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1

Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking) risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori) and the United States (Native Americans). Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors.

Stoner, Lee; Stoner, Krystina R; Young, Joanna M; Fryer, Simon

2012-01-01

2

Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking) risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori) and the United States (Native Americans). Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors. PMID:22624079

Stoner, Lee; Stoner, Krystina R; Young, Joanna M; Fryer, Simon

2012-04-01

3

Nutrition as a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease: how can we stop the obesity epidemic?  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity are associated with excess cardiovascular risk. To reduce cardiovascular risk at the population level, the prevention of overweight and obesity is key. This requires adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including less inactivity and more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and a healthy diet. Diet composition may facilitate weight gain prevention and weight loss. Effects of dietary fats, carbohydrates and proteins will be discussed in this context. Current evidence indicates that moderation of the intake of (saturated) fat, a moderate increase in protein content of the diet, a replacement of refined grain/high glucose index (GI) by whole-grain/low GI carbohydrates and limitation of the consumption of calorically-sweetened beverages are likely to facilitate weight control. PMID:23945609

van Baak, M A

2013-08-15

4

Disease Epidemic Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model can be used to create a virtual population to observe how different factors might affect the spread of a disease. Scientists often use computer models to study complicated phenomena like epidemics. This model is a simplified simulation of any disease that is spread through human contact.

Shodor

5

Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.

2008-12-05

6

Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197) were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure). Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

Grace, Sherry L; Fry, Rick; Cheung, Angela; Stewart, Donna E

2004-01-01

7

The Importance of Diabetes Mellitus in the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: The Case of the State of Qatar  

PubMed Central

As a manifestation of the epidemiologic transition being experienced throughout the developing world, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing. However, whether an individual's risk of cardiovascular diseases as a consequence of DM is also higher in these countries is unknown. We conducted a case-control study at the medical center in the state of Qatar comparing the prevalence of DM in 512 patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) and 262 cases of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) to 382 hospital and outpatient controls to calculate the odds ratios (OR) associated with DM for MI and CVA. The OR for MI was estimated to be 4.01 compared to 2.92 for other countries in the Middle East and 1.75 for North America. The OR was even higher for Qatari natives. Understanding the reasons for this increase, including genetic differences, lifestyle, and medical management issues, is critical for the design and prioritization of effective interventions.

Mushlin, Alvin I.; Christos, Paul J.; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Deleu, Dirk; Gehani, Abdul Razak

2012-01-01

8

Psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder that affects about 2% to 3% of the adult population. Several reports have demonstrated an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, hypertension, valvular disease and arrhythmia. In this review we analysed the link between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and the possible physiopathologic mechanism of this correlation. PMID:20666273

Vizzardi, Enrico; Raddino, Riccardo; Teli, Melissa; Gorga, Elio; Brambilla, Giulio; Dei Cas, Livio

2010-06-01

9

Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 62 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease and, of these, more than 32 million are female. This translates into an average of 1 in 5 women, making cardiovascular disease the leading killer of women in the U.S., responsible for more than half a million deaths a year. While it has been known for some time

W. L ANE DUVALL

2003-01-01

10

Cardiovascular Disease in Developing Countries: Myths, Realities, and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially ischemic heart disease and stroke, varies remarkably between regions of the world, with declining rates in Europe, North America, and Australia\\/New Zealand, burgeoning epidemics in the former socialist economies and India, and relatively lower impact in developing regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. The basis for a prediction of a global CVD epidemic

Thomas A. Pearson

1999-01-01

11

Cardiovascular Disease in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a physician, coach, or trainer, we see athletes as healthy, physically fit, and able to tolerate extremes of physical endurance. It seems improbable that such athletes may have, on occasion, underlying life-threatening cardiovascular abnormalities. Regular physical activity promulgates cardiovascular fitness and lowers the risk of cardiac disease. However, under intense physical exertion and with a substrate of significant cardiac

Frederick C. Basilico

1999-01-01

12

Epidemic! The World of Infectious Disease - Exhibit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the museum's Epidemic! exhibit, provides an in-depth look at the world of infectious disease. It includes information on how environmental changes can affect the spread of disease, the three major groups of microbes and how disease is spread, and the factors that determine whether an outbreak will become an epidemic or a pandemic. There is a list, organized by topic and specific disease, of more than 250 Web sites and a glossary.

13

[Smoking and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Smoking is a major cardiovascular risk factor and smoking cessation is essential in any approach to cardiovascular prevention. Events occurring wthout any threshold of intensity or duration of consumption, smoking is the essential and often isolated factor in the acute coronary events of the young subjects. The mechanisms involved are mainly thrombosis and spasm. Smoking cessation provides a rapid and very important cardiovascular benefit and has the best cost/benefit ratio for cardiovascular prevention. The main objective is an early, total and definitive cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy can be prescribed in patients with coronary artery disease, including immediately after a myocardial infarction. Passive smoking must also be considered as a cardiovascular risk factor and should be avoided by collective and individual measures. PMID:22514985

Thomas, Daniel

2012-03-01

14

Leptin and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

1. Leptin is a 16-kDa hormone, synthesized primarily by adipocyte, which acts as a key factor for maintenance of energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues. In most obese individuals, serum leptin levels are increased and correlate with the individual's body mass index. 2. Abundant investigations ranging from clinical and animal model studies to in vitro analyses show that leptin plays a pivotal role in obesity-related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hyperleptinaemia has been confirmed to be a predictor of acute cardiovascular events. However, some studies have shown that leptin has a cardioprotective effect in leptin-deficient models. These data suggest the influences of leptin on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases are complex and not completely understood. 3. In the present review, we summarize the major leptin signalling pathways, including Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) signalling pathways, and analyse the probable mechanisms of selective leptin resistance. We then provide a detailed review of the effects of leptin on the cardiovascular system, including sympathoactivation, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vascular cell proliferation, cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as well as fatty acid metabolism, all of which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease). The central premise of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms by which leptin affects the cardiovascular function and provide insight into obesity-related CVD. PMID:21957899

Hou, Ning; Luo, Jian-Dong

2011-12-01

15

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health conditions. In this article, epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases and, more specifically, of coronary heart disease (CHD), are reviewed to document their major public health importance, the changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of these trends. The major risk indicators for CHD are reviewed and found

C. David Jenkins

1988-01-01

16

Cardiovascular disease in women: reducing cardiovascular comorbidity.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the leading etiology of mortality in women. The American Heart Association recommends classifying a woman's risk as 1 of 3 categories: ideal cardiovascular health, at risk, and high risk. Risk levels are based on traditional risk factors, such as lipid levels, blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status. Risk can be assessed using the Framingham risk score, which estimates an individual's 10-year risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. Other risk factors for cardiovascular disease that should be considered include psychosocial disadvantage, marital status, depression, and anxiety. A multidisciplinary approach to managing these stressors may decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23977826

Madrazo, Catinca

2013-08-01

17

[Cardiovascular disease and sexuality].  

PubMed

Sexual activity corresponds to light to moderate physical exercise and entails no significant risk to the majority of patients with cardiovascular disease. In patients suffering from severe angina or chronic heart failure, however, sexual activity might trigger coital angina or cardiac decompensation necessitating hospitalization. Nevertheless, even for patients with coronary artery disease the absolute risk of having a heart attack or fatal event during sexual activity is extremely low. Due to systemic atherosclerosis and concomitant endothelial dysfunction the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is higher in patients with cardiovascular disease as compared to the general population. PDE-5 inhibitors can be safely used by many patients suffering from both, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction as long as no concomitant medication with nitrates exists. The concomitant use of PDE-5 inhibitors and nitrates is strictly contraindicated because of the risk of life-threatening hypotension. It is therefore of utmost importance to ask patients presenting with coital angina about PDE-5 inhibitor intake before the administration of nitrate-based anti-ischemic therapies. The recommendations of the Princeton Consensus Conference provide a useful framework for risk stratification and counseling of patients with cardiovascular disease regarding sexual activity. PMID:20235042

Pfister, Otmar

2010-03-01

18

Melatonin in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

This editorial refers to "Cardiovascular effects of melatonin receptor agonists". The hormone melatonin is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland, retina, several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Based on the data available, the last 18 years indicate that melatonin influences multiple factors of the cardiovascular function. Multiple evidences reveal that the rhythmicity of melatonin has a crucial role in a variety of cardiovascular pathophysiological processes including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and possibly as an antilipidemic function. Melatonin receptors receive and transduce melatonin's message to influence daily and seasonal rhythms of physiology. The melatonin message is translated through the interaction between the melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) and its coupling to G proteins, which are potential therapeutic targets in disorders ranging from insomnia, circadian sleep disorders, depression and cardiovascular diseases. Based on the data available, melatonin seems to have cardioprotective properties via its direct free radical scavenger activity. Melatonin efficiently interacts with several reactive oxygen species (receptor-independent actions). Collectively, these protective actions of melatonin may have potential clinical applicability for individuals with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22916801

Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto

2012-08-23

19

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the primary cause of death in women for almost a century, and more women than men have died of CVD every year since 1984. Although CVD incidence can be reduced by adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle and detection and treatment of major risk factors, preventive recommendations have not been consistently or optimally applied to women.

SHARONNE N. HAYES

20

Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep is an important modulator of cardiovascular function, both in physiological conditions and in disease states. In individuals without a primary sleep disorder, sleep may exert significant effects on the autonomic nervous system, systemic hemodynamics, cardiac function, endothelial function, and coagulation. Some of these influences can be directly linked to specific modulatory effects of sleep stages per se; others result

Robert Wolk; Apoor S. Gami; Arturo Garcia-Touchard; Virend K. Somers

2005-01-01

21

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and

Caren E. Smith; José M. Ordovás

2010-01-01

22

Stress in cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Stress plays a major role in various (patho)physiological processes associated with the circula- tory system. Thereby, it potentially has ameliorating or detrimental capacities. However, with regard to cardiovascular diseases, stress most often is related to deleterious results. The specif- ic outcome depends on multiple variables (amount of stress, duration of its influence, patient's history\\/predisposition, genetic components - as they

Tobias Esch; George B. Stefano; Gregory L. Fricchione; Herbert Benson

2002-01-01

23

Tea and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk.

Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

24

Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures.

Fares, Auda

2013-01-01

25

Lycopene and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence suggests that lycopene, a carotenoid without provitamin A activity found in high concentrations in a small set of plant foods, has significant antioxidant potential in vitro and may play a role in preventing prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease in humans. Tomato products, including ketchup, tomato juice, and pizza sauce, are the richest sources of lycopene in the US diet, accounting for >80% of the total lycopene intake of Americans. Unlike other carotenoids, lycopene is not consistently lower among smokers than among nonsmokers, suggesting that any possible preventive activity is not as an antioxidant. Instead, lycopene may have a cholesterol synthesis-inhibiting effect and may enhance LDL degradation. Available evidence suggests that intimal wall thickness and risk of myocardial infarction are reduced in persons with higher adipose tissue concentrations of lycopene. The question of whether lycopene helps to prevent cardiovascular disease can only be answered by a trial specifically evaluating its effectiveness in this area. PMID:10837319

Arab, L; Steck, S

2000-06-01

26

Migraine and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Migraine, especially migraine with aura (MA), is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication, and cardiovascular mortality. The mechanisms which link migraine to ischemic vascular disease remain uncertain and are likely to be complex. Cortical spreading depression, the presumed substrate of aura, may directly predispose to brain lesions and that would explain why MA is consistently demonstrated as a risk factor for cerebral ischemia, while for migraine without aura (MO), the evidence is less consistent. Additionally, individuals with migraine have a higher prevalence of risk factors known to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. The increased prevalence of CVD risk factors is also higher for MA than for MO. Since the evidence linking migraine and CVD is getting robust, neurologists should be aware of this association. Individuals with MO seem to be at little increased risk of CVD. MA is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and likely also for other ischemic CVD events. Accordingly, heightened vigilance is recommended for modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in migraineurs, especially with MA. Ultimately, it will be important to determine whether MA is a modifiable risk factor for CVD and if preventive medications for migraine or antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of CVD in patients with MA. GLOSSARY BMI = body mass index; CDH = chronic daily headache; CI = confidence interval; CSD = cortical spreading depression; CVD = cardiovascular disease; EPC = endothelial progenitor cells; HR = hazard ratio; MA = migraine with aura; MMP = matrix metalloproteinase; MO = migraine without aura; MTHFR = methyltetrahydrofolate reductase; RR = relative risk.

Bigal, M E.; Kurth, T; Hu, H; Santanello, N; Lipton, R B.

2009-01-01

27

Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

2013-03-01

28

Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been intensively studied and described, the underlying events that initiate cardiovascular disease are not yet fully understood. A substantial number of studies suggest that altered levels of oxidative and nitrosoxidative stress within the cardiovascular environment are essential in the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the impact of such changes on the subcellular or organellar

Scott W. Ballinger

2005-01-01

29

Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in collaboration with communities, families, schools, work sites, health care professionals, media and policymakers. PMID:16596798

Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

2005-01-01

30

HRT and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Conclusions influencing clinical decisions about the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on cardiovascular disease have undergone major revisions over the last 30 years. Assumptions in the early 1970s that HRT would increase thromboembolic conditions were reversed in the 1980s, when the first formal studies seemed to indicate a cardioprotective effect. The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) has, however, very recently suggested that HRT does not affect the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) one way or the other. These roller-coaster changes of direction have made decisions by doctors and their patients about the long-term use of HRT extremely difficult and need to be replaced by the stability that only further randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can now provide. PMID:10695958

Meade, T W; Vickers, M R

1999-01-01

31

Regional differences in albuminuria among American Indians: An epidemic of renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional differences in albuminuria among American Indians: An epidemic of renal disease. Albuminuria is a risk factor for renal and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a cross sectional survey of 4549 older American Indians in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota of (micro)albuminuria. A range of 20.1 to 48.3% of all participants had either micro- (? 30 to < 300

David C Robbins; William C Knowler; Elisa T Lee; Jeunliang Yeh; Oscar T Go; Thomas Welty; Richard Fabsitz; Barbara V Howard

1996-01-01

32

United States: Total Cardiovascular Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents 1995 death rates for the following diseases: Total cardiovascular diseases; Ischemic heart diseases; Stroke; All cancers; Lung cancer; Colorectal cancer; Breast cancer; Diabetes; Cigarette smoking; No leisure time physical activity among adults; ...

1996-01-01

33

Spread of epidemic disease on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on networks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community. In this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models, the so-called susceptible/infective/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly on a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case of fixed infectiveness time and fixed and uncorrelated probability of transmission between all pairs of individuals, we solve cases in which times and probabilities are nonuniform and correlated. We also consider one simple case of an epidemic in a structured population, that of a sexually transmitted disease in a population divided into men and women. We confirm the correctness of our exact solutions with numerical simulations of SIR epidemics on networks.

Newman, M. E.

2002-07-01

34

Inflammasomes in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) constitute a recently identified family of macromolecules that participate in regulation of innate immune responses. To date, 23 members of the NLR family are identified in humans. Diverse NLRs are stimulated by a broad range of pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns, and collectively function as intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The most studied inflammasomes are NLRP1 and NLRP3 that process inactive pro-caspase-1 to its active form, allowing the cleavage and subsequent activation of pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18, and initiation of inflammatory responses. Three models, based upon extracellular ATP/K+ flux, lysosomal release of cathepsin, and reactive oxygen species, have been proposed to be involved in signaling activation of NLRs and downstream events. In this review, I discuss the current state of knowledge related to the roles of NLRs and inflammasomes in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

Garg, Nisha Jain

2011-01-01

35

Cardiovascular disease in women.  

PubMed

Gender-specific data focused on cardiovascular disease (CVD) are becoming increasingly available. This is of great importance, given that CVD has become the number 1 killer of women, and unlike for men, mortality rates do not seem to be declining. Many factors are cited as the causes of sex-based differences, including delays in recognizing symptoms, underutilization of diagnostic tests and treatments, as well as anatomic, physiological, and genetic factors. Evidence of fundamental biological differences in vascular function and the underlying pathologic processes is only beginning to elucidated, motivated by growing evidence of differences in clinical presentations and outcomes between men and women. The good news is that we are starting to see improvements in outcomes for women, such as after coronary revascularization; decrease in complication rates with the advent of new techniques, such as radial access for cardiac catheterizations; as well as increased participation of women in clinical trials. The underlying mechanisms of ischemic heart disease remain to be elucidated, and will help guide therapy and ultimately may explain the higher prevalence of : subendocardial myocardial infarctions, spontaneous arterial dissections, plaque erosion, increased vasospastic disorders, such as coronary microvascular disease, and pulmonary hypertension in women compared with men. We have made great progress in understanding gender-related differences in CVDs, but much remains to be done to optimize the prevention of CVD for both men and women. PMID:23047015

Stock, Eveline Oestreicher; Redberg, Rita

2012-11-01

36

Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 30 y the region of highest premature cardiovascular mortality has shifted from the US and Finland to Central and Eastern Europe. Present male cardiovascular mortality in Latvia, Estonia, the Russian Federation, and Hungary has overtaken the maximum cardiovascular mortality reached in the US in the 1960s. This epidemic is only partially explainable by the high prevalence of

Emil Ginter

1998-01-01

37

Forgotten cardiovascular diseases in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the global burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by low and middle income countries. Unfortunately, many\\u000a of these regions are still grappling with poverty and infection-related cardiovascular diseases, such as endomyocardial fibrosis,\\u000a tuberculous pericarditis and rheumatic heart disease. In addition, Africa has its unique diseases that occur more commonly\\u000a in Africans as peripartum cardiomyopathy or, almost uniquely

Karen Sliwa; Ana Olga Mocumbi

2010-01-01

38

Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential

Karin H Greiser; Alexander Kluttig; Barbara Schumann; Jan A Kors; Cees A Swenne; Oliver Kuss; Karl Werdan; Johannes Haerting

2005-01-01

39

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and treatment. A more thorough understanding of the factors that contribute to CVD is, therefore, needed to develop more efficacious and cost-effective therapy. Application of the ‘omics’ technologies will hopefully make these advances a reality. Epigenomics has emerged as one of the most promising areas that will address some of the gaps in our current knowledge of the interaction between nature and nurture in the development of CVD. Epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations, which collectively enable the cell to respond quickly to environmental changes. A number of CVD risk factors, such as nutrition, smoking, pollution, stress, and the circadian rhythm, have been associated with modification of epigenetic marks. Further examination of these mechanisms may lead to earlier prevention and novel therapy for CVD.

Ordovas, Jose M.; Smith, Caren E.

2011-01-01

40

Integrative approaches for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In the United States, $2.5 trillion is spent on healthcare annually. Seven chronic diseases account for half of all this expense. Of these 7, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus are largely preventable. Integrative cardiology programs that focus on risk-factor modification through lifestyle change combined with early detection and advanced lipid management offer a new paradigm to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19955547

Guarneri, Mimi; Mercado, Nestor; Suhar, Christopher

2009-12-01

41

Commentary: environmental disease--a preventable epidemic  

SciTech Connect

Toxic environmental diseases are highly preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Toxic diseases in the work environment cause an estimated 50,000 to 70,000 deaths and 350,000 new cases of illness each year in the United States; the asbestos pandemic will ultimately claim at least 300,000 lives; pediatric lead poisoning is epidemic, and an estimated 3 to 4 million US preschool children have blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl and could suffer long-term neuropsychological impairment. Prevention of environmental diseases can be achieved through legislation and regulation that control common-source exposures to chemical toxins. Modification of personal behaviors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, complements but does not replace control of toxic environmental exposures.

Landrigan, P.J. (Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

1992-07-01

42

Projected Impact of Urbanization on Cardiovascular Disease in China  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model-China, a national scale cardiovascular disease computer simulation model, was used to project future impact of urbanization. Methods Populations and cardiovascular disease incidence rates were stratified into four submodels: North-Urban, South-Urban, North-Rural, and South-Rural. 2010 was the base year, and high and low urbanization rate scenarios were used to project 2030 populations. Results Rural-to-urban migration, population growth, and aging were projected to more than double cardiovascular disease events in urban areas and increase by 27.0–45.6% in rural areas. Urbanization is estimated to raise age-standardized coronary heart disease incidence by 73–81 per 100,000 and stroke incidence only slightly. Conclusions Rural-to-urban migration will likely be a major demographic driver of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in China.

Chan, Faye; Adamo, Susana; Coxson, Pamela; Goldman, Lee; Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; He, Jiang; Mara, Valentina; Moran, Andrew

2012-01-01

43

Epidemic!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemic! uses three case studies to explore such disease-related environmental considerations as fate and transport, monitoring the environment, pollution prevention, regulations and policy, and risk assessment and decisionmaking. Scientific principles of ecology, evolution, and microbial resistance are also introduced. Instructors will find a wealth of teaching resources including an epidemiology role-play, Web-based activities, alignment of topics with science standards, and many links to additional information and resources on the Web. Designed as a resource for teachers, Epidemic! can also be used as a multidisciplinary learning resource for students in high school and college in the areas of biological sciences, environmental technology, allied health, social sciences, math, and English.

2010-06-08

44

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Dec 11,2012 The fall and winter seasons will bring cooler temperatures, and ... and snow. It’s important to know how cold weather can affect your heart, especially if you have ...

45

Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provided herein methods for determining whether a subject, particularly a human subject, is at risk of developing, having, or experiencing a complication of cardiovascular disease, and methods of treating subjects who are identified by the current methods...

S. L. Hazen M. Kinter M. S. Penn J. Smith L. Zheng

2004-01-01

46

Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested.

Rosenman, K D

1979-01-01

47

Water Hardness and Cardiovascular Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief review of the present state of knowledge regarding the relationship of water hardness to cardiovascular disease. Also included are recommendations for future research and a statement on the appropriateness of modifying current water treatment prac...

1979-01-01

48

Cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction, others) varies, depending on conventional risk factors. However, in Western countries, like the US or Germany, incidences of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease are far higher than in countries like Japan. In the present article, these differences are discussed and related to eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5omega-3 or

Clemens von Schacky

2009-01-01

49

Expression profiling of cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, causing twice as many deaths as cancer in the USA. The major cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and common congenital heart disease (CHD), are caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors, as well as the interactions between them. The underlying molecular pathogenic mechanisms for these disorders are still largely unknown, but gene expression may play a central role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Microarrays are high-throughput genomic tools that allow the comparison of global expression changes in thousands of genes between normal and diseased cells/tissues. Microarrays have recently been applied to CAD/MI, CHF and CHD to profile changes in gene expression patterns in diseased and non-diseased patients. This same technology has also been used to characterise endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammatory cells, with or without various treatments that mimic disease processes involved in CAD/MI. These studies have led to the identification of unique subsets of genes associated with specific diseases and disease processes. Ongoing microarray studies in the field will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of cardiovascular disease and may generate new diagnostic and therapeutic markers.

2004-01-01

50

Information and communication technology in cardiovascular disease prevention in developing countries: hype and hope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information can be an important tool in promoting a prevention strategy to address the emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Advances in information and communication technology offer new promises for global access to information and for global mobilization to prevent and control cardiovascular disease. This is especially true for health professionals, whose needs in areas such as networking,

Samer Jabbour; Sania Nishtar; D. Prabhakaran; Arun Chockalingam; Aloyzio Achutti; Abha Agrawal; Max A. Luna; Florencio Garofalo; Andreas Wielgosz

2003-01-01

51

Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established critical pathways and specific loci modulating therapeutic responses to commonly used drugs such as clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins. In addition, genomic approaches have defined mechanisms and genetic variants underlying important toxicities with these and other drugs. These findings have not only resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described to date might be deployed in clinical decision making. PMID:23689943

Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

2013-07-01

52

TGF? Signaling and Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) family members are involved in a wide range of diverse functions and play key roles in embryogenesis, development and tissue homeostasis. Perturbation of TGF? signaling may lead to vascular and other diseases. In vitro studies have provided evidence that TGF? family members have a wide range of diverse effects on vascular cells, which are highly dependent on cellular context. Consistent with these observations genetic studies in mice and humans showed that TGF? family members have ambiguous effects on the function of the cardiovascular system. In this review we discuss the recent advances on TGF? signaling in (cardio)vascular diseases, and describe the value of TGF? signaling as both a disease marker and therapeutic target for (cardio)vascular diseases.

Pardali, Evangelia; ten Dijke, Peter

2012-01-01

53

Cardiovascular disease in women: contraceptive issues and nonvalvular cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Several reproductive issues affect cardiovascular risk in women. Polycystic ovary syndrome is common and may include menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, and metabolic symptoms. Patients with this syndrome have an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Hysterectomy is a common gynecologic surgery that may affect estrogen levels in women. There are conflicting data on the cardiovascular risk associated with estrogen use in women after a hysterectomy. Human papillomavirus is a newly identified risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanism and effect are still unknown. Contraceptives are the most commonly used prescription drugs among women in the United States. The absolute risk of CVD in young women is low; therefore, the threefold increase in risk that is associated with contraceptives is still low. Estrogen is thought to be the primary concern related to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with combined oral contraceptives. Contraceptive pills also may affect insulin, lipid, and blood pressure levels. PMID:23977829

Schrager, Sarina; Dalby, Jessica; Hayon, Ronni; Fox, Kelita

2013-08-01

54

Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the latest Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health, cardiac disease remains the leading cause of maternal death in the UK. Increasing maternal age and extended survival of patients with complex congenital disease are partly responsible for a rising number of patients with cardiac disease in pregnancy. Another large proportion consists of patients with rheumatic disease (often previously undiagnosed)

Anna Herrey; Catherine Nelson-Piercy

2010-01-01

55

Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begona; Mallavia, Benat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

2011-01-01

56

Disease spreading with epidemic alert on small-world networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Base on two-dimension small-world networks, a susceptible-infected model with epidemic alert is proposed in this Letter. In this model, if some parts of the network are alarmed as dangerous, a fraction of edges between the alarmed parts and others will be removed, and two cases of alerting rules that the degree and frequency of contacts kept unchanged are considered respectively. The numerical simulations show that the spreading velocity is reduced by the accurate and timely epidemic alert, and the more accurate and timely, the stronger the deceleration effect. This model indicates that to broadcast epidemic alert timely is helpful and necessary in the control of epidemic spreading, and in agreement with the general view of epidemic alert. This work is helpful to understand the effects of epidemic alert on disease spreading.

Han, Xiao-Pu

2007-05-01

57

Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

Kienreich, Katharina; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Verheyen, Nicolas; Pieber, Thomas; Gaksch, Martin; Grubler, Martin R.; Pilz, Stefan

2013-01-01

58

[Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].  

