardiovascular disease in Navajo Indians with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, W; Light, A; Megill, D

    1995-01-01

    Rates of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have risen sharply in recent years among Navajo Indians, the largest reservation-based American Indian tribe, but the association between the two conditions is not entirely clear. Rates of cardiovascular disease and some possible associations in several hundred diabetic and non-diabetic Navajos were estimated. Nearly one-third (30.9 percent) of those with diabetes had formal diagnoses of cardiovascular disease--25.3 percent had heart disease, 4.4 percent had cerebrovascular disease, and 4.1 percent had peripheral vascular disease. (The percentages exceed the total because some people had more than one diagnosis. Age-adjusted rates were 5.2 times those of nondiabetics for heart disease, 10.2 times for cerebrovascular disease, and 6.8 times for peripheral vascular disease. Accentuation of risk was most marked in young diabetics and in female diabetics. Hypertensive diabetics had a twofold increase in heart disease and more than a fivefold increase in cerebral and peripheral vascular disease over nonhypertensive diabetics. Age, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and albumenuria were independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Triglyceride levels or body weight were not. Male sex and diabetes duration were independent risk factors for cerebral and peripheral vascular disease but not for heart disease. In view of the impressive segregation of cardiovascular disease in the diabetic Navajo population, the prevention of diabetes through population-based health promotion seems basic to its containment. Over the short term, vigorous treatment of hypertension in subjects who are already diabetic is mandatory. PMID:7838949

  10. Epidemics of Vector-borne Diseases Observed in Infectious Disease Surveillance in Japan, 2000-2005

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Izumida, Michiko; Ohta, Akiko; Tada, Yuki; Shigematsu, Mika; Yasui, Yoshinori; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Nagai, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Observing the epidemics of vector-borne diseases is important. One or more cases of 6 vector-borne diseases were reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases in Japan in 2000-2005. METHODS The reports of those cases were available. The incidence was observed by region of acquired infection, prefecture reporting, and week and year of diagnosis. RESULTS The incidence rate per year per 1,000,000 population was 0.36 for dengue fever, 0.04 for Japanese encephalitis, 0.38 for Japanese spotted fever, 0.08 for Lyme disease, 0.74 for malaria, and 3.50 for scrub typhus. There were no cases of dengue fever or malaria derived from domestic infections. The yearly incidence rate increased for dengue fever and Japanese spotted fever, and declined for malaria and scrub typhus. The proportion of cases reported in Tokyo was 44% for dengue fever and 37% for malaria. The number of prefectures reporting one or more cases of Japanese spotted fever increased in western Japan. The cases of scrub typhus increased in autumn-winter in prefectures of eastern Japan, and increased both in autumn-winter and spring in western prefectures. CONCLUSIONS The study reveals the epidemiologic features of both temporal and geographic distributions of cases of 6 vector-borne diseases in Japan, 2000-2005. PMID:18239342

  11. Transforming cardiovascular disease prevention in women: time for the Pygmalion construct to end.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nanette K

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of cardiovascular disease prevention for women must address that a number of nontraditional atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors are unique to or predominant in women. As well, many traditional atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors impart differential risks for women and for men. Gender-specific risk assessment and management have the potential to improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes in women. PMID:25531091

  12. AMPK in cardiovascular health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shirwany, Najeeb A; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the Snf1/AMPK protein kinase family, consists of three protein subunits that together make a functional enzyme. AMPK, which is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle, is allosterically activated by a rise in the AMP: ATP ratio (ie in a low ATP or energy depleted state). The net effect of AMPK activation is to halt energy consuming (anabolic) pathways but to promote energy conserving (catabolic) cellular pathways. AMPK has therefore often been dubbed the metabolic master switch. AMPK also plays a critical physiological role in the cardiovascular system. Increasing evidence suggest that AMPK might also function as a sensor by responding to oxidative stress. Mostly importantly, AMPK modulates endogenous antioxidant gene expression and/or suppress the production of oxidants. AMPK promotes cardiovascular homeostasis by ensuring an optimum redox balance on the heart and vascular tissues. Dysfunctional AMPK is thought to underlie several cardiovascular pathologies. Here we review this kinase from its structure and discovery to current knowledge of its adaptive and maladaptive role in the cardiovascular system. PMID:20711221

  13. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. PMID:21762853

  14. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. PMID:21659815

  15. [Treatment of thoracic malignancy accompanied with cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Sasai, T; Sakakibara, S; Harada, A; Sasaki, K; Kato, Y; Matsuyama, K; Matsushima, S; Gomibuchi, M; Tanaka, S; Shouji, T

    1993-10-01

    We treated 10 cases of thoracic malignancy accompanied with cardiovascular disease. Among thoracic malignancy, 7 cases were lung cancer and 3 were esophageal cancer. Accompanied cardiovascular diseases were ischemic heart disease (2 cases), valvular disease (3 cases), WPW syndrome (1 case), aortic aneurysm (4 cases). The mean age was 66, ranged from 51 to 79. The simultaneous occurrence of the two lesions were observed in 6 cases and thoracic malignancy was diagnosed after a varying interval of time following surgery of cardiovascular disease in 4 cases. In cases of thoracic malignancy accompanied with heart disease, the treatment of heart disease should precede the operation of malignant disease to reduce the risk of surgery. For the patient with esophageal cancer, posterior mediastinal esophagostomy should be applied who may have heart surgery in future. In cases of coexisting malignancy and aortic aneurysm, the priority of treatment should be determined considering the size of aneurysm. If the transverse diameter of aneurysm is larger than 7 cm, there is a high risk of rupture, so surgery for the aneurysm precedes operation of malignant diseases. It is desirable to avoid concomitant operation of malignancy and cardiovascular disease. PMID:8230901

  16. Estimating the spatial distribution of a plant disease epidemic from a sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling is of central importance in plant pathology. It facilitates our understanding of how epidemics develop in space and time and can also be used to inform disease management decisions. Making inferences from a sample is necessary because we rarely have the resources to conduct a complete censu...

  17. MODELING OF CEREAL RUST EPIDEMICS IN RUSSIA: CONCEPT OF MODELING, ACCUMULATION OF INOCULUM IN DISEASE FOCI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most damaging cereal diseases in Russia are rusts, leaf rust of wheat (Puccinia triticina) and rye (P. dispersa), stripe rust of wheat (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici), and stem rust of wheat and rye (P. graminis). D'pending on the region, rust epidemics occur 2-5 times every decade. Special expe...

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Health Knowledge among Freshman College Students with a Family History of Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamragouri, Ravikiran N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular health knowledge, perception of risk factors, and health behavior of 69 freshmen with a family history of cardiovascular disease with 154 freshmen without this history. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  19. Exposure to Agrochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sekhotha, Matome M.; Monyeki, Kotsedi D.; Sibuyi, Masezi E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In the agricultural world there is a continuous loss of food, fiber and other commodities due to pests, disease and weeds before harvesting time. These losses had create lots of financial burden to the farm owners that might lead to shutting down of their daily business. Worldwide, there is an overall very high loss of agricultural products due to weeds growth alone. To counteract this problem most farmers resort to the use of agrochemicals to increase their production but compromising the health of their farmworkers. The purpose of the study will be to assess the relationship between the agrochemical particles and cardiovascular diseases among farmworkers. Method: Non-systematic review was used to collect data. The following database were use: Medline, EBSCO, and Science Direct to search for the existing journal articles. Results: This study addresses the relationship between agrochemicals particles and cardiovascular diseases in the farming industries using literature review. Discussion: Other researchers had already done an extensive research on the pathway of potential mechanisms linking the ultrafine particulate matter to cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of those investigations were the clinical results of events that might lead to the development of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, arrhythmia and sudden death. Xenobiotic compounds that maybe implicated in the pathophysiology of human cardiovascular diseases, will be examined and included in this study. There is compelling evidence suggesting that toxic free radicals of pesticides play an important role in human health. Conclusion: There is a close relationship between agrochemicals particle and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26901215

  20. The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  1. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  2. Cardiovascular complications of radiation therapy for thoracic malignancies: the role for non-invasive imaging for detection of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Groarke, John D.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Nohria, Anju; Ferrari, Roberto; Cheng, Susan; Moslehi, Javid

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure to the thorax is associated with substantial risk for the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease. Thus, the increasing role of radiation therapy in the contemporary treatment of cancer, combined with improving survival rates of patients undergoing this therapy, contributes to a growing population at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Associated cardiovascular injuries include pericardial disease, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, conduction disease, cardiomyopathy, and medium and large vessel vasculopathyany of which can occur at varying intervals following irradiation. Higher radiation doses, younger age at the time of irradiation, longer intervals from the time of radiation, and coexisting cardiovascular risk factors all predispose to these injuries. The true incidence of radiation-related cardiovascular disease remains uncertain due to lack of large multicentre studies with a sufficient duration of cardiovascular follow-up. There are currently no consensus guidelines available to inform the optimal approach to cardiovascular surveillance of recipients of thoracic radiation. Therefore, we review the cardiovascular consequences of radiation therapy and focus on the potential role of non-invasive cardiovascular imaging in the assessment and management of radiation-related cardiovascular disease. In doing so, we highlight characteristics that can be used to identify individuals at risk for developing post-radiation cardiovascular disease and propose an imaging-based algorithm for their clinical surveillance. PMID:23666251

  3. Biomarkers: A Challenging Conundrum in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Libby, Peter; King, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The use of biomarkers has proven utility in cardiovascular medicine and holds great promise for future advances, but their application requires considerable rigor in thinking and methodology. Numerous confounding factors can cloud the clinical and investigative uses of biomarkers. Yet, the thoughtful and critical use of biomarkers can doubtless aid discovery of new pathogenic pathways, identify novel therapeutic targets, and provide a bridge between the laboratory and the clinic. Biomarkers can provide diagnostic and prognostic tools to the practitioner. The careful application of biomarkers can also help design and guide clinical trials required to establish the efficacy of novel interventions to improve patient outcomes. Point of care testing, technological advances, such as microfluidic and wearable devices, and the power of omics approaches all promise to elevate the potential contributions of biomarkers to discovery science, translation, clinical trials, and the practice of cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26543097

  4. Tristetraprolin family proteins may prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most deadly disease in the U. S., according to the American Heart Association statistics. CVD have been consistently ranked the No. 1 killer since 1900 (except 1918), accounted for 38.5% of all deaths in 2001, and was estimated to cost $368.4 billion in 2004 in t...

  5. Cardiovascular risk in pediatric-onset rheumatological diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health concerns for adults with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The enhanced atherogenesis in this patient population is promoted by the exposure to traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional cardiovascular insults, such as corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammation and autoantibodies. Despite definite differences between many adult-onset and pediatric-onset rheumatologic diseases, it is extremely likely that atherosclerosis will become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this pediatric patient population. Because cardiovascular events are rare at this young age, surrogate measures of atherosclerosis must be used. The three major noninvasive vascular measures of early atherosclerosis - namely, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity - can be performed easily on children. Few studies have explored the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and even fewer have used the surrogate vascular measures to document signs of early atherosclerosis in children with pediatric-onset rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on cardiovascular risk and early atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis patients, and to review cardiovascular preventive strategies that should be considered in this population. PMID:23731870

  6. Noncoding RNA in age-related cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Greco, Simona; Gorospe, Myriam; Martelli, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is tightly regulated transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally by a host of noncoding (nc)RNAs. The best-studied class of short ncRNAs, microRNAs, mainly repress gene expression post-transcriptionally. Long noncoding (lnc)RNAs, which comprise RNAs differing widely in length and function, can regulate gene transcription as well as post-transcriptional mRNA fate. Collectively, ncRNAs affect a broad range of age-related physiologic deteriorations and pathologies, including reduced cardiovascular vigor and age-associated cardiovascular disease. This review presents an update of our understanding of regulatory ncRNAs contributing to cardiovascular health and disease as a function of advancing age. We will discuss (1) regulatory ncRNAs that control aging-associated cardiovascular homeostasis and disease, (2) the concepts, approaches, and methodologies needed to study regulatory ncRNAs in cardiovascular aging and (3) the challenges and opportunities that age-associated regulatory ncRNAs present in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "CV Aging". PMID:25640162

  7. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  8. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  9. Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the Doomsday scenario be averted?

    PubMed

    Zimmet, P

    2000-03-01

    There are at present approximately 110 million people with diabetes in the world but this number will reach over 220 million by the year 2010, the majority of them with type 2 diabetes. Thus there is an urgent need for strategies to prevent the emerging global epidemic of type 2 diabetes to be implemented. Tackling diabetes must be part of an integrated program that addresses lifestyle related disorders. The prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and the other major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) can be cost- and health-effective through an integrated (i.e. horizontal) approach to noncommunicable diseases disease prevention and control. With the re-emergence of devastating communicable diseases including AIDS, the Ebola virus and tuberculosis, the pressure is on international and regional agencies to see that the noncommunicable disease epidemic is addressed. The international diabetes and public health communities need to adopt a more pragmatic view of the epidemic of type 2 diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases. The current situation is a symptom of globalization with respect to its social, cultural, economic and political significance. Type 2 diabetes will not be prevented by traditional medical approaches; what is required are major and dramatic changes in the socio-economic and cultural status of people in developing countries and the disadvantaged, minority groups in developed nations. The international diabetes and public health communities must lobby and mobilize politicians, other international agencies such as UNDP, UNICEF, and the World Bank as well as other international nongovernmental agencies dealing with the noncommunicable diseases to address the socio-economic, behavioural, nutritional and public health issues that have led to the type 2 diabetes and noncommunicable diseases epidemic. A multidisciplinary Task Force representing all parties which can contribute to a reversal of the underlying socio-economic causes of the problem is an urgent priority. PMID:10762445

  10. Impacts of hot and cold temperature extremes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Kříž, B.

    2010-09-01

    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in mortality during heat waves were examined in many European countries; much less is known about the effects of heat waves on morbidity, measured for example by the number of hospital admissions. Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study examines links between hot and cold temperature extremes and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic over 1994-2007. We make use of a recently completed database of all admissions for cardiovascular diseases to hospitals in the area of the Czech Republic since 1994, with a detailed classification of diseases and detailed information concerning each patient (in total 1,467,675 hospital admissions over 1994-2007). The main goals of the study are (i) to identify excess/deficit morbidity during and after periods of heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter, (ii) to compare the links for individual diseases (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, I21; angina pectoris, I20; cerebral infarction, I63; brain ischemia, I64) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to weather, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and mortality. Periods when morbidity data were affected by epidemics of influenza and acute respiratory infections in winter were excluded from the analysis.

  11. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings

    PubMed Central

    Schiavo, Renata; Leung, May May; Brown, Mason

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Results Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention’s impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. Conclusions The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the review identified several promising interventions and areas for future investigation. Among them, community-based and participatory interventions seemed to be central within epidemic and emerging disease settings, particularly in low-resource settings. Yet, evidence on their effectiveness is not conclusive and needs to be explored by future studies. Other promising areas for future investigation include multi-component and multi-sectoral approaches to intervention design. Major research gaps referred to any evaluation of the impact of these kinds of interventions on health policy adoption and/or implementation, and social determinants of health. Research on cost-effectiveness also needs to be strengthened. This review identified several research gaps and questions, and discusses potential future directions for increasing capacity for future and more rigorous assessments. PMID:24649867

  12. Therapeutic manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hadoke, Patrick WF; Iqbal, Javaid; Walker, Brian R

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic potential for manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease was revolutionized by the recognition that access of glucocorticoids to their receptors is regulated in a tissue-specific manner by the isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 have been shown recently to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. This article addresses the possibility that inhibition of 11β-hydroxsteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in cells of the cardiovascular system contributes to this beneficial action. The link between glucocorticoids and cardiovascular disease is complex as glucocorticoid excess is linked with increased cardiovascular events but glucocorticoid administration can reduce atherogenesis and restenosis in animal models. There is considerable evidence that glucocorticoids can interact directly with cells of the cardiovascular system to alter their function and structure and the inflammatory response to injury. These actions may be regulated by glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid receptors but are also dependent on the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases which may be expressed in cardiac, vascular (endothelial, smooth muscle) and inflammatory (macrophages, neutrophils) cells. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in these cells is dependent upon differentiation state, the action of pro-inflammaotory cytokines and the influence of endogenous inhibitors (oxysterols, bile acids). Further investigations are required to clarify the link between glucocorticoid excess and cardiovascular events and to determine the mechanism through which glucocorticoid treatment inhibits atherosclerosis/restenosis. This will provide greater insights into the potential benefit of selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19239478

  13. Epidemiology, risk factors and management of cardiovascular diseases in IBD.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddharth; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Pardi, Darrell S; Loftus, Edward V

    2015-01-01

    IBD is an established risk factor for venous thromboembolism. In the past few years, studies have suggested that patients with IBD might also be at an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. The increased risk is thought to be similar to the level of risk seen in patients with other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The risk of developing these conditions is particularly increased in young adults with IBD, and more so in women than in men. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors are not over-represented in patients with IBD, so the increased risk could be attributable to inflammation-mediated atherosclerosis. Patients with IBD often have premature atherosclerosis and have biochemical and genetic markers similar to those seen in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The role of chronic inflammation in IBD-associated cardiovascular disease merits further evaluation. Particular attention should be given to the increased risk observed during periods of increased disease activity and potential modification of the risk by immunosuppressive and biologic therapies for IBD that can modify the disease activity. In addition, preclinical studies suggest that cardiovascular medications such as statins and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors might also favourably modify IBD disease activity, which warrants further evaluation. PMID:25446727

  14. Cardiovascular Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Schoeman, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared to the general population. Both traditional CV risk factors and high levels of systemic inflammation have been linked to the increased CV risk in RA patients, but significant uncertainty remains regarding the mechanisms through which these factors contribute to CVD. In addition, ongoing questions remain regarding how best to identify RA patients at high risk for CVD, and what primary and secondary prevention strategies are effective at influencing CV outcome. The current review summarizes recent research in this field. PMID:22791398

  15. Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Golia, Enrica; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Natale, Francesco; Fimiani, Fabio; Maddaloni, Valeria; Pariggiano, Ivana; Bianchi, Renatomaria; Crisci, Mario; D'Acierno, Ludovica; Giordano, Roberto; Di Palma, Gaetano; Conte, Marianna; Golino, Paolo; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Calabr, Raffaele; Calabr, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Atherosclerosis represents the most common pathological substrate of coronary heart disease (CHD), and the characterization of the disease as a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is now largely accepted. A number of mediators of inflammation have been widely studied, both as surrogate biomarkers and as causal agents, in the pathophysiological network of atherogenesis and plaque vulnerability. The epidemiological observation that biomarkers of inflammation are associated with clinical cardiovascular risk supports the theory that targeted anti-inflammatory treatment appears to be a promising strategy in reducing residual cardiovascular risk on the background of traditional medical therapy. A large number of randomized controlled trials have shown that drugs commonly used in cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as statins, may be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through an anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, several anti-inflammatory drugs are being tested for their potential to reduce residual cardiovascular risk on the background of validated medical therapy for atherosclerotic disease. In this paper, we review relevant evidence with regard to the relationship between inflammation and CVD, from pathogenesis to therapeutic strategies. PMID:25037581

  16. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure (HF). PMID:25013816

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease and physical exercise: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Metsios, G S; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, A; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J J C S; Treharne, G J; Panoulas, V F; Douglas, K M J; Koutedakis, Y; Kitas, G D

    2008-03-01

    This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of exercise interventions in improving disease-related characteristics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It also provides suggestions for exercise programmes suitable for improving the cardiovascular profile of RA patients and proposes areas for future research in the field. Six databases (Medline, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PEDro) were searched to identify publications from 1974 to December 2006 regarding RA and exercise interventions. The quality of the studies included was determined by using the Jadad scale. Initial searches identified 1342 articles from which 40 met the inclusion criteria. No studies were found investigating exercise interventions in relation to cardiovascular disease in RA. There is strong evidence suggesting that exercise from low to high intensity of various modes is effective in improving disease-related characteristics and functional ability in RA patients. Future studies are required to investigate the effects of exercise in improving the cardiovascular status of this patient population. PMID:18045810

  18. [The influence of testosterone on cardiovascular disease in men].