PubMed

The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

Picciotto, D

59

Latest drug developments in the field of cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease has been responsible for more deaths annually than any other disease category since 1900, except for the influenza epidemic in 1916. Yet, the drug pipeline has been largely bereft of new entrants. In 2008, one new cardiovascular medication was marketed in the United States. In 2009, there were two new cardiovascular medications. In comparison, there were seven new drugs for oncology in 2009. The present review explores new agents within the context of models currently in the drug pipeline. Of course, there is no guarantee that any of these agents will be marketed. A discussion of the models is illustrative of the types of approaches being used to develop new cardiovascular agents.

Stern, Craig S; Lebowitz, Jason

2010-01-01

60

Chlamydia pneumoniae and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae, a respiratory pathogen, has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic data are very controversial.\\u000a Histopathologic and microbiologic studies have established an association between atherosclerosis and presence of C. pneumoniae, consistently finding C. pneumoniae DNA and antigens in atherosclerotic arteries. C. pneumoniae has been cultured from atherosclerotic arteries in several centers. An etiologic role for

Maria Kolia; Ignatius William Fong

2002-01-01

61

Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the past decade has shown that elevated levels of homocysteine have a strong association with all forms of atherothrombotic\\u000a disease and venous thromboembolism. This association is particularly strong for coronary disease and newer data indicate that\\u000a screening for homocysteine levels may be warranted in those with unexplained thrombotic tendencies and in young patients who\\u000a develop coronary events or

Dinesh K. Kalra

2004-01-01

62

Reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the “free radical theory” of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally

Koichi Sugamura

2011-01-01

63

Rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting approximately 1% of the adult general population.\\u000a Cardiovascular disease is recognized as the leading cause of death in RA patients, accounting for nearly 40% of their mortality.\\u000a Patients with RA are at a twofold increased risk for myocardial infarction and stroke, with risk increasing to nearly threefold\\u000a in patients who

Saurabh S. Dhawan; Arshed A. Quyyumi

2008-01-01

64

Protein glutathionylation in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

The perturbation of thiol-disulfide homeostasis is an important consequence of many diseases, with redox signals implicated in several physio-pathological processes. A prevalent form of cysteine modification is the reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides with glutathione (S-glutathionylation). The abundance of glutathione in cells and the ready conversion of sulfenic acids to S-glutathione mixed disulfides supports the reversible protein S-glutathionylation as a common feature of redox signal transduction, able to regulate the activities of several redox sensitive proteins. In particular, protein S-glutathionylation is emerging as a critical signaling mechanism in cardiovascular diseases, because it regulates numerous physiological processes involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, including myocyte contraction, oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, vasodilation, glycolytic metabolism and response to insulin. Thus, perturbations in protein glutathionylation status may contribute to the etiology of many cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. Various reports show the importance of oxidative cysteine modifications in modulating cardiovascular function. In this review, we illustrate tools and strategies to monitor protein S-glutathionylation and describe the proteins so far identified as glutathionylated in myocardial contraction, hypertrophy and inflammation. PMID:24141185

Pastore, Anna; Piemonte, Fiorella

2013-10-17

65

Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart disease continues to be an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. This is largely because of the extensive haemodynamic changes that occur during pregnancy, namely the increase in blood volume, fluctuations in cardiac output, fall in systemic vascular resistance and the hypercoagulable state. High-risk periods include the end of the second trimester, during labour and the immediate postpartum

Jackie Yu-Ling Tan

2007-01-01

66

Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac disease continues to be an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and is now the leading cause of maternal deaths in the United Kingdom. This is largely because of extensive haemodynamic changes which occur during pregnancy, namely the increase in blood volume, fluctuations in cardiac output, fall in systemic vascular resistance and hypercoagulable state. High risk periods include

Jackie Yu-Ling Tan

2010-01-01

67

Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep is an important modulator of cardio- vascular function, both in physiological conditions and in disease states. In individuals without a pri- mary sleep disorder, sleep may exert significant effects on the autonomic nervous system, systemic hemodynamics, cardiac function, endothelial func- tion, and coagulation. Some of these influences can be directly linked to specific modulatory effects of sleep stages per

Robert Wolk; Apoor S. Gami; Arturo Garcia-Touchard; Virend K. Somers

2005-01-01

68

Prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed Central

1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol), fibrates (eg bezafibrate and gemfibrozil) and more recently HMG CoA inhibitors (eg simvastatin). The HMG CoA inhibitors produce large falls in cholesterol and may become first line drugs in future. Because of the current controversy about the effect of lipid-lowering drugs on total mortality, many believe that they should be reserved for those at the highest risk, for example patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia or with pre-existing coronary heart disease and a high plasma cholesterol (> 7.8 mmol/L). 9. The special care group defined by the practice should be offered regular follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.

1992-01-01

69

Prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol), fibrates (eg bezafibrate and gemfibrozil) and more recently HMG CoA inhibitors (eg simvastatin). The HMG CoA inhibitors produce large falls in cholesterol and may become first line drugs in future. Because of the current controversy about the effect of lipid-lowering drugs on total mortality, many believe that they should be reserved for those at the highest risk, for example patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia or with pre-existing coronary heart disease and a high plasma cholesterol (> 7.8 mmol/L). 9. The special care group defined by the practice should be offered regular follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1345159

Haines, A; Patterson, D; Rayner, M; Hyland, K

1992-12-01

70

Treatment for cardiovascular disease  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to a method for treating and preventing hypertension by administering a therapeutically effective amount of an agent capable of reducing uric acid levels in a patient in need of such treatment. Additionally, the scope of the invention includes a method of treating coronary heart disease by administering a therapeutically effective amount of an agent capable of reducing uric acid levels in a patient in need of such treatment.

2010-09-21

71

Genomics in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

A paradigm shift toward biology occurred in the 1990s and was subsequently catalyzed by the sequencing of the human genome in 2000. The cost of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing has gone from millions to thousands of dollars with sequencing of one's entire genome costing only $1,000. Rapid DNA sequencing is being embraced for single gene disorders, particularly for sporadic cases and those from small families. Transmission of lethal genes such as associated with Huntington's disease can, through in vitro fertilization, avoid passing it on to one's offspring. DNA sequencing will meet the challenge of elucidating the genetic predisposition for common polygenic diseases, especially in determining the function of the novel common genetic risk variants and identifying the rare variants, which may also partially ascertain the source of the missing heritability. The challenge for DNA sequencing remains great, despite human genome sequences being 99.5% identical, the 3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for most of the unique features add up to 40 to 60 new mutations per person which, for 7 billion people, is 300 to 400 billion mutations. It is claimed that DNA sequencing has increased 10,000-fold while information storage and retrieval only 16-fold. The physician and health user will be challenged by the convergence of 2 major trends, whole genome sequencing, and the storage/retrieval and integration of the data. PMID:23524054

Roberts, Robert; Marian, A J; Dandona, Sonny; Stewart, Alexandre F R

2013-03-21

72

Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD.

2006-01-01

73

Circadian rhythm and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstration of a circadian variation in frequency of onset of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and stroke\\u000a provides an opportunity to gain insight into the mechanism of transformation from chronic stable to acute unstable manifestation\\u000a of cardiovascular disease. Contributing physiologic changes that exhibit a morning peak include arterial pressure, heart rate,\\u000a and vascular tone, which promote plaque rupture, together

Elizabeth Shaw; Geoffrey H. Tofler

2009-01-01

74

Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

75

Aerial dispersal and multiple-scale spread of epidemic disease.  

PubMed

Disease spread has traditionally been described as a traveling wave of constant velocity. However, aerially dispersed pathogens capable of long-distance dispersal often have dispersal gradients with extended tails that could result in acceleration of the epidemic front. We evaluated empirical data with a simple model of disease spread that incorporates logistic growth in time with an inverse power function for dispersal. The scale invariance of the power law dispersal function implies its applicability at any spatial scale; indeed, the model successfully described epidemics ranging over six orders of magnitude, from experimental field plots to continental-scale epidemics of both plant and animal diseases. The distance traveled by epidemic fronts approximately doubled per unit time, velocity increased linearly with distance (slope ~(1/2)), and the exponent of the inverse power law was approximately 2. We found that it also may be possible to scale epidemics to account for initial outbreak focus size and the frequency of susceptible hosts. These relationships improve understanding of the geographic spread of emerging diseases, and facilitate the development of methods for predicting and preventing epidemics of plants, animals, and humans caused by pathogens that are capable of long-distance dispersal. PMID:20155301

Mundt, Christopher C; Sackett, Kathryn E; Wallace, Larae D; Cowger, Christina; Dudley, Joseph P

2010-02-13

76

[Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality in Croatia and in Europe. Primary prevention of CVD involves intervention before the onset of disease, and prevention of modifiable risk factors, i.e. cigarette smoking, hyperlipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inactivity, obesity. These risk factors are strongly associated and lead to impaired vascular endothelial function, chronic injury of endothelium, platelet activation and aggregation, atherosclerotic plaque formation, and in the end manifestation of CVD. The risk of any coronary event increases exponentially when two or more risk factors are present. Aside from conventional factors, it has been demonstrated that raised levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines, homocysteine and fibrinogen are also important promotors of the disease, pointing to partially inflammatory nature of coronary atherosclerosis. The effects of risk factors such as smoking, arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia on vascular endothelium are proven to be reversible. According to Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice of the European Society of Cardiology (2007), population is advised to follow the formula 0 3 5 140 5 3 0. It suggests that crucial measures in preserving cardiovascular health are as follows: no smoking (0), walking 3 km daily or 30 minutes of any moderate activity (3), blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg systolic (140), total blood cholesterol less than 5 mmol/L (5), LDL cholesterol less than 3 mmol/L (3), avoidance of overweight and diabetes (0). There are many studies proving the beneficial effects of statins and ACE inhibitors in improving endothelial function and endorsing primary prevention. PMID:19681467

Kati?, Tina; Saki?, Ivana; Bergovec, Mijo

2009-02-01

77

Hypoglycemia, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in people with diabetes, and the risk of CVD for adults with diabetes is at least two to four times the risk in adults without diabetes. Complications of diabetes, including not only CVD but also microvascular diseases such as retinopathy and nephropathy, are a major health and financial burden. Diabetes is a disease of glucose intolerance, and so much of the research on complications has focused on the role of hyperglycemia. Clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the role of hyperglycemia in microvascular complications of diabetes, but there appears to be less evidence for as strong of a relationship between hyperglycemia and CVD in people with diabetes. Hypoglycemia has become a more pressing health concern as intensive glycemic control has become the standard of care in diabetes. Clinical trials of intensive glucose lowering in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes populations has resulted in significantly increased hypoglycemia, with no decrease in CVD during the trial period, although several studies have shown a reduction in CVD with extended follow-up. There is evidence that hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, and this is one potential explanation for the lack of CVD prevention in trials of intensive glycemic control. Hypoglycemia causes a cascade of physiologic effects and may induce oxidative stress and cardiac arrhythmias, contribute to sudden cardiac death, and cause ischemic cerebral damage, presenting several potential mechanisms through which acute and chronic episodes of hypoglycemia may increase CVD risk. In this review, we examine the risk factors and prevalence of hypoglycemia in diabetes, review the evidence for an association of both acute and chronic hypoglycemia with CVD in adults with diabetes, and discuss potential mechanisms through which hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk.

Wadwa, R. Paul

2012-01-01

78

Peritoneal dialysis and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular (CV) death is the most frequent cause of dying in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Risk factors include not only those that can be present in the general population, but also those related to the presence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and factors that are specific for PD modality. Hypertension is the most important general risk factor in PD patients, while obesity remains controversial. Inflammation, malnutrition, calcifications and probably endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are all CV risk factors present in ESRD that contribute to mortality in PD patients. Additional CV risk factors in PD are related to the glucose load, leading to increasing insulin resistance and a more atherogenic lipid profile. The presence of glucose degradation products in conventional dialysis solutions is mainly related to the development of peritoneal abnormalities, but not directly to cardiovascular disease. Loss of residual renal function and ultrafiltration failure promote overhydration, which is the most important PD-related risk factor for CV disease. PMID:22971680

Balafa, O; Krediet, R T

2012-09-01

79

Epidemic of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Western Canada, 2005-2009  

PubMed Central

In Canada before 2005, large outbreaks of pneumococcal disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 5, were rare. Since then, an epidemic of serotype 5 invasive pneumococcal disease was reported: 52 cases during 2005, 393 during 2006, 457 during 2007, 104 during 2008, and 42 during in 2009. Of these 1,048 cases, 1,043 (99.5%) occurred in the western provinces of Canada. Median patient age was 41 years, and most (659 [59.3%]) patients were male. Most frequently representing serotype 5 cases (compared with a subset of persons with non–serotype 5 cases) were persons who were of First Nations heritage or homeless. Restriction fragment-length polymorphism typing indicated that the epidemic was caused by a single clone, which multilocus sequence typing identified as sequence type 289. Large pneumococcal epidemics might go unrecognized without surveillance programs to document fluctuations in serotype prevalence.

Lovgren, Marguerite; Ibrahim, Quazi; Garg, Sipi; Chui, Linda; Boone, Tyler J.; Mangan, Carol; Patrick, David M.; Hoang, Linda; Horsman, Greg B.; Van Caeseele, Paul; Marrie, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

80

Reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Based on the "free radical theory" of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding of reactive oxygen species has evolved to the point at which we now realize these species have important roles in physiology as well as pathophysiology. Thus, it is overly simplistic to assume a general antioxidant strategy will yield specific effects on cardiovascular disease. Indeed, there are several sources of reactive oxygen species that are known to be active in the cardiovascular system. This review addresses our understanding of reactive oxygen species sources in cardiovascular disease and both animal and human data defining how reactive oxygen species contribute to physiology and pathology. PMID:21627987

Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F

2011-05-15

81

Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels – or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux – contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future.

Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

82

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds.

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

83

Sleep, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In data from prospective cohort studies, self report of insufficient or disturbed sleep is related to increased overall and cardiovascular morbidity. Inflammation is established as a key mechanism in the development of arteriosclerotic heart and vascular disease. Inflammation has been considered a possible link between short sleep and cardiovascular disease and morbidity. Measures of inflammation are increased by experimental sleep deprivation, but in cohort studies a relationship of sleep duration to inflammatory markers is less clear. In these studies the association of self reported short sleep to cardiac morbidity is confounded by many psychological and socioeconomic variables. More studies are needed to explain the link between short sleep duration and cardiac morbidity. Experimental studies of sleep deprivation mimicking habitual shortened sleep over long time intervals, and studies employing sleep extension in habitual short sleepers will allow better characterization of the health benefits of adequate sleep duration. Prospective cohort studies should include objective measures of sleep duration and should to control for the known confounding variables. PMID:22652655

Solarz, David E; Mullington, Janet M; Meier-Ewert, Hans K

2012-06-01

84

Cardiovascular disease and androgens: a review.  

PubMed

Globally, cardiovascular disease is the single largest cause of mortality. The differences in pattern of cardiovascular disease between the two genders have not been explained properly. The spotlight has largely been focused on estrogens but no conclusive evidence has proven its role in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Consequently, androgens have attracted significant interest in explaining the gender difference in cardiovascular disease. More studies in last two decades have increased our knowledge about the effects of androgens on cardiovascular disease progression. Evidence for age related fall in testosterone levels in males and increasing cardiovascular events with age had lead to the postulation of idea of 'andropause or male menopause'. Unfortunately, for the last few decades the androgens have been highlighted as agents of abuse among athletes all over the world. There have been multiple reports of their association with sudden cardiac death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes when abused. Contrastingly, there has been an increasing prescription use of testosterone supplementation in various conditions related to androgen deficiency state and for many other off-label indications. Human observational studies have mostly concluded that men with lower testosterone levels tend to have higher incidence of coronary artery disease. Emerging evidence supports that lower androgen levels predict poor cardiovascular risk profile. Role with supplementation of testosterone for cardiovascular disease is being studied in both primary and secondary prevention stages and its safety being evaluated. This is an appropriate time to review the role of androgens specifically from a cardiovascular standpoint. PMID:19923015

Kaushik, Manu; Sontineni, Siva P; Hunter, Claire

2009-11-17

85

Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

Meyer, James H., Comp.

86

Risk factors for epidemic respiratory disease in Norwegian cattle herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemic of acute respiratory disease associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) occurred during the winter and spring of 1995 in two neighbouring veterinary districts in the south-eastern part of Norway.The objective of this study was to describe the time course of the outbreak associated with BRSV in the cattle herds, and to determine the association between selected herd

Madelaine Norström; Eystein Skjerve; Jorun Jarp

2000-01-01

87

Keeping a finger on the pulse: Cardiovascular disease rate as a measure of sustainable development  

PubMed Central

Non-communicable diseases have been somewhat neglected as a public health issue in the past, but there is now growing international consensus that they present a significant obstacle to economic development for both high- and low-income countries. Cardiovascular disease accounts for more than half of all non-communicable disease deaths, and presents a promising target for curbing the non-communicable disease epidemic. This article explains the pressing need for non-communicable disease prevention, focusing on strategies that can be employed to decrease cardiovascular disease risk at an individual and population level, and outlines the UK’s approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention in particular. Given the mounting burden of non-communicable diseases, responsible health governance and a balanced economic policy could consider the use of low cardiovascular disease rates as a measure of positive and sustainable economic development.

2013-01-01

88

Artrite Reumatóide e Doenças Cardiovasculares Rheumatoid Arthritis and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthrtis (RA) patients is by now largely recognized. The purpose of this extensive literature review is to analyze the epidemiological evidences of CVD, particularly coronary heart disease (CHD), as the leading cause of early death in RA, the presence of coronary risk factors, the relationship between RA and atherosclerosis, the shared

Dawton Yukito Torigoe; Iêda Maria Magalhães Laurindo

2006-01-01

89

Imaging Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current clinical techniques that rely on stenosis measurement alone appear to be insufficient for risk prediction in atherosclerosis patients. Many novel imaging methods have been developed to study atherosclerosis progression and to identify new features that can predict future clinical risk. MRI of atherosclerotic vessel walls is one such method. It has the ability to non-invasively evaluate multiple biomarkers of the disease such as luminal stenosis, plaque burden, tissue composition and plaque activity. In addition, the accuracy of in vivo MRI has been validated against histology with high reproducibility, thus paving the way for application to epidemiological studies of disease pathogenesis and, by serial MRI, in monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic intervention. In this review, we describe the various MR techniques used to evaluate aspects of plaque progression, discuss imaging based measurements (imaging biomarkers), and also detail their validation. The application of plaque MRI in clinical trials as well as emerging imaging techniques used to evaluate plaque compositional features and biological activities are also discussed.

Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun

2010-01-01

90

West Michigan Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Project - Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The West Michigan Health Systems Agency has developed a plan for a community wide approach to cardiovascular disease prevention. The goal of this plan is to reduce cardiovascular disease in the West Michigan area by one-third by the year 2000. Through coo...

1980-01-01

91

Minireview: Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation in Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the most important adult health problem in wealthy countries, where biological factors such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, inappropriate diet, cigarette smoking, and sedentary life-style have contributed to its dissemination. Research concerning nutritional regimens has shown that persons who consume large amounts of fruit and vegetables have lower incidences of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and tumors, although the

Graziano Riccioni; Tonino Bucciarelli; Barbara Mancini; Francesco Corradi; Carmine Di Ilio; Peter A. Mattei; Nicolantonio D'Orazio

2007-01-01

92

Systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure, are exceptionally complex, involving a multitude of environmental and genetic factors that often show nonlinear interactions as well as being highly dependent on sex, age, and even the maternal environment. Although focused, reductionistic approaches have led to progress in elucidating the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such approaches are poorly powered

W. Robb MacLellan; Yibin Wang; Aldons J. Lusis

2012-01-01

93

Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary heart disease is the principal cause of death in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in the form of android obesity (increased waist\\/hip ratio), hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, increased insulin resistance and elevated plasma LDL, VLDL, serum triglyceride and lipoprotein (a). A significant decrease in the relative risk of cardiovascular disease is observed with estrogen

S. Gupta; J. Rymer

1996-01-01

94

Prothrombin fragments in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), which comes from in vivo cleavage of prothrombin by factor Xa, is considered to be useful for diagnosis of thrombosis. Recognition of the central role of thrombosis in the pathogenesis ofcardiovascular disease has prompted growing interest in the association o F1+2 with cardiovascular clinical syndromes. Increased F1+2 levels have reported in venous thromboembolism, inflammation, cancer, sepsis, acute coronary syndromes, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation and during the postoperative period. However, a clear relationship with the appearance of thrombosis has not always been consistently demonstrated. Besides its potential prognostic and diagnostic value, it could also be usefu in assessing the impact of various therapies. However, it should be kept in mind that measurement of hemostasis activation markers has several important biological and methodological disadvantages. Activation markers reflect the presence of thrombosis in any vascular bed, so they are not specific. Furthermore, elevations occur not only in the presence of overt thrombosis but also during the hypercoagulable state. The cutoff level to be used for the definition of elevations is still largely unknown due to the use of different analytical methods, none of which have been standardized until know. Finally, the prognostic value of F1+2 and other markers of coagulation activation remains to be fully defined in future studies. PMID:20857616

Páramo, J A

2010-01-01

95

Disease metaphors in new epidemics: the UK media framing of the 2003 SARS epidemic.  

PubMed

Since the emergence of HIV/AIDS in the 1980s, social scientists and sociologists of health and illness have been exploring the metaphorical framing of this infectious disease in its social context. Many have focused on the militaristic language used to report and explain this illness, a type of language that has permeated discourses of immunology, bacteriology and infection for at least a century. In this article, we examine how language and metaphor were used in the UK media's coverage of another previously unknown and severe infectious disease: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). SARS offers an opportunity to explore the cultural framing of a less extraordinary epidemic disease. It therefore provides an analytical counter-weight to the very extensive body of interpretation that has developed around HIV/AIDS. By analysing the total reporting on SARS of five major national newspapers during the epidemic of spring 2003, we investigate how the reporting of SARS in the UK press was framed, and how this related to media, public and governmental responses to the disease. We found that, surprisingly, militaristic language was largely absent, as was the judgemental discourse of plague. Rather, the main conceptual metaphor used was SARS as a killer. SARS as a killer was a single unified entity, not an army or force. We provide some tentative explanations for this shift in linguistic framing by relating it to local political concerns, media cultures, and spatial factors. PMID:15814187

Wallis, Patrick; Nerlich, Brigitte

2005-01-11

96

Cardiovascular disease in Europe: epidemiological update.  

PubMed

This overview provides a Europe-wide update on the current burden of cardiovascular disease, and specifically of coronary heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular disease continues to cause a large proportion of deaths and disability in Europe, and places a substantial burden on the health care systems and economies of Europe. The overall picture, and the distribution of the burden, continues to evolve in a developing Europe. There have been major improvements in recent years on many measures of cardiovascular disease; however, these improvements have not been universal, and substantial inequalities persist. PMID:24014390

Nichols, Melanie; Townsend, Nick; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike

2013-09-07

97

Nitric oxide and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed Central

Endothelium-derived nitric oxide is an important regulatory molecule in cardiovascular function. Reduced availability of nitric oxide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis.

McIntyre, M.; Dominiczak, A. F.

1997-01-01

98

42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410...Services § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a... Medicare Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when...

2009-10-01

99

42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410...Services § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a... Medicare Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when...

2010-10-01

100

A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases  

SciTech Connect

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality.

Wang, C.-H.; Hsiao, C.K.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Wu, M.-M. [Department of Cardiology, Cardinal Tien Hospital and College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Department of Cardiology, Cardinal Tien Hospital and College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cjchen@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

2007-08-01

101

Immunity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory condition with immune competent cells in lesions producing mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dead cells and oxidized forms of low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) are abundant. The major direct cause of CVD appears to be rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. oxLDL has proinflammatory and immune-stimulatory properties, causes cell death at higher concentrations and contains inflammatory phospholipids with phosphorylcholine (PC) as an interesting epitope. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) may be atheroprotective, one mechanism being anti-inflammatory. Bacteria and virus have been discussed, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence, and antibiotic trials have not been successful. Heat shock proteins could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. To prove that inflammation is a cause of atherosclerosis and CVD, clinical studies with anti-inflammatory and/or immune-modulatory treatment are needed. The potential causes of immune reactions and inflammation in atherosclerosis and how inflammation can be targeted therapeutically to provide novel treatments for CVD are reviewed. PMID:23635324

Frostegård, Johan

2013-05-01

102

Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Studies of chronic stressors are discussed in terms of job stress, marital unhappiness, and burden of caregiving. From all of these studies there are extensive data concerning stressors’ contributions to diverse pathophysiological changes including sudden death, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and wall motion abnormalities, as well as to alterations in cardiac regulation as indexed by changes in sympathetic nervous system activity and hemostasis. Although stressors trigger events, it is less clear that stress “causes” the events. There is nonetheless overwhelming evidence both for the deleterious effects of stress on the heart and for the fact that vulnerability and resilience factors play a role in amplifying or dampening those effects. Numerous approaches are available for stress management that can decrease patients’ suffering and enhance their quality of life.

Dimsdale, Joel E.

2009-01-01

103

Immunity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory condition with immune competent cells in lesions producing mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dead cells and oxidized forms of low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) are abundant. The major direct cause of CVD appears to be rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. oxLDL has proinflammatory and immune-stimulatory properties, causes cell death at higher concentrations and contains inflammatory phospholipids with phosphorylcholine (PC) as an interesting epitope. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) may be atheroprotective, one mechanism being anti-inflammatory. Bacteria and virus have been discussed, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence, and antibiotic trials have not been successful. Heat shock proteins could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. To prove that inflammation is a cause of atherosclerosis and CVD, clinical studies with anti-inflammatory and/or immune-modulatory treatment are needed. The potential causes of immune reactions and inflammation in atherosclerosis and how inflammation can be targeted therapeutically to provide novel treatments for CVD are reviewed.

2013-01-01

104

[Gender aspects in cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in women and men worldwide, and, especially as far as coronary heart disorders are concerned, this is true of an increasing number of older and elderly persons. For decades, Gender Medicine research has shown gender differences in cardiology to the detriment of women, for example it takes longer for them to receive and they are less likely to have access to high-tech medicine, such as the ICU, heart catheters, bypass surgery, and they have a poorer outcome. Meanwhile, numerous scientific studies and awareness campaigns have been conducted. However, the more recent publications still show the same trends, albeit at a decreasing rate. Thanks to the emphasis placed on prevention and, thus, also the attention called to the leading heart risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, blood lipids, diabetes mellitus and overweight, namely for women and men, heart death is no longer exclusively male. In order to promote equal opportunity, Gender Medicine must be further implemented in medical training and post-graduate training, and-above all-the scientific findings concerning Gender Medicine must be incorporated into the guidelines of our professional societies. PMID:23743882

Hochleitner, M

2013-08-01

105

Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Disease1  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanins are a group of abundant and widely consumed flavonoid constituents that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors present in many fruit- and vegetable-based food products. Their intake has been estimated to be up to 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins have become increasingly important to the food industry as their use as natural alternatives to artificial colors has become widespread and knowledge of their health-promoting properties has become more evident. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of mortality among men and women. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals, exhibiting synergistic biological effects but making contributions from individual components difficult to decipher. Over the past 2 decades, many peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated that in addition to their noted in vitro antioxidant activity, anthocyanins may regulate different signaling pathways involved in the development of CVD. This review summarizes the latest developments on the bioavailability/bioactivity and CVD preventative activities of anthocyanins, including results from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model systems as related to their multiple proposed mechanisms of action. Limited yet promising data from epidemiological studies and human clinical trials are also presented. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and characterizing their metabolic and/or breakdown products are necessary to ultimately evaluate their use for protection/prevention against the development of CVD.