    PubMed

    Payer, J; Banrov, A

    2010-07-01

    The influence of testosterone on cardiovascular disease is recently discussed question. Testosterone modulates vascular reactivity by genomic and nongenomic modes of action, it has an impact on endothelial function, production of proinflamatory cytokines and lipid profiles. The possible role of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in androgen action by plasmatic membrane receptors breaks "the free hormone hypothesis", especially when clinical trials reveal strong association between SHBG and risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The results of last clinical trials mention that androgen deficiency is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Large clinical trials demonstrated that androgen deficiency predict mortality in elderly men. Testosterone substitution restores vasoreactivity and endothelial function and could potentially reduce cardiovascular disease in men but to confirm this theory more large clinical trials are needed. PMID:20842916

  19. Cardiovascular disease occurrence in two close but different social environments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases estimate to be the leading cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years globally. Conventional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases only partly account for the social gradient. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular mortality in two close cities, the Twin cities. Methods We focused on the total population in two neighbour and equally sized cities with a population of around 135 000 inhabitants each. These twin cities represent two different social environments in the same Swedish county. According to their social history they could be labelled a "blue-collar" and a "white-collar" city. Morbidity data for the two cities was derived from an administrative health care register based on medical records assigned by the physicians at both hospitals and primary care. The morbidity data presented are cumulative incidence rates and the data on mortality for ischemic heart diseases is based on official Swedish statistics. Results The cumulative incidence of different cardiovascular diagnoses for younger and also elderly men and women revealed significantly differences for studied cardiovascular diagnoses. The occurrence rates were in all aspects highest in the population of the "blue-collar" twin city for both sexes. Conclusions This study revealed that there are significant differences in risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality between the populations in the studied different social environments. These differences seem to be profound and stable over time and thereby give implication for public health policy to initiate a community intervention program in the "blue-collar" twin city. PMID:21226912

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review of a growing epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Bhalla, Varun; Ezz El Regal, Mohammed; A-Kader, H Hesham

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is quickly becoming one of the most prominent causes of liver disease worldwide. The increasing incidence of NAFLD is tied to the obesity epidemic and the subsequent metabolic derangements brought along with it. Current efforts to elucidate the mechanism and causes of the disease have answered some questions, but much remains unknown about NAFLD. The aim of this article is to discuss the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as the current and future diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic options available to clinicians for the management of NAFLD. PMID:25232245

  1. Inhalational Alzheimer's disease: an unrecognized—and treatable—epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Bredesen, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins. The appropriate recognition of IAD as a potentially important pathogenetic condition in patients with cognitive decline offers the opportunity for successful treatment of a large number of patients whose current prognoses, in the absence of accurate diagnosis, are grave. PMID:26870879

  2. Inhalational Alzheimer's disease: an unrecognized - and treatable - epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bredesen, Dale E

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins. The appropriate recognition of IAD as a potentially important pathogenetic condition in patients with cognitive decline offers the opportunity for successful treatment of a large number of patients whose current prognoses, in the absence of accurate diagnosis, are grave. PMID:26870879

  3. Neurocardiology: therapeutic implications for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S

    2012-04-01

    The term "neurocardiology" refers to physiologic and pathophysiological interplays of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. This selective review provides an update about cardiovascular therapeutic implications of neurocardiology, with emphasis on disorders involving primary or secondary abnormalities of catecholamine systems. Concepts of scientific integrative medicine help understand these disorders. Scientific integrative medicine is not a treatment method or discipline but a way of thinking that applies systems concepts to acute and chronic disorders of regulation. Some of these concepts include stability by negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, instability by positive feedback loops, allostasis, and allostatic load. Scientific integrative medicine builds on systems biology but is also distinct in several ways. A large variety of drugs and non-drug treatments are now available or under study for neurocardiologic disorders in which catecholamine systems are hyperfunctional or hypofunctional. The future of therapeutics in neurocardiology is not so much in new curative drugs as in applying scientific integrative medical ideas that take into account concurrent chronic degenerative disorders and interactions of multiple drug and non-drug treatments with each other and with those disorders. PMID:21108771

  4. Smoking denial in cardiovascular disease studies.

    PubMed

    Wallner-Liebmann, S J; Grammer, T B; Siekmeier, R; Mangge, H; Mrz, W; Renner, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of self-reported smoking behavior in cardiovascular studies may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure. A more objective measurement of nicotine exposure can be done by measurement of plasma cotinine levels. The aim of the present study was to define the rate of discordance between the self-reported smoking behavior and biochemically defined smoking status. Data from 3,316 patients hospitalized for coronary angiography, who completed a questionnaire on smoking behavior, were analyzed. As a biochemical assessment of smoking status we used a cut-off serum cotinine level of 15 ?g/l. Smoking denial, defined as a discrepancy between high cotinine levels and self-reported never- or ex-smoking status, was observed in 3.7 % of the study participants. In a logistic regression analysis with a step-wise inclusion of sex, age, CAD, previous MI, and educational level, only male sex (odds ratio male/female: 2.00, 95 % CI 1.22-3.33; p = 0.007) and age (odds ratio per year: 0.79, 95 % confidence interval 0.66-0.94, p = 0.008) were associated with smoking denial. In conclusion, a misclassification rate of 3.7 % in the evaluation of such an important risk factor may lead to blurred effects and favor false negative results. The results of the present study substantiate the importance of biochemical markers for smoking assessment in cardiovascular studies. PMID:23835955

  5. Mendelian Forms of Structural Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and molecular genetics are inextricably linked. In the last two decades genetic studies have revealed the causes of several forms of structural heart disease. Recent work is extending the insights from inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies to other forms of heart disease. In this review we outline the current state of the art for the genetics of adult structural heart disease, in particular the cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease and aortic disease. The general approaches are described with a focus on clinical relevance, while potential areas for imminent innovation in diagnosis and therapeutics are highlighted. PMID:24046092

  6. Sleep Disturbances and their Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are a common problem with chronic insomnia occurring in 10% of the general adult population and obstructive sleep apnea present in 4% and 2% of middle-aged men and women respectively. In addition, Americans are sleeping fewer hours per night than they did 20 years ago. There is now increasing evidence that reductions and increases in sleep duration, and various sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia may be causal factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. Some of the evidence linking disturbances of sleep with cardiovascular disease is described in this review. PMID:20161354

  7. [Mathematical modeling for conditionality of cardiovascular disease by housing conditions].

    PubMed

    Meshkov, N A

    2014-01-01

    There was studied the influence of living conditions (housing area per capita, availability of housing water supply, sewerage and central heating) on the morbidity of the cardiovascular diseases in child and adult population. With the method of regression analysis the morbidity rate was established to significantly decrease with the increase in the area of housing, constructed models are statistically significant, respectively, p = 0.01 and p = 0.02. There was revealed the relationship of the morbidity rate of cardiovascular diseases in children and adults with the supply with housing central heating (p = 0.02 and p = 0.009). PMID:25950060

  8. Migraine and cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and death due to cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library) and reference lists of included studies and reviews published until January 2009. Selection criteria Case-control and cohort studies investigating the association between any migraine or specific migraine subtypes and cardiovascular disease. Review methods Two investigators independently assessed eligibility of identified studies in a two step approach. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Studies were grouped according to a priori categories on migraine and cardiovascular disease. Data extraction Two investigators extracted data. Pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results Studies were heterogeneous for participant characteristics and definition of cardiovascular disease. Nine studies investigated the association between any migraine and ischaemic stroke (pooled relative risk 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 2.29). Additional analyses indicated a significantly higher risk among people who had migraine with aura (2.16, 1.53 to 3.03) compared with people who had migraine without aura (1.23, 0.90 to 1.69; meta-regression for aura status P=0.02). Furthermore, results suggested a greater risk among women (2.08, 1.13 to 3.84) compared with men (1.37, 0.89 to 2.11). Age less than 45 years, smoking, and oral contraceptive use further increased the risk. Eight studies investigated the association between migraine and myocardial infarction (1.12, 0.95 to 1.32) and five between migraine and death due to cardiovascular disease (1.03, 0.79 to 1.34). Only one study investigated the association between women who had migraine with aura and myocardial infarction and death due to cardiovascular disease, showing a twofold increased risk. Conclusion Migraine is associated with a twofold increased risk of ischaemic stroke, which is only apparent among people who have migraine with aura. Our results also suggest a higher risk among women and risk was further magnified for people with migraine who were aged less than 45, smokers, and women who used oral contraceptives. We did not find an overall association between any migraine and myocardial infarction or death due to cardiovascular disease. Too few studies are available to reliably evaluate the impact of modifying factors, such as migraine aura, on these associations. PMID:19861375

  9. [New insights into sodium in kidney and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Descaillot, Lonard; Laville, Maurice

    2015-12-01

    Recent guidelines recommend a restriction of sodium intake below 2,4g/day (6g/day of NaCl) in general population to prevent arterial hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Three papers published in 2014 by The New England Journal of Medecine confirm the association between high sodium intake and arterial hypertension. However, marked sodium restriction is also associated with increased mortality. On the other hand, a diet rich in potassium, over 1.5g/day, is associated with less cardiovascular mortality, and less chronic kidney disease progression. PMID:26483286

  10. The Silent Epidemic. Teens and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Susan

    1998-01-01

    One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)

  11. Population-level differences in disease transmission: a Bayesian analysis of multiple smallpox epidemics.

    PubMed

    Elderd, Bret D; Dwyer, Greg; Dukic, Vanja

    2013-09-01

    Estimates of a disease's basic reproductive rate R0 play a central role in understanding outbreaks and planning intervention strategies. In many calculations of R0, a simplifying assumption is that different host populations have effectively identical transmission rates. This assumption can lead to an underestimate of the overall uncertainty associated with R0, which, due to the non-linearity of epidemic processes, may result in a mis-estimate of epidemic intensity and miscalculated expenditures associated with public-health interventions. In this paper, we utilize a Bayesian method for quantifying the overall uncertainty arising from differences in population-specific basic reproductive rates. Using this method, we fit spatial and non-spatial susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) models to a series of 13 smallpox outbreaks. Five outbreaks occurred in populations that had been previously exposed to smallpox, while the remaining eight occurred in Native-American populations that were nave to the disease at the time. The Native-American outbreaks were close in a spatial and temporal sense. Using Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), we show that the best model includes population-specific R0 values. These differences in R0 values may, in part, be due to differences in genetic background, social structure, or food and water availability. As a result of these inter-population differences, the overall uncertainty associated with the "population average" value of smallpox R0 is larger, a finding that can have important consequences for controlling epidemics. In general, Bayesian hierarchical models are able to properly account for the uncertainty associated with multiple epidemics, provide a clearer understanding of variability in epidemic dynamics, and yield a better assessment of the range of potential risks and consequences that decision makers face. PMID:24021521

  12. AB008. The link between erectile dysfunction (ED) and cardiovascular disease (CVD): what a urologist needs to know

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Tarek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Erectile dysfunction (ED), or male impotence, is defined as the consistent inability to achieve and/or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual activity, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). With the rapidly aging population, it has been projected to have 322 million men with erectile dysfunction by 2025 and the largest increase will happen in the developing world; Asia, Africa and South America. To describe the link between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease and to review the role of urologists in identifying and referring patients with erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A systematic review of published peer-reviewed literature will be done to test the association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. We will search the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane database of systematic reviews to identify data using search criteria; men with erectile dysfunction, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and smoking. Results It has been found that the traditional risk factors to detect cardiovascular risk are missing lots of patients which lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The new opportunity to discover patients at risk of cardiovascular disease by doing the penile Doppler ultrasound and measuring the peak systolic velocity of the penile artery will help in diagnosing many patients with hidden cardiovascular risk, Gupta et al. Even men with mild erectile dysfunction are always neglected from both sides of clinicians and patients and it has been believed that by paying attention to those patients we can delay or prevent secondary cardiovascular and metabolic diseases with a great opportunity to improve patients quality of life, Deng et al. It has been realized that using a multiple linear regression analysis, the presence of metabolic syndrome components were associated with increased incidence of erectile dysfunction and hence raised the flag to set strategies to control the epidemic of metabolic syndrome increase and to enhance the early diagnosis of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, Sanjay et al. Conclusions Erectile dysfunction is a prevalent condition affecting middle age and elderly men. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction increases with age and other co-morbid conditions as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking and depression. Erectile dysfunction is not a life threatening condition but it erodes couples quality of life. It is also considered as sharing the same link and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. From the mentioned literature, we would like to leverage the awareness about the need for asking about erectile dysfunction in order to diagnose patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.04, 65,978 participants). This did not alter with sub-grouping or sensitivity analysis. Few studies compared reduced with modified fat diets, so direct comparison was not possible. Authors’ conclusions The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups, should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturates. The ideal type of unsaturated fat is unclear. PMID:21735388

  14. MicroRNAs in platelet function and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    McManus, David D; Freedman, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease-a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults-is strongly influenced by platelet function through acute thrombotic and atherogenic mechanisms. Pathways that regulate platelet activity and lead to coronary occlusion are central to the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. Platelet activation contributes to other thrombotic disorders and cardiovascular diseases, including stroke. Anucleate platelets are now understood to contain transcripts that might relate to other physiological or pathophysiological conditions, be released into the circulation, participate in protein formation, and engage in horizontal RNA transfer to other vascular cells. These platelet transcripts include microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small noncoding RNAs involved in many molecular processes, most notably regulation of gene expression. In platelets, these noncoding RNAs seem to participate in vascular homeostasis, inflammation, and platelet function. In addition, levels of platelet miRNAs in the circulation are associated with the presence or extent of cardiovascular diseases, such as atrial fibrillation and peripheral vascular disease. Accumulating data suggest mechanistic roles for platelet-derived miRNAs in haemostasis, thrombosis, and unstable coronary syndromes. In addition, evidence suggests that platelet-derived miRNAs might have important roles as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease susceptibility, prognosis, or treatment. PMID:26149483

  15. Circulating Markers of Liver Function and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Targher, Giovanni; Byrne, Christopher D

    2015-11-01

    Measurement of serum concentrations of various liver enzymes and other nonenzymatic proteins and metabolites of heme metabolism (eg, bilirubin) is often undertaken in clinical practice. Measurement of these liver function tests is simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive. However, interpreting the liver function test results in patients without evidence of liver disease is often challenging. Concentrations of some of liver enzymes, such as γ-glutamyltransferase or alkaline phosphatase, and concentrations of liver-derived metabolites, such as bilirubin, may be influenced by metabolic processes beyond the liver, sometimes making interpretation of the test results difficult. This scenario frequently occurs both in individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease and in patients with known cardiovascular disease, often resulting in the clinicians ignoring the test results. In this brief review, we discuss the evidence for associations between key serum liver function tests and cardiovascular disease risk and where associations are robust; we provide an interpretation for possible mechanistic links between the liver function test and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25977566

  16. Early detection and response to meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: appraisal of the WHO strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Leake, J. A. D.; Kone, M. L.; Yada, A. A.; Barry, L. F.; Traore, G.; Ware, A.; Coulibaly, T.; Berthe, A.; Mambu Ma Disu, H.; Rosenstein, N. E.; Plikaytis, B. D.; Esteves, K.; Kawamata, J.; Wenger, J. D.; Heymann, D. L.; Perkins, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold strategy for detecting meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and to estimate the impact of the strategy on an epidemic at district level. METHODS: Data on meningitis cases at the district level were collected weekly from health ministries, WHO country and regional offices, and nongovernmental organizations in countries where there were epidemics of meningococcal disease in 1997. An epidemic was defined as a cumulative district attack rate of at least 100 cases per 100,000 population from January to May, the period of epidemic risk. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold rate were calculated, and curves of sensitivity against (1 - specificity) were compared with alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemic sizes. The impact of the WHO strategy on a district epidemic was estimated by comparing the numbers of epidemic cases with cases estimated to have been prevented by vaccination. FINDINGS: An analysis was made of 48 198 cases reported in 174 districts in Benin, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. These cases were 80.3% of those reported from Africa to WHO during the 1997 epidemic period. District populations ranged from 10,298 to 573,908. The threshold rate was crossed during two consecutive weeks in 69 districts (39.7%) and there were epidemics in 66 districts (37.9%). Overall, the sensitivity of the threshold rate for predicting epidemics was 97%, the specificity was 95%, and the predictive value positive was 93%. Taken together, these values were equivalent or better than the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemics, and remained high regardless of district size. The estimated number of potential epidemic cases decreased by nearly 60% in the age group targeted for vaccination in one district where the guidelines were followed in a timely manner. CONCLUSION: The use of the WHO strategy was sensitive and specific for the early detection of meningococcal disease epidemics in countries of sub-Saharan Africa during 1997 and had a substantial impact on a district epidemic. Nevertheless, the burden of meningococcal disease in these countries remains formidable and additional control measures are needed. PMID:12077608

  17. Drug treatment and cost of cardiovascular disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ademi, Zanfina; Liew, Danny; Chew, Derek; Conner, Greg; Shiel, Louise; Nelson, Mark; Soman, Ash; Steg, Gabriel; Bhatt, Deepak L; Reid, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme supports the use of effective drugs for the prevention and control of cardiovascular risk factors. However, there are little data available describing per person costs of medication in primary prevention and secondary prevention in the community. We aim to understand annual expenditure on cardiovascular medicines according to the level and extent of cardiovascular disease, using participants enrolled in the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) registry. 2873 participants were recruited into the REACH registry through 273 Australian general practices. Cardiovascular medicines review was undertaken at baseline. Average weighted costs of medications were estimated using government-reimbursed prices. Annual costs were stratified by disease extent and location. The annual mean cost of pharmaceuticals per person was 1307 AU dollars. The average reported medicine use per person across all states and participants groups varied significantly. Participants with cerebrovascular or peripheral arterial disease were prescribed less cardiovascular medication than those with coronary artery disease (CAD) (mean number of drugs 3.5 vs. 4.5, P < 0.0001) and (3.6 vs. 4.5, P < 0.0001), while those with risk factor alone had the same medication use as those with CAD (mean number 4.5). Medication use was lower in Western Australia in comparison to eastern States. Participants with existing cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease receive less preventive therapy than those with CAD or even risk factors alone. This observation is consistent across all mainland states. Given the evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treating all types of vascular diseases, the present study suggests that there is scope to improve the treatment of these high-risk participants in Australia. PMID:19689615

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Brea, Angel; Puzo, José

    2013-08-20

    The term "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" (NAFLD) covers a series of liver lesions similar to those induced by alcohol, but not caused by alcohol use. The importance of NAFLD lies in the high prevalence in Western societies and, from the point of view of the liver, in its progression from steatosis to cirrhosis and liver cancer. More recently, NAFLD has been found to be associated with lipid metabolism disorders, the deposition of fat outside of the adipocytes, insulin resistance and Metabolic Syndrome. Also attributed to NAFLD is a heightened systemic pro-inflammatory state, which accelerates arteriosclerosis, thereby increasing cardiovascular risk and associated cardiovascular events. Here we provide an update to the etiopathogenesis of NAFLD, its influence on cardiovascular disease, and the treatment options. PMID:23141876

  19. Arsenic Exposure and Subclinical Endpoints of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Molinaro, Peter; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic evidence suggests that arsenic exposure from drinking water increases the production of reactive oxygen species and influences inflammatory responses and endothelial nitric oxide homeostasis. These arsenic-induced events may lead to endothelial dysfunction that increases the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We reviewed accumulating epidemiologic evidence that evaluated the association between arsenic exposure and intermediate markers and subclinical measures that predict future cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional studies have indicated positive associations between high or low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, QT interval prolongation, and circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction. The evidence is limited for other intermediate endpoints such as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, QT dispersion, and lipid profiles. Prospective studies are needed to enhance the causal inferences of arsenic's effects on subclinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease, especially at lower arsenic exposure levels. PMID:25013752

  20. Worldwide disparities in cardiovascular disease: Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Okwuosa, Ike S; Lewsey, Sabra C; Adesiyun, Tolulope; Blumenthal, Roger S; Yancy, Clyde W

    2016-01-01

    The 20th century saw cardiovascular disease ascend as the leading cause of death in the world. In response to the new challenge that heart disease imposed, the cardiovascular community responded with ground breaking innovations in the form of evidence based medications that have improved survival, imaging modalities that allow for precise diagnosis and guide treatment; revascularization strategies that have not only reduced morbidity, but also improved survival following an acute myocardial infarction. However the benefits have not been distributed equitably and as a result disparities have arisen in cardiovascular care. There is tremendous data from the United States demonstrating the many phenotypical forms of disparities. This paper takes a global view of disparities and highlights that disparate care is not limited to the United States and it is another challenge that the medical community should rise and face head on. PMID:26433167

  1. Spatial Transmission of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus in the 20062007 Epidemic in Lombardy

    PubMed Central

    Nassuato, Claudia; Boender, Gert Jan; Ebl, Phaedra L.; Alborali, Loris; Bellini, Silvia; Hagenaars, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007 pig farming in the region of Lombardy, in the north of Italy, was struck by an epidemic of Swine Vesicular Disease virus (SVDV). In fact this epidemic could be viewed as consisting of two sub-epidemics, as the reported outbreaks occurred in two separate time periods. These periods differed in terms of the provinces or municipalities that were affected and also in terms of the timing of implementation of movement restrictions. Here we use a simple mathematical model to analyse the epidemic data, quantifying between-farm transmission probability as a function of between-farm distance. The results show that the distance dependence of between-farm transmission differs between the two periods. In the first period transmission over relatively long distances occurred with higher probability than in the second period, reflecting the effect of movement restrictions in the second period. In the second period however, more intensive transmission occurred over relatively short distances. Our model analysis explains this in terms of the relatively high density of pig farms in the area most affected in this period, which exceeds a critical farm density for between-farm transmission. This latter result supports the rationale for the additional control measure taken in 2007 of pre-emptively culling farms in that area. PMID:23667534

  2. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming.