Wallace, Taylor C.

2011-01-01

106

Spread of epidemic disease on networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on\\u000anetworks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community.\\u000aIn this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models,\\u000athe so-called susceptible\\/infective\\/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly\\u000aon a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case\\u000aof

M. E. J. Newman

2002-01-01

107

More americans living longer with cardiovascular disease will increase costs while lowering quality of life.  

PubMed

In the past several decades, some risk factors for cardiovascular disease have improved, while others have worsened. For example, smoking rates have dropped and treatment rates for cardiovascular disease have increased-factors that have made the disease less fatal. At the same time, Americans' average body mass index and incidence of diabetes have increased as the population continues to live longer-factors that have made cardiovascular disease more prevalent. To assess the aggregate impact of these opposing trends, we used the nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves from 1973 to 2010 to forecast total cardiovascular disease risk and prevalence from 2015 to 2030. We found that continued improvements in cardiovascular disease treatment and declining smoking rates will not outweigh the influence of increasing population age and obesity on cardiovascular disease risk. Given an aging population, an obesity epidemic, and declining mortality from the disease, the United States should expect to see a sharp rise in the health care costs, disability, and reductions in quality of life associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Policies that target the treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol and the reduction of obesity will be necessary to curb the imminent spike in cardiovascular disease prevalence. PMID:24101059

Pandya, Ankur; Gaziano, Thomas A; Weinstein, Milton C; Cutler, David

2013-10-01

108

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. As it is strongly associated with known cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, OSA is an independent risk factor for hypertension and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of congestive cardiac failure, pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmias, and atherosclerosis. Obesity

Jo-Dee L. Lattimore; David S. Celermajer; Ian Wilcox

2003-01-01

109

Applying Knowledge Discovery to Predict Infectious Disease Epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive modelling, in a knowledge discovery context, is regarded as the problem of deriving predictive knowledge from historical\\/temporal data. Here we argue that neural networks, an established computational technology, can efficaciously be used to perform predictive modelling, i.e. to explore the intrinsic dynamics of temporal data. Infectious-disease epidemic risk management is a candidate area for exploiting the potential of neural

Syed Sibte Raza Abidi; Alwyn Goh

1998-01-01

110

Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.  

PubMed

Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may play an important role in atherogenesis. Inflammation and complement depositions in the vessel wall are likely to contribute to vascular stiffness. Based on biopsy findings, also inflammation in the myocardium and small vessels may contribute to premature CVD in ARDs (cardiac ischemia and heart failure). There is an enormous need for an improved CVD prevention in ARDs. Studies examining the effect of DMARDs/biologics on vascular inflammation and CV risk are warranted. PMID:23541482

Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

2013-03-27

111

Renal disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in patients with endstage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD patients are almost invariably hypertensive. They all have acquired combined hyperlipidemia and increased Lp(a), hyperhomocysteinemia, decreased physical activity, pychosocial stress, insulin resistance, procoagulant factors, left ventricular hypertrophy, and increased oxidative stress. Diabetes mellitus, a major risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and ESRD, has

F. C. Luft

2000-01-01

112

[Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations. PMID:17990383

Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

2007-10-01

113

Mighty minipig in fight against cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

A cloned transgenic minipig model of hypercholesterolemia and accelerated atherosclerosis could accelerate discovery of new therapies for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Al-Mashhadi et al., this issue). PMID:23283365

Agarwala, Anandita; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J

2013-01-01

114

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population.BackgroundThe extent of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Medicare population is relatively unknown. Also unknown is the effect of these diseases on patient survival before end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsPrevalent cohorts of Medicare enrollees from 1996 to 2000 were assessed for diabetes and CKD, presence of

Allan J. Collins; Shuling Li; David T. Gilbertson; Jiannong Liu; Shu-Cheng Chen; Charles A. Herzog

2003-01-01

115

Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common yet an under-diagnosed sleep related breathing disorder affecting predominantly middle-aged men. OSA is associated with many adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease. Common OSA associated\\/induced cardiovascular disorders include coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias and stroke, which further increase morbidity and mortality in the OSA population. Endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, impaired sympathetic

Mehmood Butt; Girish Dwivedi; Omer Khair; Gregory Y. H. Lip

2010-01-01

116

[Losmapimod: a novel drug against cardiovascular diseases?].  

PubMed

Losmapimod is a promising new agent against cardiovascular diseases. This drug works by inhibiting p38 MAP kinases, which play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and heart failure caused by ischemic conditions. Preclinical data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest a protective role of pharmacological p38 inhibition with regard to the development of cardiovascular diseases. This article evaluates the therapeutic potential of this new pharmacological approach and discusses the current clinical data on Losmapimod. PMID:23250695

Dewenter, M; Vettel, C; El-Armouche, A

2012-12-18

117

Hypertension in Cardiovascular and Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

The relationship between hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is bidirectional in nature and, generally, management strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction also attenuate progression of CKD. Prevalent hypertension increases with diminishing kidney function, and the management strategy changes with level of kidney function. In this review, we will examine the evidence for management of hypertension, as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in CKD, and the impact of this management on progression of CKD.

Botdorf, Joshua; Chaudhary, Kunal; Whaley-Connell, Adam

2011-01-01

118

Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic  

PubMed Central

Emerging zoonotic pathogens are a constant threat to human health throughout the world. Control strategies to protect public health regularly fail, due in part to the tendency to focus on a single host species assumed to be the primary reservoir for a pathogen. Here, we present evidence that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using Lyme disease as a model. Host-targeted public health strategies to control the Lyme disease epidemic in North America have focused on interrupting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) transmission between blacklegged ticks and the putative dominant reservoir species, white-footed mice. However, B. burgdorferi ss infects more than a dozen vertebrate species, any of which could transmit the pathogen to feeding ticks and increase the density of infected ticks and Lyme disease risk. Using genetic and ecological data, we demonstrate that mice are neither the primary host for ticks nor the primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi ss, feeding 10% of all ticks and 25% of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks. Inconspicuous shrews feed 35% of all ticks and 55% of infected ticks. Because several important host species influence Lyme disease risk, interventions directed at a multiple host species will be required to control this epidemic.

Brisson, Dustin; Dykhuizen, Daniel E; Ostfeld, Richard S

2007-01-01

119

Cysteinyl Cathepsins: Multifunctional Enzymes in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the role of lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsins in intracellular protein degradation was believed to be mainly restricted to scavenging. However, recent studies have revealed nontraditional roles for cysteine protease cathepsins in the extracellular space during the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Although the precise mechanisms are unknown, data from animal studies suggest that members of the cathepsin family, like other extracellular proteases, contribute to extracellular matrix protein remodeling and interstitial matrix degradation, as well as to cell signaling and cell apoptosis in heart disease. Inflammatory cytokines and hormones regulate the expression and secretion of cathepsins in cultured cardiovascular cells and macrophages. Serum levels of cathepsins L, S, and K and their endogenous inhibitor cystatin C may be useful predictive biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and cardiac disease. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacological intervention with a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor and cardiovascular drugs (including statins and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists) has the potential for pharmacologic targeting of cathepsins in cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on cathepsin biology (structure, synthesis, processing, activation, secretion, activity regulation, and function) and the involvement of cysteinyl cathepsins in the pathogenesis of several heart and vessel diseases, especially with respect to their potential application as diagnostic and prognostic markers and drug targets to prevent inappropriate proteolysis in cardiovascular disease.

Li, Xiang; Liu, Zexuan; Cheng, Zeen

2012-01-01

120

Sexual Response in Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiovascular response to sexual activity in men and women is similar to other daily activities and not excessive between couples in a long-standing relationship. The risk of an ischemic event during sexual activity is low and death very uncommon. Sexual dysfunction is common in cardiac patients and, in men, may occur before cardiac symptoms, with a time interval of

Graham Jackson

2009-01-01

121

Retracing micro-epidemics of Chagas disease using epicenter regression.  

PubMed

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has low chronic pathogenicity. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence of clinical cases in Arequipa: transmission in the city may be so recent that most infected individuals have yet to progress to late stage disease. Here we describe a new method, epicenter regression, that allows us to infer the spatial and temporal history of disease transmission from a snapshot of a population's infection status. We show that in a community of Arequipa, transmission of T. cruzi by the insect vector Triatoma infestans occurred as a series of focal micro-epidemics, the oldest of which began only around 20 years ago. These micro-epidemics infected nearly 5% of the community before transmission of the parasite was disrupted through insecticide application in 2004. Most extant human infections in our study community arose over a brief period of time immediately prior to vector control. According to our findings, the symptoms of chronic Chagas disease are expected to be absent, even if the strain is pathogenic in the chronic phase of disease, given the long asymptomatic period of the disease and short history of intense transmission. Traducción al español disponible en Alternative Language Text S1/A Spanish translation of this article is available in Alternative Language Text S1. PMID:21935346

Levy, Michael Z; Small, Dylan S; Vilhena, Daril A; Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Plotkin, Joshua B

2011-09-15

122

Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has low chronic pathogenicity. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence of clinical cases in Arequipa: transmission in the city may be so recent that most infected individuals have yet to progress to late stage disease. Here we describe a new method, epicenter regression, that allows us to infer the spatial and temporal history of disease transmission from a snapshot of a population's infection status. We show that in a community of Arequipa, transmission of T. cruzi by the insect vector Triatoma infestans occurred as a series of focal micro-epidemics, the oldest of which began only around 20 years ago. These micro-epidemics infected nearly 5% of the community before transmission of the parasite was disrupted through insecticide application in 2004. Most extant human infections in our study community arose over a brief period of time immediately prior to vector control. According to our findings, the symptoms of chronic Chagas disease are expected to be absent, even if the strain is pathogenic in the chronic phase of disease, given the long asymptomatic period of the disease and short history of intense transmission. Traducción al español disponible en Alternative Language Text S1/A Spanish translation of this article is available in Alternative Language Text S1

Levy, Michael Z.; Small, Dylan S.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Plotkin, Joshua B.

2011-01-01

123

BK Channels in Cardiovascular Diseases and Aging  

PubMed Central

Aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, one of the main world-wide causes of death. Several structural and functional changes occur in the cardiovascular system during the aging process and the mechanisms involved in such alterations are yet to be completely described. BK channels are transmembrane proteins that play a key role in many physiological processes, including regulation of vascular tone. In vascular smooth muscle cells, BK opening and the consequent efflux of potassium (K+) leads to membrane hyperpolarization, which is followed by the closure of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, reduction of Ca2+ entry and vasodilatation. BK regulates nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation and thus is crucial for normal endothelial function. Herein we will briefly review general structural properties of BK and focus on their function in the cardiovascular system emphasizing their role in cardiovascular aging and diseases.

Carvalho-de-Souza, Joao Luis; Varanda, Wamberto A.; Tostes, Rita C.; Chignalia, Andreia Z.

2012-01-01

124

Transgenic animals in cardiovascular disease research.  

PubMed

Worldwide, the highest morbidity and mortality results from such cardiovascular diseases as hypertension, myocardial infarction, cardiac and renal failure, as well as stroke. Since the cardiovascular system and its regulation is quite complex, study of these disorders has been grossly limited to whole organism models. As a result, in recent years, transgenic technology has played a significant role in the discovery of specific gene products for cardiovascular regulation and disease aetiology. Genetic manipulation in rats and mice has altered the expression of numerous genes. In this review, some of the important new genetically modified animals (i.e. transgenic models) with alterations in hormone and second messenger systems involved in cardiovascular regulation are summarized. PMID:11187966

Bader, M; Bohnemeier, H; Zollmann, F S; Lockley-Jones, O E; Ganten, D

2000-11-01

125

Cardiovascular Disease and Global Health Equity  

PubMed Central

Early 20th-century cardiovascular voluntary organizations in the United States drew strength from the well-established antituberculosis movement. By midcentury, heart disease among the young and tuberculosis had declined in this country. The international fight against tuberculosis has gathered force since the 1990s. Meanwhile, support for international cardiovascular interventions has lagged behind. We trace the divergent path of the international cardiovascular movement and suggest ways in which it could once again learn from the trials and achievements of tuberculosis control.

Bukhman, Gene; Kidder, Alice

2008-01-01

126

Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians  

SciTech Connect

An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

1987-06-01

127

Historical evidence that electrification caused the 20th century epidemic of "diseases of civilization".  

PubMed

The slow spread of residential electrification in the US in the first half of the 20th century from urban to rural areas resulted by 1940 in two large populations; urban populations, with nearly complete electrification and rural populations exposed to varying levels of electrification depending on the progress of electrification in their state. It took until 1956 for US farms to reach urban and rural non-farm electrification levels. Both populations were covered by the US vital registration system. US vital statistics tabulations and census records for 1920-1960, and historical US vital statistics documents were examined. Residential electrification data was available in the US census of population for 1930, 1940 and 1950. Crude urban and rural death rates were calculated, and death rates by state were correlated with electrification rates by state for urban and rural areas for 1940 white resident deaths. Urban death rates were much higher than rural rates for cardiovascular diseases, malignant diseases, diabetes and suicide in 1940. Rural death rates were significantly correlated with level of residential electric service by state for most causes examined. I hypothesize that the 20th century epidemic of the so called diseases of civilization including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes and suicide was caused by electrification not by lifestyle. A large proportion of these diseases may therefore be preventable. PMID:19748187

Milham, Samuel

2009-09-11

128

Pomegranate Protection against Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

The current paper summarizes the antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate polyphenols on serum lipoproteins and on arterial macrophages (two major components of the atherosclerotic lesion), using both in vitro and in vivo humans and mice models. Pomegranate juice and its by-products substantially reduced macrophage cholesterol and oxidized lipids accumulation, and foam cell formation (the hallmark of early atherogenesis), leading to attenuation of atherosclerosis development, and its consequent cardiovascular events.

Aviram, Michael; Rosenblat, Mira

2012-01-01

129

Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the impact of smoking on mortality indicate that 35% of smoking-related deaths are due to cardiovascular causes. Current\\u000a cigarette smoking is associated with a threefold to sixfold increase in risk of myocardial infarction and increased rates\\u000a of ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Tobacco smoking has the greatest deleterious effect on peripheral arteries,\\u000a with multiple effects ranging from increased

John H. Fish III; John R. Bartholomew

2007-01-01

130

Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) is most consistently linked with acute and chronic cardiovascular effects. Fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) particles (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 and < 0.1 microm) are able to reach the small airways and terminal alveoli, and PM0.1 can also be translocated directly into the systemic circulation. PM2.5 and PM0.1 are mainly formed by fossil fuel combustion and are the main components of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. A variety of biological mechanisms responsible for adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:19697799

Nogueira, J Braz

2009-06-01

131

MicroRNA21 in Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a highly expressed microRNA (miRNA) in cardiovascular system. Recent studies have revealed that its\\u000a expression is deregulated in heart and vasculature under cardiovascular disease conditions such as proliferative vascular\\u000a disease, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. miR-21 is found to play important roles in vascular\\u000a smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis, cardiac cell growth

Yunhui Cheng; Chunxiang Zhang

2010-01-01

132

RABBIT POX : II. PATHOLOGY OF THE EPIDEMIC DISEASE.  

PubMed

The lesions found in animals with epidemic rabbit pox have been described in this paper. The most distinctive gross lesion in all organs and tissues was the small nodule or papule which was found to consist of mononuclear infiltration and necrosis. Diffuse lesions were also found in which the infiltration was widespread and accompanied by edema, hemorrhage and extensive necrosis of affected tissues and organs. The possibility of the diffuse lesions being due to the action of secondary invaders was considered, but available evidence indicated that the different types, including pneumonia, represented reactions to a single causative agent. Moreover, an intimate relationship was observed to exist between lesions and small blood vessels in which primary endothelial damage was usually apparent. The degree of vascular damage generally corresponded to the extent of the lesion and it is probable that this in turn corresponded to the dose of the causative agent. The close analogy between the clinical manifestations and pathological processes of this disease in the rabbit and small pox in man led to the conclusion that the disease in the rabbit is essentially the same as small pox, and that it is probably produced by a virus closely related to the virus of small pox. Available evidence indicated that the infection originated in the Institute and that it spread in atypical form or masked by some other disease until it reached the breeding colony as a clearly defined epidemic infection. PMID:19870314

Greene, H S

1934-09-30

133

Homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasting hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular atherosclerosis, and for arterial and venous thromboembolism. The risk for cardiovascular disease with homocysteine is similar to conventional risk factors. The interaction of hyperhomocysteinemia with hypertension and smoking is strong and the combined effect is more than multiplicative. The combined effect of homocysteine and cholesterol is

Kailash Prasad

1999-01-01

134

Nutritional modification of cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease (CHD) is currently the major cause of death in both men and women. Diet is considered as an important modifiable risk factor. This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological evidence relating diet to CHD mortality and morbidity. Results: Several cohort studies have shown that low intake of animal fats, moderate alcohol consumption,

Merete Osler

2002-01-01

135

Functional Foods as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular

Carol Johnston

2009-01-01

136

Commentary Occupational Factors, Fatigue, and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Briefly identify the epidemiological evidence, propose pertinent mechanisms, and discuss physical ther- apy practice as well as research implications of a causal association between occupational factors and cardiovascu- lar disease. Summary of Key Points: There is evidence that occupational metabolic demands and work organizations characterized by reduced worker control are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is

Sean Collins

137

Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio

2003-01-01

138

Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis: Balancing risk management  

PubMed Central

In this narrative review of the current literature, we examine the traditional risk factors and patient profiles leading to cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. We discuss the interrelationships between risk factors and common pathophysiological mechanisms for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. We evaluate the increasing evidence that supports an association between these disabling conditions. We reveal that vascular health appears to have a strong effect on skeletal health, and vice versa. We highlight the importance of addressing the risk benefit of preventative interventions in both conditions. We discuss how both sexes are affected by these chronic conditions and the importance of considering the unique risk of the individual. We show that habitual physical activity is an effective primary and secondary preventative strategy for both cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. We highlight how a holistic approach to the prevention and treatment of these chronic conditions is likely warranted.

Warburton, Darren ER; Nicol, Crystal Whitney; Gatto, Stephanie N; Bredin, Shannon SD

2007-01-01

139

Social networks in cardiovascular disease management.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Social networks have a positive association with obesity, smoking cessation and weight loss. This article summarizes studies evaluating the impact of social networks on the management of cardiovascular disease. The 35 studies included in the article describe the impact of social networks on a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, depression and mortality. In addition, having a large-sized social network is also associated with better outcomes and improved health. The role of pharmacists is beginning to play an important role in the patient-centered medical home, which needs to be incorporated into social networks. The patient-centered medical home can serve as an adaptive source for social network evolvement. PMID:21155703

Shaya, Fadia T; Yan, Xia; Farshid, Maryam; Barakat, Samer; Jung, Miah; Low, Sara; Fedder, Donald

2010-12-01

140

Heart rate: A global target for cardiovascular disease and therapy along the cardiovascular disease continuum.  

PubMed

Heart rate is a predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population and in patients with cardiovascular disease. Increased resting heart rate multiplies risk and interferes at all stages of the cardiovascular disease continuum initiating from endothelial dysfunction and continuing via atherosclerotic lesion formation and plaque rupture to end-stage cardiovascular disease. As a therapeutic target, heart rate is accessible via numerous pharmacological interventions. The concept of selective heart rate reduction by the I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine provides an option to intervene effectively along the chain of events and to define the specific and prognostic role of heart rate for patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure. Future interventional studies will further clarify the significance of heart rate and targeted heart rate reduction for primary and secondary prevention in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. PMID:23806547

Custodis, Florian; Reil, Jan-Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

2013-06-24

141

Cardiovascular disease in childhood: the role of obesity.  

PubMed

In recent years, childhood obesity is becoming an epidemic health problem. It is now evident from many studies that childhood obesity is correlated with adult excess weight status and the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. The exposure to obesity and to the above risk factors during childhood subsequently lead to atherosclerotic development, such as altered vascular structure and function, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Several non-invasive, and thus easy-to-obtain measures of arterial structure and function, have been shown to be clinically useful in providing information about vasculature early in the course of atherosclerosis, including measurement of endothelial function, carotid intima media thickness, and arterial stiffness. The early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities is essential because the control of the atherogenic process is more effective during its early stages. The present review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of obesity, on the mechanisms and the methods of measurement of endothelial dysfunction in obese children and adolescents, and on the ways of intervention for the improvement of vascular health. PMID:23340698

Herouvi, Despina; Karanasios, Evangelos; Karayianni, Christina; Karavanaki, Kyriaki

2013-01-23

142

Latest statistics on cardiovascular disease in Australia.  

PubMed

The results presented herein summarize the most up-to-date cardiovascular statistics available at this time in Australia. The analysis presented here is based on and extends results published in two Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) reports, namely Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011 and the cardiovascular disease (CVD) section of Australia's Health 2012. Despite significant improvements in the cardiovascular health of Australians in recent decades, CVD continues to impose a heavy burden on Australians in terms of illness, disability and premature death. Direct health care expenditure for CVD exceeds that for any other disease group. The most recent national data have been analysed to describe patterns and trends in CVD hospitalization and death rates, with additional analysis by Indigenous status, remoteness and socioeconomic group. The incidence of and case-fatality from major coronary events has also been examined. Although CVD death rates have declined steadily in Australia since the late 1960s, CVD still accounts for a larger proportion of deaths (33% in 2009) than any other disease group. Worryingly, the rate at which the coronary heart disease death rate has been falling in recent years has slowed in younger (35-54 years) age groups. Between 1998-99 and 2009-10, the overall rate of hospitalizations for CVD fell by 13%, with declines observed for most major CVDs. In conclusion, CVD disease remains a significant health problem in Australia despite decreasing death and hospitalization rates. PMID:23517328

Waters, Anne-Marie; Trinh, Lany; Chau, Theresa; Bourchier, Michael; Moon, Lynelle

2013-06-01

143

OBESITY: A CONTEMPORARY EPIDEMIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20-30 years, obesity has become a major public health-hazard with epidemic proportions, which affects adults, adolescents and children of both genders. This complex condition is associated with a host of disorders including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the present review was to underline as many risk factors as possible and the degree that

144

Study of an epidemic of venoocclusive disease in India.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five cases of rapidly developing ascites occurring in an epidemic form were observed in a tribal district in Central India during August 1972-May 1973. Eleven of the patients died. Six patients were brought to hospital and studied for periods of two to 17 months. Necropsy was performed on one patient who died. The clinical features suggested an outflow tract obstruction such as a Budd-Chiari-like syndrome or venoocclusive disease. Radiographic and haemodynamic studies demonstrated a combination of post and perisinusoidal blocks. Liver dysfunction was indicated by the presence of a marked bromsulphthalein retention and mild to moderate hypoalbuminaemia. Histological examination of the liver biopsies showed changes that ranged from centrizonal haemorrhagic necrosis to an extensive centrilobular fibrosis associated with central vein occlusion. The disease was apparently caused by a food toxin, and the possible nature of this is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Tandon, R K; Tandon, B N; Tandon, H D; Bhatia, M L; Bhargava, S; Lal, P; Arora, R R

1976-01-01

145

Epidemic progression on networks based on disease generation time  

PubMed Central

We investigate the time evolution of disease spread on a network and present an analytical framework using the concept of disease generation time. Assuming a susceptible–infected–recovered epidemic process, this network-based framework enables us to calculate in detail the number of links (edges) within the network that are capable of producing new infectious nodes (individuals), the number of links that are not transmitting the infection further (non-transmitting links), as well as the number of contacts that individuals have with their neighbours (also known as degree distribution) within each epidemiological class, for each generation period. Using several examples, we demonstrate very good agreement between our analytical calculations and the results of computer simulations.

Davoudi, Bahman; Moser, Flavia; Brauer, Fred; Pourbohloul, Babak

2013-01-01

146

MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have gained status as important regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the cardiovascular system under some pathological conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function studies using in vitro and in vivo models have revealed distinct roles for specific miRNAs in cardiovascular development and physiological function. The implications of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease have recently been recognized, representing the most rapidly evolving research field. In the present article, the currently relevant findings on the role of miRNAs in cardiac diseases will be updated and the target genes of these miRNAs are summarized.

Ono, Koh; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Han, Jiahuai

2011-01-01

147

Shift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The literature on shift work, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and changes in traditional risk factors is reviewed. Seventeen studies have dealt with shift work and cardiovascular disease risk. On balance, shift workers were found to have a 40% increase in risk. Causal mechanisms of this risk via known cardiovascular risk factors, in relation to circadian rhythms, disturbed sociotemporal patterns, social support, stress, behavior (smoking, diet, alcohol, exercise), and biochemical changes (cholesterol, triglycerides, etc) are discussed. The risk is probably multifactorial, but the literature has focused on the behavior of shift workers and has neglected other possible causal connections. In most studies methodological problems are present; these problems are related to selection bias, exposure classification, outcome classification, and the appropriateness of comparison groups. Suggestions for the direction of future research on this topic are proposed. PMID:10360463

Bøggild, H; Knutsson, A

1999-04-01

148

Cardiovascular disease prevention: talking occurs at all levels--does understanding?  

PubMed

The magnitude of the health problems posed by cardiovascular disease is well known and represents a major public health challenge. Traditionally programmes of prevention have had a 'lifestyle' orientation, focusing on individual behaviours. Ironically, it may well be that profound societal changes, notably the agricultural and industrial revolutions, have largely been responsible in the most fundamental sense for the modern epidemic of cardiovascular disease. Thus attempts to deal with individually expressed behaviours alone may not be the most effective way to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease in our society. Ultimately, it will be the creation of social environments in which healthy behaviours are the norm that will have the most profound effect on the community's cardiovascular health. Misunderstandings abound. Politicians, while speaking favourably about the importance of prevention, do not match their rhetoric with resources. Many health professionals mistake 'risk-factor identification' with 'prevention'. Private industry has often confused or distorted public understanding in the process of marketing products deemed to have cardiovascular benefits. The public's awareness of many of the basic epidemiological realities concerning the prevention of cardiovascular disease is often sadly lacking. In spite of the misunderstandings, preventive approaches have played a significant role in the reduction of cardiovascular disease, a role that should become more prominent in the future. PMID:7850671

Pipe, A

1995-01-01

149

Congenital Cardiovascular Disease in Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turner syndrome (TS), or monosomy X, occurs in ~1\\/2000 live born females. Intelligence is normal and short stature is the most obvious and consistent feature of the syndrome. Congenital cardiovascular disease affects ~50% of individuals and is the major cause of premature mortality in adults. Unfortunately, this most important aspect of the syndrome has received little attention outside of pediatric

Carolyn A. Bondy

150

Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concen- trations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with poly- unsaturated

Patty W Siri-Tarino; Qi Sun; Frank B Hu; Ronald M Krauss

2010-01-01

151

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

2010-01-01

152

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

2011-01-01

153

ANTIOXIDANT VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epidemiologic and population studies have reported that some micronutrients may beneficially affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (i.e., antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene). Recent epidemiologic evidence is consistent with the earlier epidemiologic and populatio...