    PubMed

    Pounds, J Alan; Bustamante, Martn R; Coloma, Luis A; Consuegra, Jamie A; Fogden, Michael P L; Foster, Pru N; La Marca, Enrique; Masters, Karen L; Merino-Viteri, Andrs; Puschendorf, Robert; Ron, Santiago R; Snchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Still, Christopher J; Young, Bruce E

    2006-01-12

    As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of the 110 or so species of Atelopus, which are endemic to the American tropics, have met the same fate, and a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is implicated. Analysing the timing of losses in relation to changes in sea surface and air temperatures, we conclude with 'very high confidence' (> 99%, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) that large-scale warming is a key factor in the disappearances. We propose that temperatures at many highland localities are shifting towards the growth optimum of Batrachochytrium, thus encouraging outbreaks. With climate change promoting infectious disease and eroding biodiversity, the urgency of reducing greenhouse-gas concentrations is now undeniable. PMID:16407945

  3. Predicting cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenhui; Liu, Dahai; Gong, Ping; Shi, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yong; Wang, Ping; Gong, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a critical clinical challenge due to poor clinical outcome and increasing prevalence. Nephrologists and transplant specialists need suitable biomarkers to predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events and/or mortality in practice. At the technical level, development of a non-invasive repetitive sampling procedure is required to develop applicable biomarkers, offering a platform for clinicians to dynamically monitor the alteration of patient condition. Apart from specificity and sensitivity, the ideal biomarkers should be independent of various confounders such as sex, sex, age, kidney function, diabetes, and blood pressure. This article reviews recent studies on the identified potential biomarkers to analyze their predictive value and significance. The present study revealed that the identified potential biomarkers are involved in magnesium and phosphate metabolism, hormone dysregulation, pro-inflammatory process, and cardiovascular pathogenesis. Combined use of those biomarkers might allow early identification of subclinical cardiovascular system organ damage, effectively predict cardiovascular mortality, and significantly deepen our mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality, which will help to develop preventive measures. PMID:25315215

  4. An SEIV Epidemic Model for Childhood Diseases with Partial Permanent Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Mei; Ren, Lishun

    2015-01-01

    An SEIV epidemic model for childhood disease with partial permanent immunity is studied. The basic reproduction number R 0 has been worked out. The local and global asymptotical stability analysis of the equilibria are performed, respectively. Furthermore, if we take the treated rate ? as the bifurcation parameter, periodic orbits will bifurcate from endemic equilibrium when ? passes through a critical value. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to support our analytic results. PMID:26120353

  5. Effects of Epidemic Diseases on the Distribution of Bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how outbreaks and the occurrence of Anthrax, Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis may differentially affect the distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Using a combination of mapping, Jaccard overlapping coefficients and binary regressions, the study determined how each disease correlated with the extent of occurrence of, and the areas occupied by, bonobos. Anthrax has only been reported to occur outside the range of bonobos and so was not considered further. Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis were each reported within the area of occupancy of bonobos. Their respective overlap coefficients were: J?=?0.10; Q??=?0.05?=?2.00 (odds ratios?=?0.0001, 95% CI?=?0.0057; Z?=??19.41, significant) for Ebola; J?=?1.00; Q??=?0.05?=?24.0 (odds ratios?=?1.504, 95% CI?=?0.50662.6122) for Monkeypox; and, J?=?0.33; Q??=?0.05?=?11.5 (Z?=?1.14, significant) for Trypanosomiasis. There were significant relationships for the presence and absence of Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis and the known extent of occurrence of bonobos, based on the equations y?=?0.2368Ln(x)+0.8006 (R2?=?0.9772) and y?=??0.2942Ln(x)+0.7155 (R2?=?0.698), respectively. The positive relationship suggested that bonobos tolerated the presence of Monkeypox. In contrast, the significant negative coefficient suggested that bonobos were absent in areas where Trypanosomiasis is endemic. Our results suggest that large rivers may have prevented Ebola from spreading into the range of bonobos. Meanwhile, Trypanosomiasis has been recorded among humans within the area of occurrence of bonobos, and appears the most important disease in shaping the area of occupancy of bonobos within their overall extent of occupancy. PMID:23251431

  6. Effects of epidemic diseases on the distribution of bonobos.

    PubMed

    Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how outbreaks and the occurrence of Anthrax, Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis may differentially affect the distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Using a combination of mapping, Jaccard overlapping coefficients and binary regressions, the study determined how each disease correlated with the extent of occurrence of, and the areas occupied by, bonobos. Anthrax has only been reported to occur outside the range of bonobos and so was not considered further. Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis were each reported within the area of occupancy of bonobos. Their respective overlap coefficients were: J = 0.10; Q(α = 0.05) = 2.00 (odds ratios = 0.0001, 95% CI = 0.0057; Z = -19.41, significant) for Ebola; J = 1.00; Q(α = 0.05) = 24.0 (odds ratios = 1.504, 95% CI = 0.5066-2.6122) for Monkeypox; and, J = 0.33; Q(α = 0.05) = 11.5 (Z = 1.14, significant) for Trypanosomiasis. There were significant relationships for the presence and absence of Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis and the known extent of occurrence of bonobos, based on the equations y = 0.2368Ln(x)+0.8006 (R(2) = 0.9772) and y = -0.2942Ln(x)+0.7155 (R(2) = 0.698), respectively. The positive relationship suggested that bonobos tolerated the presence of Monkeypox. In contrast, the significant negative coefficient suggested that bonobos were absent in areas where Trypanosomiasis is endemic. Our results suggest that large rivers may have prevented Ebola from spreading into the range of bonobos. Meanwhile, Trypanosomiasis has been recorded among humans within the area of occurrence of bonobos, and appears the most important disease in shaping the area of occupancy of bonobos within their overall extent of occupancy. PMID:23251431

  7. [Sexually transmitted diseases and the HIV/AIDS epidemic].

    PubMed

    Valdespino-Gmez, J L; Garca-Garca, M de L; del Ro-Chiriboga, C; Cruz-Palacios, C; Loo-Mndez, E; Lpez-Sotelo, A

    1995-01-01

    Studies on sexually transmitted diseases (STD) during the previous years in Mexico are discussed. The information sources were: a) Surveys among commercial sex workers. Since 1990, 1,386 women have been studied in four federal states through structured questionnaires and laboratory tests. Prevalence of different STD's has been significant (syphilis (VDRL, FTA-abs) 23.7%; chlamydiosis (Ag IF) 12.9%; gonorrhea (Ag, ELISA) 11.5%; anti-HBs 11.0%; herpes 1,2 (IgM) 9.3%, HBsAg 5.7%. Frequency of HIV (ELISA, Western blot) has been low; 0.5%. In 1994, 662 women were studied in Mexico City, with different laboratory techniques for chlamydiosis and gonorrhea (culture), hepatitis B (anticore antibodies) and herpes (total antibodies) with the following results: syphilis 1.5-12%; chlamydiosis 10.8-11.7%; gonorrhea 0-5.9%; hepatitis B 0-7.1%; herpes 44.7-78%; and HIV 0-1.4%. b) Surveys among men with homosexual and bisexual practices. 325 subjects have been studied in three federal states using methods similar to those of the 1990 survey. Contrasting with results among women, HIV prevalence was found to be high; (18.8%), and considerable for other STD's: anti-HBsAg 28.6%, syphilis 34.9%, recent herpes 10.9%, HBsAg 5.0%, chlamydiosis (Ag, IF) 4.3%, herpes simplex 1,2 (Ag, IF) 4.7%, gonorrhea (Ag, ELISA) 2.8%. c) Patient clinical studies. The clinical interrelationship between different STD and HIV infection has been studied; clinical differences are described between patients with condylomata or syphilis depending on HIV serostatus. Implications of the interrelationship between different STD's and HIV infection for the prevention and control of these diseases are discussed. PMID:8599129

  8. Epidemiologic Studies of Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    A physically more active life, while not being related to atherosclerosis, could enable some individuals to live longer with atherosclerosis before dying from or showing symptoms of coronary heart disease. (MJB)

  9. Lead, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. )

    1991-02-01

    Lead has been shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure in males in the NHANES 2 survey and in numerous other studies. This study confirms the association in males ages 20 to 74 and documents a singificant, although weaker, association in females as well. Prospective cardiovascular disease studies such as the Framingham study indicate that increases in blood pressure should be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Using electrocardiogram data from NHANES 2, this study confirms the expected association oflead with left ventricular hypertrophy. The logistic risk coefficients from the Framingham study can be combined with the study's association between lead and blood pressure to examine its implication for more serious outcomes. The results suggest that a halving of the population mean blood lead level would reduce myocardial infarctions by approximately 24,000 events per year and incidence of all cardiovascular disease by over 100,000. These numbers suggest a small attributable risk compared ot the vast incidence of cardiovascular disease in the US, but a large attributable risk compared to most environmental toxins. Several biological mechanisms have been identified, with different implications for the use of bone lead as an exposure measure.

  10. Heart muscle disease and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sado, Daniel M; Fontana, Marianna; Moon, James C

    2014-07-01

    This article introduces the reader to the different types of heart muscle disease which are commonly encountered in clinical practice. It then discusses cardiovascular magnetic resonance and explains how it can help in the work up of these diverse conditions. PMID:25040517

  11. Associations between Eating Competence and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psota, Tricia L.; Lohse, Barbara; West, Sheila G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Explore the relationship between eating competence (EC) and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Secondary analysis of data collected for a larger, 2-way crossover clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient clinical research center. Participants: Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [greater than or equal]…

  12. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills

  13. BENEFITS OF DIETARY FIBER FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND DIABETES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common problem confronting those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, an independent risk factor for CVD, is associated with a high incidence of CVD and increased short-and long-term mortality. The nutritional approach to CVD and diabetes is an importa...

  14. Associations between Eating Competence and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psota, Tricia L.; Lohse, Barbara; West, Sheila G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Explore the relationship between eating competence (EC) and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Secondary analysis of data collected for a larger, 2-way crossover clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient clinical research center. Participants: Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [greater than or equal]

  15. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

  16. Dietary modulators of statin efficacy in cardiovascular disease and cognition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other developed countries, and is fast growing in developing countries, particularly as life expectancy in all parts of the world increases. Current recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascul...

  17. Hyperosmotic activation of CNS sympathetic drive: implications for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Glenn M; Stocker, Sean D

    2010-01-01

    Evidence now indicates that exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) significantly contributes to salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases. Although CNS mechanisms that support the elevation of SNA in various cardiovascular disease models have been intensively studied, many mechanistic details remain unknown. In recent years, studies have shown that SNA can rise as a result of both acute and chronic increases of body fluid osmolality. These findings have raised the possibility that salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases could result, at least in part, from direct osmosensory activation of CNS sympathetic drive. In this brief review we emphasize recent findings from several laboratories, including our own, which demonstrate that neurons of the forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) play a pivotal role in triggering hyperosmotic activation of SNA by recruiting neurons in specific regions of the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. Although OVLT neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive and shrink when exposed to extracellular hypertonicity, it is not yet clear if these processes are functionally linked. Whereas acute hypertonic activation of OVLT neurons critically depends on TRPV1 channels, studies in TRPV1−/− mice suggest that acute and long-term osmoregulatory responses remain largely intact. Therefore, acute and chronic osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons may be mediated by distinct mechanisms. We speculate that organic osmolytes such as taurine and possibly novel processes such as extracellular acidification could contribute to long-term osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons and might therefore participate in the elevation of SNA in salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20603334

  18. New cardiovascular targets to prevent late onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of dementia rises to between 20% and 40% with advancing age. The dominant cause of dementia in approximately 70% of these patients is Alzheimer disease. There is no effective disease-modifying pharmaceutical treatment for this neurodegenerative disease. A wide range of Alzheimer drugs that appeared effective in animal models have recently failed to show clinical benefit in patients. However, hopeful news has emerged from recent studies that suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease may also reduce the prevalence of dementia due to Alzheimer disease. This review summarizes the evidence for this link between cardiovascular disease and late onset Alzheimer dementia. Only evidence from human research is considered here. Longitudinal studies show an association between high blood pressure and pathological accumulation of the protein amyloid-beta42, and an even stronger association between vascular stiffness and amyloid accumulation, in elderly subjects. Amyloid-beta42 accumulation is considered to be an early marker of Alzheimer disease, and increases the risk of subsequent cognitive decline and development of dementia. These observations could provide an explanation for recent observations of reduced dementia prevalence associated with improved cardiovascular care. PMID:25987416

  19. HypoxamiR Regulation and Function in Ischemic Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Simona; Gaetano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated and play a causal role in numerous cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, hypertension, heart failure, stroke, peripheral artery disease, kidney ischemiareperfusion. Recent Advances: One crucial component of ischemic cardiovascular diseases is represented by hypoxia. Indeed, hypoxia is a powerful stimulus regulating the expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, named hypoxia-induced miRNAs (hypoxamiR). These miRNAs are fundamental regulators of the cell responses to decreased oxygen tension. Certain hypoxamiRs seem to have a particularly pervasive role, such as miR-210 that is virtually induced in all ischemic diseases tested so far. However, its specific function may change according to the physiopathological context. Critical Issues: The discovery of HypoxamiR dates back 6 years. Thus, despite a rapid growth in knowledge and attention, a deeper insight of the molecular mechanisms underpinning hypoxamiR regulation and function is needed. Future Directions: An extended understanding of the function of hypoxamiR in gene regulatory networks associated with cardiovascular diseases will allow the identification of novel molecular mechanisms of disease and indicate the development of innovative therapeutic approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 12021219. PMID:24053126

  20. Magnesium and cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Massy, Ziad A; Dreke, Tilman B

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Abundant experimental evidence suggests a physiological role of magnesium in cardiovascular function, and clinical evidence suggests a role of the cation in cardiovascular disease in the general population. The role of magnesium in CKD-mineral and bone disorder, and in particular its impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD, is however not well understood. Experimental studies have shown that magnesium inhibits vascular calcification, both by direct effects on the vessel wall and by indirect, systemic effects. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiologic studies in patients with CKD have shown associations of serum magnesium levels with intermediate and hard outcomes, including vascular calcification, cardiovascular events and mortality. Intervention trials in these patients conducted to date have had small sample sizes and have been limited to the study of surrogate parameters, such as arterial stiffness, vascular calcification and atherosclerosis. Randomized controlled trials are clearly needed to determine the effects of magnesium supplementation on hard outcomes in patients with CKD. PMID:25963594

  1. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: is the evidence solid?

    PubMed Central

    Al Mheid, Ibhar; Patel, Riyaz S.; Tangpricha, Vin; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, prevalent in 30–50% of adults in developed countries, is largely due to inadequate cutaneous production that results from decreased exposure to sunlight, and to a lesser degree from low dietary intake of vitamin D. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) <20 ng/mL indicate vitamin D deficiency and levels >30 ng/mL are considered optimal. While the endocrine functions of vitamin D related to bone metabolism and mineral ion homoeostasis have been extensively studied, robust epidemiological evidence also suggests a close association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental studies have demonstrated novel actions of vitamin D metabolites on cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Low 25-OH D levels are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular dysfunction, and renin–angiotensin system activation. Despite a large body of experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, a causal relationship remains to be established. Moreover, the cardiovascular benefits of normalizing 25-OH D levels in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism have not been established, and questions of an epiphenomenon where vitamin D status merely reflects a classic risk burden have been raised. Randomized trials of vitamin D replacement employing cardiovascular endpoints will provide much needed evidence for determining its role in cardiovascular protection. PMID:23751422

  2. Long-term trends in cardiovascular disease mortality and association with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A J

    2016-03-01

    The recent decline in cardiovascular disease mortality in Western countries has been linked with changes in life style and treatment. This study considers periods of decline before effective medical interventions or knowledge about risk factors. Trends in annual age-standardized death rates from cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and circulatory disease, and all cardiovascular disease are reviewed for three phases, 1881-1916, 1920-1939, and 1940-2000. There was a consistent decline in the cerebrovascular disease death rate between 1891 and 2000, apart from brief increases after the two world wars. The heart disease and circulatory disease death rate was declining between 1891 and 1910 before cigarette smoking became prevalent. The early peak in cardiovascular mortality in 1891 coincided with an influenza pandemic and a peak in the death rate from bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza. There is also correspondence between short-term fluctuations in the death rates from these respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disease. This evidence of ecological association is consistent with the findings of many studies that seasonal influenza can trigger acute myocardial infarction and episodes of respiratory infection are followed by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Vaccination studies could provide more definitive evidence of the role in cardiovascular disease and mortality of influenza, other viruses, and common bacterial agents of respiratory infection. PMID:26243537

  3. Washing our hands of the congenital cytomegalovirus disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Michael J; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2005-01-01

    Background Each year in the United States, an estimated 40,000 children are born with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, causing an estimated 400 deaths and leaving approximately 8000 children with permanent disabilities such as hearing or vision loss, or mental retardation. More children are affected by serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood maladies, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. Discussion Congenital CMV is a prime target for prevention not only because of its substantial disease burden but also because the biology and epidemiology of CMV suggest that there are ways to reduce viral transmission. Because exposure to the saliva or urine of young children is a major cause of CMV infection among pregnant women, it is likely that good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing, can reduce the risk of CMV acquisition. Experts agree that such measures are likely to be efficacious (i.e., they will work if consistently followed) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that physicians counsel pregnant women about preventing CMV acquisition through careful attention to hygiene. However, because of concerns about effectiveness (i.e., Will women consistently follow hygienic practices as the result of interventions?), the medical and public health communities appear reluctant to embrace primary CMV prevention via improved hygienic practices, and educational interventions are rare. Current data on the effectiveness of such measures in preventing CMV infection are promising, but limited. There is strong evidence, however, that educational interventions can prevent other infectious diseases with similar transmission modes, suggesting that effective interventions can also be found for CMV. Until a CMV vaccine becomes available, effective educational interventions are needed to inform women about congenital CMV prevention. Summary Perhaps no single cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States currently provides greater opportunity for improved outcomes in more children than congenital CMV. Given the present state of knowledge, women deserve to be informed about how they can reduce their risk of CMV infection during pregnancy, and trials are needed to identify effective educational interventions. PMID:15967030

  4. Endocrine and metabolic changes affecting cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Tetsuo; Emoto, Masanori; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    Protein-energy wasting plays an important role in the increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in people with end-stage renal disease. Because protein-energy wasting is a condition of imbalance between anabolism and catabolism, endocrine and metabolic alterations that regulate such balance should be the possible target of intervention. Subjects with end-stage renal disease exhibit various changes in thyroid function, gonadal hormones, adrenal androgen, glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, fatty acid composition, cholesterol absorption, and vitamin D. In this article, we briefly review the association of these alterations with mortality and cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Although some of them may be the adaptive response to the catabolic condition, these observational data are useful for risk stratification of patients and also for providing new ideas for possible prevention. PMID:25556309

  5. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

  6. Insulin resistance: The linchpin between prediabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpura, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; Stavile, Rodolfo N; March, Carlos E; Reaven, Gerald M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiovascular disease occurs to the greatest extent in persons with prediabetes mellitus who are also insulin resistant. In 2003, 664 non-diabetic women (n?=?457) and men (n?=?207), aged 52??16 and 53??15?years, were surveyed during a programme for cardiovascular disease prevention. Fasting plasma glucose concentrations defined participants as having normal fasting plasma glucose (fasting plasma glucose <5.6?mmol/L) or prediabetes mellitus (fasting plasma glucose ?5.6 and <7.0?mmol/L). The tertile of prediabetes mellitus subjects with the highest fasting plasma insulin concentration was classified as insulin resistant. Baseline cardiovascular disease risk factors were accentuated in prediabetes mellitus versus normal fasting glucose, particularly in prediabetes mellitus/insulin resistant. In 2012, 86% of the sample were surveyed again, and the crude incidence for cardiovascular disease was higher in subjects with prediabetes mellitus versus normal fasting glucose (13.7 vs 6.0/100 persons/10?years; age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio?=?1.88, p?=?0.052). In prediabetes mellitus, the crude incidences were 22.9 versus 9.6/100 persons/10?years in insulin resistant versus non-insulin resistant persons (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio?=?2.36, p?=?0.040). In conclusion, cardiovascular disease risk was accentuated in prediabetes mellitus/insulin resistant individuals, with a relative risk approximately twice as high compared to prediabetes mellitus/non-insulin resistant subjects. PMID:26802220

  7. Should we treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Roberto A; MacNee, William

    2015-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by largely irreversible airflow limitation and is associated with several extrapulmonary manifestations and co-morbidities. Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent co-morbid conditions affecting patients with COPD and have important prognostic implications for hospitalization and mortality. In turn, COPD shares common risk factors with several cardiovascular diseases (i.e., smoking habit), while several features of COPD can predispose to cardiovascular disease (i.e., gas exchange abnormalities, polycythemia, systemic inflammation and sedentary lifestyle). Cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD are under-recognized and undertreated and should be actively sought and treated according to usual guidelines. This review will discuss the increased prevalence and prognostic implications of cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD. The effect of COPD on the outcomes in cardiovascular disease will also be highlighted and the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD will also be reviewed. Finally, options for the management of cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD will be discussed. PMID:26190174

  8. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Zodwa; Tshidino, Shonisani C; Hull, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets. PMID:26580598

  9. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dlamini, Zodwa; Tshidino, Shonisani C.; Hull, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets. PMID:26580598

  10. [The relationship between gut microbiota and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Viviana; Del Zompo, Fabio; D'Aversa, Francesca; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders (obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders) is increasing globally and is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both genetics and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Recent studies have shown that a state of dysbiosis may be implicated in body weight control, insulin resistance and cardio-metabolic risk factors, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Here we describe the possible role of the gut microbiota in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26901254

  11. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Suryyani; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati Dharmapal

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents, to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications. PMID:25963489

  12. The Role of Ezetimibe in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, Anandita; Kajani, Zaid; Miedema, Michael D; Virani, Salim S

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the success of treatment of CVD with statin therapy, a number of patients remain at high risk for CVD. Ezetimibe is a non-statin agent that inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption, leading to reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A number of clinical studies evaluating the use of ezetimibe therapy have resulted in discordant data regarding its safety and efficacy. In this review, we discuss the findings from these studies as well as potential indications for the use of ezetimibe for LDL-C lowering and cardiovascular event reduction. PMID:26792014

  13. Epidemic Wave Dynamics Attributable to Urban Community Structure: A Theoretical Characterization of Disease Transmission in a Large Network

    PubMed Central

    Eggo, Rosalind M; Lenczner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple waves of transmission during infectious disease epidemics represent a major public health challenge, but the ecological and behavioral drivers of epidemic resurgence are poorly understood. In theory, community structure—aggregation into highly intraconnected and loosely interconnected social groups—within human populations may lead to punctuated outbreaks as diseases progress from one community to the next. However, this explanation has been largely overlooked in favor of temporal shifts in environmental conditions and human behavior and because of the difficulties associated with estimating large-scale contact patterns. Objective The aim was to characterize naturally arising patterns of human contact that are capable of producing simulated epidemics with multiple wave structures. Methods We used an extensive dataset of proximal physical contacts between users of a public Wi-Fi Internet system to evaluate the epidemiological implications of an empirical urban contact network. We characterized the modularity (community structure) of the network and then estimated epidemic dynamics under a percolation-based model of infectious disease spread on the network. We classified simulated epidemics as multiwave using a novel metric and we identified network structures that were critical to the network’s ability to produce multiwave epidemics. Results We identified robust community structure in a large, empirical urban contact network from which multiwave epidemics may emerge naturally. This pattern was fueled by a special kind of insularity in which locally popular individuals were not the ones forging contacts with more distant social groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that ordinary contact patterns can produce multiwave epidemics at the scale of a single urban area without the temporal shifts that are usually assumed to be responsible. Understanding the role of community structure in epidemic dynamics allows officials to anticipate epidemic resurgence without having to forecast future changes in hosts, pathogens, or the environment. PMID:26156032

  14. Impact of kinins in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Domenico; Plante, Gerard E; Gobeil, Fernand

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, ACE Inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (also known as AT1 receptor antagonists (AT1-RAs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or Sartans), have become the drugs of choice for the treatment of hypertension, heart and renal failure, coronary artery diseases, myocardial infarction and diabetes. By suppressing angiotensin and potentiating bradykinin effects, ACEIs and ARBs activate hemodynamic, metabolic and cellular mechanisms that not only reduce high blood pressure, but also protect the endothelium, the heart, the kidney and the brain, namely the target organs which are at risk in cardiovascular diseases. Major therapeutic benefits of these drugs are the reduction of cardiovascular events and the amelioration of the quality of life and of the patient survival. Results from large clinical trials have established that ACEIs and ARBs are efficient and safe drugs, suitable for the chronic treatments of cardiovascular diseases. Side effects are rare and easily manageable in most cases. The following is a brief review of the basic actions and mechanisms by which two opposing systems, the renin-angiotensin (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin (KKS), interact in the regulation of cardiovascular and fluid homeostasis to keep the balance in healthy life and correct the imbalance in pathological conditions. Here we discuss how and why imbalances created by overactive RAS are best corrected by treatments with ACEI or AT1-RAs. PMID:22537664

  15. Impact of Diabetes on Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos; Tannus, Lucianne Righeti Monteiro; Cobas, Roberta Arnoldi; Palma, Catia C. Sousa; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Gomes, Marilia de Brito

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23533715

  16. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-02-29

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices utilizes an open-loop configuration involving a team consisting of neurosurgeon, neurologist and neurophysiologist all present and participating in the decision process of delivery. We propose the development of an integrated system which provides for distributed decision making and tele-manipulation of the instrument delivery system.

  17. A spatial epidemic model for disease spread over a heterogeneous spatial support.

    PubMed

    Porter, Aaron T; Oleson, Jacob J

    2016-02-28

    Data from the Iowa mumps epidemic of 2006 were collected on a spatial lattice over a regular temporal interval. Without access to a person-to-person contact graph, it is sensible to analyze these data as homogenous within each areal unit and to use the spatial graph to derive a contact structure. The spatio-temporal partition is fine, and the counts of new infections at each location at each time are sparse. Therefore, we propose a spatial compartmental epidemic model with general latent time distributions (spatial PS SEIR) that is capable of smoothing the contact structure, while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the mixing process between locations. Because the model is an extension of the PS SEIR model, it simultaneously handles non-exponentially distributed latent and infectious time distributions. The analysis within focuses on the progression of the disease over both space and time while assessing the impact of a large proportion of the infected people dispersing at the same time because of spring break and the impact of public awareness on the spread of the mumps epidemic. We found that the effect of spring break increased the mixing rate in the population and that the spatial transmission of the disease spreads across multiple conduits. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26365804

  18. Disease Prevention versus Data Privacy: Using Landcover Maps to Inform Spatial Epidemic Models

    PubMed Central

    Tildesley, Michael J.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of epidemiological data in the early stages of an outbreak of an infectious disease is vital for modelers to make accurate predictions regarding the likely spread of disease and preferred intervention strategies. However, in some countries, the necessary demographic data are only available at an aggregate scale. We investigated the ability of models of livestock infectious diseases to predict epidemic spread and obtain optimal control policies in the event of imperfect, aggregated data. Taking a geographic information approach, we used land cover data to predict UK farm locations and investigated the influence of using these synthetic location data sets upon epidemiological predictions in the event of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. When broadly classified land cover data were used to create synthetic farm locations, model predictions deviated significantly from those simulated on true data. However, when more resolved subclass land use data were used, moderate to highly accurate predictions of epidemic size, duration and optimal vaccination and ring culling strategies were obtained. This suggests that a geographic information approach may be useful where individual farm-level data are not available, to allow predictive analyses to be carried out regarding the likely spread of disease. This method can also be used for contingency planning in collaboration with policy makers to determine preferred control strategies in the event of a future outbreak of infectious disease in livestock. PMID:23133352

  19. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  20. Developmental basis of adult cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Roger R.; Norris, Russell A.; Moreno-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Levine, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the working hypothesis that the roots of adult valvular heart disease (VHD) lie in embryonic development. Valvulogenesis is a complex process in which growth factors signal the process of endocardium-to-mesenchyme transformation (EMT) resulting in formation of prevalvular “cushions.” The post-EMT processes, whereby cushions are morphogenetically remolded into valve leaflets, are less well understood, but they require periostin. Mice with targeted deletion of periostin develop degenerative changes similar to human forms of VHD. Mitral valves are also abnormally elongated in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which plays an important role in clinical disease expression. However, the mechanism for this is unclear, but correlates with enhanced expression of periostin in a specific population of ventricular cells derived from the embryonic proepicardial organ, which accumulate at sites where valvular endocardial EMT is reactivated. Collectively, these findings suggest that developmental mechanisms underlie adult valve responses to genetic mutations in degenerative VHD and HCM. PMID:20201901

  1. Social class and cardiovascular disease: the contribution of work.

    PubMed

    Marmot, M; Theorell, T

    1988-01-01

    Low social class has been identified as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in highly industrialized countries. The authors discuss the social class concept in relation to psychosocial working conditions. Most of those psychosocial work characteristics that are of relevance to cardiovascular risk, namely, skill discretion, authority over decisions, and social support at work, are unevenly distributed across social classes--the lower the social class, the fewer the resources for coping with psychosocial stressors. Furthermore, biomedical risk factors for cardiovascular illness are also unevenly distributed across social class and associated with psychosocial work characteristics. The main conclusion is that part of the association between social class and cardiovascular illness risk may be due to differences in psychosocial work conditions. The psychosocial work conditions may affect the risk through either neuroendocrine mechanisms or lifestyle. Excessive tobacco smoking, for instance, may be enforced by poor working conditions. PMID:3235250

  2. Stem cell therapies in cardiovascular disease A realistic appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Partovian, Chohreh; Simons, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of reconstituting the damaged heart has introduced a new paradigm in cardiovascular biology and created the potential for a new therapeutic approach in the cardiovascular field, where there is a compelling need for innovative treatments. While the results of animal and early clinical studies are encouraging, the more direct use of cell-based therapies in patients is still long-reached. Gaps in our basic understanding of mechanisms, lack of important randomized, double blind, and controlled clinical trials, as well as technology development for cell production are among challenges to be overcome before full translation of cell based therapies in clinical arena. This review focuses on summarizing the latest knowledge in stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19343101

  3. Resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: what is known from current research?

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Yang, Yue-Jin; Qian, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Hui; Li, Jian-Jun

    2012-05-01

    Resveratrol is a well-known antioxidant that exists in grape skin/seed, red wine, and the root of Polygonum cuspidatum, a traditional Chinese and Japanese medicinal material. Studies have found that resveratrol has many interesting properties, including anti-carcinogenic properties, anti-microbial and antiviral effects, the ability to reverse dyslipidemia and obesity, the ability to attenuate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, and the ability to protect endothelial function. Heart failure is the final consequence of the majority of cardiovascular diseases, and resveratrol has been shown to directly attenuate heart contraction. The cardiovascular protective capacities of resveratrol are associated with multiple molecular targets and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, metabolic syndrome, and heart failure. This article will mainly review recently published basic researches about the protective cardiovascular effects of resveratrol because these results may lead to the development of new clinical therapeutics in patients. PMID:21688187

  4. Are there genetic paths common to obesity, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and cardiovascular risk factors?

    PubMed

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-02-27

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥ 1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  5. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ?1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  6. New Perspectives of Infections in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ignatius W

    2009-01-01

    Infections have been recognized as significant causes of cardiac diseases for many decades. Various microorganisms have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases involving all classes of microbial agents. All components of the heart structure can be affected by infectious agents, i.e. pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, valves, autonomic nervous system, and some evidence of coronary arteries. A new breed of infections have evolved over the past three decades involving cardiac implants and this group of cardiac infectious complications will likely continue to increase in the future, as more mechanical devices are implanted in the growing ageing population. This article will review the progress made in the past decade on understanding the pathobiology of these infectious complications of the heart, through advances in genomics and proteomics, as well as potential novel approach for therapy. An up-to-date, state-of-the-art review and controversies will be outlined for the following conditions: (i) perimyocarditis; (ii) infective endocarditis; (iii) cardiac device infections; (iv) coronary artery disease and potential role of infections. PMID:20436849

  7. Epidemic predictions in an imperfect world: modelling disease spread with partial data

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Peter M.; Werkman, Marleen; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Tildesley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Big-data’ epidemic models are being increasingly used to influence government policy to help with control and eradication of infectious diseases. In the case of livestock, detailed movement records have been used to parametrize realistic transmission models. While livestock movement data are readily available in the UK and other countries in the EU, in many countries around the world, such detailed data are not available. By using a comprehensive database of the UK cattle trade network, we implement various sampling strategies to determine the quantity of network data required to give accurate epidemiological predictions. It is found that by targeting nodes with the highest number of movements, accurate predictions on the size and spatial spread of epidemics can be made. This work has implications for countries such as the USA, where access to data is limited, and developing countries that may lack the resources to collect a full dataset on livestock movements. PMID:25948687

  8. The 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in the United Kingdom: animal welfare perspectives.

    PubMed

    Crispin, S M; Roger, P A; O'Hare, H; Binns, S H

    2002-12-01

    The management of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic which occurred in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001 resulted in widespread animal welfare problems. These problems arose firstly because of the large numbers of animals slaughtered to bring the epidemic under control, which meant that the conditions under which animals were slaughtered and the manner in which this was carried out often breached regulations concerning welfare at slaughter. Secondly, the restrictions imposed on movements, especially animal movements, resulted in what appeared to be readily avoidable difficulties with livestock dying from, for example, food shortages and pregnant animals giving birth under unsuitable conditions. This brief review is based on the personal experiences of the authors as well as relevant observations and reports from a variety of sources. PMID:12523722

  9. Epidemic predictions in an imperfect world: modelling disease spread with partial data.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Peter M; Werkman, Marleen; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Tildesley, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    'Big-data' epidemic models are being increasingly used to influence government policy to help with control and eradication of infectious diseases. In the case of livestock, detailed movement records have been used to parametrize realistic transmission models. While livestock movement data are readily available in the UK and other countries in the EU, in many countries around the world, such detailed data are not available. By using a comprehensive database of the UK cattle trade network, we implement various sampling strategies to determine the quantity of network data required to give accurate epidemiological predictions. It is found that by targeting nodes with the highest number of movements, accurate predictions on the size and spatial spread of epidemics can be made. This work has implications for countries such as the USA, where access to data is limited, and developing countries that may lack the resources to collect a full dataset on livestock movements. PMID:25948687

  10. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  11. An object simulation model for modeling hypothetical disease epidemics EpiFlex

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Background EpiFlex is a flexible, easy to use computer model for a single computer, intended to be operated by one user who need not be an expert. Its purpose is to study in-silico the epidemic behavior of a wide variety of diseases, both known and theoretical, by simulating their spread at the level of individuals contracting and infecting others. To understand the system fully, this paper must be read together in conjunction with study of the software and its results. EpiFlex is evaluated using results from modeling influenza A epidemics and comparing them with a variety of field data sources and other types of modeling. EpiFlex is an object-oriented Monte Carlo system, allocating entities to correspond to individuals, disease vectors, diseases, and the locations that hosts may inhabit. EpiFlex defines eight different contact types available for a disease. Contacts occur inside locations within the model. Populations are composed of demographic groups, each of which has a cycle of movement between locations. Within locations, superspreading is defined by skewing of contact distributions. Results EpiFlex indicates three phenomena of interest for public health: (1) R0 is variable, and the smaller the population, the larger the infected fraction within that population will be; (2) significant compression/synchronization between cities by a factor of roughly 2 occurs between the early incubation phase of a multi-city epidemic and the major manifestation phase; (3) if better true morbidity data were available, more asymptomatic hosts would be seen to spread disease than we currently believe is the case for influenza. These results suggest that field research to study such phenomena, while expensive, should be worthwhile. Conclusion Since EpiFlex shows all stages of disease progression, detailed insight into the progress of epidemics is possible. EpiFlex shows the characteristic multimodality and apparently random variation characteristic of real world data, but does so as an emergent property of a carefully constructed model of disease dynamics and is not simply a stochastic system. EpiFlex can provide a better understanding of infectious diseases and strategies for response. PMID:16928271

  12. Influence of maternal dysmetabolic conditions during pregnancy on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Palinski, Wulf; Nicolaides, Eric; Liguori, Antonio; Napoli, Claudio

    2009-09-01

    Pathogenic factors associated with maternal hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and diabetic conditions during pregnancy influence fetal development and predispose offspring to cardiovascular disease. Animal models have established cause-effect relationships consistent with epidemiological findings in humans and have demonstrated, in principle, that interventions before or during pregnancy can reduce or prevent pathogenic in utero programming. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which maternal dysmetabolic conditions enhance disease susceptibility in offspring. Identification of these mechanisms is rendered more difficult by the fact that programming effects in offspring may be latent and may require conventional risk factors and inherited genetic co-factors to become clinically manifest. Given the increasing prevalence of maternal risk factors, which is expected to lead to a wave of cardiovascular disease in the coming decades, and the length of prospective studies on developmental programming in humans, greater-than-usual emphasis on experimental models and translational studies is necessary. PMID:19655024

  13. [Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease and early intervention windows].

    PubMed

    Mi, J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major threat to human health and underlie almost half of all deaths in China. Even more serious, obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have emerged to be prevalent in children and adolescents of some affluent regions. As scientific knowledge emerges on the role of nutritional factors and exposures to environmental risk factors in the developmental origins of health and disease, evidence suggests that it is imperative to create and implement early effective prevention strategies, including optimisation of nutrition at first 1 000 days in life course and reduction of risk factors of obesity exposures during whole childhood, to suppress the rising trend of cardiovascular disease, otherwise, the future costs of diagnosis and treatment are likely to be unaffordable. PMID:26792495

  14. MOUSE MODELS OF ARRHYTHMOGENIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    Nerbonne, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic cardiovascular disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and, in spite of therapeutic advances, remains an enormous public health burden. The scope of this problem motivates efforts to delineate the molecular, cellular and systemic mechanisms underlying increased arrhythmia risk in inherited and acquired cardiac and systemic disease. The mouse is used increasingly in these efforts owing to the ease with which genetic strategies can be exploited and mechanisms can be probed. The question then arises whether the mouse has proven to be a useful model system to delineate arrhythmogenic cardiovascular disease mechanisms. Rather than trying to provide a definite answer, the goal here is to consider the issues that arise when using mouse models and to highlight the opportunities. PMID:24632325

  15. C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. METHODS We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. RESULTS The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P<0.001), and yielded a net reclassification improvement of 1.52% and 0.83%, respectively, for the predicted 10-year risk categories of “low” (<10%), “intermediate” (10% to <20%), and “high” (≥20%) (P<0.02 for both comparisons). We estimated that among 100,000 adults 40 years of age or older, 15,025 persons would initially be classified as being at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event if conventional risk factors alone were used to calculate risk. Assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of ≥20% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), additional targeted assessment of CRP or fibrinogen levels in the 13,199 remaining participants at intermediate risk could help prevent approximately 30 additional cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. CONCLUSIONS In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.) PMID:23034020

  16. A Review of Calcium Supplements and Cardiovascular Disease Risk12

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Robert P.; Kopecky, Stephen; Maki, Kevin C.; Hathcock, John; MacKay, Douglas; Wallace, Taylor C.