154

Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common

Altan Onat

2001-01-01

155

Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also insulin resistance — the core feature of type 2 diabetes — as well as alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We are now

Luc F. Van Gaal; Ilse L. Mertens; Christophe E. De Block

2006-01-01

156

Antioxidant vitamin supplementation in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the most important adult health problem in wealthy countries, where biological factors such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, inappropriate diet, cigarette smoking, and sedentary life-style have contributed to its dissemination. Research concerning nutritional regimens has shown that persons who consume large amounts of fruit and vegetables have lower incidences of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and tumors, although the precise mechanisms for this protective effect are elusive. Possible explanations include (a) increased consumption of dietary fiber, (b) reduced consumption of dietary cholesterol and other lipids, and (c) increased intake of the antioxidant vitamins (A, C, and E). Numerous studies have raised the question whether vitamin supplements help to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of randomized controlled trials of antioxidant vitamin supplements in large numbers of participants has been ambiguous or contradictory. This minireview examines the relevant clinical reports on dietary supplements of vitamins A, C, and E to determine whether they support the premise that patients at risk of cardiovascular disease may be candidates for this therapeutic option. PMID:17311876

Riccioni, Graziano; Bucciarelli, Tonino; Mancini, Barbara; Corradi, Francesco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Mattei, Peter A; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

2007-01-01

157

Genetic Markers in Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For classic “Mendelian” genetic diseases, a single gene is responsible. A rare mutation in that gene causes a dramatic change\\u000a in protein concentration or function that is both necessary and sufficient to cause the disease, and environmental factors\\u000a play a small or nonexistent role. Examples in cardiology include familial hypercholesterolemia, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,\\u000a Marfan syndrome, and congenital long QT syndrome.

Marc S. Sabatine

158

[Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals. PMID:21663892

Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

2011-05-25

159

Global cardiovascular disease prevention: a call to action for nursing executive summary.  

PubMed

The global epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) calls for multidisciplinary and multiprofessional approaches to the management of this condition, with strategic emphasis on prevention, treatment, and control. In addition, there is increasing recognition that effective prevention and management of CVD requires a diverse workforce skilled in the social, environmental, and policy determinants of health. Nowhere are these approaches and strategies brought together and more closely aligned than in the field of preventive cardiovascular nursing. This executive summary of "Global Cardiovascular Prevention: A Call to Action for Nursing" includes key points from the 6 papers written by the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association and published in July-August 2011 as a supplement to the Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing and the European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. This supplement addresses innovative efforts to stem the current global epidemic of CVD and emphasizes the need for effective team-based interventions for lifestyle and behavior changes across the life span. Social solutions, strategies for working with key players to develop interactive models, as well as coordinated multilevel policies, partnerships, and programs that are culturally relevant and context specific are examined. Such approaches are urgently needed to reduce death and disability from CVD in the United States and globally. Nurse leaders and other members of the healthcare team are well positioned internationally to meet these challenges. PMID:22955185

Berra, Kathy; Fletcher, Barbara; Hayman, Laura L; Miller, Nancy Houston

160

Adipocytokines in relation to cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue can be considered as a huge gland producing paracrine and endocrine hormones, the adipo(cyto)kines. There is growing evidence that these adipo(cyto)kines may link obesity to cardiovascular diseases. The excessive adipocyte hypertrophy in obesity induces hypoxia in adipose tissue. This leads to adiposopathy, the process that converts "healthy" adipose tissue to "sick" adipose tissue. This is accompanied by a change in profile of adipo(cyto)kines released, with less production of the "healthy" adipo(cyto)kines such as adiponectin and omentin and more release of the "unhealthy" adipo(cyto)kines, ultimately leading to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present review provides a concise and general overview of the actual concepts of the role of adipo(cyto)kines in endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherosclerosis and heart diseases. The knowledge of these concepts may lead to new tools to improve health in the next generations. PMID:23866981

Van de Voorde, Johan; Pauwels, Bart; Boydens, Charlotte; Decaluwé, Kelly

2013-07-15

161

[Endogenous formaldehyde and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Endogenous formaldehyde is produced via semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase-catalyzed deamination of methylamine. It widely exists in a variety of tissues and cells in animals. It has been confirmed that endogenous formaldehyde is involved in the neural degeneration, immune disease and tumor process. Adipocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells are rich in enzyme to generate formaldehyde-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). Formaldehyde may cause cytotoxicity, which induces vascular endothelial injury and mediates multiple factor-induced pathogenic process of vascular injury. It plays important role in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication. PMID:21417009

Zhang, Feng-Wen; Du, Jun-Bao; Tang, Chao-Shu

2010-02-01

162

The polypill: a potential global solution to cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Despite groundbreaking advances in health care, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, making it one of the most pressing global health issues to face the modern world. In 2002, Wald and Law proposed the concept of the polypill as a potential solution to this global health epidemic. The polypill represents a powerhouse pill that would consist of a combination of several key medications commonly prescribed for CVD prevention, such as a statin, diuretic, beta blocker, or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in one pill. It was suggested that it could be a novel, tactical measure in the approach to CVD prevention in that it greatly simplifies the healthcare delivery system. Not only does it increase medication compliance for those currently receiving health care, but it also has the potential to access those in underserved healthcare sectors of the world, primarily low- and middle-income countries, which have been identified as areas of highest CVD risk. A major drawback of the polypill is that there are limited data demonstrating its safety and efficacy in the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus far, research shows that the polypill has promise but needs to be approached with a few considerations, such as desired target patient population and formulation. This article will examine the published and ongoing studies associated with the polypill, outline the advantages and disadvantages of using the polypill as a global CVD prevention strategy, and discuss the design and availability of the polypill in the United States. PMID:23018668

Nguyen, Caroline; Cheng-Lai, Angela

163

Management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease.  

PubMed

The burden of cardiovascular disease is high in patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. The presence of kidney dysfunction affects the cardiovascular system in multiple ways, including accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and valvular disease, the exacerbation of congestive heart failure, and the development of pericardial disease. This comorbidity results not only from the concordance of shared risk factors, but also from other issues specific to this population, such as systemic inflammation and vascular calcification. Furthermore, both the sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive testing modalities, and the efficacy of several pharmacotherapeutic strategies, are diminished in this population. The exclusion of patients with severe kidney disease from many clinical trials of cardiac interventions raises various therapeutic uncertainties, and kidney disease itself is likely to alter the underlying cardiovascular physiology. In this Review, we discuss aspects of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease, and propose specific, evidence-based recommendations for pharmacological and surgical treatment. PMID:23419899

Kahn, Mark R; Robbins, Michael J; Kim, Michael C; Fuster, Valentin

2013-02-19

164

Occupational factors, fatigue, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Purpose: Briefly identify the epidemiological evidence, propose pertinent mechanisms, and discuss physical therapy practice as well as research implications of a causal association between occupational factors and cardiovascular disease. Summary of Key Points: There is evidence that occupational metabolic demands and work organizations characterized by reduced worker control are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is biologically plausible that these two factors interact to create a preclinical, intermediate state of fatigue (burnout) that is a critical component in the causal path from occupational factors to CVD. Physical therapists are uniquely qualified to contribute to an understanding of these mechanisms and their resultant implications for work organization, rehabilitation, and health promotion. Statement of Recommendations: Physical therapists engaged in ergonomic job analysis should consider work related metabolic demands, worker control, and fatigue in their assessment of risk for injury and illness, in recommendations for return to work, and in the prescription of health promotion leisure time physical activity. PMID:20467535

Collins, Sean

2009-06-01

165

Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in Western society today. There is a striking gender difference in CVD with men predisposed to earlier onset and more severe disease. Following the recent reevaluation and ongoing debate regarding the estrogen protection hypothesis, and given that androgen use and abuse is increasing in our society, the alternate view that androgens may promote CVD in men is assuming increasing importance. Whether androgens adversely affect CVD in either men or women remains a contentious issue within both the cardiovascular and endocrinological fraternities. This review draws from basic science, animal and clinical studies to outline our current understanding regarding androgen effects on atherosclerosis, the major CVD, and asks where future directions of atherosclerosis-related androgen research may lie.

McGrath, K-CY; McRobb, LS; Heather, AK

2008-01-01

166

Depression in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

It has been widely suggested that depression negatively affects patients with cardiovascular disease. There are several pathophysiological mechanisms as well as behavioral processes linking depression and cardiac events. Improvements in nursing and medical care have prolonged survival of this patient population; however, this beneficial outcome has led to increased prevalence of depression. Since mortality rates in chronic heart failure patients remain extremely high, it might be as equally important to screen for depression and there are several valid and reliable screening tools that healthcare personnel could easily employ to identify patients at greater risk. Consultation should be provided by a multidisciplinary team, consisting of cardiologists, psychiatrists, and hospital or community nurses so as to carefully plan, execute, and evaluate medical intervention and implement lifestyle changes. We aim to systematically review the existing knowledge regarding current definitions, prognostic implications, pathophysiological mechanisms, and current and future treatment options in patients with depression and cardiovascular disease, specifically those with heart failure.

Mastrogiannis, Dimos; Giamouzis, Gregory; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Karayannis, George; Chroub-Papavaiou, Artemis; Kremeti, Dimitra; Spiliopoulos, Kyriakos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Koutsias, Stelios; Bonotis, Konstantinos; Mantzorou, Marianna; Skoularigis, John; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Butler, Javed; Triposkiadis, Filippos

2012-01-01

167

Oral Health, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the impact of oral health on atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). The advent of the inflammation paradigm in coronary pathogenesis stimulated research in chronic infections caused by a variety of micro-organisms—such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and cytomegalovirus—as well as dental pathogens, since these chronic infections are

Jukka H. Meurman; Mariano Sanz; Sok-Ja Janket

2004-01-01

168

Leptin and Altitude in the Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The lower mortality from coronary ischemic disease in populations living at high altitude has been related to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol at altitude. Leptin has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated whether leptin varies according to the altitude at which people live.Research Methods and Procedures: This was a cross-sectional study of the first 889

Antonio Cabrera de León; Delia Almeida González; Lina I. Pérez Méndez; Armando Aguirre-Jaime; Ma del Cristo Rodríguez Pérez; Santiago Domínguez Coello; Irma Carballo Trujillo

2004-01-01

169

Genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease in Hispanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects many people in the United States. Compared with other population groups in the United\\u000a States, epidemiologic data suggest that Hispanic Americans are at a disproportionate risk for CVD. The etiology of this disparity\\u000a is complex, with genetic, behavioral, cultural, and other environmental factors acting in an independent, interactive, and\\/or\\u000a synergistic fashion. Because many complex conditions mediate

Krista Casazza; José R. Fernández

2009-01-01

170

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However,\\u000a its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We\\u000a performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

171

The glycemic index and cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postprandial hyperglycemia is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Glycemic “spikes”\\u000a may adversely affect vascular structure and function via multiple mechanisms, including (acutely and\\/or chronically) oxidative\\u000a stress, inflammation, low-density lipoprotein oxidation, protein glycation, and procoagulant activity. Postprandial glycemia\\u000a can be reliably predicted by considering both the amount and type of carbohydrate. In particular, the glycemic index

Jennie Brand-Miller; Scott Dickinson; Alan Barclay; David Celermajer

2007-01-01

172

LIFESTYLE DECREASES RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years

Otomar Kittnar; Gary E. Fraser; Eva Medová; Robert i ka; Alena Dohnalová; Vladimír Novák

2008-01-01

173

ORAL HEALTH, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the impact of oral health on atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). The advent of the inflammation paradigm in coronary pathogenesis stimulated research in chronic infections caused by a variety of micro-organisms—such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and cytomegalovirus—as well as dental pathogens, since these chronic infections are

Jukka H. Meurman; Mariano Sanz; Sok-Ja Janket

174

Postprandial lipid oxidation and cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mild pro-oxidative state accompanies meal ingestion, which results in an increase in biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion,\\u000a and endothelial dysfunction, all of which are factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. Both fat and carbohydrate\\u000a can cause the effect, which is additive and exacerbated by diabetes. The presence of lipid, glucose, and cholesterol oxidation\\u000a products of dietary or endogenous origin

Phyllis E. Bowen; Gayatri Borthakur

2004-01-01

175

Cardiovascular Disease in Women with Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the USA. Women with diabetes are\\u000a at a greater risk of CVD than men with diabetes. In this chapter we review the various mechanisms by which hyperglycemia potentiates\\u000a this increased CVD risk, including coagulation abnormalities as well as endothelial dysfunction. Where applicable, sex-specific\\u000a differences in these

Sonia Gajula; Ashwini Reddy; L. Romayne Kurukulasuriya; Camila Manrique; Guido Lastra; James R. Sowers

176

American Indian Women and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the number one killer of American women. Consequently, CVD is a concern for all women, including ethnic women. However, little is known about CVD behaviors and responses to CVD symptomology among minority women, especially American Indian women. Response behaviors to chest pain require important actions. This article examines response behaviors to chest pain in a group of American Indian women participants of the Inter-Tribal Heart Project. In 1992 to 1994, 866 American Indian women, aged 22 years and older, participated in face-to-face interviews to answer survey questions on multiple areas related to cardiovascular disease on 3 rural reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin. A secondary data analysis was conducted on selected variables including demographic characteristics, healthcare access, rating of health status, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease, and action in response to crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. Research findings report that 68% of women would actively seek healthcare immediately if experiencing crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. However, 264 women (32%) would take a passive action to crushing chest pain, with 23% reporting they would sit down and wait until it passed. Analysis revealed women reporting a passive response were younger in age (under age 45) and had less education (less than a high school education). These findings have implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working in rural, geographically isolated Indian reservations. How to present CVD education in a culturally appropriate manner remains a challenge.

Struthers, Roxanne; Savik, Kay; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

2011-01-01

177

Aptamers as therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

With many advantages over other therapeutic agents such as monoclonal antibodies, aptamers have recently emerged as a novel and powerful class of ligands with excellent potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Typically generated through Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX), aptamers have been selected against a wide range of targets such as proteins, phospholipids, sugars, nucleic acids, as well as whole cells. DNA/RNA aptamers are single-stranded DNA/RNA oligonucleotides (with a molecular weight of 5-40 kDa) that can fold into well-defined 3D structures and bind to their target molecules with high affinity and specificity. A number of strategies have been adopted to synthesize aptamers with enhanced in vitro/in vivo stability, aiming at potential therapeutic/diagnostic applications in the clinic. In cardiovascular diseases, aptamers can be developed into therapeutic agents as anti-thrombotics, anti-coagulants, among others. This review focuses on aptamers that were selected against various molecular targets involved in cardiovascular diseases: von Willebrand factor (vWF), thrombin, factor IX, phospholamban, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor, integrin ?(v)?(3), CXCL10, vasopressin, among others. With continued effort in the development of aptamer-based therapeutics, aptamers will find their niches in cardiovascular diseases and significantly impact clinical patient management. PMID:21848510

Wang, P; Yang, Y; Hong, H; Zhang, Y; Cai, W; Fang, D

2011-01-01

178

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among chronic hemodialysis patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between several traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and the presence or history of cardiovascular events in 936 hemodialysis patients enrolled in

Alfred K. Cheung; Mark J. Sarnak; Guofen Yan; Johanna T. Dwyer; Robert J. Heyka; Michael V. Rocco; Brendan P. Teehan; Andrew S. Levey

2000-01-01

179

HIV and Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... signal problems with the reabsorption in the tubules. Diabetes Recent studies about diabetes risks for those with HIV contain some conflicting ... it is clear that minimizing your risks for diabetes is important. Diabetes contributes to heart disease and ...

180

Inflammatory biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is complex; multiple biological pathways have been implicated, including, but not limited to, inflammation and oxidative stress. Biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress may serve to help identify patients at risk for CVD, to monitor the efficacy of treatments, and to develop new pharmacological tools. However, due to the complexities of CVD pathogenesis there is no single biomarker available to estimate absolute risk of future cardiovascular events. Furthermore, not all biomarkers are equal; the functions of many biomarkers overlap, some offer better prognostic information than others, and some are better suited to identify/predict the pathogenesis of particular cardiovascular events. The identification of the most appropriate set of biomarkers can provide a detailed picture of the specific nature of the cardiovascular event. The following review provides an overview of existing and emerging inflammatory biomarkers, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant biomarkers. The functions of each biomarker are discussed, and prognostic data are provided where available. PMID:23756129

Stoner, Lee; Lucero, Adam A; Palmer, Barry R; Jones, Lynnette M; Young, Joanna M; Faulkner, James

2013-06-10

181

Predictability and epidemic pathways in global outbreaks of infectious diseases: the SARS case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic has clearly shown the importance of considering the long-range transportation networks in the understanding of emerging diseases outbreaks. The introduction of extensive transportation data sets is therefore an important step in order to develop epidemic models endowed with realism. METHODS: We develop a general stochastic meta-population model that

Vittoria Colizza; Alain Barrat; Marc Barthélemy; Alessandro Vespignani

2007-01-01

182

[Cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic renal diseases].  

PubMed

The risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic renal disease appears to be far greater than in the general population and the risk of cardiovascular death is much higher than the risk of eventually requiring renal replacement therapy. Heart failure is important finding and it is evident even before the initiation of dialysis; the frequency of heart failure is 10 to 30 times higher in patients on dialysis than in the general population. Left ventricular hypertrophy has incidence of nearly 75-80% and is closely related to heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, fatal myocardial infarction, aortic root dilatation and cerebrovascular event. Ischaemic heart disease is usually the consequence of coronary artery disease, but 27% of haemodialysis patients may have symptoms without atherosclerotic changes in coronary arteries. Silent myocardial ischemia is more frequent in dialysis population. Hypertension is present in 80-85% of patients and its prevalence is linearly related to glomerular filtration rate. Patients with end-stage renal disease are more likely to have an increase in pulse pressure and isolated systolic hypertension and they may not demonstrate the normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure. Patients on dialysis are prone to calcification of media and intima due to disbalance of promoters and inhibitors of calcification process. Now, there are no valid data about the privilege of one dialysis method over another in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous traditional and non-traditional risk factors urge for preventive measures for cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic renal diseases. PMID:18924484

Dimkovi?, Nada

2008-05-01

183

Reliability of questionnaire information on cardiovascular disease and diabetes: cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county, Norway, which was repeated after three years (1977), 12 694 men and women twice answered a questionnaire on myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, other heart diseases, atherosclerosis obliterans, stroke, and diabetes. The reliability of these data is studied by using different indicators. These indicators suggest that questionnaire information on myocardial infarction is reliable

Steinar Tretli; Per G Lund-Larsen; Olav Per Foss

1982-01-01

184

Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

2011-01-01

185

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2011-09-01

186

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2010-10-01

187

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly recognized cause of liver disease in the United States and worldwide.\\u000a Increasing recognition of the importance of NAFLD and its strong relationship with the metabolic syndrome has stimulated an\\u000a interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent prospective\\u000a studies demonstrated that NAFLD, especially

Giovanni Targher

2010-01-01

188

Cardiovascular disease in women: peripheral artery disease.  

PubMed

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease in women that is underrecognized. It is most strongly associated with smoking and diabetes. Women with PAD are more likely to have atypical or no symptoms compared with men. The classic symptoms of claudication are seen in some, but not all, patients. The most useful initial test for PAD is the ankle-brachial index. The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guideline recommends that it be obtained for all patients with exertional leg symptoms; patients 50 years or older with diabetes; patients 50 years or older who smoke; all patients older than 65 years; and any patient with known coronary artery disease. Other tests, such as Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomography angiography, should be reserved for patients in whom the diagnosis of PAD is unclear. Exercise programs improve symptoms. Aspirin and statins are recommended for all patients with PAD, whereas surgery is reserved for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy. PMID:23977828

Clark, Daniel S

2013-08-01

189

Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The U.S. ... Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) in Adults . This ...

190

[Epidemics and disease during the Revolution Period in Mexico].  

PubMed

The health condition in Mexico was bad around de beginning of the revolutionary period. The movement of troops led the development of epidemics like yellow fever, typhus, smallpox, and influenza that were enhance with natural disasters and hunger in whole country, from cost to cost and in the north big cities like Monterrey, Guadalajara and Saltillo. Doctor Liceaga conducted a well planned campaign against yellow fever eradicating water stagnant deposits in order to combat the vector transmission, the Aedes aegypti, mosquito with satisfactory results. The first smallpox epidemic in the XX Century in Mexico was in 1916. The Mexican physicians used the smallpox vaccine against this epidemic. An American physician named Howard Taylor Ricketts arrived to Mexico for studying the typhus transmission. Accidentally he had been infected and finally, he died from typhus. Definitively, the epidemics predominate along de revolutionary period in Mexico. PMID:20929620

Sanfilippo-Borrás, José

191

Increased neuroplasticity may protect against cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Neuroplasticity refers to the capacity of the nervous system to modify its organization such that the brain can be shaped by environmental input. Individuals exhibit different degrees of neuroplasticity because of their different courses of growth. Neuroplasticity may thus play a role in individual differences in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function. Thus neuroplasticity may also be associated with the pathogenesis and the treatment of some other diseases besides neuropsychiatric diseases. The cardiovascular system is controlled by the nervous system, mainly by the autonomic nervous system. Stress may lead to depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is associated with depression, which is a disorder of decreased neuroplasticity. And the mechanisms of depression and CVD are related. So we conclude that decreased neuroplasticity causes the coexistence of depression with CVD, and increased neuroplasticity may be beneficial against the development of CVD. This theory provides another angle that can explain some of the reported phenomena related to CVD and neuropsychiatry and provide a potential treatment to protect against CVD. PMID:23510138

Zheng, Zhihua; Zeng, Yingtong; Wu, Junyan

2013-04-26

192

Relaxin in cardiovascular and renal disease.  

PubMed

Fibrosis (organ scarring) is a hallmark of many forms of cardiovascular and renal disease, and causes organ dysfunction and structural changes when normal tissue is replaced with scar tissue; the accumulation of scar tissue being a leading cause of death around the world. Despite deep organ scarring potentially existing in many forms (including myocardial and vascular sclerosis, renal interstitial fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis), current therapies have only had limited success in delaying end-stage disease. The peptide hormone relaxin is emerging as a potent antifibrotic therapy with rapid-occurring efficacy. Recent studies have demonstrated the antifibrotic actions of relaxin in experimental models of cardiac and renal disease in vivo, and the various levels at which relaxin acts to inhibit fibroblast-induced collagen overproduction leading to fibrosis, in vitro. Separate studies using relaxin gene-knockout mice have demonstrated the significance of endogenous relaxin as a naturally occurring and protective moderator of collagen turnover, while the therapeutic potential of relaxin has been enhanced by its ability to promote vasodilation and renal hyperfiltration. This review will summarize these coherent findings as a means of highlighting the clinical potential of relaxin in cardiovascular and renal disease. PMID:16672919

Samuel, C S; Hewitson, T D

2006-05-01

193

Epidemic assistance by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: role of the Epidemic Intelligence Service, 1946-2005.  

PubMed

Since 1946, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has responded to urgent requests from US states, federal agencies, and international organizations through epidemic-assistance investigations (Epi-Aids). The authors describe the first 60 years of Epi-Aids, breadth of problems addressed, evolution of methodologies, scope of activities, and impact of investigations on population health. They reviewed Epi-Aid reports and EIS Bulletins, contacted current and former Epidemic Intelligence Service staff, and systematically searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases. They abstracted information on dates, location, staff involved, health problems, methods, and impacts of investigations according to a preplanned protocol. They assessed the methods presented as well as the quality of reports. During 1946-2005, a total of 4,484 investigations of health events were initiated by 2,815 Epidemic Intelligence Service officers. In the early years, the majority were in response to infectious agents, although environmental problems emerged. Investigations in subsequent years focused on occupational conditions, birth defects, reproductive health, tobacco use, cancer, violence, legal debate, and terrorism. These Epi-Aids heralded expansion of the agency's mission and presented new methods in statistics and epidemiology. Recommendations from Epi-Aids led to policy implementation, evaluation, or modification. Epi-Aids provide the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with the agility to respond rapidly to public health crises. PMID:22135393

Thacker, Stephen B; Stroup, Donna F; Sencer, David J

2011-12-01

194

Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster

2009-01-01

195

Therapeutic implications of diabetes in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Insulin-resistant diabetes is becoming more prevalent among the general U.S. population. Approximately 20 million people had diabetes in 2005, of which one third of the population had impaired fasting glucose. The prevalence rate is 9%, a more alarming rate in the 20- to 39-year age group, which suggests a significant degree of how even the young are affected. We review how the prediabetic stage (impaired glucose tolerance-impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance-impaired glucose tolerance) plays a vital role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications with drug therapy reduces the cardiovascular risk of early diabetes and its complications. A lifestyle modification like effective weight loss and exercise, with or without antidiabetic drugs, prevents the proatherogenic effects of diabetes. Controlled, randomized studies have shown that progression to diabetes among those with prediabetes is not inevitable; people with prediabetes who lose weight and increase their physical activity can prevent or delay diabetes and could even return their blood glucose levels to normal. Although prevention of prediabetes is a huge challenge, a tight glycemic control with lifestyle modifications and antihyperglycemics like thiazolidinediones play a vital role in increasing the insulin sensitivity of tissues and decreasing the cardiovascular risk factor of diabetes. PMID:19940606

Cherian, Biju; Meka, Naga; Katragadda, Srikanth; Arora, Rohit

196

Comparison of an Agent-based Model of Disease Propagation with the Generalised SIR Epidemic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social contacts are an important channel for the propagation of disease through a population and should be considered in conjunction with traditional epidemic diffusion. Such channels should always be taken into account for a realistic estimation of a lon...