    2012-01-01

    A group of academic and industry experts in the fields of nutrition, cardiology, epidemiology, food science, bone health, and integrative medicine examined the data on the relationship between calcium supplement use and risk of cardiovascular events, with an emphasis on 4 of the Bradford Hill criteria for causal inference: strength, consistency, dose-response, and biological plausibility. Results from 2 epidemiological studies and a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials, including a subgroup analysis from the Womens Health Initiative, have prompted concern about a potential association between calcium supplement use and a small increase in the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. However, a number of issues with the studies, such as inadequate compliance with the intervention, use of nontrial calcium supplements, potential bias in event ascertainment, and lack of information on and adjustment for known cardiovascular risk determinants, suggest that bias and confounding cannot be excluded as explanations for the reported associations. Findings from other cohort studies also suggest no detrimental effect of calcium from diet or supplements, with or without vitamin D, on cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, little evidence exists for plausible biological mechanisms to link calcium supplement use with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The authors do not believe that the evidence presented to date regarding the hypothesized relationship between calcium supplement use and increased cardiovascular disease risk is sufficient to warrant a change in the Institute of Medicine recommendations, which advocate use of supplements to promote optimal bone health in individuals who do not obtain recommended intakes of calcium through dietary sources. PMID:23153730

  17. Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiongying; Yang, Mina; Xu, Han; Yu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25548592

  18. HDAC and HDAC Inhibitor: From Cancer to Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Somy

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic regulators that regulate the histone tail, chromatin conformation, protein-DNA interaction, and even transcription. HDACs are also post-transcriptional modifiers that regulate the protein acetylation implicated in several pathophysiologic states. HDAC inhibitors have been highlighted as a novel category of anti-cancer drugs. To date, four HDAC inhibitors, Vorinostat, Romidepsin, Panobinostat, and Belinostat, have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Principally, these HDAC inhibitors are used for hematologic cancers in clinic with less severe side effects. Clinical trials are continuously expanding to address other types of cancer and also nonmalignant diseases. HDAC inhibition also results in beneficial outcomes in various types of neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will briefly discuss 1) the roles of HDACs in the acquisition of a cancer's phenotype and the general outcome of the HDAC inhibitors in cancer, 2) the functional relevance of HDACs in cardiovascular diseases and the possible therapeutic implications of HDAC inhibitors in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26865995

  19. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Voelker, Donald J; Sharma, Roma; Reddy, Hanumanth K

    2012-01-01

    Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24198536

  20. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Voelker, Donald J; Sharma, Roma; Reddy, Hanumanth K

    2012-01-01

    Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24198536

  1. Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gasto; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases, coronary artery disease", myocardial infarct" and prevalence was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity. PMID:24270960

  2. Extracellular vesicles as therapeutic tools in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Audrey; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Le Lay, Soazig

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes, are small vesicles secreted from a wide variety of cells. Whereas MVs are particles released by the outward budding of the plasma membrane, exosomes are derived from endocytic compartments. Secretion of EVs can be enhanced by specific stimuli, and increased plasma circulating levels of EVs have been correlated with pathophysiological situations. MVs, already present in the blood of healthy individuals, are considerably elevated in several cardiovascular diseases associated with inflammation, suggesting that they can mediate deleterious effects such as endothelial dysfunction or thrombosis. Nonetheless, very recent studies also demonstrate that MVs may act as biological information vectors transferring proteins or genetic material to maintain cell homeostasis, favor cell repair, or even promote angiogenesis. Additionally, exosomes have also been shown to have pro-angiogenic and cardio-protective properties. These beneficial effects, therefore, reveal the potential therapeutical use of EVs in the field of cardiovascular medicine and regenerative therapy. In this review, we will provide an update of cellular processes modulated by EVs of specific interest in the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. A special focus will be made on the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) associated with EVs (EVs(Shh+)), which have been shown to mediate many pro-angiogenic effects. In addition to offer a potential source of cardiovascular markers, therapeutical potential of EVs reveal exciting opportunities to deliver specific agents by non-immunogenic means to cardiovascular system. PMID:25136343

  3. Exercise Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Amy A.; Davis, Margot K.

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to increasingly effective treatment, breast cancer mortality rates have significantly declined over the past few decades. Following the increase in life expectancy of women diagnosed with breast cancer, it has been recognized that these women are at an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease due in part to the cardiotoxic side effects of treatment. This paper reviews evidence for the role of exercise in prevention of cardiovascular toxicity associated with chemotherapy used in breast cancer, and in modifying cardiovascular risk factors in breast cancer survivors. There is growing evidence indicating that the primary mechanism for this protective effect appears to be improved antioxidant capacity in the heart and vasculature and subsequent reduction of treatment-related oxidative stress in these structures. Further clinical research is needed to determine whether exercise is a feasible and effective nonpharmacological treatment to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in breast cancer survivors, to identify the cancer therapies for which it is effective, and to determine the optimal exercise dose. Safe and noninvasive measures that are sensitive to changes in cardiovascular function are required to answer these questions in patient populations. Cardiac strain, endothelial function, and cardiac biomarkers are suggested outcome measures for clinical research in this field. PMID:26339243

  4. [Cardiovascular risk in polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Adelaide; Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is common and occurs in the majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients prior to loss of kidney function. Hypertension relates to progressive kidney enlargement, and is a significant independent risk factor for progression to end-stage renal disease. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and depends on many factors that influence each other. High expression of PKD1 and PKD2 genes is present in the cilia of tubular epithelial cells, in endothelial cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Decreased or absent polycystin-1 or -2 expression is associated with abnormal vascular structure and function. PKD1/PKD2 deficiency results in reduced nitric oxide levels, altered endothelial response to shear stress with attenuation in vascular relaxation. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs in ADPKD due to decreased nitric oxide production as well as bilateral cyst expansion and intra-renal ischemia. With increasing cyst size, further activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs, blood pressure increases and a vicious cycle ensues with enhanced cyst growth and hypertension ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. Inhibition of the angiotensin-aldosterone system is possible with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and seems to be the first-line treatment for hypertension in these subjects. As suggested by the HALT-PKD study, an aggressive blood pressure control is safe and recommended and is associated with preservation of kidney function and a reduction in total kidney volume over time. A collaborative multidisciplinary approach between nephrologists and cardiologists is necessary for the monitoring of kidney and heart complications. PMID:26418387

  5. Scaling properties of childhood infectious diseases epidemics before and after mass vaccination in Canada.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Helen; Philippe, Pierre

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse the scaling properties of childhood infectious disease time-series data. We present a scaling analysis of the distribution of epidemic sizes of measles, rubella, pertussis, and mumps outbreaks in Canada. This application provides a new approach in assessing infectious disease dynamics in a large vaccinated population. An inverse power-law (IPL) distribution function has been fit to the time series of epidemic sizes, and the results assessed against an exponential benchmark model. We have found that the rubella epidemic size distribution and that of measles in highly vaccinated periods follow an IPL. The IPL suggests the presence of a scale-invariant network for these diseases as a result of the heterogeneity of the individual contact rates. By contrast, it was found that pertussis and mumps were characterized by a uniform network of transmission of the exponential type, which suggests homogeneity in the contact rate or, more likely, boiled down heterogeneity by large intermixing in the population. We conclude that the topology of the network of infectious contacts depends on the disease type and its infection rate. It also appears that the socio-demographic structure of the population may play a part (e.g. pattern of contacts according to age) in the structuring of the topology of the network. The findings suggest that there is relevant information hidden in the variation of the common contagious disease time-series data, and that this information can have a bearing on the strategy of vaccination programs. PMID:15882695

  6. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammation: mechanisms underlying premature cardiovascular events in rheumatologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Justin C.; Libby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A variety of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases associate with an increased risk of atherosclerotic events and premature cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although this recognition has stimulated intense basic science and clinical research, the precise nature of the relationship between local and systemic inflammation, their interactions with traditional CV risk factors, and their role in accelerating atherogenesis remains unresolved. The individual rheumatic diseases have both shared and unique attributes that might impact CV events. Understanding of the positive and negative influences of individual anti-inflammatory therapies remains rudimentary. Clinicians need to adopt an evidence-based approach to develop diagnostic techniques to identify those rheumatologic patients most at risk of CV disease and to develop effective treatment protocols. Development of optimal preventative and disease-modifying approaches for atherosclerosis in these patients will require close collaboration between basic scientists, CV specialists, and rheumatologists. This interface presents a complex, important, and exciting challenge. PMID:25433021

  7. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammation: mechanisms underlying premature cardiovascular events in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Justin C; Libby, Peter

    2015-02-21

    A variety of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases associate with an increased risk of atherosclerotic events and premature cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although this recognition has stimulated intense basic science and clinical research, the precise nature of the relationship between local and systemic inflammation, their interactions with traditional CV risk factors, and their role in accelerating atherogenesis remains unresolved. The individual rheumatic diseases have both shared and unique attributes that might impact CV events. Understanding of the positive and negative influences of individual anti-inflammatory therapies remains rudimentary. Clinicians need to adopt an evidence-based approach to develop diagnostic techniques to identify those rheumatologic patients most at risk of CV disease and to develop effective treatment protocols. Development of optimal preventative and disease-modifying approaches for atherosclerosis in these patients will require close collaboration between basic scientists, CV specialists, and rheumatologists. This interface presents a complex, important, and exciting challenge. PMID:25433021

  8. Angiotensin converting enzyme genotype in cardiovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K.M.; Huggard, P.R.; West, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) catalyses formation of angiotensin II and degradation of bradykinin, vasoactive peptides with opposing properties. The result of ACE action is to promote vasoconstriction and cell growth. PCR is used to detect a common polymorphism due to the insertion of an Alu repeat element of 287 bp into intron 16. ACE genotype has been implicated in risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and hypertension in humans. We have studied a group of 640 patients (61% male aged 64 {plus_minus} 11 years) with myocardial ischaemic syndromes, followed for 12 months after initial hospital admission. In this group, the frequency of the insertion (I) allele was 0.47 (N=1170 chromosomes), not significantly higher than the frequency of 0.46 in 112 local blood donors (50% male aged 59 {plus_minus}5 years). In the 300 patients with diagnosed MI, I allele frequency was 0.48. This is significantly higher ({chi}{sup 2}=5.78, P=0.015) than the frequency of 0.42 reported in a multi-centre study of ACE genotype in 600 male European patients with MI . There was a non-significant increase in the frequency of a cardiac event within 6 months of hospital admission in those of II genotype (N=464, 47 events to date). These results suggest that in our population, the I allele and/or II genotype may be associated with risk of MI. This contrasts with the study cited above, where the D (deletion) allele and DD genotype frequency were raised in patients compared with controls. Hypertension is associated with the ACE D allele, and does not explain the heart disease risk, which may be associated with the I allele, in this group of survivors of myocardial ischaemic disease. The difference between our results and the previous study may be due to ascertainment or ethnic differences or to problems amplifying the I allele in some heterozygotes. Clearly, the role of ACE genotype in these diseases is complex.

  9. Integrative Treatments to Reduce Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Ryan; Oberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the contribution and interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors is critical to prioritizing treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Lipoprotein factors still dominate risk for developing cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. Some emerging risk factors such as C-reactive protein are gaining acceptance due to recent prospective clinical trials demonstrating clinical benefit in reducing these markers. Other emerging risk factors, including lipoprotein particle size, remain to be validated. In this second article of a 2-part series, we will begin with a review of formal risk assessment, discussing the contribution of multiple “risky” and “healthy” components that play a part in overall cardiovascular health. Following risk assessment, we will discuss evidence-based integrative therapies that can be used to modify any risky lipoprotein and inflammatory patient profiles, including medications, functional foods, supplements, and lifestyle approaches. The focus is on low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. Understanding the interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors, and finding efficient methods of treating multiple risk factors simultaneously, will not only improve the long-term health of patients but will also save on the expenditure of healthcare dollars for unnecessary testing and ineffective treatments. Integrative practitioners who understand the contribution of lifestyle factors, and who have numerous effective treatment options at their disposal, are well positioned to counsel patients on cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21461347

  10. The Advancing Clinical Impact of Molecular Imaging in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (PET, SPECT, MRI), as well in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g. the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in Phase II clinical trials. Here we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

  11. Targeting BMP signalling in cardiovascular disease and anaemia.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Nicholas W; Bloch, Donald B; Ten Dijke, Peter; Goumans, Marie-Jose T H; Hata, Akiko; Smith, Jim; Yu, Paul B; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2016-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors, known to be essential regulators of embryonic patterning and organogenesis, are also critical for the regulation of cardiovascular structure and function. In addition to their contributions to syndromic disorders including heart and vascular development, BMP signalling is increasingly recognized for its influence on endocrine-like functions in postnatal cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis. In this Review, we discuss several critical and novel aspects of BMP signalling in cardiovascular health and disease, which highlight the cell-specific and context-specific nature of BMP signalling. Based on advancing knowledge of the physiological roles and regulation of BMP signalling, we indicate opportunities for therapeutic intervention in a range of cardiovascular conditions including atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as for anaemia of inflammation. Depending on the context and the repertoire of ligands and receptors involved in specific disease processes, the selective inhibition or enhancement of signalling via particular BMP ligands (such as in atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension, respectively) might be beneficial. The development of selective small molecule antagonists of BMP receptors, and the identification of ligands selective for BMP receptor complexes expressed in the vasculature provide the most immediate opportunities for new therapies. PMID:26461965

  12. Systemic Adiponectin Malfunction as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wayne Bond; Tao, Ling; Wang, Yajing; Li, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin (Ad) is an abundant protein hormone regulatory of numerous metabolic processes. The 30?kDa protein originates from adipose tissue, with full-length and globular domain circulatory forms. A collagenous domain within Ad leads to spontaneous self-assemblage into various oligomeric isoforms, including trimers, hexamers, and high-molecular-weight multimers. Two membrane-spanning receptors for Ad have been identified, with differing concentration distribution in various body tissues. The major intracellular pathway activated by Ad includes phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which is responsible for many of Ad's metabolic regulatory, anti-inflammatory, vascular protective, and anti-ischemic properties. Additionally, several AMP-activated protein kinase-independent mechanisms responsible for Ad's anti-inflammatory and anti-ischemic (resulting in cardioprotective) effects have also been discovered. Since its 1995 discovery, Ad has garnered considerable attention for its role in diabetic and cardiovascular pathology. Clinical observations have demonstrated the association of hypoadiponectinemia in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. In this review, we elaborate currently known information about Ad malfunction and deficiency pertaining to cardiovascular disease risk (including atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiac injury), as well as review evidence supporting Ad resistance as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular injury, providing insight about the future of Ad research and the protein's potential therapeutic benefits. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 18631873. PMID:21091079

  13. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: An Appraisal of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Schnatz, Peter F.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Supplementation with vitamin D (VitD) has received attention as a potential cardioprotective strategy. Biologically plausible mechanisms have been proposed to link VitD to coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention and observational studies suggest an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations and CHD. Few randomized clinical trials of VitD supplementation and CHD have been conducted, however, and no completed trial has been done with CHD as the primary pre-specified outcome. Content A search was conducted in PubMed to find prospective studies on the use of vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) and/or cardiovascular disease. The exact search query was ((vitamin D supplement*[Title/Abstract]) AND cardiovascular [Title/Abstract]) AND prospective [Title/Abstract]. This query yielded 42 results. Randomized Controlled Trial (article type) was employed as a filter in a subsequent query with the same search terms. We review the evidence that VitD supplementation modifies coronary RFs, such as blood pressure, lipids, and glucose tolerance, and/or affects the development of clinical CHD events. We address potential sources of confounding in observational epidemiologic studies of the relationship between serum 25OHD and CHD. We also address laboratory assay issues relevant to the reliable measurement of 25OHD. Summary Most VitD supplementation trials have not demonstrated improvement in cardiovascular disease, but have tested relatively low doses of VitD. Thus, the evidence remains inconclusive, highlighting the need for rigorous randomized trials of higher VitD doses, with cardiovascular events as prespecified outcomes. While awaiting ongoing trial results, the recommended dietary allowances from the Institute of Medicine remain the best guidepost for nutritional requirements. PMID:24193116

  14. MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery diseases (CAD) and heart failure have high mortality rate in the world, although much progress has been made in this field in last two decades. There is still a clinical need for a novel diagnostic approach and a therapeutic strategy to decrease the incidence of CAD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved noncoding small RNA molecules that regulate a large fraction of the genome by binding to complementary messenger RNA sequences, resulting in posttranscriptional gene silencing. Recent studies have shown that specific miRNAs are involved in whole stage of atherosclerosis, from endothelium dysfunction to plaque rupture. These findings suggest that miRNAs are potential biomarkers in early diagnosis and therapeutic targets in CAD. In the present review, we highlight the role of miRNAs in every stage of atherosclerosis, and discuss the prospects of miRNAs in the near future. PMID:25710020

  15. Oxidative Risk for Atherothrombotic Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In the vasculature, reactive oxidant species including reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or halogenating species, and thiyl, tyrosyl, or protein radicals, may oxidatively modify lipids and proteins with deleterious consequences for vascular function. These biologically active free radical and non-radical species may be produced by increased activation of oxidant-generating sources and/or decreased cellular antioxidant capacity. Once formed, these species may engage in reactions to yield more potent oxidants that promote transition of the homeostatic vascular phenotype to a pathobiological state that is permissive for atherothrombogenesis. This dysfunctional vasculature is characterized by lipid peroxidation and aberrant lipid deposition, inflammation, immune cell activation, platelet activation, thrombus formation, and disturbed hemodynamic flow. Each of these pathobiological states is associated with an increase in the vascular burden of free radical species-derived oxidation products and, thereby, implicates increased oxidant stress in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:19751821

  16. [Cardiovascular disease: a view from global health perspective].

    PubMed

    Salinas Botrn, Alejandro; Ramos Rincn, Jos Manuel; de Grgolas Hernndez-Mora, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Globalization has facilitated the movement of large number of people around the world, leading modern clinicians to attend patients with rare or forgotten diseases. In the last few years many doctors are working in developing countries as volunteers or expatriates. The aim of this article is to summarize the basic epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic knowledge of the main cardiovascular diseases that a medical doctor from a developed country may attend in a tropical rural hospital, or with challenging diseases in patients coming from developing countries. PMID:23522729

  17. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  18. Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Asian Americans (2003–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Powell O.; Frank, Ariel TH; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Eggleston, Karen; Hastings, Katherine G.; Cullen, Mark R.; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-01-01

    Background Asian Americans are a rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Our current understanding of Asian-American cardiovascular disease mortality patterns is distorted by the aggregation of distinct subgroups. Objectives To examine heart disease and stroke mortality rates in Asian-American subgroups to determine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality within the United States. Methods We examined heart disease and stroke mortality rates for the 6 largest Asian-American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) from 2003–2010. U.S. death records were used to identify race/ethnicity and cause of death by ICD-10 coding. Using both U.S. Census and death record data, standardized mortality ratios (SMR), relative SMRs (rSMR), and proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were calculated for each sex and ethnic group relative to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Results 10,442,034 death records were examined. While NHW men and women had the highest overall mortality rates, Asian Indian men and women and Filipino men had greater proportionate mortality burden from ischemic heart disease. The proportionate mortality burden of hypertensive heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, especially hemorrhagic stroke, was higher in every Asian-American subgroup compared to NHWs. Conclusions The heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease mortality patterns among diverse Asian-American subgroups calls attention to the need for more research to help direct more specific treatment and prevention efforts, in particular with hypertension and stroke, to reduce health disparities for this growing population. PMID:25500233

  19. Dysfunctional HDL and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S; Brewer, H Bryan; Ansell, Benjamin J; Barter, Philip; Chapman, M John; Heinecke, Jay W; Kontush, Anatol; Tall, Alan R; Webb, Nancy R

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect against atherosclerosis by removing excess cholesterol from macrophages through the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) pathways involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Factors that impair the availability of functional apolipoproteins or the activities of ABCA1 and ABCG1 could, therefore, strongly influence atherogenesis. HDL also inhibits lipid oxidation, restores endothelial function, exerts anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions, and exerts anti-inflammatory actions in animal models. Such properties could contribute considerably to the capacity of HDL to inhibit atherosclerosis. Systemic and vascular inflammation has been proposed to convert HDL to a dysfunctional form that has impaired antiatherogenic effects. A loss of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative proteins, perhaps in combination with a gain of proinflammatory proteins, might be another important component in rendering HDL dysfunctional. The proinflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase induces both oxidative modification and nitrosylation of specific residues on plasma and arterial apolipoprotein A-I to render HDL dysfunctional, which results in impaired ABCA1 macrophage transport, the activation of inflammatory pathways, and an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Understanding the features of dysfunctional HDL or apolipoprotein A-I in clinical practice might lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to atherosclerosis. PMID:26323267

  20. The relationship among restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Walters, Arthur S; Sica, Domenic

    2014-06-01

    Untreated sleep disorders may contribute to secondary causes of uncontrolled hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and stroke. Restless legs syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED), is a common sensorimotor disorder with a circadian rhythmicity defined by an uncontrollable urge to move the legs that worsens during periods of inactivity or at rest in the evening, often resulting in sleep disruptions. Sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are established risk factors for increased risk of hypertension and vascular diseases. This literature review outlines the lessons learned from studies demonstrating insomnia and OSA as risk factors for hypertension and vascular diseases to support the epidemiologic and physiologic evidence suggesting a similar increase in hypertension and vascular disease risk due to RLS. Understanding the relationships between RLS and hypertension, CVD, and stroke has important implications for reducing the risks associated with these diseases. PMID:23963470

  1. Cardiovascular Disease Could be Contained based on Currently Available Data!

    PubMed Central

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the incidence of chronic age-related diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and late-onset diabetes have increased and have become serious public health problem, as well. The etiology of these disorders is still incompletely understood, therefore, neither preventive strategies nor long-term effective treatment modalities are available for these disorders. In keeping with the aforementioned, the ultimate goal in cardiovascular research is to prevent the onset of cardiovascular episodes and thereby allow successful ageing without morbidity and cognitive decline. Herein, I argue that cardiovascular episodes could be contained with relatively simple approaches. Cardiovascular disorder is characterized by cellular and molecular changes that are commonplace in age-related diseases in other organ system, such alterations include increased level of oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and horror autotoxicus largely brought about by the perturbation of ubiquitin -proteasome system, and excessive oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle cells and tissues, and cross-reactions of specific antibodies against human heat shock protein 60 with that of mycobacterial heat shock protein 65. Horror autotoxicus, a Latin expression, is a term coined by Paul Ehrlich at the turn of the last century to describe autoimmunity to self, or the attack of self by immune system, which ultimately results to autoimmune condition. Based on the currently available data, the risk of cardiovascular episodes and several other age-related disorders, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, is known to be influenced by the nature and level of food intake. Now, a wealth of scientific data from studies of rodents and monkeys has documented the significant beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) or dietary restriction (DR), and multiple antioxidant agents in extending life span and reducing the incidence of progeroid-related diseases. Reduced levels of cellular oxidative stress, protection of genome from deleterious damage, detoxification of toxic molecules, and enhancement of energy homeostasis, contribute to the beneficial effects of dietary restriction and multiple antioxidant agents. Recent findings suggest that employment of DR and multiple antioxidant agents (including, catalase, gluthatione peroxidase, CuZn superoxide dismutase, and Mn superoxide dismutase = enzymes forming the primary defense against oxygen toxicity), and ozone therapy may mount an effective resistance to pathogenic factors relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular episodes. Hence, while further studies will be needed to establish the extent to which CR and multiple antioxidant agents will reduce incidence of cardiovascular episodes in humans, it would seem prudent to recommend CR and multiple antioxidant agents as widely applicable preventive approach for cardiovascular disorders and other progeroid-related disorders. PMID:18648594

  2. Cardiovascular disease could be contained based on currently available data!

    PubMed

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F C

    2006-01-01

    Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the incidence of chronic age-related diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and late-onset diabetes have increased and have become serious public health problem, as well. The etiology of these disorders is still incompletely understood, therefore, neither preventive strategies nor long-term effective treatment modalities are available for these disorders. In keeping with the aforementioned, the ultimate goal in cardiovascular research is to prevent the onset of cardiovascular episodes and thereby allow successful ageing without morbidity and cognitive decline. Herein, I argue that cardiovascular episodes could be contained with relatively simple approaches. Cardiovascular disorder is characterized by cellular and molecular changes that are commonplace in age-related diseases in other organ system, such alterations include increased level of oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and "horror autotoxicus" largely brought about by the perturbation of ubiquitin -proteasome system, and excessive oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle cells and tissues, and cross-reactions of specific antibodies against human heat shock protein 60 with that of mycobacterial heat shock protein 65. "Horror autotoxicus", a Latin expression, is a term coined by Paul Ehrlich at the turn of the last century to describe autoimmunity to self, or the attack of "self" by immune system, which ultimately results to autoimmune condition. Based on the currently available data, the risk of cardiovascular episodes and several other age-related disorders, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, is known to be influenced by the nature and level of food intake. Now, a wealth of scientific data from studies of rodents and monkeys has documented the significant beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) or dietary restriction (DR), and multiple antioxidant agents in extending life span and reducing the incidence of progeroid-related diseases. Reduced levels of cellular oxidative stress, protection of genome from deleterious damage, detoxification of toxic molecules, and enhancement of energy homeostasis, contribute to the beneficial effects of dietary restriction and multiple antioxidant agents. Recent findings suggest that employment of DR and multiple antioxidant agents (including, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, CuZn superoxide dismutase, and Mn superoxide dismutase = enzymes forming the primary defense against oxygen toxicity), and ozone therapy may mount an effective resistance to pathogenic factors relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular episodes. Hence, while further studies will be needed to establish the extent to which CR and multiple antioxidant agents will reduce incidence of cardiovascular episodes in humans, it would seem prudent to recommend CR and multiple antioxidant agents as widely applicable preventive approach for cardiovascular disorders and other progeroid-related disorders. PMID:18648594

  3. Strategies to increase nitric oxide signalling in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Jon O; Gladwin, Mark T; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signalling molecule in the cardiovascular, immune and central nervous systems, and crucial steps in the regulation of NO bioavailability in health and disease are well characterized. Although early approaches to therapeutically modulate NO bioavailability failed in clinical trials, an enhanced understanding of fundamental subcellular signalling has enabled a range of novel therapeutic approaches to be identified. These include the identification of: new pathways for enhancing NO synthase activity; ways to amplify the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway; novel classes of NO-donating drugs; drugs that limit NO metabolism through effects on reactive oxygen species; and ways to modulate downstream phosphodiesterases and soluble guanylyl cyclases. In this Review, we discuss these latest developments, with a focus on cardiovascular disease. PMID:26265312

  4. [Alcohol and wine and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz, W?adys?aw; Weglarz, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Moderate alcohol intake is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases. A large number of epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a U- or J-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and total mortality, coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. The lowest risk occurs in those who drink one or two drinks per day. Many studies have dealt with the question if specific alcoholic beverage (vodka, beer, wine, liquor) might offer a greater protection. Red wine containing polyphenols is believed to possess exceptional cardioprotective properties, especially if consumed with meals. However, alcohol beverages should not be recommended to patients as a substitute for the well-proven, cardiovascular risk reducing alternatives such as low fat diet, exercise and pharmacotherapy. PMID:19739580

  5. Mobile monitoring and reasoning methods to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Hervs, Ramn; Fontecha, Jess; Ausn, David; Castanedo, Federico; Bravo, Jos; Lpez-de-Ipia, Diego

    2013-01-01

    With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. PMID:23681093

  6. Sortilin, encoded by the cardiovascular risk gene SORT1, and its suggested functions in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kjolby, Mads; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Petersen, Claus Munck

    2015-04-01

    Several genome-wide association studies have linked novel loci to a wide range of cardiovascular phenotypes including low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, early onset myocardial infarction, coronary artery calcification, coronary artery stenosis, and abdominal aorta aneurysm. Especially, one locus, namely, 1p13.3, has attracted much attention. This locus harbors four candidate genes, CELSR2, PSRC1, MYBPHL, and SORT1. SORT1 encodes sortilin, a type I sorting receptor that has recently been implicated in LDL-cholesterol metabolism, VLDL secretion, PCSK9 secretion, and development of atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, sortilin also seems to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, by mechanisms not directly involving LDL-cholesterol, but possibly resulting from the attenuated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL6 and TNF?, which accompanies lack of sortilin in immune cells. Sortilin seems to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and have functions beyond regulating LDL-cholesterol. PMID:25702058

  7. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    PubMed

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. PMID:26973130

  8. Epigenetic programming and risk: the birthplace of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Pesce, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetics, through control of gene expression circuitries, plays important roles in various physiological processes such as stem cell differentiation and self renewal. This occurs during embryonic development, in different tissues, and in response to environmental stimuli. The language of epigenetic program is based on specific covalent modifications of DNA and chromatin. Thus, in addition to the individual identity, encoded by sequence of the four bases of the DNA, there is a cell type identity characterized by its positioning in the epigenetic "landscape". Aberrant changes in epigenetic marks induced by environmental cues may contribute to the development of abnormal phenotypes associated with different human diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders and inflammation. Most of the epigenetic studies have focused on embryonic development and cancer biology, while little has been done to explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. This review highlights our current knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation and the evidence that chromatin remodeling and histone modifications play key roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease through (re)programming of cardiovascular (stem) cells commitment, identity and function. PMID:22773406

  9. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

  10. Endothelial Barrier and Its Abnormalities in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) form a unique barrier between the vascular lumen and the vascular wall. In addition, the endothelium is highly metabolically active. In cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, normal endothelial function could be severely disturbed leading to endothelial dysfunction that then could progress to complete and irreversible loss of EC functionality and contribute to entire vascular dysfunction. Proatherogenic stimuli such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress could initiate endothelial dysfunction and in turn vascular dysfunction and lead to the development of atherosclerotic arterial disease, a background for multiple cardiovascular disorders including coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and thrombosis. Intercellular junctions between ECs mediate the barrier function. Proinflammatory stimuli destabilize the junctions causing the disruption of the endothelial barrier and increased junctional permeability. This facilitates transendothelial migration of immune cells to the arterial intima and induction of vascular inflammation. Proatherogenic stimuli attack endothelial microtubule function that is regulated by acetylation of tubulin, an essential microtubular constituent. Chemical modification of tubulin caused by cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress leads to reorganization of endothelial microtubules. These changes destabilize vascular integrity and increase permeability, which finally results in increasing cardiovascular risk. PMID:26696899

  11. Dietary polyphenols regulate endothelial function and prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Tagami, Motoki; Yamori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction strongly induces development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated a preventative effect of dietary polyphenols toward cardiovascular disease. In studies using cultured vascular ECs, polyphenols were recognized to regulate nitric oxide and endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. Furthermore, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules by a signaling pathway that is similar to that of high-density lipoprotein and involves induction of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, liver kinase B, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression. The effects of polyphenols on ECs include antioxidant activity and enhancement of the expression of several protective proteins, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase and paraoxonase 1. However, the observed effects of dietary polyphenols in vitro do not always translate to an in vivo setting. As such, there are many questions concerning their physiological mode of action. In this review, we discuss research on the effect of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and their protective effect on EC dysfunction. PMID:25466651

  12. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Caterina Oriana; Imbalzano, Egidio; Mamone, Federica; Cairo, Valentina; Lo Gullo, Alberto; D'Ascola, Angela; Sardo, Maria Adriana; Scuruchi, Michele; Basile, Giorgio; Saitta, Antonino; Mandraffino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to "endothelial progenitor cells" and "endothelium" and, for the different categories, respectively, "smoking"; "blood pressure"; "diabetes mellitus" or "insulin resistance"; "dyslipidemia"; "aging" or "elderly"; "angina pectoris" or "myocardial infarction"; "stroke" or "cerebrovascular disease"; "homocysteine"; "C-reactive protein"; "vitamin D". Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717. PMID:26839569

  13. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yixing; Xu, Xiaohan; Chu, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is now becoming an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous epidemiological, biomedical and clinical studies indicate that ambient particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms for PM-caused cardiovascular disease include directly toxicity to cardiovascular system or indirectly injury by inducing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in peripheral circulation. Here, we review the linking between PM exposure and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the observed PM induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26904258

  14. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Miao, Xiao; Liu, Yucheng; Li, Fengsheng; Liu, Quan; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide. PMID:24693336

  15. Fighting disease and epidemics: Ricardo Jorge and the internationalization of Portuguese science.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maria Antnia Pires

    2013-06-01

    Ricardo Jorge was one of the principal doctors responsible for the sanitary transition in Portugal. He created and enforced the most important policies for disease control, both endemic and epidemic, which scourged the western world between the mid nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth. His professional training and academic and scientific performances reveal Ricardo Jorge's value in Portuguese science and his efforts for its internationalization. His capacities were confirmed by the emergency of the sanitary situations with which he was confronted and by the authorities' confidence in him, by putting him in charge of the bubonic plague elimination process. PMID:26050285

  16. Cardiovascular Disease and Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Powlson, Andrew S; Gurnell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Treatment goals in acromegaly include symptom relief, tumour control and reversal of the excess morbidity and mortality associated with the disorder. Cardiovascular complications include concentric biventricular hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy, hypertension, valvular heart disease and arrhythmias, while metabolic disturbance (insulin resistance/diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia) further increases the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Sleep-disordered breathing (in the form of sleep apnoea) is also common in patients with acromegaly and may exacerbate cardiovascular dysfunction, in addition to contributing to impaired quality of life. Accordingly, and in keeping with evidence that cardiorespiratory complications in acromegaly are not automatically reversed/ameliorated simply through the attainment of 'safe' growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, recent guidelines have emphasised the need not only to achieve stringent biochemical control, but also to identify and independently treat these comorbidities. It is important, therefore, that patients with acromegaly are systematically screened at diagnosis, and periodically thereafter, for the common cardiovascular and respiratory manifestations and that biochemical targets do not become the only treatment goal. PMID:26227953

  17. Targeting chromatin remodeling to prevent cardiovascular disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Sarah; Paneni, Francesco; Cosentino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Despite clear advances in developing effective glucose-lowering drugs, clinical trials have recently shown that intensive glycemic control failed to reduce cardiovascular events in the diabetic population. These findings support the concept that the hyperglycemic environment may be remembered in the cardiovascular system. This phenomenon has been recently defined as "metabolic memory" and may contribute to explain the progression of diabetic vascular complications despite achievement of target HbA1c levels. In this regard, epigenetic changes of DNA/histone complexes are emerging as important modulators of oxidant and inflammatory genes, thus leading to persistent cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Over the last few years, the rapid development of many compounds (i.e. histone deacetylase and histone acetyltransferase inhibitors) able to erase adverse chromatin signatures led to the perception that reverting hyperglycemic damage might be possible and represents an attractive challenge. Here we critically discuss recent evidence supporting the concept that chromatin alterations are key drivers of cardiovascular disease and describe the emerging potential of chromatin modifying agents for the reprogramming of detrimental epigenetic signatures in patients with cardiometabolic disturbances. PMID:25860064

  18. Is oxidative stress a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Mnzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Taddei, Stefano

    2010-11-01

    An abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the subsequent decrease in vascular bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) have long been proposed to be the common pathogenetic mechanism of the endothelial dysfunction, resulting from diverse cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic smoking, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. Superoxide produced by the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, mitochondrial sources, or the xanthine oxidase may react with NO, thereby resulting in excessive formation of peroxynitrite, a reactive nitrogen species that has been demonstrated to accelerate the atherosclerotic process by causing direct structural damage and by causing further ROS production. Despite this sound biological rationale and a number of pre-clinical and clinical lines of evidence, studies testing the effects of classical antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, or folic acid in combination with vitamin E have been disappointing. Rather, substances such as statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or AT1-receptor blockers, which possess indirect antioxidant properties mediated by the stimulation of NO production and simultaneous inhibition of superoxide production (e.g. from the NADPH oxidase), have been shown to improve vascular function in pre-clinical and clinical studies and to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Today, oxidative stress remains an attractive target for cardiovascular prevention and therapy. However, a deeper understanding of its source, and of its role in vascular pathology, is necessary before new trials are attempted. PMID:20974801

  19. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lugg, Sebastian T.; Howells, Phillip A.; Thickett, David R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also discussed. We review the current knowledge gathered from experimental studies, observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and subsequent systematic reviews in order to suggest the optimal vitamin D level for CVD protection. PMID:26435569

  20. Discrete epidemic models with arbitrary stage distributions and applications to disease control

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Ceron, Nancy; Feng, Zhilan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    W. O. Kermack and A. G. McKendrick introduced in their fundamental paper, A Contribution to the Mathematical Theory of Epidemics, published in 1927, a simple deterministic model that captured the qualitative dynamic behavior of single infectious disease outbreaks. A Kermack-McKendrick discrete-time general framework, motivated by the emergence of a multitude of models used to forecast the dynamics of SARS and influenza outbreaks, is introduced in this manuscript. Results that allow us to measure quantitatively the role of classical and general distributions on disease dynamics are presented. The case of the geometric distribution is used to evaluate the impact of waiting-time distributions on epidemiological processes or public health interventions. In short, the geometric distribution is used to set up the baseline or null epidemiological model used to test the relevance of realistic stage-period distribution on the dynamics of single epidemic outbreaks. A final size relationship involving the control reproduction number, a function of transmission parameters and the means of distributions used to model disease or intervention control measures, is computed. Model results and simulations highlight the inconsistencies in forecasting that emerge from the use of specific parametric distributions. Examples, using the geometric, Poisson and binomial distributions, are used to highlight the impact of the choices made in quantifying the risk posed by single outbreaks and the relative importance of various control measures. PMID:23797790

  1. Common genetic factors for depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Brigitta

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing knowledge regarding the considerable comorbidity between depression and cardiovascular disease, which are two of the most common disorders in developed countries. The associated vulnerability is not unidirectional, as the presence of cardiovascular disease can also influence mood states. Although this may be the result of psychological factors, common biological mechanisms, including genetic ones, are thought to be responsible for this interaction; we can thus question whether variations in genes could be predisposing factors. Regarding the multiple interactions in the mechanisms between depression and cardiovascular system disorders, e.g., dysfunctions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal axis and the response to stress, the importance of the serotonergic and immune systems, or the impact on the renin-angiotensin system, several candidate genes are being investigated. However, despite the interest in unraveling the potential susceptibility genes for both disorders, most available studies have so far dealt with the impact of polymorphisms in relation to either depression or cardiovascular disease. A few recent studies have now examined the effects of gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, and are investigating the impact of "depression-related" variants on cardiac response to stress. The first promising results were obtained with the serotonin transporter, and it may be hypothesized that this polymorphism interacts via the impact of the S allele on depression and via the effect of the L allele on platelet activation. However, the role played by various other candidate genes remains to be determined, especially regarding the question as to whether they are indicative of common pathophysiological mechanisms, or for identifying a subgroup of patients with somatic disorders that are more closely related to psychiatric symptoms. PMID:17506223

  2. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  3. [Cardiovascular diseases in medico-legal opinions on work disability].