A. Skvortsov P. Dawson R. Connell

2009-01-01

197

Alcohol, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Disparities in associations of alcohol consumption to various cardiovascular conditions lead to separate consideration of several. These include (1) Alcoholic cardiomyopathy from chronic heavy drinking in susceptible persons. (2) Higher blood pressure (hypertension) in some heavier drinkers. (3) A relation of drinking to higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke but to lower risk of ischemic stroke. (4) Certain arrhythmias, especially among binge drinkers. (5) An inverse relation of alcohol use to coronary artery disease. A causal hypothesis of protection is strengthened by plausible mechanisms. The coronary disease data impact upon total mortality statistics, such that lighter drinkers are at slightly lower risk than abstainers of death within a given time period. (6) An inverse relation of drinking to type 2 (adult onset) diabetes mellitus in several recent studies. Because of close relations to cardiovascular disorders, diabetes is considered virtual cardiovascular "equivalent". (7) Composites of (1-6) result in a complex association between alcohol and the common heart failure syndrome. International comparisons suggest wine is more protective against coronary disease than liquor or beer. Reports of antioxidants, endothelial relaxants, and antithrombotic activity in wine (especially red) support hypothetical benefit from non-alcohol wine components. However, prospective population studies show apparent protection from beer, wine, or liquor. Thus, some suggest that favorable traits or drinking patterns of wine drinkers might explain the international comparison findings. Amount of alcohol taken is a crucial consideration in alcohol-health relations. Advice to concerned persons needs to take into account individual risk/benefit factors in drinkers or potential drinkers. PMID:17363263

Klatsky, Arthur L

2007-01-25

198

Cardiovascular disease and work place exposures.  

PubMed

The typical occupational cohort study includes all causes of mortality. However, emphasis is usually placed on the presence or absence of excess cancer mortality. A systematic review of completed occupational cohort studies to assess the findings and patterns of cardiovascular mortality would be useful. Although many of these studies will illustrate the "healthy worker effect" with deficits in mortality, particularly from cardiovascular causes, a thorough review should indicate certain exposures needing further research. A recently published study of heart disease mortality in the rubber industry illustrates the potential use of such a literature review with subsequent follow up. Production workers in the rubber industry have shown small excesses in CAHD mortality. A follow-up study at one plant confirmed the known association between carbon disulfide and atherosclerosis, as well as suggested two new causal associations between CAHD and the use of phenol and ethanol as solvents. What additional techniques can be used to generate hypotheses on heart disease and occupation? Some possibilities include: A recent article describes the use of the results of occupational disease surveillance systems for occupational cancer research. A review of such systems for heart disease would be equally useful. It would be useful to review the quality and quantity of occupational data that has been collected in prospective cohort studies, such as those in Framingham and Evans County. The importance of examining the association between occupational exposures and heart disease include: Assessing whether adequate protection is afforded by current limits on exposure to substances known to cause heart disease (carbon disulfide, nitrates, and carbon monoxide).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6380427

Rosenman, K D

199

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?): At the crossroads of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. The burden of disease is also increasing as a result of the global epidemics of diabetes and obesity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a member of this nuclear receptor family, has emerged as an important player in this scenario, with evidence supporting a central co-ordinated role in the regulation

Jean-Charles Fruchart

2009-01-01

200

[Epidemic disease and regulation of migration in Canada].  

PubMed

Beginning with the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the Parliament of Lower Canada adopted a rational and scientific mechanism for regulating migratory movements within its territory. Other than internal imperatives pertaining to security, this mechanism revolved around a prophylactic control of these movements of population. With the great migrations of 1830-1834 and 1847, the politicians of Lower Canada and the United Canada subsequently needed to revisit their regulatory mechanism in order to render it more efficient. In truth, new arrivals were frequently the spreaders of infectious diseases. Yet more importantly, the great epidemics, such as that of cholera in 1832, or of typhus in 1847, were not merely physically lethal, but were potentially disastrous to the social order. How then to resolve the potential pathological threats to the physical body with those to the political body? The political powers of the day adopted an entire method of thinking and a vocabulary which was more scientific, replete with medical references. Adopted under the seal of an emergency, these new measures of state control of prophylaxis were greatly inspired by those medical theories concerning infection and contagion which were prevalent prior to the arrival of the Pasteurian model of medicine. Those in power then used this new framework to analyze the question as a rational political problem. In the end, they would establish a tighter mechanism of state-controlled prophylaxis through the law, through regulations, and through devices for surveillance and control such as quarantine. The guarantor of social discipline through the erosion of individual freedom, this mechanism of state-run prophylaxis of migratory movements would, from that point forward, be justified by the health demands of the Cité organique, of the public health. PMID:14533613

Pâquet, M

1999-01-01

201

Drug treatment of obesity in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Obesity is a significant health problem worldwide and is associated with a number of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease. A number of different pathophysiologic mechanisms including increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance have been associated with initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease in obese individuals. Lifestyle modifications have provided modest results in weight reduction and the focus of interest has now shifted towards drug development to treat severely obese individuals with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) or those with a BMI >27 kg/m(2) who have additional co-morbidities. Different regimens focusing on dietary absorption or acting centrally to control hunger and food intake have been developed. However, their weight loss effect is, in most cases, modest and this effect is lost once the medication is discontinued. In addition, long-term use of these drugs is limited by significant side effects and lack of long-term safety and efficacy data. Orlistat is the only US FDA-approved medication for long-term use. A number of new medications are currently under investigation in phase III trials with promising preliminary results. This review comments on available anti-obesity pharmacologic regimens, their weight-loss benefit, and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:22292446

Charakida, Marietta; Finer, Nicholas

2012-04-01

202

NADPH oxidases in cardiovascular health and disease.  

PubMed

Increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and ischemia-reperfusion. Although several sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved, a family of NADPH oxidases appears to be especially important for redox signaling and may be amenable to specific therapeutic targeting. These include the prototypic Nox2 isoform-based NADPH oxidase, which was first characterized in neutrophils, as well as other NADPH oxidases such as Nox1 and Nox4. These Nox isoforms are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific fashion, are subject to independent activation and regulation, and may subserve distinct functions. This article reviews the potential roles of NADPH oxidases in both cardiovascular physiological processes (such as the regulation of vascular tone and oxygen sensing) and pathophysiological processes such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, and vascular and cardiac remodeling. The complexity of regulation of NADPH oxidases in these conditions may provide the possibility of targeted therapeutic manipulation in a cell-, tissue- and/or pathway-specific manner at appropriate points in the disease process. PMID:16771662

Cave, Alison C; Brewer, Alison C; Narayanapanicker, Anilkumar; Ray, Robin; Grieve, David J; Walker, Simon; Shah, Ajay M

203

Mitochondria, myocardial remodeling, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The process of muscle remodeling lies at the core of most cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac adaptation to pressure or volume overload is associated with a complex molecular change in cardiomyocytes which leads to anatomic remodeling of the heart muscle. Although adaptive at its beginnings, the sustained cardiac hypertrophic remodeling almost unavoidably ends in progressive muscle dysfunction, heart failure and ultimately death. One of the features of cardiac remodeling is a progressive impairment in mitochondrial function. The heart has the highest oxygen uptake in the human body and accordingly it has a large number of mitochondria, which form a complex network under constant remodeling in order to sustain the high metabolic rate of cardiac cells and serve as Ca(2+) buffers acting together with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, this high dependence on mitochondrial metabolism has its costs: when oxygen supply is threatened, high leak of electrons from the electron transport chain leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. These three aspects of mitochondrial function (Reactive oxygen species signaling, Ca(2+) handling and mitochondrial dynamics) are critical for normal muscle homeostasis. In this article, we will review the latest evidence linking mitochondrial morphology and function with the process of myocardial remodeling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22972531

Verdejo, Hugo E; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Tomás; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Pedrozo, Zully; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Garcia, Lorena; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

2012-12-01

204

Iron-Induced Fibrin in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence within the last two decades indicates the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic inflammatory state. Under normal conditions fibrin clots are gradually degraded by the fibrinolytic enzyme system, so no permanent insoluble deposits remain in the circulation. However, fibrinolytic therapy in coronary and cerebral thrombosis is ineffective unless it is installed within 3-5 hours of the onset. We have shown that trivalent iron (FeIII) initiates a hydroxyl radical-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into a fibrin-like polymer (parafibrin) that is remarkably resistant to the proteolytic dissolution and thus promotes its intravascular deposition. Here we suggest that the persistent presence of proteolysis-resistant fibrin clots causes chronic inflammation. We study the effects of certain amphiphilic substances on the iron- and thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization visualized using scanning electron microscopy. We argue that the culprit is an excessive accumulation of free iron in blood, known to be associated with CVD. The only way to prevent iron overload is by supplementation with iron chelating agents. However, administration of free radical scavengers as effective protection against persistent presence of fibrin-like deposits should also be investigated to contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases.

Lipinski, Boguslaw; Pretorius, Etheresia

2013-01-01

205

Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to

Dorothy M. Lanuza; Patricia M. Davidson; Sandra B. Dunbar; Suzanne Hughes; Sabina De Geest

2011-01-01

206

Cardiovascular complications of collagen vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Collagen vascular diseases commonly affect the heart; cardiovascular events are the major cause of mortality in people with\\u000a these diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a A striking feature of the cardiac involvement in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis\\u000a is aggressive and accelerated atherosclerosis; women with SLE in the 35-to 44-year-old age group are more than 50 times

Gary E. Sander; Thomas D. Giles

2002-01-01

207

Depressive Symptoms in Women Being Screened for Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depressive symptomology is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Over 15% of persons with cardiovascular disease have depressive symptoms, and women are twice as likely to experience these symptoms as men. Depressive symptoms in women “ at risk ” for cardiovascular disease has not been well studied.\\u000aPurpose: This study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms, health-promoting lifestyle

Suzanne Marie Savoy

2010-01-01

208

Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: This guideline focuses on long-term administration of antithrombotic drugs designed for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, including two new antiplatelet therapies. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: We present 23 recommendations for pertinent clinical questions. For primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, we suggest low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/d) in patients aged > 50 years over no aspirin therapy (Grade 2B). For patients with established coronary artery disease, defined as patients 1-year post-acute coronary syndrome, with prior revascularization, coronary stenoses > 50% by coronary angiogram, and/or evidence for cardiac ischemia on diagnostic testing, we recommend long-term low-dose aspirin or clopidogrel (75 mg/d) (Grade 1A). For patients with acute coronary syndromes who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement, we recommend for the first year dual antiplatelet therapy with low-dose aspirin in combination with ticagrelor 90 mg bid, clopidogrel 75 mg/d, or prasugrel 10 mg/d over single antiplatelet therapy (Grade 1B). For patients undergoing elective PCI with stent placement, we recommend aspirin (75-325 mg/d) and clopidogrel for a minimum duration of 1 month (bare-metal stents) or 3 to 6 months (drug-eluting stents) (Grade 1A). We suggest continuing low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel for 12 months for all stents (Grade 2C). Thereafter, we recommend single antiplatelet therapy over continuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (Grade 1B). Conclusions: Recommendations continue to favor single antiplatelet therapy for patients with established coronary artery disease. For patients with acute coronary syndromes or undergoing elective PCI with stent placement, dual antiplatelet therapy for up to 1 year is warranted.

Vandvik, Per Olav; Lincoff, A. Michael; Gore, Joel M.; Gutterman, David D.; Sonnenberg, Frank A.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Akl, Elie A.; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Guyatt, Gordon H.

2012-01-01

209

Early cardiovascular involvement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early cardiovascular involvement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. M. Malerba, G. Romanelli. Cardiovascular (CV) disease represents a consider- able risk factor in terms of both morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In fact, there is a considerable evidence of this association: for only 20 years forced expiratory vol- ume in 1 second (FEV1) has

M. Malerba; G. Romanelli

2009-01-01

210

PHYLLOQUINONE INTAKE AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN MEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary patterns high in fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases. The association between phylloquinone intake, derived mainly from green vegetables, and risk of cardiovascular diseases [total and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), non-fatal myocardial ...

211

Anemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In the present review we examine the physiologic response to chronic anemia and describe potential adverse effects of anemia on myocardial and large arterial remodeling. We present observational data demonstrating that anemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and patients with heart failure.

Arema A. Pereira; Mark J. Sarnak

2003-01-01

212

Mental stress and the cardiovascular system part II: Acute mental stress and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in normal subjects, acute mental stress increases blood pressure measurements (sometimes to hypertensive levels) in subjects with cardiovascular disease. We found examples in the literature of acute mental stress increasing peripheral vascular resistance (as in isometric exercise) in patients with cardiovascular disease. We did not, however, find examples of acute mental stress decreasing peripheral vascular resistance (as in isotonic

W. Victor; R. Vieweg; Linda M. Dougherty; Christopher S. Nicholson

1997-01-01

213

[From complex multivessel disease to cardiovascular health].  

PubMed

The development of drug-eluting stents has raised great hopes that percutaneous coronary intervention has a potential role in the revascularization of patients with three-vessel disease and left main coronary artery disease. However, recent results from the SYNTAX clinical trial have shown that, compared with drug-eluting stents, bypass surgery is associated with a lower restenosis rate and a reduced incidence of major cardiovascular events. This study used an index that quantifies the severity of coronary artery disease on the basis of a number of anatomical criteria of lesion complexity (i.e. the SYNTAX score). The study results indicate that the higher the index (i.e. the more complex the lesion), the greater the benefits of surgery. Other recent studies (e.g. PROSPECT and FAME) have used imaging to investigate the natural history of acute coronary syndrome, or the role of functional parameters in identifying vulnerable plaque that can lead to complications during follow-up. The sum of the evidence available shows that therapeutic approaches to complex disease should take into account both the anatomical and structural characteristics of lesions, as well as functional parameters, and that high-resolution imaging techniques are essential for establishing both an individual's risk profile and the potential benefits of treatment. In diabetic patients with multivessel disease, the results of the FREEDOM study (currently ongoing) could be crucial for incorporating this new knowledge into practice and for defining the optimum management for this group of high-risk patients. PMID:20540896

Fuster, Valentín

2010-06-01

214

Cardiovascular co-morbidity in rheumatic diseases  

PubMed Central

Patients with rheumatic disorders have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This excess co-morbidity is not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Disease severity is a major risk factor for CVD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Shared disease mechanisms in atherosclerosis and rheumatic disorders include immune dysregulation and inflammatory pathways, which are potential targets for therapy. Lessons from RA and SLE may have implications for future research on the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease in general. Recent data indicate that suppression of inflammation reduces the risk of CVD morbidity and mortality in patients with severe RA. The modest, but clinically relevant, efficacy of atorvastatin treatment in RA adds to the evidence for important anti-inflammatory properties for statins. There is increased recognition of the need for structured preventive strategies to reduce the risk of CVD in patients with rheumatic disease. Such strategies should be based on insights into the role of inflammation in CVD, as well as optimal management of life style related risk factors. In this review, the research agenda for understanding and preventing CVD co-morbidity in patients with rheumatic disorders is discussed.

Turesson, Carl; Jacobsson, Lennart TH; Matteson, Eric L

2008-01-01

215

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases  

PubMed Central

The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases.

Bogaert, Jan; Francone, Marco

2009-01-01

216

Estrogen, hormonal replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Premenopausal women have a lower risk and incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to age-matched men and this sex advantage for women gradually disappears after menopause, suggesting that sexual hormones play a cardioprotective role in women. However, randomized prospective primary or secondary prevention trials failed to confirm that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) affords cardioprotection. This review highlights the factors that may contribute to this divergent outcome and could reveal why young or premenopausal women are protected from CVD and yet postmenopausal women do not benefit from HRT. Recent findings In addition to the two classical estrogen receptors, ER? and ER?, a third, G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30, has been identified. New intracellular signaling pathways and actions for the cardiovascular protective properties of estrogen have been proposed. In addition, recent Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies restricted to younger postmenopausal women showed that initiation of HRT closer to menopause reduced the risk of CVD. Moreover, dosage, duration, the type of estrogen and route of administration all merit consideration when determining the outcome of HRT. Summary HRT has become one of the most controversial topics related to women’s health. Future studies are necessary if we are to understand the divergent published findings regarding HRT and develop new therapeutic strategies to improve the quality of life for women.

Yang, Xiao-Ping; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

2011-01-01

217

Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.

Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

2010-01-01

218

Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men  

PubMed Central

Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This ‘Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the ‘cause' versus ‘effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease.

Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

2012-01-01

219

Physical activity and the prevention of cardiovascular disease: from evolution to epidemiology.  

PubMed

For most of human history, the environmental demands of survival necessitated prodigious amounts of physical exertion. The avoidance of predators, hunting, gathering, and the literal "chopping wood and carrying water" of daily existence provided a wholesome dose of physical activity that obviated the need for deliberate exercise. Nevertheless, 21st century humans are now immersed within an environment explicitly designed to eliminate physical labor. Over the past century and especially the past 50 years, an accrual of epidemiological evidence has established that the unintended consequence of humankind's predilection for labor-saving contrivances is an epidemic of hypokinetically induced cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. This review surveys data from observational studies supporting the premise that physical activity, exercise training, and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness are essential elements in the prevention and treatment of the cardiovascular diseases induced by an environment in which survival no longer obligates physical exertion. PMID:21545924

Archer, Edward; Blair, Steven N

220

Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention  

PubMed Central

Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

2013-01-01

221

Nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention.  

PubMed

Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

2013-09-17

222

[Cardiovascular disease: big problems require big solutions].  

PubMed

At the age of 45, the lifetime risk of developing cardiovascular disease has been shown to be 60% in men and 55% in women in an analysis which included over 900,000 individuals in 5 prospective cohort studies in the United States. Only 4% of the men and 8% of the women had an optimal risk profile. The benefits of being at low risk were great: 14 more healthy years in those without risk factors. Identifying middle-aged individuals at high risk will prevent only a minority of clinical events. There are two alternatives that can be considered; the first one being the 'polypill' approach in which multiple generic drugs are started by every individual at a certain age, e.g., 55 years. This could prove to be an affordable and effective approach for the entire population. Alternatively, fundamental changes in society aimed at improving lifestyle and dietary habits could be implemented. PMID:23676133

Peters, Ron J G

2013-01-01

223

Role of adipokines in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The discovery of leptin in 1994 sparked dramatic new interest in the study of white adipose tissue. It is now recognised to be a metabolically active endocrine organ, producing important chemical messengers - adipokines and cytokines (adipocytokines). The search for new adipocytokines or adipokines gained added fervour with the prospect of the reconciliation between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), obesity and metabolic syndrome. The role these new chemical messengers play in inflammation, satiety, metabolism and cardiac function has paved the way for new research and theories examining the effects they have on (in this case) CVD. Adipokines are involved in a 'good-bad', yin-yang homoeostatic balance whereby there are substantial benefits: cardioprotection, promoting endothelial function, angiogenesis and reducing hypertension, atherosclerosis and inflammation. The flip side may show contrasting, detrimental effects in aggravating these cardiac parameters. PMID:23160967

Mattu, Harman S; Randeva, Harpal S

2013-01-02

224

Testosterone, hemostasis, and cardiovascular diseases in men.  

PubMed

Men have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than women, and adverse thrombotic events increase with age. Recent experimental cross-sectional, and case-control studies have shown that testosterone may affect the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system in men in several ways. It has been hypothesized that physiological doses of testosterone would have a beneficial effect on tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and the development of CVD. The search for eternal youth has created a market for testosterone treatment in aging men during the last few years. However, whether testosterone supplementation could be useful in the treatment of testosterone-deficient elderly men is still controversial. The present review focuses on the coagulation system and CVD from the perspective of testosterone. PMID:21249606

Brodin, Ellen; Vikan, Torkel; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Svartberg, Johan

2011-01-19

225

Early cardiovascular remodelling in Fabry disease.  

PubMed

AIMS: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder caused by the deficiency or absent activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A. Cardiovascular remodelling is a hallmark of FD. The present study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the cardiac, vascular and microvascular status in a population of patients with genetic mutations for FD without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study includes subjects carrying genetic mutations for FD (Fabry disease mutation-carrier, FDMC) without LVH (n?=?19). A group of control subjects (n?=?19) matched for age, sex, body mass index and cardiovascular risk factors were also included. All subjects underwent echocardiography, carotid ultrasound scan, endothelial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) assessment. When compared to the subjects in the control group, FDMC patients showed significantly lower mean values of systolic myocardial velocity (7.33?±?1.28 vs. 10.08?±?1.63 cm/s, p?

Costanzo, Luca; Buccheri, Sergio; Capranzano, Piera; Di Pino, Luigi; Curatolo, Giuseppina; Rodolico, Margherita; Leggio, Stefano; Blundo, Anita; Tamburino, Corrado; Monte, Ines

2013-04-25

226

Migraine and cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and death due to cardiovascular disease.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Data sources Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library) and reference lists of included studies and reviews published until January 2009.Selection criteria Case-control and cohort studies investigating the association between any migraine or specific migraine subtypes and cardiovascular

Markus Schürks; Pamela M Rist; Marcelo E Bigal; Julie E Buring; Richard B Lipton; Tobias Kurth

2009-01-01

227

Design of PREVENCION: a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in Peru.  

PubMed

Latin America is undergoing the epidemiologic transition that occurred earlier in developed countries, and is likely to face a gigantic epidemic of heart disease in the next few years unless urgent action is taken. The first essential component of any effective cardiovascular disease (CVD) control program is to establish reliable estimates of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. However, such data from population-based studies in Latin America are still lacking. In this paper, we present the design and operation of PREVENCION (Estudio Peruano de Prevalencia de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, for Peruvian Study of the Prevalence of Cardiovascular diseases). PREVENCION is an ongoing population-based study on a representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the second largest city in Peru. Its population is comparable to the rest of the Peruvian urban population and closely resembles other Latin American populations in countries such as Bolivia and Ecuador. Our study will contribute to the enormous task of understanding and preventing CVD in Latin America. PMID:16243113

Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Chirinos, Julio A; Zea Díaz, Humberto; Morey, Oscar; Bolanos, Juan F; Munoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio

2005-11-01

228

Disease spreading with epidemic alert on small-world networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Base on two-dimension small-world networks, a susceptible-infected model with epidemic alert is proposed in this Letter. In this model, if some parts of the network are alarmed as dangerous, a fraction of edges between the alarmed parts and others will be removed, and two cases of alerting rules that the degree and frequency of contacts kept unchanged are considered respectively.

Xiao-Pu Han

2007-01-01

229

Cardiovascular abnormalities in sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury to multiple vital organ systems and a chronic hemolytic anemia, both contributing to progressive organ dysfunction. The introduction of treatments that induce protective fetal hemoglobin and reduce infectious complications has greatly prolonged survival. However, with increased longevity, cardiovascular complications are increasingly evident, with the notable development of a progressive proliferative systemic vasculopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is reported in autopsy studies, and numerous clinical studies have shown that increased pulmonary pressures are an important risk marker for mortality in these patients. In epidemiological studies, the development of PH is associated with intravascular hemolysis, cutaneous leg ulceration, renal insufficiency, iron overload, and liver dysfunction. Chronic anemia in sickle cell disease results in cardiac chamber dilation and a compensatory increase in left ventricular mass. This is often accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction that has also been a strong independent predictor of mortality in patients with sickle cell disease. Both PH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with marked abnormalities in exercise capacity in these patients. Sudden death is an increasingly recognized problem, and further cardiac investigations are necessary to recognize and treat high-risk patients. PMID:22440212

Gladwin, Mark T; Sachdev, Vandana

2012-03-27

230

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes  

PubMed Central

The structure of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has already been successfully used as a source of new biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major global cause of death, many CVD genes still await discovery. We explore ways to utilize the structure of the human PPI network to find important genes for CVDs that should be targeted by drugs. The hope is to use the properties of such important genes to predict new ones, which would in turn improve a choice of therapy. We propose a methodology that examines the PPI network wiring around genes involved in CVDs. We use the methodology to identify a subset of CVD-related genes that are statistically significantly enriched in drug targets and “driver genes.” We seek such genes, since driver genes have been proposed to drive onset and progression of a disease. Our identified subset of CVD genes has a large overlap with the Core Diseasome, which has been postulated to be the key to disease formation and hence should be the primary object of therapeutic intervention. This indicates that our methodology identifies “key” genes responsible for CVDs. Thus, we use it to predict new CVD genes and we validate over 70% of our predictions in the literature. Finally, we show that our predicted genes are functionally similar to currently known CVD drug targets, which confirms a potential utility of our methodology towards improving therapy for CVDs.

Stojkovic, Neda; Radak, Djordje; Przulj, Natasa

2013-01-01

231

Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in…

Zhang, Zhenmei

2006-01-01

232

Cardiovascular disease and the potential protective role of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

th century, cardiovascular disease was responsible for less than ten percent of all deaths globally. However, recent reports indicate that the trend has changed with studies showing that cardiovascular disease currently accounts for about thirty percent of all deaths in the world. It is generally accepted that smoking, high blood cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, elevated LDL levels, elevated blood

O. O. Oguntibeju; A. J. Esterhuyse; E. J. Truter

2009-01-01

233

Lipoprotein oxidation in cardiovascular disease: chief culprit or innocent bystander?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to contribute to ath- erosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Consistent with this idea, the antioxi- dant drug probucol reduces the risk of restenosis, a form of cardiovascular disease, in humans. However, a new study now suggests that the protective effect of probucol depends not on its ability to inhibit lipid oxidation, but on its

Jay W. Heinecke

234

Dementia Associates with Undermedication of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare medication use in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease with and without dementia. Subjects: All inhabitants aged 75 and older in Lieto, Finland (n = 462, participation rate 82%). Measurements: Direct standardised assessments of dementia and cardiovascular diseases. Quantification of drug use by self-report and by prescription and drug container checks. Results: In multivariate analyses, the odds ratio

Minna Löppönen; Ismo Räihä; Raimo Isoaho; Tero Vahlberg; Hannu Puolijoki; Sirkka-Liisa Kivelä

2006-01-01

235

microRNAs as peripheral blood biomarkers of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A host of studies have established essential roles for microRNAs in cardiovascular development and disease. Moreover, the discovery of stable microRNAs in bodily fluids indicated their potential as non-invasive biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the current studies describing microRNAs in blood cells or serum\\/plasma, as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

Valeria Di Stefano; Germana Zaccagnini; Maurizio C. Capogrossi; Fabio Martelli

236

Uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the dialysis population and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure. The conventional Framingham cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (ie, hypertension, smoking, age, hyper- cholesterolemia, and a family history of CV disease) have typically been the focus of risk stratification and subse- quent primary and\\/or secondary

Caroline E. Stigant

237

[Place of magnesium salts in the treatment of cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

The article examines the role of magnesium in the metabolism and the pathogenesis of common cardiovascular diseases, and provides research data on the use of magnesium salts as adjunctive therapy of these diseases. PMID:23098405

Starostin, I V

2012-01-01

238

Compensation: a contemporary regulatory machinery in cardiovascular diseases?  

PubMed

Both clinical and experimental findings at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ and systematic levels have depicted the presence of a contemporary regulatory machinery namely compensation in various forms of cardiovascular diseases. Compensation is believed to be present and regulated within the scope of a biological entity and represents the initiation of dyshomeostasis. Compensation can be identified in multiple categories and organs in cardiovascular diseases at multiple levels. The capacity to reduce the unfavorable pathological compensation may be a criterion to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness for cardiovascular diseases. This mini-review tries to take compensation into consideration in the understanding of onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases in particular, and thus, better or optimal therapeutic approaches may be achieved for the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22565526

Fan, Xiu-Juan; Ren, Jun

2012-12-01

239

The ‘thrifty’ Hypotheses: Clinical and Epidemiological Significance for Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus has increased to epidemic proportions in several traditional populations due to changes in their lifestyles from those of hunters, gatherers and subsistence agriculturists to a contemporary pattern whose central features are sedentary occupations and high-energy fuel resources. As a result, non-infectious perturbations such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases emerge

Chrysanthus Chukwuma; Jaakko Tuomilehto

1998-01-01

240

Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations.

Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

2005-01-01

241

Environmental Exposures, Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Review Epigenetic modifications are heritable alterations of the genome, which can govern gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. The purpose of this review is to render an overview of the possible mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in response to environmental pollutants leading to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recent Findings An era of cataloging epigenetic marks of the various diseased states has recently commenced, including those within the genes responsible for atherosclerosis, ischemia, hypertension and heart failure. From varied study approaches directed either towards the general understanding of the key pathway regulatory genes, or sampling population cohorts for global and gene-specific changes, it has been possible to identify several epigenetic signatures of environmental exposure relevant to CVD. Signatures of epigenetic dysregulation can be detected in peripheral blood samples, even within few hours of environmental exposure. However, the field now faces the demand for thorough, systematic, rationalized approaches to establish the relation of an exposure-driven epigenetic changes to clinical outcomes, by using sophisticated and reliable research designs and tools. Summary An understanding of chromatin remodeling in response to environmental stimuli conducive to CVD is emerging, with the promise of novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidates.

Ghosh, Sanjukta

2013-01-01

242

Vitamin D receptor activation and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Vitamin D has been recently associated with several renal, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, beyond mineral metabolism and bone health. This is due in part to widespread expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) on tissues and cells such as heart, kidney, immune cells, brain and muscle. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other chronic disorders, vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL] is very common and is associated with adverse outcomes. Paricalcitol, a selective activator of VDR, has demonstrated in several experimental and clinical studies of diabetic and non-diabetic CKD a favourable profile compared to other VDR activators, alone or as add-on to standard therapy. These beneficial effects are mediated by different actions such as reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, downregulation of cardiac and renal renin expression, downregulation of calcifying genes and direct vascular protective effects. Furthermore, paricalcitol beneficial effects may be independent of baseline serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphate levels. These benefits should be confirmed in large and well-designed ongoing clinical trials. PMID:23258805

Gonzalez-Parra, Emilio; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Tuñón, Jose; Praga, Manuel; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

2012-12-01

243

Age-associated Cardiovascular Changes in Health: Impact on Cardiovascular Disease in Older Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, cardiovascular disease, e.g., atherosclerosis and hypertension, that lead to heart failure and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality, accounting for over 40 percent of deaths in those aged 65 years and above. Over 80 percent of all cardio-vascular deaths occur in the same age group. Thus, age, per se, is the major risk factor for

Edward G. Lakatta

2002-01-01

244

Association of Fibrinogen With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in the Framingham Offspring Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Fibrinogen has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Also, the role of elevated fibrinogen in thrombosis suggests that it may be on the causal pathway for certain risk factors to exert their effect. These associations remain incompletely characterized. Moreover, the optimal fibrinogen assay for risk stratification is uncertain. Methods

James J. Stec; Halit Silbershatz; Geoffrey H. Tofler; Travis H. Matheney; Patrice Sutherland; Izabela Lipinska; Joseph M. Massaro; Peter F. W. Wilson; James E. Muller; Ralph B. D'Agostino Sr

2010-01-01

245

Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Virological and serological studies of an epidemic disease in Bulgaria, 1975, were carried out. Epidemiologically, clinically and pathomorphologically, the disease simulated almost all known forms of poliomyelitis, acute stem encephalitis, encephalomyocarditis and aseptic meningitis. The studies completely ruled out the participation of polioviruses and provided comprehensive evidence for the etiological role of a peculiar enterovirus subsequently identified as enterovirus

M. Chumakov; M. VOROSttILOVA; L. Shindarov; I. Lavrova; L. Gracheva; G. Koroleva; S. Vasilenko; I. Brodvarova; M. Nikolova; S. Gyurova; M. Gacheva; G. Mitov; N. Ninov; E. Tsylka; I. Robinson; M. Frolova; V. Bashkirtsev; L. Martiyanova; V. Rodin

1979-01-01

246

Oscillations and chaos in epidemics: A nonlinear dynamic study of six childhood diseases in Copenhagen, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using traditional spectral analysis and recently developed non-linear methods, we analyze the incidence of six childhood diseases in Copenhagen, Denmark. In three cases, measles, mumps, rubella, the dynamics suggest low dimensional chaos. Outbreaks of chicken pox, on the other hand, conform to an annual cycle with noise superimposed. The remaining diseases, pertussis and scarlet fever, remain problematic. The real epidemics

L. F. OLSEN; G. L. TRUTY; W. M. SCHAFFER

1988-01-01

247

Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

More than a decade ago, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was recognized as a major cause of death in children with advanced CKD. This observation has sparked the publication of multiple studies assessing cardiovascular risk, mechanisms of disease, and early markers of CVD in this population. Similar to adults, children with CKD have an extremely high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related CVD risk factors. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness, and coronary artery calcification, are frequently present in these children, especially those on maintenance dialysis. As a population without preexisting symptomatic cardiac disease, children with CKD potentially receive significant benefit from aggressive attempts to prevent and treat CVD. Early CKD, before needing dialysis, is the optimal time to both identify modifiable risk factors and intervene in an effort to avert future CVD. Slowing the progression of CKD, avoiding long-term dialysis and, if possible, conducting preemptive transplantation may represent the best strategies to decrease the risk of premature cardiac disease and death in children with CKD.

2012-01-01

248

Fishing for the genetic basis of cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has recently overtaken infectious disease to become the biggest global killer. Genetic factors have emerged as being of major importance in the pathogenesis of CVD. Owing to disease heterogeneity, variable penetrance and high mortality, human genetic studies alone are not sufficient to elucidate the genetic basis of CVD. Animal models are needed to identify novel genes that are involved in cardiovascular pathology and to verify the effect of suspected disease genes on cardiovascular function. An intriguing model organism is the zebrafish danio rerio. Several features of the zebrafish, such as a closed cardiovascular system, transparency at embryonal stages, rapid and external development, and easily tractable genetics make it ideal for cardiovascular research. Moreover, zebrafish are suitable for forward genetics approaches, which allow the unbiased identification of novel and unanticipated cardiovascular genes. Zebrafish mutants with various cardiovascular phenotypes that closely correlate with human disease, such as congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias, have been isolated. The pool of zebrafish mutants, for which the causal gene mutation has been identified, is constantly growing. The human orthologues of several of these zebrafish genes have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of human CVD. Cardiovascular zebrafish models also provide the opportunity to develop and test novel therapeutic strategies, using innovative technologies such as high throughput in vivo small molecule screens.

Dahme, Tillman; Katus, Hugo A.; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

249

Systematic review of cardiovascular disease in women: assessing the risk.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death for women. In an effort to reduce cardiovascular burden for women, identifying risk factors and increasing awareness of sex differences are fundamental. This systematic review examines cardiovascular disease risk for women. A search of the literature was undertaken using key health databases. Search terms used were cardiovascular disease AND women OR gender. Additional references were manually identified from this literature; 58 articles were reviewed in total. On average, cardiovascular disease presents 10?years later in women compared to men. By this time, they are more likely to suffer from more comorbidities, placing them at higher risk. The complexity of cardiovascular disease identification in women is accentuated through atypical symptoms, and has the potential to lead to delayed and/or misdiagnosis. It is clear through identifying sex differentiation in cardiovascular risk factors that there has been an increased awareness of symptom presentation for women. In light of the sex differences in risk factors, sex-specific aspects should be more intensively considered in research/practice to improve clinical outcomes for female cardiovascular disease patients. PMID:22070582

Worrall-Carter, Linda; Ski, Chantal; Scruth, Elizabeth; Campbell, Michelle; Page, Karen

2011-11-09

250

HIF-prolyl hydroxylases and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Prolyl hydroxylases belong to the family of iron- and 2-oxoglutamate-dependent dioxygenase enzyme. Several distinct prolyl hydroxylases have been identified. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase termed prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes play an important role in oxygen regulation in the physiological network. There are three isoforms that have been identified: PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3. Deletion of PHD enzymes result in stabilization of HIFs and offers potential treatment options for many ischemic disorders such as peripheral arterial occlusive disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. All three isoforms are oxygen sensors that regulate the stability of HIFs. The degradation of HIF-1? is regulated by hydroxylation of the 402/504 proline residue by PHDs. Under hypoxic conditions, lack of oxygen causes hydroxylation to cease HIF-1? stabilization and subsequent translocation to the nucleus where it heterodimerizes with the constitutively expressed ? subunit. Binding of the HIF-heterodimer to specific DNA sequences, named hypoxia-responsive elements, triggers the transactivation of target genes. PHD regulation of HIF-1?-mediated cardioprotection has resulted in considerable interest in these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular and ischemic diseases. In recent years, attention has been directed towards identifying small molecule inhibitors of PHD. It is postulated that such inhibition might lead to a clinically useful strategy for protecting the myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Recently, it has been reported that the orally absorbed PHD inhibitor GSK360A can modulate HIF-1? signaling and protect the failing heart following myocardial infarction. Furthermore, PHD1 deletion has been found to have beneficial effects through an increase in tolerance to hypoxia of skeletal muscle by reprogramming basal metabolism. In the mouse liver, such deletion has resulted in protection against ischemia and reperfusion. As a result of these preliminary findings, PHDs is attracting increasing interest as potential therapeutic targets in a wide range of diseases. PMID:22424133

Sen Banerjee, Sucharita; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Tipu Rishi, Muhammad; Sanchez, Juan A; Maulik, Nilanjana; Maulik, Gautam

2012-06-01

251

Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have found that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may be associated with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we analyze the association between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction in cardiovascular disease. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still controversial, and larger scale, randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to investigate whether oral vitamin D supplementation can reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the low cost, safety, and demonstrated benefit of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority for combating common and costly chronic cardiovascular diseases.

Ku, Yan-Chiou; Liu, Mu-En; Ku, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Shoa-Lin

2013-01-01

252

Disease Metaphors In New Epidemics: The UK Media Framing Of The 2003 SARS Epidemic1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the emergence of HIV\\/AIDS in the 1980s, social scientists and sociologists of health and illness have been exploring the metaphorical framing of this infectious disease in its social context. Many have focused on the militaristic language used to report and explain this illness, a type of language that has permeated discourses of immunology, bacteriology and infection for at least

Patrick Wallis; Brigitte Nerlich

253

MODELING OF CEREAL RUST EPIDEMICS IN RUSSIA: DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE EPIDEMICS IN TIME AND SPACE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To control quantity of settling spores and complex of photometric parameters, initial infection process by Puccinia graminis, P. triticina, P. striiformis fungi was studied. Factors determining speed of rust development on wheat crops in time and space and disease damage were studied. More than 400 ...

254

Cardiovascular Disease in Late Survivors of Tetralogy of Fallot  

PubMed Central

Patients with tetralogy of Fallot can survive to late adulthood; however, there are few data on cardiovascular outcomes in this population. We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors in 208 patients with tetralogy of Fallot to better evaluate the burden of cardiovascular disease in this group. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of relevant cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes, including a composite analysis of cardiovascular disease. Rates and mean values from the American Heart Association 2011 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update were used as population estimates for comparison. In tetralogy of Fallot patients, cardiovascular disease prevalence was not different from that found in the general population (40% vs 36%, P=0.3). However, there was significantly more cardiovascular disease in tetralogy of Fallot men aged 20 to 39 years (30% vs 14%, P < 0.05) and in tetralogy of Fallot men aged 40 to 59 years (63% vs 29%, P < 0.0001). This was due to higher prevalence of coronary disease (12% vs 7%, P < 0.05) and heart failure (16% vs 2%, P < 0.0001). In particular, the increased prevalence of heart failure (regardless of pulmonary valve disease) accounts for the frequency of cardiovascular disease in tetralogy of Fallot men aged 20 to 59 years. These data support the need to routinely screen young adult male survivors of tetralogy of Fallot for asymptomatic heart failure. Further studies are needed to determine the incidence, severity, and long-term effects of cardiovascular disease in the adult congenital heart disease population.

Bradley, Elisa; Parker, Jeff; Novak, Eric; Ludbrook, Philip; Billadello, Joseph; Cedars, Ari

2013-01-01

255

Association between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis--reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Positive association between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis is important because it concerns two major public health problems. Men and women with cardiovascular diseases (including severe abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and peripheral arterial disease) tend to have lower areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as well as faster bone loss, although findings vary according to skeletal site. On one hand, severe forms of cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, myocardial infarction, hypertension, severe AAC) are associated with higher risk of osteoporotic fracture, especially hip fracture. This link was found in the studies based on healthcare databases and the cohort studies. On the other hand, low BMD, history of fragility fracture, vitamin D deficit and increased bone resorption are associated with higher risk of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infraction, stroke, cardiovascular mortality). Moreover, osteocalcin secreted by osteoblasts may be involved in the regulation of energetic and cardiovascular metabolism. The association between both pathologies depends partially on the shared risk factors, and also on the mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of bone and cardiovascular metabolism. Interpretation of the data should take into account methodological limitations: representativeness of the cohorts, quality of the registers and the information obtained from questionnaires, severity of diseases, number of events (statistical power) and their temporal closeness, availability of the information on potential confounders. It seems that patients with severe form of osteoporosis would benefit from assessment of the cardiovascular status and vice versa. However, official guidelines for the clinical practice are still lacking.

Szulc, Pawel

2012-01-01

256

Fatty Liver: a Link to Cardiovascular Disease - Its Natural History, Pathogenesis, and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver disease in western society and is increasing in parallel with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. It exists in a simple form, steatosis, or a more complex and more dangerous form, steatohepatitis, and it is often but not always associated with the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is responsible for the majority of cryptogenic cirrhosis cases. Increasingly, NAFLD and its more sinister form, steatohepatitis, have been linked to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide, independent of the metabolic syndrome. Death from CVD surpasses death from liver complications, but that is beginning to change as people are living longer with CVD. In this article, we will review nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its epidemiology, prevalence, pathology, and link to CVD.

Monsour, Howard P.; Frenette, Catherine T.; Wyne, Kathleen

2012-01-01

257

Resveratrol in cardiovascular health and disease.  

PubMed

Resveratrol, initially used for cancer therapy, has shown beneficial effects against most degenerative and cardiovascular diseases from atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, and heart failure to diabetes, obesity, and aging. The cardioprotective effects of resveratrol are associated with its preconditioning-like action potentiated by its adaptive response. During preconditioning, small doses of resveratrol can exert an adaptive stress response, forcing the expression of cardioprotective genes and proteins such as heat shock and antioxidant proteins. Similarly, resveratrol can induce autophagy, another form of stress adaptation for degrading damaged or long-lived proteins, as a first line of protection against oxidative stress. Resveratrol's interaction with multiple molecular targets of diverse intracellular pathways (e.g., action on sirtuins and FoxOs through multiple transcription factors and protein targets) intertwines with those of the autophagic pathway to give support in the modified redox environment after stem cell therapy, which leads to prolonged survival of cells. The successful application of resveratrol in therapy is based upon its hormetic action similar to any toxin: exerting beneficial effects at lower doses and cytotoxic effects at higher doses. PMID:21261638

Petrovski, Goran; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Das, Dipak K

2011-01-01

258

Biomarkers in cardiovascular disease: beyond natriuretic peptides.  

PubMed

Currently natriuretic peptides are justifiably regarded as the most promising circulating markers of cardiovascular disease in dogs and cats, but there are many other markers that can be used in the evaluation of such patients. There are markers of myocyte injury typified by troponins I and T; markers of myocyte stress including adrenomedullin and ST2; markers of remodeling including matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and collagen molecules (PIIINP); markers of endothelial function including dimethylarginines and nitric oxide metabolites; markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, several interleukins and tumor necrosis factor alpha; and finally neurohormonal markers. The potential of many of these markers has at best been only partially explored in veterinary patients. Evidence emerging from studies of human and in some cases veterinary patients suggests that using multiple markers may be superior to using single markers alone. As well as evaluating markers for their diagnostic value they should be considered as methods of identification of patients at increased risk of experiencing complications or death. Future areas of research in this field could include improved characterization of the clinical utility of multi-marker evaluation in veterinary patients and using markers to identify patients that may benefit from particular interventions. PMID:19395333

Boswood, Adrian

2009-04-22

259

Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234  

PubMed Central

A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

2010-01-01

260

Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the most common cause of death in most Western countries. Nutrition factors contribute importantly to this high risk for ASCVD. Favourable alterations in diet can reduce six of the nine major risk factors for ASCVD, i.e. high serum LDL-cholesterol levels, high fasting serum triacylglycerol levels, low HDL-cholesterol levels, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Wholegrain foods may be one the healthiest choices individuals can make to lower the risk for ASCVD. Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with higher levels (in the highest quintile) of whole-grain intake have a 29 % lower risk for ASCVD than individuals with lower levels (lowest quintile) of whole-grain intake. It is of interest that neither the highest levels of cereal fibre nor the highest levels of refined cereals provide appreciable protection against ASCVD. Generous intake of whole grains also provides protection from development of diabetes and obesity. Diets rich in wholegrain foods tend to decrease serum LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels as well as blood pressure while increasing serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Whole-grain intake may also favourably alter antioxidant status, serum homocysteine levels, vascular reactivity and the inflammatory state. Whole-grain components that appear to make major contributions to these protective effects are: dietary fibre; vitamins; minerals; antioxidants; phytosterols; other phytochemicals. Three servings of whole grains daily are recommended to provide these health benefits. PMID:12740068

Anderson, James W

2003-02-01

261

Printed information for the lay public on cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed Central

Booklets from several countries on various aspects of cardiovascular disease, intended for distribution to the public and to patients, could be classified into three categories dealing with primary prevention, secondary prevention, and management. Much material was duplicated, whereas some diseases were completely ignored. Only two types of booklets should be available. One would deal with preventive measures for all cardiovascular diseases, while the other would be a series of booklets on individual conditions, combining information on secondary prevention and on management.

O'Hanrahan, M; O'Malley, K; O'Brien, E T

1980-01-01

262

An MTHFR variant, homocysteine, and cardiovascular comorbidity in renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An MTHFR variant, homocysteine, and cardiovascular comorbidity in renal disease.BackgroundIt is unclear whether total serum homocysteine (tHcy) and the C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsA cross-sectional sample of 459 patients with ESRD on chronic dialysis was assessed to determine whether tHcy and the C677T mutation are associated

Elizabeth M. Wrone; James L. Zehnder; John M. Hornberger; Linda M. McCann; Norman S. Coplon; Stephen P. Fortmann

2001-01-01

263

Cardiovascular Disease Urban Intervention: Baseline Activities and Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise, good dietary habits, knowledge of the disease and its warning signs as well as ability to perform CPR (cardiopulmonary\\u000a resuscitation) are all important to prevent and combat Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Stroke. In 2005–2006, an AHA sponsored\\u000a “Search Your Heart” cardiovascular disease intervention was conducted in 388 urban African-American\\/black and Latino\\/Hispanic\\u000a faith based institutions, all churches of various

Elsbeth Kalenderian; Cheryl Pegus; Charles Francis; Norma Goodwin; Henock Saint Jacques; Damaris Lasa

2009-01-01

264

Mental depression and cardiovascular disease: a multifaceted, bidirectional association.  

PubMed

The association between cardiovascular disease and mental depression is multifaceted and likely bidirectional. Depressed patients are at significantly higher risk for cardiac morbidity and mortality even in the absence of a diagnosis of major depression, whereas mental depression is nearly 3 times more frequent in patients after an acute myocardial infarction and contributes to a worse prognosis. Therefore, depressed patients might become trapped in a harmful loop, where mental symptoms might be worsened by the synergistic effects of stress and cardiovascular risk factors, and where they are otherwise vulnerable to acute cardiovascular events due to the synergistic effects of mental stress and an underlying atherothrombotic disorder. Although the exact pathway(s) underlying the interplay between depression and cardiovascular disease remains to be elucidated, the mechanisms most often implicated include hormonal variations, metabolic abnormalities, hypercoagulability, increased platelet aggregation, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. This article aims to review the biological and clinical links between depression and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19452408

Lippi, Giuseppe; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Franchini, Massimo

2009-05-18

265

Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. METHODS: We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of

Eric L Ding; Susan M Hutfless; Xin Ding; Saket Girotra

2006-01-01

266

MAGNESIUM AND THE TREATMENT OF SOME CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short article the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases with magnesium is reviewed. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in almost all physiological systems of the body including the cardiovascular one. The most important functions dependent on magnesium are calcium antagonism, membrane sealing or stabilization, regulation of energy transfer, control of oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, production and function

TEFAN KUJANÍK

267

Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft drink overconsumption is now considered to be a major public health concern with implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows a number of studies performed in animals suggesting that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation. In particular, the monosaccharide fructose has been attracting increasing attention as the more harmful sugar component in terms of

C M Brown; A G Dulloo; J-P Montani

2008-01-01

268

Management of cardiovascular disease risk in chronic inflammatory disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders are at increased risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the effects of inflammatory pathways on the vasculature, clear guidelines on the management of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic autoimmunity are lacking. Thus, rigorous studies assessing the individual contributions of the various treatments used

Mariana J. Kaplan

2009-01-01

269

Vascular calcification and cardiovascular function in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Vascular calcification and arterial stiff- ening are independent predictors of all causes and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Few data are currently available comparing vascular calcification and its attendant functional cardiovascular consequences between CKD stage 4 patients and both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) (CKD stage 5) patients. Method. We studied 134 subjects (60 HD, 28

Mhairi Sigrist; Peter Bungay; Maarter W. Taal; Christopher W. McIntyre

2005-01-01

270

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Homeless Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Homeless people represent an extremely disadvantaged group in North America. Among older homeless men, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The objective of this study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors in a representative sample of homeless adults and identify opportunities for improved risk factor modification. Methods and Results—Homeless persons were randomly selected at shelters for single

Tony C. Lee; John G. Hanlon; Jessica Ben-David; Gillian L. Booth; Warren J. Cantor; Philip W. Connelly; Stephen W. Hwang

2010-01-01

271

Hypertension in pregnancy: an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence indicates that hypertension in pregnancy is an under-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Compared with women who have had normotensive pregnancies, those who are hypertensive during pregnancy are at greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and have a less favorable overall risk profile for CVD years after the affected pregnancies. One factor that might underlie this

Suzanne R Hayman; Vesna D Garovic

2007-01-01

272

Therapeutic targets to reduce cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential cardiovascular risks that are associated with drugs for type 2 diabetes have recently raised considerable clinical and regulatory concerns. As some risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are related, identifying agents that target shared underlying pathways and processes is an attractive therapeutic strategy. In this article, we review the background to and the implications of

Cyrus DeSouza; Vivian Fonseca

2009-01-01

273

A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the combination of drugs and vitamins, and their doses, for use in a single daily pill to achieve a large effect in preventing cardiovascular disease with minimal adverse effects. The strategy was to simultaneously reduce four cardiovascular risk factors (low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, serum homocysteine, and platelet function) regardless of pretreatment levels. Design We quantified

N J Wald

2003-01-01

274

Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and

David M. Maahs; Stephen R. Daniels; Robert H. Eckel; Kristen J. Nadeau

2011-01-01

275

Do environmental pollutants influence the onset of respiratory syncytial virus epidemics or disease severity?  

PubMed

The trigger for annual epidemics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections and the factors contributing to the disappearance of RSV infections in late winter remain obscure. Similarly, there is no adequate explanation for the higher morbidity and admission rates in industrialised as compared with rural areas. It has been suggested that a variety of environmental factors such as temperature, daylight and humidity may influence the onset and waning of the epidemics. However, the few studies assessing these variables fail to support such a link. In many tropical countries the annual epidemic occurs in the summer or autumn, arguing against temperature having a direct influence. A number of studies have suggested that indoor pollutants, including cigarette smoke, are associated with an increased likelihood of being admitted to hospital with severe lower respiratory tract disease. One study exploring the potential role of outdoor pollutants on the pattern of RSV related illness in infancy was unable to identify a clear link between a variety of pollutants and the timing of the epidemic. Nitric oxide levels were higher in winter than during the summer and much higher winter peaks of NO were observe in industrialised areas as compared with urban and rural areas. Whether this or other environmental pollutants contribute to the higher incidence of severe disease in industrialised areas is unclear. Further work is required to explore the possible influence of NO and other environmental pollutants on both the timing and severity of epidemics. PMID:15531259

Bhatt, Jayesh M; Everard, Mark L

2004-12-01

276

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Cardiovascular Disease, and Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing epidemic of obesity in an aging population, obstructivesleepapnea(OSA)isincreasinglyencounteredin clinical practice. Given the acute cardiopulmonary stressors consequent to repetitive upper airway collapse, as well as evidence for cardiovas- cular homeostatic dysregulation in subjects with sleep apnea, there is ample biologic plausibility that OSA imparts increased cardiovas- cular risk, independent of comorbid disease. Indeed, observational studies have suggested strong

Jason M. Golbin; Virend K. Somers; Sean M. Caples

2008-01-01

277

[Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

Mielnik, Ma?gorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

2004-01-01

278

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing saturated with polyunsaturated (PUFAs) rather than monounsaturated fatty acids or carbohydrates results in cardiovascular\\u000a prevention over a wide range of intakes. The mechanisms by which PUFAs reduce cardiovascular risk are manifold, and the extent\\u000a and precise nature of their activities is the subject of several investigations, spanning from in vitro mechanistic studies\\u000a to human intervention trials. This article reviews

Doriane Richard; Pedro Bausero; Charlotte Schneider; Francesco Visioli

2009-01-01

279

Adult liaison in the “epidemic” of “teenage” birth, pregnancy, and venereal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “epidemics” of “teenage” pregnancy and venereal disease, in professional literature and popular media, are typically ascribed to irresponsible behavior on the part of American teenagers. Yet, analysis of births, pregnancies, and STD cases among teenage girls by age of male partner indicates that 70% of the male partners are over the age of 20, and 15% are over age

Mike Males

1992-01-01

280

A KILLING DISEASE EPIDEMIC AMONG DISPLACED SUDANESE POPULATION IDENTIFIED AS VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fatal disease epidemic affected the Bentiu area in southern Sudan and led to a mass migration of the Nuer tribe searching for treatment. The initially available information revealed a high mortality rate due to a possible occurrence of tuberculosis, malaria, enteric fever or visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Serological screening of 53 of the most severely affected patients in an enzyme-linked

ABDALLAH ELHARITH; S. J. SEMIAO-SANTOS

281

Clostridium difficile-associated disease in human stem cell transplant recipients: coming epidemic or false alarm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States and Europe, and is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. A newly identified epidemic strain has been associated with many hospital outbreaks of C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), raising the concern of an escalating burden of CDAD among at-risk patients. Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT)

D Bobak; L M Arfons; R J Creger; H M Lazarus

2008-01-01

282

Epidemic Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Human Enterovirus 71, Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singapore experienced a large epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in 2000. After reviewing HFMD notifi- cations from doctors and child-care centers, we found that the incidence of HFMD rose in September and declined at the end of October. During this period, 3,790 cases were reported. We performed enteroviral cultures on 311 and 157 specimens from 175 HFMD

Kwai Peng Chan; Kee Tai Goh; Chia Yin Chong; Eng Swee Teo; Gilbert Lau; Ai Ee Ling

283

MODELING OF CEREAL RUST EPIDEMICS IN RUSSIA: CONCEPT OF MODELING, ACCUMULATION OF INOCULUM IN DISEASE FOCI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most damaging cereal diseases in Russia are rusts, leaf rust of wheat (Puccinia triticina) and rye (P. dispersa), stripe rust of wheat (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici), and stem rust of wheat and rye (P. graminis). D'pending on the region, rust epidemics occur 2-5 times every decade. Special expe...