    PubMed

    Mizerska, Ma?gorzata; Mizerska, Katarzyna; Barzdo, Maciej; Berent, Jaros?aw

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of cases judged by the District Court in Piotrkw Trybunalski in 2004, in which petitioners sought permanent work-disability benefits on grounds of cardiovascular diseases. The largest group of petitioners included those with hypertension, coronary disease and a history of myocardial infarction. The largest percentage of persons judged to be work-disabled were those having suffered a myocardial infarction, but this was true also for individuals with cardiomyopathies, as well as cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances. Disorders judged to pose the least limitation on the ability to work encompassed non-specific pain in the thoracic cavity, and hypertension. PMID:16970079

  4. Central Adiposity and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Penelope; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Joseph, Parveen Nedra; Dorn, Joan M.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the associations between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), we evaluated a related but less well-established association between waist circumference and brachial artery reactivity (BAR), a functional measurement of subclinical CVD, where lower levels indicate dysfunction. Regression models examined trends in mean BAR across waist circumference tertiles in police officers, a high-stress occupational group with increased risk for CVD. Mean BAR decreased across increasing waist tertiles among men, but not women, and this association was stronger among officers who consumed more alcohol. Larger waist circumference may be associated with lower BAR, providing an opportunity for intervention prior to disease development. PMID:24555157

  5. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated. PMID:25351669

  6. Endocan: A novel inflammatory indicator in cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Balta, Sevket; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Demirkol, Sait; Ozturk, Cengiz; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered as an early change in atherogenesis. Raised levels of systemic inflammatory markers are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endocan (previously known as endothelial cell specific molecule-1, ESM-1), is a potential immunoinflammatory marker that may be linked to CVD. Endocan is released by vascular endothelial cells in several organs. Endocan may play an important role in regulating cell adhesion and raised plasma levels may reflect endothelial dysfunction. Endocan levels are elevated in conditions such as chronic kidney disease, renal transplant rejection, tumor progression and hypertension. Endocan is a potential inflammatory and CVD marker. Further studies are needed to assess the relevance of endocan in clinical practice. PMID:26448266

  7. The protective functions of omentin in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2015-08-25

    Adipose tissue is considered as a large gland that can produce paracrine and endocrine hormones. Growing evidence suggests that adipocytes may link obesity to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Adipose tissue produces a large number of mediators, which affect metabolism, inflammation and coagulation. Omentin, a novel adipocytokine, has come into the center of interest due to its favorable effects on inflammation, glucose homeostasis and CVD. The present review provides a concise and general overview on the roles of omentin in CVD. The knowledge of these concepts may provide a new strategy to reduce disease risks on CVD in the future. PMID:26079253

  8. Epigenetics in the development, modification, and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetics has major relevance to all disease processes; cardiovascular (CV) disease and its related conditions are no exception. Epigenetics is defined as the study of heritable alterations in gene expression, or cellular phenotype, and goes far beyond a pure genetic approach. A more precise definition is that epigenetics represents all the meiotically and mitotically inherited changes in gene expression that are not encoded on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence itself. Major epigenetic mechanisms are modifications of histone proteins in chromatin and DNA methylation (which does not alter the DNA sequence). There is increasing evidence for the involvement of epigenetics in human disease such as cancer, inflammatory disease and CV disease. Other chronic diseases are also susceptible to epigenetic modification such as metabolic diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. There is much evidence for the modification of epigenetics by nutrition and exercise. Through these modifications, there is infinite potential for benefit for the fetus, the newborn, and the individual as well as population effects. Association with CV disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease, is evident through epigenetic relationships and modification by major CV risk factors such as tobacco abuse. Aging itself may be altered by epigenetic modification. Knowledge of epigenetics and its relevance to the development, modification, and prevention of CV disease is in a very preliminary stage but has an infinite future. PMID:25205125

  9. Hydroxytyrosol and potential uses in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana-Prez, Cristina; Aun, David; Garca-Flores, Libia A; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol is one of the main phenolic components of olive oil. It is present in the fruit and leaf of the olive (Olea europaea L.). During the past decades, it has been well documented that this phenolic compound has health benefits and a protective action has been found in preclinical studies against several diseases. Here, we review its bioavailability in human beings and several assays showing significant results related with cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mechanisms of action include potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, among others. The importance of hydroxytyrosol in protection of low-density lipoproteins and consequently its implication in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk has been highlighted by the European Food Safety Authority, concluding that 5?mg of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives should be consumed daily to reach this effect at physiological level. We discuss the potential uses of this compound in supplements, nutraceutic foods, or topical formulations in the disease risk reduction. Finally, we conclude that more studies are needed to sustain or reject many other health claims not yet fully documented and to validate these newly available hydroxytyrosol-based products, because it seems to be a good candidate to reduce the risk of diseases mentioned. PMID:25988120

  10. Hydroxytyrosol and Potential Uses in Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer, and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Vilaplana-Pérez, Cristina; Auñón, David; García-Flores, Libia A.; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol is one of the main phenolic components of olive oil. It is present in the fruit and leaf of the olive (Olea europaea L.). During the past decades, it has been well documented that this phenolic compound has health benefits and a protective action has been found in preclinical studies against several diseases. Here, we review its bioavailability in human beings and several assays showing significant results related with cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mechanisms of action include potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, among others. The importance of hydroxytyrosol in protection of low-density lipoproteins and consequently its implication in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk has been highlighted by the European Food Safety Authority, concluding that 5 mg of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives should be consumed daily to reach this effect at physiological level. We discuss the potential uses of this compound in supplements, nutraceutic foods, or topical formulations in the disease risk reduction. Finally, we conclude that more studies are needed to sustain or reject many other health claims not yet fully documented and to validate these newly available hydroxytyrosol-based products, because it seems to be a good candidate to reduce the risk of diseases mentioned. PMID:25988120

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations.

    PubMed

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jrgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature on prevalence, incidence, and time trends for CVD and its risk factors in Arctic Inuit populations was reviewed. Most evidence supports a similar incidence of coronary heart disease and a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease among Arctic Inuit than seen in western populations. Factors that may increase CVD risk include aging of the population, genetic susceptibility, and a rapid increase in obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in parallel with decreasing physical activity and deterioration of the lipid profile. In contrast, and of great importance, there has been a decrease in smoking and alcohol intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy, in combination with improved prognosis for patients with manifest CVD, will inevitably lead to a large increase in absolute numbers of individuals affected by CVD in Arctic Inuit populations, exacerbated by the rise in most CVD risk factors over the past decades. For preventive purposes and for health care planning, it is crucial to carefully monitor disease incidence and trends in risk factors in these vulnerable Arctic populations. PMID:26239003

  12. Red blood cell distribution width and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a rather simple measure of red blood cell (RBC) size heterogeneity (i.e., anisocytosis), which is easily calculated by dividing the standard deviation (SD) of erythrocyte volumes for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Emerging evidence suggests that, besides RBC abnormalities, many human disorders may be frequently associated with a high degree of anisocytosis. Methods In this narrative review, we analyzed the current scientific literature about the putative role and the potential epidemiologic association between RDW and cardiovascular diseases. The findings of the most representative epidemiological studies were summarized and discussed. Results Overall, considerable and convincing evidence has been brought that an increased RDW value is associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) [including acute myocardial infarction (AMI)], ischemic cerebrovascular disease (including stroke), peripheral artery disease (PAD), as well as with atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure (HF) and hypertension. Higher anisocytosis also significantly and independently predicts adverse outcomes in patients with these conditions. Conclusions Although the role of anisocytosis in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases remains uncertain, the considerable evidence available so far suggests that the clinical use of RDW may be broadened beyond the conventional boundaries of erythrocyte disorders, in particular for assisting the diagnosis and prognostication of patients with ACS, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, PAD, HF and AF. PMID:26623117

  13. Resistin: functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, Md S; Weakley, Sarah M; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Resistin, originally described as an adipocyte-specific hormone, has been suggested to be an important link between obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Although its expression was initially defined in adipocytes, significant levels of resistin expression in humans are mainly found in mononuclear leukocytes, macrophages, spleen and bone marrow cells. Increasing evidence indicates that resistin plays important regulatory roles apart from its role in insulin resistance and diabetes in a variety of biological processes: atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune disease, malignancy, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic kidney disease. As CVD accounts for a significant amount of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes and without diabetes, it is important to understand the role that adipokines such as resistin play in the cardiovascular system. Evidence suggests that resistin is involved in pathological processes leading to CVD including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, angiogenesis and smooth muscle cell dysfunction. The modes of action and signalling pathways whereby resistin interacts with its target cells are beginning to be understood. In this review, the current knowledge about the functions and pathophysiological implications of resistin in CVD development is summarized; clinical translations, therapeutic considerations and future directions in the field of resistin research are discussed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21545576

  14. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Valentina; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Basile, Giorgio; Mandraffino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to “endothelial progenitor cells” and “endothelium” and, for the different categories, respectively, “smoking”; “blood pressure”; “diabetes mellitus” or “insulin resistance”; “dyslipidemia”; “aging” or “elderly”; “angina pectoris” or “myocardial infarction”; “stroke” or “cerebrovascular disease”; “homocysteine”; “C-reactive protein”; “vitamin D”. Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717. PMID:26839569

  16. Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease among Older Live Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    Reese, PP; Bloom, RD; Feldman, HI; Rosenbaum, P; Wang, W; Saynisch, P; Tarsi, NM; Mukherjee, N; Garg, AX; Mussell, A; Shults, J; Even-Shoshan, O; Townsend, RR; Silber, JH

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, live kidney donation by older individuals (?55 years) has become more common. Given strong associations of older age with cardiovascular disease, nephrectomy could make older donors vulnerable to death and cardiovascular events. We performed a cohort study among older live kidney donors who were matched to healthy older individuals in the Health and Retirement Study. The primary outcome was mortality ascertained through national death registries. Secondary outcomes ascertained among pairs with Medicare coverage included death or cardiovascular disease ascertained through Medicare claims data. During the period from 1996 2006, there were 5717 older donors in the United States. We matched 3368 donors 1:1 to older healthy non-donors. Among donors and matched pairs, the mean age was 59 years; 41% were male and 7% were black race. In median follow-up of 7.8 years, mortality was not different between donors and matched pairs (p=0.21). Among donors with Medicare, the combined outcome of death/CVD (p=0.70) was also not different between donors and non-donors. In summary, carefully selected older kidney donors do not face a higher risk of death or CVD. These findings should be provided to older individuals considering live kidney donation. PMID:25039276

  17. Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. S.; Jadhav, A. B.; Hassan, A.; Meng, Qing H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed. PMID:24049653

  18. Use of medication for cardiovascular disease during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Petronella G

    2015-11-20

    One-third of women with heart disease use medication for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) during pregnancy. Increased plasma volume, renal clearance, and liver enzyme activity in pregnant women change the pharmacokinetics of these drugs, often resulting in the need for an increased dose. Fetal well-being is a major concern among pregnant women. Fortunately, many drugs used to treat CVD can be used safely during pregnancy, with the exception of high-dose warfarin in the first trimester, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, amiodarone, and spironolactone. A timely and thorough discussion between the cardiologist and the pregnant patient about the potential benefits and adverse effects of medication for CVD is important. Noncompliance with necessary treatment for cardiovascular disorders endangers not only the mother, but also the fetus. This Review is an overview of the pharmacokinetic changes in medications for CVD during pregnancy and the safety of these drugs for the fetus. The implications for maternal treatment are discussed. The Review also includes a short section on the cardiovascular effects of medication used for obstetric indications. PMID:26585398

  19. [Cardiovascular diseases in workers engaged into metal mining industry and mechanical engineering].

    PubMed

    Korzeneva, E V; Sineva, E L

    2007-01-01

    Peculiarities of cardiovascular diseases among workers exposed to noise and vibration include hyperkinetic hemodynamic type supporting early terms of cardiovascular functions disorder. Veloergometry and echocardiography are highly informative and diagnostic value, so helpful in early diagnosis of circulatory disorders. The authors specified objective criteria of risk associated with occupationally related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18051846

  20. Cardio-metabolic risk prediction should be superior to cardiovascular risk assessment in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Rosolova, Hana; Nussbaumerova, Barbora

    2011-03-01

    Cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases represent the main cause of death in the developed and developing populations. Although major progress has been made in the management of the classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, unhealthy lifestyle conduces to an increasing prevalence of overweight, obesity, metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus, premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. That is why cardio-metabolic risk prediction should be superior in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Up-to-date primary preventive strategies according to the European Guidelines, especially the high risk strategy approach, are being implemented. Individual cardiovascular and better cardio-metabolic risk assessment represents the basic approach in the individualized primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardio-metabolic biomarkers, especially high sensitivity C-reactive protein, albuminuria, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and imaging procedures (carotid intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound) could improve the prediction of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes beyond that using traditional risk factors. PMID:23199124

  1. Risk of cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Bonapace, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Loria, Paola; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health problem of epidemic proportions worldwide. Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that NAFLD is not only associated with liver-related morbidity and mortality but also with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), abnormalities of cardiac function and structure (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy, and heart failure), valvular heart disease (e.g., aortic valve sclerosis) and arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation). Experimental evidence suggests that NAFLD itself, especially in its more severe forms, exacerbates systemic/hepatic insulin resistance, causes atherogenic dyslipidemia, and releases a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiac and arrhythmic complications. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease the risk for CHD and other cardiac/arrhythmic complications. The purpose of this clinical review is to summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that supports a strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications, to briefly examine the putative biological mechanisms underlying this association, and to discuss some of the current treatment options that may influence both NAFLD and its related cardiac and arrhythmic complications. PMID:24587651

  2. Risk of cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Bonapace, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Loria, Paola; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-02-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health problem of epidemic proportions worldwide. Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that NAFLD is not only associated with liver-related morbidity and mortality but also with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), abnormalities of cardiac function and structure (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy, and heart failure), valvular heart disease (e.g., aortic valve sclerosis) and arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation). Experimental evidence suggests that NAFLD itself, especially in its more severe forms, exacerbates systemic/hepatic insulin resistance, causes atherogenic dyslipidemia, and releases a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiac and arrhythmic complications. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease the risk for CHD and other cardiac/arrhythmic complications. The purpose of this clinical review is to summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that supports a strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications, to briefly examine the putative biological mechanisms underlying this association, and to discuss some of the current treatment options that may influence both NAFLD and its related cardiac and arrhythmic complications. PMID:24587651

  3. Disparities in heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases among women

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Jean; Pettey, Christina; Lefler, Leanne L; Heo, Seongkum

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews literature pertinent to cardiovascular disparities in women, focusing primarily on heart failure (HF). It provides an in-depth look at causes, biological influences, self-management and lack of adherence to HF-treatment guidelines in women. Disparities in treatment of causative factors of HF, such as myocardial infarction and hypertension, contribute to women having poorer HF outcomes than men. This article discusses major contributing reasons for nonadherence to medication regimes for HF in women, including advanced age at time of diagnosis, likelihood of multiple comorbidities, lack of social support and low socioeconomic status. Limited inclusion of women in clinical trials and the scarcity of gender analyses for HF and other cardiovascular diseases continues to limit the applicability of research findings to women. PMID:22757737

  4. Effects of Some Common Food Constituents on Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Walden, Richard; Tomlinson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive. PMID:22347642

  5. Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Uremia-Related Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Marcello; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are at 5- to 10-fold higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than age-matched controls. Clinically, CVD in this population manifests as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, stroke, or congestive heart failure. Beyond the traditional risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus and hypertension), uremia-specific factors that arise from accumulating toxins also contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD. In this review, we summarize the literature on the epidemiology of both traditional and uremia-related CVD and focus on postulated mechanisms of the latter. In the context of current and emerging diagnostics and therapies for CVD, we highlight what we interpret as major gaps in the medical management of this growing population that need to be addressed with targeted epidemiological and translational research. Finally, we describe the global challenges associated with the recognition and management of uremia-related CVD in developed and developing nations. PMID:26831434

  6. Lipophilic chemical exposure as a cause of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure has been linked to numerous diseases in humans. These diseases include cancers; neurological and neurodegenerative diseases; metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity; reproductive and developmental disorders; and endocrine disorders. Many studies have associated the link between exposures to environmental chemicals and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These chemicals include persistent organic pollutants (POPs); the plastic exudates bisphenol A and phthalates; low molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWHCs); and poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Here it is reported that though the chemicals reported on differ widely in chemical properties and known points of attack in humans, a common link exists between them. All are lipophilic species that are found in serum. Environmentally induced CVD is related to total lipophilic chemical load in the blood. Lipophiles serve to promote the absorption of otherwise not absorbed toxic hydrophilic species that promote CVD. PMID:24179429

  7. Epigenomes: the missing heritability in human cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Emma; Vondriska, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a tremendous burden on human health and results from malfunction of various networks of biological molecules in the context of environmental stress. Despite strong evidence of heritability, many common forms of heart disease (heart failure in particular) have not yielded to genome-wide association studies to identify causative mutations acting via the disruption of individual molecules. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that genetic variation in non-coding regions is strongly linked to disease susceptibility. We hypothesize that epigenomic variation may engender different chromatin environments in the absence of (or in parallel with) changes in protein or mRNA sequence and abundance. In this manner, distinctgenetically encodedchromatin environments can exhibit distinct responses to environmental stresses that cause heart failure, explaining a significant portion of the altered susceptibility that is observed in human disease. PMID:24957631

  8. Psoriasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease: Three different diseases on a unique background

    PubMed Central

    Ganzetti, Giulia; Campanati, Anna; Molinelli, Elisa; Offidani, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated skin disease, frequently associated with systemic comorbidities. According to recent data, patients with psoriasis show a greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which confers a higher cardiovascular risk. The link between these pathological conditions appears to be a chronic low-grade inflammatory status. The aim of this review is to focus on the multiple epidemiological and physio-pathogenetic aspects linking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, psoriasis, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26981209

  9. Etiology of cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Emul, Murat; Kalelioglu, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are important problems among patients with schizophrenia. A wide spectrum of reasons, ranging from genes to the environment, are held responsible for causing the cardiovascular risk factors that may lead to shortening the life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we have summarized the etiologic issues related with the cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenia. First, we focused on heritable factors associated with cardiovascular disease and schizophrenia by mentioning studies about genetics–epigenetics, in the first-episode or drug-naïve patients. In this context, the association and candidate gene studies about metabolic disturbances in schizophrenia are reviewed, and the lack of the effects of epigenetic/posttranscriptional factors such as microRNAs is mentioned. Increased rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and disrupted metabolic parameters in schizophrenia are forcing clinicians to struggle with metabolic syndrome parameters and related issues, which are also the underlying causes for the risk of having cardiometabolic and cardiovascular etiology. Second, we summarized the findings of metabolic syndrome-related entities and discussed the influence of the illness itself, antipsychotic drug treatment, and the possible disadvantageous lifestyle on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus. Third, we emphasized on the risk factors of sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. We reviewed the findings on the arrhythmias such as QT prolongation, which is a risk factor for Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death or P-wave prolongation that is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. For example, the use of antipsychotics is an important reason for the prolongation of QT and some other cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Additionally, we discussed relatively rare issues such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, which are important for prognosis in schizophrenia that may have originated from the use of antipsychotic medication. In conclusion, we considered that the studies and awareness about physical needs of patients with schizophrenia are increasing. It seems logical to increase cooperation and shared care between the different health care professionals to screen and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD)-risk factors, MetS, and diabetes in patients with psychiatric disorders, because some risk factors of MetS or CVD are avoidable or at least modifiable to decrease high mortality in schizophrenia. We suggested that future research should focus on conducting an integrated system of studies based on a holistic biopsychosocial evaluation. PMID:26491327