284

Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause epidemic disease in the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus dallas (Insecta, Heteroptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recognized as the causative organism of an epidemic disease occurring in a laboratory breed ofOncopeltus fasciatus. The infection probably occurs peroral and is favoured by high temperature and humidity.Pseudomonas aeruginosa destroys the fat body of the bug.

A. Dorn

1976-01-01

285

Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease, an Imminent Military Epidemic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an epidemic of obesity in the military. Obesity leads to type 2 diabetes, the most dangerous consequence of which is atherothrombotic vascular disease. Over the 4-year grant period, we have made major progress on the Key Tasks. We have gained mor...

I. Tabas

2009-01-01

286

Estimating the spatial distribution of a plant disease epidemic from a sample  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sampling is of central importance in plant pathology. It facilitates our understanding of how epidemics develop in space and time and can also be used to inform disease management decisions. Making inferences from a sample is necessary because we rarely have the resources to conduct a complete censu...

287

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in homeless people  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which is highest in Eastern Europe including Estonia. Accumulating evidence suggests that life-style is associated with the development of CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the informative power of common CVD-related markers under unhealthy conditions. Subjects Subjects (n = 51; mean age 45 years; 90% men) were recruited from a shelter for homeless people in Tallinn, Estonia, and consisted of persons who constantly used alcohol or surrogates, smoked, and were in a bad physical condition (amputated toes, necrotic ulcers, etc.). Methods Blood pressure, pulse rate, and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The following markers were measured in blood serum: total cholesterol (TChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Chol), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol), plasma triglycerides (TG), apolipoproteins A-l (ApoA1) and B (ApoB), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose (Gluc), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Except smoking, the anamnestic information considering eating habits, declared alcohol consumption and medication intake were not included in the analysis due to the low credibility of self-reported data. Results More than half of the investigated patients had values of measured markers (hsCRP, TChol, LDL-Chol, TG, HbA1c, ApoA1, ApoB, Lp(a), Gluc) within normal range. Surprisingly, 100% of subjects had HDL-Chol within endemic norm. Conclusion This study demonstrates that traditional markers, commonly used for prediction and diagnosis and treatment of CVD, are not always applicable to homeless people, apparently due to their aberrant life-style.

2011-01-01

288

Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly. Facts and Gaps  

PubMed Central

Hypercholesterolemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor that increases the incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in adults, although the association is less well established in the elderly. The role of statins is well characterized for the reduction of myocardial infarction incidence or death in individuals with a history or high risk of cardiovascular diseases, regardless of age. Therapeutic measures recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce cholesterol levels in the elderly, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, are based on studies conducted in younger adults. This narrative review aims to summarize the main observational studies and randomized clinical trials that have studied the relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and the potential benefits and drawbacks of statins use in elderly patients.

Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Grau, Maria; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel

2013-01-01

289

Nontraditional Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with type 2 diabetes are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared with those without diabetes. Traditional risk factors do not fully explain this ex- cess risk, and other \\

V. Fonseca; C. DESOUZA; S. ASNANI; I. JIALAL

2004-01-01

290

Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Facts and gaps.  

PubMed

Hypercholesterolemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor that increases the incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in adults, although the association is less well established in the elderly. The role of statins is well characterized for the reduction of myocardial infarction incidence or death in individuals with a history or high risk of cardiovascular diseases, regardless of age. Therapeutic measures recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce cholesterol levels in the elderly, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, are based on studies conducted in younger adults. This narrative review aims to summarize the main observational studies and randomized clinical trials that have studied the relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and the potential benefits and drawbacks of statins use in elderly patients. PMID:23730531

Félix-Redondo, Francisco J; Grau, Maria; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

2013-03-01

291

Potential role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, kidney injury, and cardiovascular diseases: is it time for reappraisal?  

PubMed

Elevated serum uric acid concentration is a common laboratory finding in subjects with metabolic syndrome/obesity, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular events. Hyperuricemia has been attributed to hyperinsulinemia in metabolic syndrome and to decreased uric acid excretion in kidney dysfunction, and is not acknowledged as a main mediator of metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder development. However, more recent investigations have altered this traditional view and shown, by providing compelling evidence, to support an independent link between hyperuricemia and increased risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorders. However, despite these new findings, controversy regarding the exact role of uric acid in inducing these diseases remains to be unfolded. Furthermore, recent data suggest that the high-fructose diet in the United State, as a major cause of hyperuricemia, may be contributing to the metabolic syndrome/obesity epidemic, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorder. Our focus in this review is to discuss the available evidence supporting a role for uric acid in the development of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder; and the potential pathophysiology mechanisms involved. PMID:23588856

Soltani, Zohreh; Rasheed, Kashaf; Kapusta, Daniel R; Reisin, Efrain

2013-06-01

292

Beyond postprandial hyperglycaemia: metabolic factors associated with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with a considerably enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease\\u000a morbidity and mortality. Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between the 2-h glucose value after a 75\\u000a gm glucose load (2hPG) and mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease. The key question is whether postprandial\\u000a glucose is related causally to the adverse outcomes

R. J. Heine; J. M. Dekker

2002-01-01

293

Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There have been few large epidemiological studies examining the association between thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. In particular, it is uncertain if subclinical hypothyroidism is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.\\u000aMethods: Serum thyrotropin and free thyroxine concentrations were measured in 2108 archived serum samples from a 1981 community health survey in Busselton, Western Australia (Busselton Health Study). In

John P. Walsh; Alexandra P. Bremner; Max K. Bulsara; Peter OLeary; Peter J. Leedman; Peter Feddema; Valdo Michelangeli

2005-01-01

294

The role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous lipophilic free radical cellular messenger generated by three distinct isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). NO plays an important role in the protection against the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is associated with a number of different disorders including hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and diabetes.

Khalid M. Naseem

2005-01-01

295

Cardiovascular Disease And Global Health: Threat And Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The transition in global health from infectious to chronic disease, especially cardiovascular disease, poses a threat to the economies of the less developed world. As a more sophisticated workforce becomes,a highly valued and harder-to-replace economic,in- vestment, the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a threat to eco- nomic,development. The next two decades,offer a critical period for intervention to

Henry Greenberg; Susan U. Raymond; Stephen R. Leeder

2005-01-01

296

microRNAs, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders\\u000a remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Aberrant regulation of cholesterol and lipid homeostasis leads to metabolic\\u000a syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that control gene expression predominantly\\u000a through post-transcriptional repression. They are implicated in the control of multiple physiologic

Alberto Dávalos; Carlos Fernández-Hernando

2011-01-01

297

EELGRASS WASTING DISEASE: CAUSE AND RECURRENCE OF A MARINE EPIDEMIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eelgrass populations are currently infected with a disease that produces symptoms and epidemiology reminiscent of the famous eelgrass wasting disease of the 1930s. This disease virtually eliminated eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the North Atlantic for three decades. For 50 years scientists have speculated about the cause ofthe 1930s eelgrass decline. We have now proven that the causal organism of

FREDERICK T. SHORT; LISA K. MUEHLSTEIN; DAVID PORTER

298

Risk of acute respiratory disease among pregnant women during influenza A epidemics.  

PubMed Central

The medical literature contains little information on the occurrence of excess morbidity among pregnant women during recent influenza epidemics. Rates of medical visits for acute respiratory disease (ARD) among pregnant and nonpregnant members of a large prepaid practice population were examined. Use of medical services for ARD was ascertained for approximately 1,000 pregnant women and 3,000 nonpregnant women during each of four epidemic periods (1975, 1976, 1978, 1979) and a nonepidemic period (1977). Comparing the combined epidemic periods with the nonepidemic period, there were significant excesses of 23.7 (standard error (SE) = 8.1) ARD contacts per 1,000 attributable to epidemic influenza for pregnant women and 10.2 (SE = 3.4) for nonpregnant women. ARD hospitalization rates among pregnant women were low (2 per 1,000), and there were no maternal deaths. The significant ARD excess among pregnant women was concentrated in the 1978 period with reappearance of the A/Russia H1N1 subtype in the community and was confined to those under age 25 who would not have ben previously exposed to this subtype (94.4 (SE = 28.5]. These findings indicate that recent influenza epidemics caused only modest excess ARD morbidity among pregnant women, and significant excess occurred only in association with antigenic shift. These findings support current national policy recommendations with respect to influenza vaccination of pregnant women.

Mullooly, J P; Barker, W H; Nolan, T F

1986-01-01

299

Stopping the cardiovascular disease continuum: Focus on prevention  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular disease continuum (CVDC) is a sequence of events, which begins from a host of cardiovascular risk factors that consists of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking and visceral obesity. If it is not intervened with early, it inexorably progresses to atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left ventricular dilatation, which lead to left ventricular diastolic or systolic dysfunction and eventually end-stage heart failure and death. Treatment intervention at any stage during its course will either arrest or delay its progress. In this editorial, the cardiovascular risk factors that initiate and perpetuate the CVDC are briefly discussed, with an emphasis on their early prevention or aggressive treatment.

Chrysant, Steven G

2010-01-01

300

Integrating mental health into cardiovascular disease research in India.  

PubMed

Mental health refers to a diverse field where individuals can cope with daily stress, realize their potential and maintain a state of well-being. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the influence of mental health on general health, and in particular on cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. Epidemiological research has focused on several psychosocial components including social determinants, comorbid psychiatric disorders, psychological stress, coping styles, social support, burden on the family, well-being, life satisfaction, personality and cognitive factors in connection with cardiovascular diseases. There is epidemiological research in India that integrates mental health with common cardiovascular diseases such as coronary health disease and stroke. Data from mental health research is sufficiently compelling to highlight the role of chronic stress, socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance use, social networks and support in relation to vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases. There are psychosocial consequences of cardiovascular diseases including deficits in the domains of life skills, coping skills and neurocognition, in addition to caregiver burden. The implications of bio-psychosocial models of assessments and interventions that target complex individual and contextual variables simultaneously on cardiovascular treatment outcomes have highlighted the importance of studying mental health in Indian settings. Integration of mental health into mainstream research is the need of the hour. A multidimensional approach to accomplish this is required including at the level of research conceptualization, discussions with key stakeholders, at the policy level, at the institutional level, and at the clinical and community level. PMID:23448627

Narayanan, Gitanjali; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

301

Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammatory State in Uremia and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the general population; traditional risk factors seem inadequate to explain completely the remarkable prevalence of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity observed in the uremic population. A role for chronic inflammation has been well established in the development of atherosclerotic disease, and, on the basis of these observations, atherosclerosis might be considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of coronary artery disease in the general population, and traditional inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been shown to predict cardiovascular events in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals as well as those in the uremic population. Later on, new nontraditional markers were related to the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in general and in uremic population. As a consequence of the expanding research base and availability of assays, the number of inflammatory marker tests ordered by clinicians for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction has grown rapidly and several commercial assays have become available. So, up to now we can consider that several new nontraditional markers as CD40-CD40 ligand system and pentraxin-3 seem to be significant features of cardiovascular disease in general and in ESRD population.

Panichi, Vincenzo; Scatena, Alessia; Migliori, Massimiliano; Marchetti, Valentina; Paoletti, Sabrina; Beati, Sara

2012-01-01

302

Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7–6.2?mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1945–1956.

Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

2011-01-01

303

Vitamin D and its analogues: Do they protect against cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin D and its analogs: Do they protect against cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease?BackgroundPatients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular disease, and despite recent advances in hypertension control, anemia management, and dialysis adequacy, mortality remains high. Improved understanding of nontraditional risk factors, including those present at early phases in CKD, may lead to

ADEERA LEVIN; YAN CHUN LI

2005-01-01

304

Modelling of infectious diseases for providing signal of epidemics: a measles case study in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The detection of unusual patterns in the occurrence of diseases is an important challenge to health workers interested in early identification of epidemics. The objective of this study was to provide an early signal of infectious disease epidemics by analyzing the disease dynamics. A two-stage monitoring system was applied, which consists of univariate Box-Jenkins model or autoregressive integrated moving average model and subsequent tracking signals from several statistical process-control charts. The analyses were illustrated on January 2000-August 2009 national measles data reported monthly to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Bangladesh. The results of this empirical study revealed that the most adequate model for the occurrences of measles in Bangladesh was the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (3, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1)12 model, and the statistical process-control charts detected no measles epidemics during September 2007-August 2009. The two-stage monitoring system performed well to capture the measles dynamics in Bangladesh without detection of an epidemic because of high measles-vaccination coverage. PMID:22283030

Sharmin, Sifat; Rayhan, Israt

2011-12-01

305

Modelling of Infectious Diseases for Providing Signal of Epidemics: A Measles Case Study in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The detection of unusual patterns in the occurrence of diseases is an important challenge to health workers interested in early identification of epidemics. The objective of this study was to provide an early signal of infectious disease epidemics by analyzing the disease dynamics. A two-stage monitoring system was applied, which consists of univariate Box-Jenkins model or autoregressive integrated moving average model and subsequent tracking signals from several statistical process-control charts. The analyses were illustrated on January 2000–August 2009 national measles data reported monthly to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Bangladesh. The results of this empirical study revealed that the most adequate model for the occurrences of measles in Bangladesh was the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (3, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1)12 model, and the statistical process-control charts detected no measles epidemics during September 2007–August 2009. The two-stage monitoring system performed well to capture the measles dynamics in Bangladesh without detection of an epidemic because of high measles-vaccination coverage.

Rayhan, Israt

2011-01-01

306

Autoantibodies to Apolipoprotein A-1 in Cardiovascular Diseases: Current Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Immune-mediated inflammation plays a major role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, two essential features for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, currently considered as the leading cause of death in the western world. There is accumulating evidence showing that humoral autoimmunity might play an important role in CVD and that some autoantibodies could represent emerging cardiovascular risk factors. Recent studies demonstrate that IgG autoantibodies against apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) are raised in many diseases associated with a high cardiovascular risk, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, acute coronary syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, severe carotid stenosis, and end-stage renal disease. In this work, we aimed at reviewing current data in the literature pointing to anti-apolipoprotein A-1 antibodies (anti-apoA-1 IgG) as a possible prognostic and diagnostic biomarker of cardiovascular risk and appraising their potential role as active mediators of atherogenesis.

Teixeira, P. C.; Cutler, P.; Vuilleumier, N.

2012-01-01

307

Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

2011-01-01

308

Site-specific gene therapy for cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and may provide novel therapeutic solutions for both genetic disorders and acquired pathophysiologies such as arteriosclerosis, heart failure and arrhythmias. Recombinant DNA technology and the sequencing of the human genome have made a plethora of candidate therapeutic genes available for cardiovascular diseases. However, progress in the field of gene therapy for cardiovascular disease has been modest; one of the key reasons for this limited progress is the lack of gene delivery systems for localizing gene therapy to specific sites to optimize transgene expression and efficacy. This review summarizes progress made toward the site-specific delivery of cardiovascular gene therapy and highlights selected promising novel approaches.

Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert J

2010-01-01

309

Effect of Age on the Relationship of Occupational Social Class with Prevalence of Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies on cardiovascular risk profile in different socioeconomic status were focused on younger populations and many of them have not been able to take into account age and sex differences. Objectives: To investigate the relationship of occupational social class with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in younger (<65 years) and older (?65 years)

Phyo K. Myint; Robert N. Luben; Ailsa A. Welch; Sheila A. Bingham; Nicholas J. Wareham; Kay-Tee Khaw

2006-01-01

310

A Computer Software – Epitimulator® for Simulating Temporal Dynamics of Plant Disease Epidemic Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to develop a computer software for simulating the temporal development of plant disease epidemics using Richards, logistic, Gompertz, monomolecular, and exponential functions, respectively, and for predicting disease with a fitted model. The software was programmed using Visual Basic (VB6.0) and packaged with the Wise Installation System. The Fibonacci (‘0.618') section strategy was used

Wan-zhong TAN; Cheng-wen LI; Chao-wei BI; Xian-chao SUN

2010-01-01

311

The role of epigenetic dysregulation in the epidemic of allergic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemic of allergic disease in early life is one of the clearest indicators that the developing immune system is vulnerable\\u000a to modern environmental changes. A range of environmental exposures epidemiologically associated with allergic disease have\\u000a been shown to have effects on the foetal immune function in pregnancy, including microbial burden, dietary changes and environmental\\u000a pollutants. Preliminary studies now suggest

Susan Prescott; Richard Saffery

312

Cardiovascular disease: the other face of diabetes.  

PubMed

Despite glycemic control, evidence suggests that mortality and morbidity remain high in diabetes. Regulatory agencies deem, therefore, additional safety trials necessary for the approval of new antidiabetic drugs. Nevertheless, markers of cardiovascular risk, which can be used as response predictors, are not available. In contrast with current efforts on further understanding of glucose-insulin homeostasis, a model-based approach is required to assess the correlation between hyperglycemia and cardiometabolic phenotypes, enabling prediction of the underlying cardiovascular risk.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2013) 2, e81; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.57; advance online publication 23 October 2013. PMID:24153424

Vlasakakis, G; Pasqua, O Della

2013-10-23

313

Cardiovascular disease in women: heart disease across the life span.  

PubMed

Women are more likely to have atypical cardiovascular symptoms compared with men. This may lead to delayed diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and suboptimal treatment. The exercise stress test is the initial test for women with suspected or known CAD. The addition of imaging (eg, echocardiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging) to the exercise component may improve the diagnostic value of the test. Drugs used to manage CAD in women include antiplatelets, beta blockers, lipid-lowering drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and nitrates. Invasive therapy with angioplasty or bypass surgery is performed less frequently in women than in men. Women may present with acute coronary syndrome and atypical symptoms. Initial treatment should be the same for men and women. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare condition that is seen more frequently in older, postmenopausal women. PMID:23977827

Madrazo, Catinca

2013-08-01

314

Economics of psychosocial factors in patients with cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Growing evidence supports a causal relationship between cardiovascular disease and psychosocial factors such as mental health and behavioral disorders, acute and chronic stress, and low socioeconomic status. While this has enriched our understanding of the interaction between cardiovascular risk factors, much less is known about its economic implications. In this review, we evaluate the economic impact of psychosocial factors in persons at risk for or diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on depression and almost uniformly conclude that patients with cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression use a greater number of ambulatory and hospital services and incur higher overall costs. Additionally, comorbid depression may also reduce employment productivity in patients with cardiovascular disease, further magnifying its economic impact. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated that innovative care delivery models that target depression may reduce costs or at least be cost neutral while improving quality of life. The growing population burden and overlap of cardiovascular disease, comorbid mental illness, and other psychosocial factors suggest that future research identifying cost-effective or cost-saving treatment models may have significant health and economic implications. PMID:23621966

Rodwin, Benjamin A; Spruill, Tanya M; Ladapo, Joseph A

2013-04-09

315

ROLE OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To provide an update on the connection between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Large prospective studies have established that OSA is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension and, in men, of coronary disease, stroke, and heart failure. Advances in understanding the pathophysiologic basis for these associations include identification of a role for OSA in inducing abnormalities in hepatic lipid-metabolizing enzymes, endothelial dysfunction, and upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators. A large body of data implicates OSA as playing a significant role in the occurrence and resistance to treatment of atrial fibrillation. Clinical trials have shown small to modest improvements in blood pressure associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use, with smaller or uncontrolled studies suggesting that CPAP may improve cardiovascular outcomes or intermediate markers. Summary OSA and cardiovascular disease commonly co-aggregate. Multiple studies indicate that OSA contributes to or exacerbates cardiovascular disease, and thus may be a novel target for cardiovascular risk reduction. While the evidence supports screening and treatment of OSA in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease, it also underscores a need for well powered clinical trials to examine the role of CPAP and other therapies in these populations.

Monahan, Ken; Redline, Susan

2012-01-01

316

Cardiovascular complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common finding of ADPKD occurring in 50-70% of patients before the impairment of renal function. Stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a major role in the development of hypertension in ADPKD. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable in these patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy, a major cardiovascular risk factor, is also common in patients with ADPKD. Both hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy play a crucial role in the development of cardiovascular complications in these patients. Furthermore, endothelial dysfunction, impaired coronary flow velocity reserve, biventricular diastolic dysfunction, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness are present even in young normotensive patients with ADPKD who have well-preserved renal function. These findings suggest that cardiovascular involvement starts very early in the course of ADPKD. Intracranial and extracranial aneurysms and cardiac valvular defects are other potential cardiovascular problems in patients with ADPKD. A multifactorial approach aiming at all cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia and obesity is extremely important in these patients. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, has the potential to decrease the cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease in ADPKD. PMID:23971638

Ecder, Tevfik

2013-02-01

317

Overview and determinants of cardiovascular disease in indigenous populations.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CV) is an important problem among the 400 million Indigenous Populations around the world, and has been included in the World Health Organization (WHO) "2008-2013 Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases". Our understanding of the causes of CV disease in the Indigenous populations of Australia and New Zealand will be facilitated by better understanding the causes of CV disease in Indigenous populations around the world. The opening scientific presentations of the Inaugural CSANZ Conference on Indigenous Cardiovascular Health were from two international speakers notable for their commitment to Indigenous Health as a global problem. PMID:20378406

Kritharides, Leonard; Brown, Alex; Brieger, David; Ridell, Tania; Zeitz, Chris; Jeremy, Richmond; Tonkin, Andrew; Walsh, Warren; White, Harvey

2010-04-07

318

Cardiovascular disease in Navajo Indians with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed Central

Rates of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have risen sharply in recent years among Navajo Indians, the largest reservation-based American Indian tribe, but the association between the two conditions is not entirely clear. Rates of cardiovascular disease and some possible associations in several hundred diabetic and non-diabetic Navajos were estimated. Nearly one-third (30.9 percent) of those with diabetes had formal diagnoses of cardiovascular disease--25.3 percent had heart disease, 4.4 percent had cerebrovascular disease, and 4.1 percent had peripheral vascular disease. (The percentages exceed the total because some people had more than one diagnosis. Age-adjusted rates were 5.2 times those of nondiabetics for heart disease, 10.2 times for cerebrovascular disease, and 6.8 times for peripheral vascular disease. Accentuation of risk was most marked in young diabetics and in female diabetics. Hypertensive diabetics had a twofold increase in heart disease and more than a fivefold increase in cerebral and peripheral vascular disease over nonhypertensive diabetics. Age, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and albumenuria were independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Triglyceride levels or body weight were not. Male sex and diabetes duration were independent risk factors for cerebral and peripheral vascular disease but not for heart disease. In view of the impressive segregation of cardiovascular disease in the diabetic Navajo population, the prevention of diabetes through population-based health promotion seems basic to its containment. Over the short term, vigorous treatment of hypertension in subjects who are already diabetic is mandatory.

Hoy, W; Light, A; Megill, D

1995-01-01

319

Development of potato late blight epidemics: disease foci, disease gradients, and infection sources.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Natural potato late blight epidemics were studied to assess the relative impact of various inoculum sources of Phytophthora infestans in Southern Flevoland (the Netherlands) from 1994 through 1996. Disease surveys were combined with characterization of isolates for mating type and DNA fingerprint pattern using probe RG57. Seventy-four percent of the commercial potato fields with early foci were clearly associated with nearby infested refuse piles. Characterization of isolates from refuse piles and fields confirmed the association. Infected seed tubers, volunteer plants, and infested allotment gardens appeared to be of minor importance for late blight development in potato fields. Several foci in refuse piles, potato fields, and allotment gardens contained more than one genotype. Due to favorable weather in August 1994, infested organic potato fields became major inoculum sources, resulting in the spread of P. infestans to adjacent conventional potato fields. Analyses of disease gradients, both at the field and regional levels, confirmed the role of the organic fields as mid-season infection sources. The mean slope of field gradients downwind of refuse piles (point sources) was significantly steeper (100-fold difference) than the mean slope of field gradients downwind of organic fields (area sources). The genotypic composition of the P. infestans populations along the gradient and of the source populations in the organic potato crops did not differ significantly. Analysis of the region gradient revealed genotype-specific disease gradients. Control measures are recommended. PMID:18944880

Zwankhuizen, M J; Govers, F; Zadoks, J C

1998-08-01

320

Beneficial actions of nitrates in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitroglycerin and the long-acting nitrates have been used in cardiovascular medicine for > 100 years. Nitrates are widely utilized for the various anginal syndromes and are also used in congestive heart failure and patients with left ventricular dysfunction. The potential mechanisms for relief of myocardial ischemia with nitrates are multiple. The nitrovasodilators are a related group of drugs that result

Jonathan Abrams

1996-01-01

321

Social Support, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a conceptual and selective review of the relationship between social support and cardiovascular illness and death. It is argued that cardio- vascular health is not only determined by biological factors but also by social and psychological factors. For decades, epidemiological studies have linked mortality rates to marital status and social networks, thus indicating a beneficial effect of

Ralf Schwarzer; Nina Rieckmann

322

Social inequality, ethnicity and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Epidemiological research on cardiovascular risk factors has led to important advances in prevention science by providing insights that have now resulted in substantial reductions in mortality. This research used the variation in risk among individuals as the guide to causal exposures. Large differentials remain among socio-demographic groups, however, and the causes of these differentials may be distinctly different from

Richard S Cooper

323

Central Mineralocorticoid Receptors and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is expressed in many cell types throughout the body, including specific neurons, and mediates diverse functions, many of which are just now being appreciated. MR that pertain to the central modulation of cardiovascular function and health are addressed herein.