  10. Etiology of cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Emul, Murat; Kalelioglu, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are important problems among patients with schizophrenia. A wide spectrum of reasons, ranging from genes to the environment, are held responsible for causing the cardiovascular risk factors that may lead to shortening the life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we have summarized the etiologic issues related with the cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenia. First, we focused on heritable factors associated with cardiovascular disease and schizophrenia by mentioning studies about genetics-epigenetics, in the first-episode or drug-naïve patients. In this context, the association and candidate gene studies about metabolic disturbances in schizophrenia are reviewed, and the lack of the effects of epigenetic/posttranscriptional factors such as microRNAs is mentioned. Increased rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and disrupted metabolic parameters in schizophrenia are forcing clinicians to struggle with metabolic syndrome parameters and related issues, which are also the underlying causes for the risk of having cardiometabolic and cardiovascular etiology. Second, we summarized the findings of metabolic syndrome-related entities and discussed the influence of the illness itself, antipsychotic drug treatment, and the possible disadvantageous lifestyle on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus. Third, we emphasized on the risk factors of sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. We reviewed the findings on the arrhythmias such as QT prolongation, which is a risk factor for Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death or P-wave prolongation that is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. For example, the use of antipsychotics is an important reason for the prolongation of QT and some other cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Additionally, we discussed relatively rare issues such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, which are important for prognosis in schizophrenia that may have originated from the use of antipsychotic medication. In conclusion, we considered that the studies and awareness about physical needs of patients with schizophrenia are increasing. It seems logical to increase cooperation and shared care between the different health care professionals to screen and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD)-risk factors, MetS, and diabetes in patients with psychiatric disorders, because some risk factors of MetS or CVD are avoidable or at least modifiable to decrease high mortality in schizophrenia. We suggested that future research should focus on conducting an integrated system of studies based on a holistic biopsychosocial evaluation. PMID:26491327

  11. Chronic non-communicable disease as a new epidemic in Africa: focus on The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Omoleke, Semeeh A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent epidemiological data suggest increasing burden of NCDs in many African countries but these diseases have not been given adequate attention due to the overwhelming burden of infectious diseases. There are no recent reports or studies on NCDs or related issues in The Gambia, consequently, this report intends to stimulate further epidemiological studies and also policy initiatives to forestall an epidemic. Methods Routine data on morbidity (in and out-patients), hospitalisation and mortality due to NCDs from health facilities in The Gambia between 2008 and 2011 were used. Other relevant data from multiple sources were also used. Results There is an increasing trend in the morbidity, hospitalisation and mortality due to NCDs in the Gambia between 2008 and 2011; 19.8%, 9.9% and 23.4% increments respectively. There is evidence of gender differences in these variables; more males suffer higher mortality from NCDs than females (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there is dearth of highly skilled health workforce as well as poor health infrastructures in The Gambia. Conclusion NCDs are becoming a public health challenge and the capacity to respond to NCDs in most African countries, particularly, The Gambia is very weak. There is need for a population-based study to accurately quantify the burden and their risk factors as a first step towards policy formulation and effective implementation. Furthermore, there is dire need for increased investments on health workforce as well as medical products and technologies towards addressing the consequences of this emerging epidemic. PMID:23646223

  12. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Gmez, Rodolfo; Lpez, Vernica; Pino, Jess; Gonzlez, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gmez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications. PMID:22910888

  13. Pathophysiologic and treatment strategies for cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease and kidney transplantations.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Mythili; Kozicky, Mark; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    The inextricable link between the heart and the kidneys predestines that significant cardiovascular disease ensues in the face of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a point of fact, the leading cause of mortality of patients on dialysis is still from cardiovascular etiologies, albeit differing in particular types of disease from the general population. For example, sudden cardiac death outnumbers coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD, which is the reverse for the general population. In this review, we will focus on the pathophysiology and treatment options of important traditional and nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients such as hypertension, anemia, vascular calcification, hyperparathyroidism, uremia, and oxidative stress. The evidence of erythropoietin-stimulating agents, phosphate binders, calcimimetics, and dialysis modalities will be presented. We will then discuss how these risk factors may be changed and perhaps exacerbated after renal transplantation. This is largely due to the immunosuppressive agents that are both crucial yet potentially detrimental in the posttransplant state. Calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, the mainstay of transplant immunosuppression, are all known to increase the risks of developing new onset diabetes as well as the metabolic syndrome. Thus, we need to carefully negotiate between patients' cardiovascular profile and their risks of rejection. Finally, we end by considering strategies by which we may minimize cardiovascular disease in the transplant population, as this modality still confers the highest chance of survival in patients with ESRD. PMID:25420053

  14. Strategic Approaches to Unraveling Genetic Causes of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marian, A.J.; Belmont, John

    2011-01-01

    DNA sequence variants (DSVs) are major components of the causal field for virtually all-medical phenotypes, whether single-gene familial disorders or complex traits without a clear familial aggregation. The causal variants in single gene disorders are necessary and sufficient to impart large effects. In contrast, complex traits are due to a much more complicated network of contributory components that in aggregate increase the probability of disease. The conventional approach to identification of the causal variants for single gene disorders is genetic linkage. However, it does not offer sufficient resolution to map the causal genes in small size families or sporadic cases. The approach to genetic studies of complex traits entails candidate gene or Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). GWAS provides an unbiased survey of the effects of common genetic variants (common disease - common variant hypothesis). GWAS have led to identification of a large number of alleles for various cardiovascular diseases. However, common alleles account for a relatively small fraction of the total heritability of the traits. Accordingly, the focus has shifted toward identification of rare variants that might impart larger effect sizes (rare variant-common disease hypothesis). This shift is made feasible by recent advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms, which afford the opportunity to identify virtually all common as well as rare alleles in individuals. In this review, we discuss various strategies that are used to delineate the genetic contribution to medically important cardiovascular phenotypes, emphasizing the utility of the new deep sequencing approaches. PMID:21566222

  15. Overnutrition, mTOR signaling, and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R.; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and associated medical disorders has increased dramatically in the United States and throughout much of the world in the past decade. Obesity, induced by excess intake of carbohydrates and fats, is a major cause of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. There is emerging evidence that excessive nutrient intake promotes signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which, in turn, may lead to alterations of cellular metabolic signaling leading to insulin resistance and obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disease, as well as cancer. While the pivotal role of mTOR signaling in regulating metabolic stress, autophagy, and adaptive immune responses has received increasing attention, there remain many gaps in our knowledge regarding this important nutrient sensor. For example, the precise cellular signaling mechanisms linking excessive nutrient intake and enhanced mTOR signaling with increased cardiovascular and kidney disease, as well as cancer, are not well understood. In this review, we focus on the effects that the interaction between excess intake of nutrients and enhanced mTOR signaling have on the promotion of obesity-associated diseases and potential therapeutic strategies involving targeting mTOR signaling. PMID:25253086

  16. An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation?

    PubMed Central

    Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J.K.; Suskin, N.; St. Lawrence, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compared to age-matched controls, and 2) the effects of a six-month exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation program on CAD-related GMV decline. Compared to controls, significant decreases in regional GMV were found in the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyrus; superior and inferior parietal gyrus; middle and superior temporal gyrus and in the posterior cerebellum of CAD patients. Cardiovascular rehabilitation was associated with the recovery of regional GMV in the superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellum of the CAD patients as well as the increase in GMV in the supplementary motor area. Total and regional GMV correlated with fitness level, defined by the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), at baseline but not after cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study demonstrates that cardiovascular disease can adversely affect age-related decline in GMV; and that these disease-related effects could be mitigated by moderate levels of exercise training as part of cardiovascular rehabilitation. PMID:24273722

  17. Coupling infectious diseases, human preventive behavior, and networks--a conceptual framework for epidemic modeling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Human-disease interactions involve the transmission of infectious diseases among individuals and the practice of preventive behavior by individuals. Both infectious diseases and preventive behavior diffuse simultaneously through human networks and interact with one another, but few existing models have coupled them together. This article proposes a conceptual framework to fill this knowledge gap and illustrates the model establishment. The conceptual model consists of two networks and two diffusion processes. The two networks include: an infection network that transmits diseases and a communication network that channels inter-personal influence regarding preventive behavior. Both networks are composed of same individuals but different types of interactions. This article further introduces modeling approaches to formulize such a framework, including the individual-based modeling approach, network theory, disease transmission models and behavioral models. An illustrative model was implemented to simulate a coupled-diffusion process during an influenza epidemic. The simulation outcomes suggest that the transmission probability of a disease and the structure of infection network have profound effects on the dynamics of coupled-diffusion. The results imply that current models may underestimate disease transmissibility parameters, because human preventive behavior has not been considered. This issue calls for a new interdisciplinary study that incorporates theories from epidemiology, social science, behavioral science, and health psychology. PMID:22154610

  18. Strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities. PMID:25655487

  19. Fcγ Receptors and Ligands and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Sundgren, Nathan; Khera, Amit; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Fcγ receptors (FcγR) classically modulate intracellular signaling upon binding of the Fc region of IgG in immune response cells. How FcγR and their ligands impact cardiovascular health and disease has recently been interrogated in both preclinical and clinical studies. The stimulation of activating FcγR in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and monocytes/macrophages causes a variety of cellular responses that may contribute to vascular disease pathogenesis. Stimulation of the lone inhibitory FγcR, FcγRIIB, also has adverse consequences in endothelial cells, antagonizing NO production and reparative mechanisms. In preclinical disease models, activating FcγR promote atherosclerosis whereas FcγRIIB is protective, and activating FcγR also enhance thrombotic and non-thrombotic vascular occlusion. The FcγR ligand C-reactive protein (CRP) has undergone intense study. Although in rodents CRP does not impact atherosclerosis, it causes hypertension and insulin resistance and worsens myocardial infarction. Massive data has accumulated indicating an association between increases in circulating CRP and coronary heart disease in humans. However, Mendelian randomization studies reveal that CRP is not likely a disease mediator. CRP genetics and hypertension warrants further investigation. Studies to date of genetic variants of activating FcγR are insufficient to implicate the receptors in coronary heart disease pathogenesis in humans. However, a link between FcγRIIB and human hypertension may be emerging. Further knowledge of the vascular biology of FcγR and their ligands will potentially enhance our understanding of cardiovascular disorders, particularly in patients whose greater predisposition for disease is not explained by traditional risk factors, such as individuals with autoimmune disorders. PMID:25593280

  20. Transmission Dynamics and Final Epidemic Size of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks with Varying Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Barbarossa, Maria Vittoria; Dnes, Attila; Kiss, Gbor; Nakata, Yukihiko; Rst, Gergely; Vizi, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa was the largest and longest ever reported since the first identification of this disease. We propose a compartmental model for EVD dynamics, including virus transmission in the community, at hospitals, and at funerals. Using time-dependent parameters, we incorporate the increasing intensity of intervention efforts. Fitting the system to the early phase of the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak, we estimate the basic reproduction number as 1.44. We derive a final size relation which allows us to forecast the total number of cases during the outbreak when effective interventions are in place. Our model predictions show that, as long as cases are reported in any country, intervention strategies cannot be dismissed. Since the main driver in the current slowdown of the epidemic is not the depletion of susceptibles, future waves of infection might be possible, if control measures or population behavior are relaxed. PMID:26197242

  1. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M.; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D.; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea’s capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea. PMID:26812047

  2. Historical Parallels, Ebola Virus Disease and Cholera: Understanding Community Distrust and Social Violence with Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Samuel; Kutalek, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    In the three West African countries most affected by the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, resistance to public health measures contributed to the startling speed and persistence of this epidemic in the region. But how do we explain this resistance, and how have people in these communities understood their actions? By comparing these recent events to historical precedents during Cholera outbreaks in Europe in the 19th century we show that these events have not been new to history or unique to Africa. Community resistance must be analysed in context and go beyond simple single-variable determinants. Knowledge and respect of the cultures and beliefs of the afflicted is essential for dealing with threatening disease outbreaks and their potential social violence. PMID:26865987

  3. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Rico, Adriana; Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea's capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea. PMID:26812047

  4. Historical Parallels, Ebola Virus Disease and Cholera: Understanding Community Distrust and Social Violence with Epidemics.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Samuel; Kutalek, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    In the three West African countries most affected by the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, resistance to public health measures contributed to the startling speed and persistence of this epidemic in the region. But how do we explain this resistance, and how have people in these communities understood their actions? By comparing these recent events to historical precedents during Cholera outbreaks in Europe in the 19th century we show that these events have not been new to history or unique to Africa. Community resistance must be analysed in context and go beyond simple single-variable determinants. Knowledge and respect of the cultures and beliefs of the afflicted is essential for dealing with threatening disease outbreaks and their potential social violence. PMID:26865987

  5. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: friend and foe in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghigo, Alessandra; Li, Mingchuan

    2015-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases activated by cell membrane receptors, either receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs), to catalyze the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). These enzymes engage multiple downstream intracellular signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration. In the cardiovascular system, the four class I PI3K isoforms, PI3K?, PI3K?, PI3K?, and PI3K? are differentially expressed in distinct cell subsets which include cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial, and vascular smooth muscle cells as well as leukocytes, suggesting specific functions for distinct PI3K isoenzymes. During the last decades, genetic disruption studies targeting different PI3K genes have elucidated the contribution of specific isoenzymes to cardiac and vascular function regulation, highlighting both beneficial and maladaptive roles. New layers of complexity in the function of PI3Ks have recently emerged, indicating that distinct PI3K isoforms are interconnected by various crosstalk events and can function not only as kinases, but also as scaffold proteins coordinating key signalosomes in cardiovascular health and disease. In this review, we will summarize major breakthroughs in the comprehension of detrimental and beneficial actions of PI3K signaling in cardiovascular homeostasis, and we will discuss recently unraveled cross-talk and scaffold mechanisms as well as the role of the less characterized class II and III PI3K isoforms. PMID:26321955

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors: epidemiology and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Dahlf, Bjrn

    2010-01-01

    Current epidemiologic predictions show that the world is heading for a vascular tsunami of pandemic proportions. The number of people at high risk from cardiovascular disease is increasing; recent cohort studies suggest that only 2%-7% of the general population have no risk factors at all, and >70% of at-risk individuals have multiple risk factors. The recently published Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) study, which showed that telmisartan was as effective as ramipril in the prevention of a range of cardiovascular outcomes, enrolled a broad cross section of high-risk patients. This population was chosen to reflect the type of patients encountered in general practice, and because the proportion of high-risk individuals is increasing worldwide, the ONTARGET results will be relevant for most at-risk patients. Further analysis of the ONTARGET results may also aid in the development of risk estimation scores populated with real-life data and could also determine the impact of treatment on the long-term reduction of total cardiovascular burden (ie, absolute risk reduction). This may be a particularly useful exercise because current risk estimation charts have limitations in their scope, sensitivity, and the ability to reflect changes in risk. PMID:20102968

  7. Troponin in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: Updates and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jason; Wehner, William; Nambi, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac troponin has been well described as the preferred biomarker for diagnosis of myocardial infarction due to the high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial injury. Numerous other conditions apart from acute coronary syndrome can also lead to small elevations in troponin levels. However, the use of cTn as prognostic biomarker for the primary assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic patient has only recently been described. And with the development of newer generations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays that can detect 10-fold lower concentrations of troponin, the potential value cTn in the prevention and management of asymptomatic cardiovascular disease has come to the fore. This review provides an overview of the transition of cardiac troponin as a marker of acute myocardial injury to one that detects sub-clinical injury. Evidence continues to show that high-sensitivity troponin is emerging as one of the most powerful prognostic biomarkers for the assessment of cardiovascular risk in the general population. PMID:26879078

  8. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  9. Inflammation, a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, the most common nutritional disorder in industrialized countries, is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is primarily considered to be a disorder of energy balance, and it has recently been suggested that some forms of obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. The present paper focuses on the current status of our knowledge regarding chronic inflammation, a link between obesity and CVDs, including heart diseases, vascular disease and atherosclerosis. The paper discusses the methods of body fat evaluation in humans, the endocrinology and distribution of adipose tissue in the genders, the pathophysiology of obesity, the relationship among obesity, inflammation, and CVD, and the adipose tissue-derived cytokines known to affect inflammation. Due to space limitations, this paper focuses on C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, apelin, and retinol binding protein 4 as adipokines. PMID:20847813

  10. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David R; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2004-11-01

    Prospective epidemiologic and feeding studies find possible health benefits of whole cereal grain foods (which include the bran, germ, and endosperm in their naturally occurring proportions), especially for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. We review 17 articles that consistently found a 20% to 40% reduction in long-term risk of these diseases comparing habitual consumers of whole grains to those who rarely eat these foods. Another 12 studies found a similar risk reduction according to amount of cereal fiber consumed. Feeding studies show improvements in risk factors for these diseases when whole grain foods are consumed. Some authors have tried to explain the reduced risk by invoking cereal fiber, with no attention to nonfiber constituents. We interpret the data as supportive of a synergy of the whole grain constituents, including fiber as only one such constituent. PMID:15485586

  11. How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men?

    PubMed Central

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Denaxas, Spiros; Herrett, Emily; Smeeth, Liam; Timmis, Adam; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the recent declines in heart attack and stroke incidence, it is unclear how women and men differ in first lifetime presentations of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We compared the incidence of 12 cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases in women and men at different ages. Methods and Results We studied 1 937 360 people, aged ?30 years and free from diagnosed CVD at baseline (51% women), using linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, acute coronary syndrome registry, and mortality (Cardiovascular Research Using LInked Bespoke Studies and Electronic Records [CALIBER] research platform). During 6 years median follow-up between 1997 and 2010, 114 859 people experienced an incident cardiovascular diagnosis, the majority (66%) of which were neither myocardial infarction nor ischemic stroke. Associations of male sex with initial diagnoses of CVD, however, varied from strong (age-adjusted hazard ratios, 3.65.0) for abdominal aortic aneurysm, myocardial infarction, and unheralded coronary death (particularly >60 years), through modest (hazard ratio, 1.52.0) for stable angina, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrest, to weak (hazard ratio <1.5) for transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, and unstable angina, and inverse (0.69) for subarachnoid hemorrhage (all P<0.001). Conclusions The majority of initial presentations of CVD are neither myocardial infarction nor ischemic stroke, yet most primary prevention studies focus on these presentations. Sex has differing associations with different CVDs, with implications for risk prediction and management strategies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01164371. PMID:26330414

  12. Cardiovascular disease. Physician attitudes toward prevention and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, A. M.; Niyonsenga, T.; Dion, I.; Delisle, E.; Xhignesse, M.; Bernier, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Survey of physician attitudes toward practising cardiovascular disease prevention. DESIGN: Questionnaire administered via telecommunication from 1992 through 1994. SETTING: The FAMUS (Family Medicine, University of Sherbrooke) project, between 1992 and 1996, used weekly telecommunication to collect data from 200 general practitioners throughout the province of Quebec on cardiovascular disease risk factors and their treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Of 200 physicians contributing to the FAMUS project, 156 completed questionnaires (response rate 78%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variations in attitudes to prevention policy and risk factor interventions. RESULTS: Survey results revealed physicians knew important risk factors for cardiovascular disease but differed in attitudes toward efficacy of treatment. Intervention to control cholesterol was thought to be very effective by 21.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2 +/- 6.4) and without effect by 10.3% (95% CI 10.3 +/- 4.8). Intervention to improve dietary habits was considered ineffective by 48.1% (95% CI 48.1 +/- 7.8). Confidence in managing risk factors varied; most respondents described themselves as only moderately skilled. A few practitioners (30.1%; 95% CI 30.1 +/- 7.2) acknowledged practice guidelines as an important source of information on which to base preventive interventions. Only 14.7% (95% CI 14.7 +/- 5.6) of those surveyed included remuneration as contributing to their implementation of prevention activities in practice. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in physician attitudes could influence risk factor intervention. Interventions to change lifestyle are associated with uncertainty about patient compliance, efficacy of treatment, and ability to effect lifestyle changes. PMID:9585851

  13. Alcohol and Cardiovascular DiseaseModulation of Vascular Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Paul A.; Redmond, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is a commonly used drug worldwide. Epidemiological studies have identified alcohol consumption as a factor that may either positively or negatively influence many diseases including cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and dementia. Often there seems to be a differential effect of various drinking patterns, with frequent moderate consumption of alcohol being salutary and binge drinking or chronic abuse being deleterious to ones health. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the many effects of alcohol consumption is beginning to emerge, as well as a clearer picture as to whether these effects are due to the direct actions of alcohol itself, or caused in part by its metabolites, e.g., acetaldehyde, or by incidental components present in the alcoholic beverage (e.g., polyphenols in red wine). This review will discuss evidence to date as to how alcohol (ethanol) might affect atherosclerosis that underlies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and the putative mechanisms involved, focusing on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell effects. PMID:22606372