Gomez Sanchez, Elise P.

2009-01-01

324

Dissection of cardiovascular development and disease pathways in zebrafish.  

PubMed

The use of animal models in medicine has contributed significantly to the development of drug treatments and surgical procedures for the last century, in particular for cardiovascular disease. In order to model human disease in an animal, an appreciation of the strengths and limitations of the system are required to interpret results and design the logical sequence of steps toward clinical translation. As the world's population ages, cardiovascular disease will become even more prominent and further progress will be essential to stave off what seems destined to become a massive public health issue. Future treatments will require the imaginative application of current models as well as the generation of new ones. In this review, we discuss the resources available for modeling cardiovascular disease in zebrafish and the varied attributes of this system. We then discuss current zebrafish disease models and their potential that has yet to be exploited. PMID:21377626

Chan, Joanne; Mably, John D

2011-01-01

325

Perspectives on the Crisis and Challenge of Cardiovascular Disease in the Diverse Asian Populations of California  

PubMed Central

Recent data demonstrate alarming increases in mortality from cardiovascular disease and increase in risk factors that are pushing this disease to epidemic proportions in Asians living in the Bay Area of Northern California. Although genetics may have an important role, environmental factors including diet, stress and lack of exercise are contributing to the incidence of hypertension, diabetes and obesity in this population. Research at the San Francisco Heart and Vascular Institute in Daly City, California shows that this trend is continuing, and combined with a delay in seeking treatment in this diverse ethnic group, leads to poorer outcomes in revascularization therapies used to treat these patients. More intensive community education that includes patients and his/her family and more aggressive preventive treatment programs are needed to slow the progress of this growing health problem.

Shaw, Richard E

2010-01-01

326

Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease—how to promote healthy eating habits in populations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The obesity epidemic brings with it an increase in related diseases, like diabetes mellitus, and subsequently cardiovascular\\u000a disease. Traditional dietary guidelines have focused on food composition rather than energy balance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  To identify promising approaches towards promoting healthy eating and lifestyle patterns. Implementation strategies were also\\u000a sought.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A review of the pertinent literature based on MEDLINE searches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Weight loss subsequent to

C. von Schacky

2008-01-01

327

Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes: Where Does Glucose Fit In?  

PubMed Central

Context: Recent prospective clinical trials have failed to confirm a unique benefit from normalization of glycemia on cardiovascular disease outcomes, despite evidence from basic vascular biology, epidemiological, and cohort studies. Evidence Acquisition: The literature was searched using the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov search engine including over 20 million citations on MEDLINE (1970 to present). Keyword searches included: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular, and glucose. Epidemiological, cohort, and interventional data on cardiovascular disease outcomes and glycemic control were reviewed along with analysis of recent reviews on this topic. Evidence Synthesis: High glucose activates a proatherogenic phenotype in all cell types in the vessel wall including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and platelets, leading to a feedforward atherogenic response. Epidemiological and Cohort Studies: Epidemiological and cohort evidence indicates a clear and consistent correlation of glycemia with cardiovascular disease. A recent report of over 25,000 subjects with diabetes in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry verifies this relationship in contemporary practice. Interventional Studies: Prospective randomized interventions targeting a hemoglobin A1c of 6–6.5% for cardiovascular disease prevention failed to consistently decrease cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Basic vascular biology data plus epidemiological and cohort evidence would predict that glucose control should impact cardiovascular events. Prospective clinical trials demonstrate that current strategies that improve blood glucose do not achieve this goal but suggest that a period of optimal control may confer long-term cardiovascular disease benefit. Clinicians should target a hemoglobin A1c of 7% for the prevention of microvascular complications, individualized to avoid hypoglycemia.

Wang, Cecilia C. Low

2011-01-01

328

Diagonal earlobe creases and fatal cardiovascular disease: a necropsy study.  

PubMed Central

The association between diagonal earlobe creases and fatal cardiovascular disease was investigated in a consecutive series of 303 coroner's necropsies. Those studied all died outside hospital in the Brighton Health District. Data were analysed on the cause of death and on the type of earlobe, the presence or absence of diagonal creases, age, sex, height, and any previous history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. The age of nine men and six women was not known. Cardiovascular causes of death included ischaemic and hypertensive disease, calcific valvar stenosis, ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, and ruptured atheromatous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The mean (SD) age at death was 72 (15) and the male to female ratio was 1.3:1. Diagonal creases were present in 123 (72%) of 171 men and 88 (67%) of 132 women. A previous history of cardiovascular disease was present in 90 (30%) of the total of 303 and 74 (35%) of the 211 with diagonal creases. A cardiovascular cause of death was present in 154 (73%) of 211 with and 41 (45%) of 92 without diagonal creases and was associated with an increased risk of a cardiovascular cause of death of 1.55 in men and 1.74 in non-diabetic women. Images Fig

Kirkham, N; Murrells, T; Melcher, D H; Morrison, E A

1989-01-01

329

Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model  

PubMed Central

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

Castanon-Gonzalez, Jorge Alberto; Macias, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, Jose Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martinez, Sebastian

2013-01-01

330

Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model.  

PubMed

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008-2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

2013-08-28

331

Asbestos-related disease: A community epidemic in the making  

SciTech Connect

The importance of epidemiological assessments in tracing the development of disease among workers was demonstrated in the report concerning the exposure of workers to asbestos (1332214) particles. A field survey made at a thermal pipe insulation facility in the southwestern portion of the United States measured airborne asbestos concentrations of 15 to 20 times the current standard. A significant number of workers employed for less than 10 years at this site demonstrated symptoms and signs consistent with asbestos-related diseases. Potential for community exposure was also great. Prior to the opening of this facility in the southwest, its predecessor was operating in the northeastern United States from the early 1940s through 1954. A study of a 900 member cohort of former employees at this earlier site was completed and demonstrated a highly significant excess of asbestos related diseases, malignant and nonmalignant in nature. A study of family members living with the worker at the time of employment, indicated that 50% of these family members had x-ray abnormalities consistent with asbestos-related disease. Other reports indicating that asbestos-related diseases were not limited to the worker were cited as well.

Lemen, R.A.; Selikoff, I.J.; Hurst, G.A.; Wagoner, J.K.

1990-01-01

332

Harvesting can increase severity of wildlife disease epidemics.  

PubMed

Theoretical studies of wildlife population dynamics have proved insightful for sustainable management, where the principal aim is to maximize short-term yield, without risking population extinction. Surprisingly, infectious diseases have not been accounted for in harvest models, which is a major oversight because the consequences of parasites for host population dynamics are well-established. Here, we present a simple general model for a host species subject to density dependent reproduction and seasonal demography. We assume this host species is subject to infection by a strongly immunizing, directly transmitted pathogen. In this context, we show that the interaction between density dependent effects and harvesting can substantially increase both disease prevalence and the absolute number of infectious individuals. This effect clearly increases the risk of cross-species disease transmission into domestic and livestock populations. In addition, if the disease is associated with a risk of mortality, then the synergistic interaction between hunting and disease-induced death can increase the probability of host population extinction. PMID:16846909

Choisy, Marc; Rohani, Pejman

2006-08-22

333

Impacts of hot and cold temperature extremes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in mortality during heat waves were examined in many European countries; much less is known about the effects of heat waves on morbidity, measured for example by the number of hospital admissions. Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study examines links between hot and cold temperature extremes and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic over 1994-2007. We make use of a recently completed database of all admissions for cardiovascular diseases to hospitals in the area of the Czech Republic since 1994, with a detailed classification of diseases and detailed information concerning each patient (in total 1,467,675 hospital admissions over 1994-2007). The main goals of the study are (i) to identify excess/deficit morbidity during and after periods of heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter, (ii) to compare the links for individual diseases (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, I21; angina pectoris, I20; cerebral infarction, I63; brain ischemia, I64) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to weather, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and mortality. Periods when morbidity data were affected by epidemics of influenza and acute respiratory infections in winter were excluded from the analysis.

Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; K?íž, B.

2010-09-01

334

Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Soft drink overconsumption is now considered to be a major public health concern with implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows a number of studies performed in animals suggesting that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation. In particular, the monosaccharide fructose has been attracting increasing attention as the more harmful sugar component in terms of weight gain and metabolic disturbances. High-fructose corn syrup is gradually replacing sucrose as the main sweetener in soft drinks and has been blamed as a potential contributor to the current high prevalence of obesity. There is also considerable evidence that fructose, rather than glucose, is the more damaging sugar component in terms of cardiovascular risk. This review focuses on the potential role of sugar drinks, particularly the fructose component, in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19079277

Brown, C M; Dulloo, A G; Montani, J-P

2008-12-01

335

HIV-related mechanisms in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

HIV-infected patients have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular events during the progression of HIV disease. Atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular injury, pulmonary hypertension and thrombosis are consistently described in both combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated and naive HIV-positive patients as major clinical complications. Recent studies indicate that the pathogenesis of cardiovascular lesions in HIV-positive patients is related to direct and indirect effects of HIV infection on vessel structures, independently of traditional risk factors. HIV infection strongly interferes with the biology of several cellular targets such as macrophage and endothelial cells. Moreover, HIV induces a profound derangement of lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine networks that are directly involved in atherogenesis and progressive impairment of the cardiovascular system.In this review, we discuss these major HIV-related mechanisms able to promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23656915

Gibellini, Davide; Borderi, Marco; Clò, Alberto; Morini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Anna; Bon, Isabella; Ponti, Cristina; Re, Maria Carla

2013-11-01

336

Future Directions for Cardiovascular Disease Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide decision-makers the evidence needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of alternative clinical management strategies. CER has become a national priority, with considerable new research funding allocated. Cardiovascular disease is a priority area for CER. This workshop report provides an overview of CER methods, with an emphasis on practical clinical trials and observational treatment comparisons. The report also details recommendations to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for a new framework for evidence development to foster cardiovascular CER, and specific studies to address eight clinical issues identified by the Institute of Medicine as high priorities for cardiovascular CER.

Hlatky, Mark A; Douglas, Pamela S; Cook, Nakela L; Wells, Barbara; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dickersin, Kay; Goff, David C; Hirsch, Alan T; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric; Roger, Veronique L; Selby, Joseph V; Udelson, James E; Lauer, Michael S

2012-01-01

337

Angiotensin II-Forming Systems in Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the systemic and the tissue renin–angiotensin system (RAS)-are heavily involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, but their excess activation seems to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in various stages of cardiovascular diseases, since angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to improve hypertension, congestive heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction. A clinical megastudy (ELITE) of elderly patients has recently

Hidenori Urata; Kikuo Arakawa

1998-01-01

338

Significance of central aortic stiffness in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular health has traditionally been monitored by peripheral measurements of brachial blood pressure. Although these measurements have proven to be of good diagnostic and prognostic value, novel technology now allows us to non-invasively and easily obtain measurements of more central arteries, specifically stiffness of the central aorta. The purpose of this review is to analyze the role of central aortic stiffness in cardiovascular disease and examine the parameters of central aortic stiffness measurement in the clinical setting. PMID:19092645

Arora, Rohit; Khandpur, Ritika

339

Role of RAAS Inhibition in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is a complex and dynamic process. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)\\u000a is a potent and powerful mediator in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular and renal systems. RAAS blockade via angiotensin-converting\\u000a enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been consistently proven to be an effective and safe\\u000a strategy for the primary and secondary prevention

Henry A. Tran; Arthur Schwartzbard; Howard S. Weintraub

340

The Silent Epidemic. Teens and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)|

Francis, Susan

1998-01-01

341

Sexually transmitted diseases: an epidemic in adolescent girls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in adolescent girls aged 15-19 attending a department of genitourinary medicine was compared for the years 1972 and 1982. Data were obtained from the confidential register using the coding of the clinic returns to the Department of Health (form SBH 60). There were 1373 patients in 1972 and 1799 in 1982, 6.4% and

G E Forster; G E Robinson; P E Munday

1984-01-01

342

Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aldosterone, aldo, is a rather minor component of the adrenal gland production with complex activity. Aldo and glucocorticoid\\u000a are in competition and the specificity of aldo action is due to a cellular component the 11-HSD2. Aldo at high concentrations\\u000a has pronounced and deleterious cardiovascular effects and causes pro-inflammatory reaction followed by myocardial and vascular\\u000a fibrosis. Fibrosis modifies cardiac performances and

Swynghedauw Bernard; Milliez Paul; Messaoudi Smail; Benard Ludovic; Samuel Jane-Lise; Delcayre Claude

343

Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

2003-01-01

344

NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE SYSTEM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE  

PubMed Central

The mammalian Natriuretic Peptide (NP) system consists of neuro-hormones, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and the N-Terminal fragment of BNP (NT-pro-BNP). In response to some cardiovascular derangement the heart (acting as an endocrine organ), brain and other structures secretes natriuretic peptides in an attempt to restore normal circulatory conditions. Their actions are modulated through membrane-bound guanylyl cyclased (GC) receptors. They induce diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation in the presence of congestive heart failure. These neuro-hormones also play a role in the suppression of neointimal formation after vascular injury. In addition, they act as antifibrotic and antihypertrophic agents preventing cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. Further, NP have diagnostic and prognostic role in heart failure, vasoconstriction, left ventricular late remodeling after MI and others. At present, some drugs such as Nesiritide, NEP inhibitors and vasopeptidase inhibitors were synthetized from NP, to antagonize these cardiovascular derengements. In future, it will be possibile to elaborate some drugs similar to petidase inhibitors and some CNP-like drugs able to reduce many symptoms of cardiovascular derangements without significant side effects.

Federico, Cacciapuoti

2010-01-01

345

Cost of cardiovascular diseases in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the economic burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United Kingdom, including health and non-healthcare costs, and the proportion of total CVD cost due to coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease.Design and setting: Prevalence-based approach to assess CVD-related costs from a societal perspective.Patients: All UK residents in 2004 with CVD (International classification of diseases, 10th revision

R Luengo-Ferna?ndez; J Leal; A Gray; S Petersen; M Rayner

2006-01-01

346

Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable in ADPKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a powerful, independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, also occurs frequently in patients with ADPKD. Both hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy have important roles in cardiovascular complications in these individuals. Moreover, biventricular diastolic dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired coronary flow velocity reserve are present even in young patients with ADPKD who have normal blood pressure and well-preserved renal function. These findings suggest that cardiovascular involvement starts very early in the course of ADPKD. Intracranial and extracranial aneurysms and cardiac valvular defects are other potential cardiovascular problems in patients with ADPKD. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, has the potential to decrease the cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease in ADPKD.

Ecder, Tevfik; Schrier, Robert W.

2009-01-01

347

Haptoglobin Genotype and Its Role in Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, several longitudinal epidemiological studies have brought attention to the haptoglobin genotype and its importance in determining diabetic vascular disease risk. This manuscript presents an overview of the biology of the haptoglobin genotype and reviews the literature concerning its role in the development of cardiovascular disease among individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Levy, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

348

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Nutrigenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) arises as a result of genetic predisposition in the context of a disease-promoting environment. While several risk factors have been identified for CVD, such as elevated serum lipid levels and hypertension, most of the genes identified thus far do not appear to involve such ‘conventional’ risk factors. Moreover, the interactions between genes and environment, such as a

Hooman Allayee; Nitzan Roth; Howard N. Hodis

2009-01-01

349

The Challenge of Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), is the major cause of death in most developed coun- tries, despite the downward trend observed during the last three decades. Although CVD is emerging in developing countries, little is known there about comprehensive pre- ventive measures for controlling its expansion. The health care system in Tunisia faces the challenge of increasing rates

Hassen Ghannem

350

Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease: where is the risk?  

PubMed

In this issue, Dowlatshahi et al. publish results from their population-based study in Rotterdam showing that, despite an increase in body mass index and smoking, individuals with psoriasis have no increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. These results should be interpreted with caution: the study included relatively small numbers of patients with psoriasis, most of whom had mild disease. PMID:24030646

Maybury, Catriona M; Barker, Jonathan N; Smith, Catherine H

2013-10-01

351

Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable

Robert W. Schrier; Tevfik Ecder

2009-01-01

352

Age at Natural Menopause and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Early natural menopause has been pos- tulated to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: To examine the relation of age at natural menopause with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in the Nurses' Health Study. Methods: Analysis was restricted to 35 616 naturally postmenopausal women who never used estrogen re- placement therapy and with no diagnosed

Frank B. Hu; Francine Grodstein; Charles H. Hennekens; Graham A. Colditz; Michelle Johnson; JoAnn E. Manson; Bernard Rosner; Meir J. Stampfer

1999-01-01

353

Vitamin E in cardiovascular disease: has the die been cast?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease, in particular coronary artery disease (CAD), remains the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and, in the near future, more so in the developing world. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is the underlying basis for CAD. Growth of the plaque leads to coronary stenosis, causing a progressive decrease in blood flow that results in angina pectoris.

Khalid Yusoff

2002-01-01

354

Neighborhood Psychosocial Hazards and Cardiovascular Disease: The Baltimore Memory Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined associations between cardiovascular disease and neighborhood psychosocial hazards, such as violent crime, abandoned buildings, and signs of incivility, to evaluate whether features of place are associated with older adult health. Methods. We analyzed first-visit data from the Baltimore Memory Study of randomly selected residents aged 50 to 70 years (n=1140) of 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. We looked for associations between self-reports of history of selected cardiovascular diseases and scores on the 12-item neighborhood psychosocial hazards scale. Results. After adjustment for established individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease, residents in neighborhoods with scores in the highest quartile of the psychosocial hazards scale had more than 4 times higher odds of a history of myocardial infarction and more than 3 times higher odds of myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or intermittent claudication compared with residents living in neighborhoods scoring in the lowest quartile. Conclusions. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards were significantly associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease after adjustment for individual-level risk factors. This is consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stress plays a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease.

Augustin, Toms; Glass, Thomas A.; James, Bryan D.; Schwartz, Brian S.

2008-01-01

355

Antioxidants and cardiovascular disease: Still a topic of interest.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease constitutes a major public health concern in industrialised nations. Over recent decades, a large body of evidence has accumulated indicating that free radicals play a critical role in cellular processes implicated in atherosclerosis. Herein, we present a mechanism of oxidative stress, focusing mainly on the development of an oxidised low density lipoprotein, and the results of a clinical trial of antioxidant therapy and epidemiological studies on the relationships between nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, ?-carotene, coenzyme Q, flavonoids and L-arginine, and coronary events. These studies indicated that a diet high in antioxidants is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but did not confirm a strong causality link. With regard to vitamin E, observational studies suggested that the daily use of at least 400 International Units of vitamin E is associated with beneficial effects on coronary events. However, it is apparently too early to define the clinical benefits of vitamin E for cardiovascular disease. From the results of several randomised interventional trials, it appears that no single antioxidant given to subjects at high doses has substantial benefits, and the question of whether nutrient antioxidants truly protect against cardiovascular disease remains open. This article provides an overview of the epidemiological and clinical studies related to antioxidants and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21432304

Nojiri, Shuko; Daida, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Yutaka

2004-09-01

356

Spatial transmission of Swine Vesicular Disease virus in the 2006-2007 epidemic in Lombardy.  

PubMed

In 2006 and 2007 pig farming in the region of Lombardy, in the north of Italy, was struck by an epidemic of Swine Vesicular Disease virus (SVDV). In fact this epidemic could be viewed as consisting of two sub-epidemics, as the reported outbreaks occurred in two separate time periods. These periods differed in terms of the provinces or municipalities that were affected and also in terms of the timing of implementation of movement restrictions. Here we use a simple mathematical model to analyse the epidemic data, quantifying between-farm transmission probability as a function of between-farm distance. The results show that the distance dependence of between-farm transmission differs between the two periods. In the first period transmission over relatively long distances occurred with higher probability than in the second period, reflecting the effect of movement restrictions in the second period. In the second period however, more intensive transmission occurred over relatively short distances. Our model analysis explains this in terms of the relatively high density of pig farms in the area most affected in this period, which exceeds a critical farm density for between-farm transmission. This latter result supports the rationale for the additional control measure taken in 2007 of pre-emptively culling farms in that area. PMID:23667534

Nassuato, Claudia; Boender, Gert Jan; Eblé, Phaedra L; Alborali, Loris; Bellini, Silvia; Hagenaars, Thomas J

2013-05-07

357

Spatial Transmission of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus in the 2006-2007 Epidemic in Lombardy  

PubMed Central

In 2006 and 2007 pig farming in the region of Lombardy, in the north of Italy, was struck by an epidemic of Swine Vesicular Disease virus (SVDV). In fact this epidemic could be viewed as consisting of two sub-epidemics, as the reported outbreaks occurred in two separate time periods. These periods differed in terms of the provinces or municipalities that were affected and also in terms of the timing of implementation of movement restrictions. Here we use a simple mathematical model to analyse the epidemic data, quantifying between-farm transmission probability as a function of between-farm distance. The results show that the distance dependence of between-farm transmission differs between the two periods. In the first period transmission over relatively long distances occurred with higher probability than in the second period, reflecting the effect of movement restrictions in the second period. In the second period however, more intensive transmission occurred over relatively short distances. Our model analysis explains this in terms of the relatively high density of pig farms in the area most affected in this period, which exceeds a critical farm density for between-farm transmission. This latter result supports the rationale for the additional control measure taken in 2007 of pre-emptively culling farms in that area.

Nassuato, Claudia; Boender, Gert Jan; Eble, Phaedra L.; Alborali, Loris; Bellini, Silvia; Hagenaars, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

358

Role of Dietary Components in the Epidemic of Allergic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the source of all nutrients, diet is arguably one the most important environmental exposures during early development.\\u000a Maternal dietary exposures in utero have implications for most aspects of fetal development and there is growing evidence that this includes immune pathways\\u000a that have the capacity to influence the risk of allergic disease. In the postnatal period, oral exposures, including a

Susan L. Prescott; Sarah Jennings; David Martino; Nina D’Vaz; Henning Johannsen

359

Impact of the obesity epidemic on hypertension and renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess weight gain is a major cause of increased blood pressure in most patients with essential hypertension, and also greatly\\u000a increases the risk for renal disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular reabsorption, impairing pressure\\u000a natriuresis, causing volume expansion due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system, and\\u000a by physical compression of the kidneys, especially

John E. Hall; Daniel W. Jones; Jay J. Kuo; Alexandre da Silva; Lakshmi S. Tallam; Jiankang Liu

2003-01-01

360

The major infectious epidemic diseases of Civil War soldiers.  

PubMed

Two thirds of the 600,000 deaths of Civil War soldiers were caused by disease. Physicians during the war kept detailed records and reports, which were tabulated, discussed in detail, and published after the war. These records include case histories, autopsy descriptions, photographs, and photomicrographs; they are the best records of the medical experiences of any of America's wars, even those in the twentieth century. Because the Civil War occurred just before the discoveries of bacteriology, these records are of particular historical interest. PMID:15145382

Bollet, Alfred Jay

2004-06-01

361

Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis - an emerging association?  

PubMed Central

Microvascular disease is a prominent feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and leads to Raynaud's phenomenon, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and scleroderma renal crisis. The presence of macrovascular disease is less well established, and, in particular, it is not known whether the prevalence of coronary heart disease in SSc is increased. Furthermore, in terms of cardiac involvement in SSc, there remains conjecture about the relative contributions of atherosclerotic macrovascular disease and myocardial microvascular disease. In this review, we summarize the literature describing cardiovascular disease in SSc, discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms common to SSc and atherosclerosis, and review the surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease which have been examined in SSc. Proposed mediators of the vasculopathy of SSc which have also been implicated in atherosclerosis include endothelial dysfunction, a reduced number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and an increased number of microparticles. Excess cardiovascular risk in SSc is suggested by increased arterial stiffness and carotid intima thickening and reduced flow-mediated dilatation. Cohort studies of adequate size are required to resolve whether this translates into an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with SSc.

2011-01-01

362

Cardiovascular Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Update  

PubMed Central

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared to the general population. Both traditional CV risk factors and high levels of systemic inflammation have been linked to the increased CV risk in RA patients, but significant uncertainty remains regarding the mechanisms through which these factors contribute to CVD. In addition, ongoing questions remain regarding how best to identify RA patients at high risk for CVD, and what primary and secondary prevention strategies are effective at influencing CV outcome. The current review summarizes recent research in this field.

Charles-Schoeman, Christina

2012-01-01

363

[Spectrum of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients].  

PubMed

A large body of evidence indicates that HIV-infected patients, both men and women, as well as adults and children, have a higher risk of developing arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This evidence comes from studies whose main primary variables were the clinical manifestations of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (acute myocardial infarction, silent myocardial ischemia, stroke and peripheral arterial disease) and the distinct markers of premature atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction determined in different sites (carotid, coronary or peripheral arteries) and with distinct diagnostic procedures (carotid intimamedia thickening, coronary artery calcification, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial rigidity, ankle/arm index, etc.). This excess risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients is clearly associated with the HIV infection per se and with classical cardiovascular risk factors, and, to a lesser extent and less uniformly, with the use of first-generation protease inhibitors. Hypertension, whose association with HIV infection is far less clear, is related to both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and to lipodystrophy. PMID:20172409

Lozano, Fernando

2009-09-01

364

Mechanisms of lead-induced hypertension and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Lead is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that is capable of causing numerous acute and chronic illnesses. Population studies have demonstrated a link between lead exposure and subsequent development of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that chronic lead exposure causes HTN and cardiovascular disease by promoting oxidative stress, limiting nitric oxide availability, impairing nitric oxide signaling, augmenting adrenergic activity, increasing endothelin production, altering the renin-angiotensin system, raising vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, lowering vasodilator prostaglandins, promoting inflammation, disturbing vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ signaling, diminishing endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and modifying the vascular response to vasoactive agonists. Moreover, lead has been shown to cause endothelial injury, impede endothelial repair, inhibit angiogenesis, reduce endothelial cell growth, suppress proteoglycan production, stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and phenotypic transformation, reduce tissue plasminogen activator, and raise plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production. Via these and other actions, lead exposure causes HTN and promotes arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, studies performed in experimental animals, isolated tissues, and cultured cells have provided compelling evidence that chronic exposure to low levels of lead can cause HTN, endothelial injury/dysfunction, arteriosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. More importantly, these studies have elucidated the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lead's action on cardiovascular/renal systems, a task that is impossible to accomplish using clinical and epidemiological investigations alone.

Vaziri, Nosratola D.

2008-01-01

365

Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease mediated by ultrasound and microbubbles  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy provides an efficient approach for treatment of cardiovascular disease. To realize the therapeutic effect, both efficient delivery to the target cells and sustained expression of transgenes are required. Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique has become a potential strategy for target-specific gene and drug delivery. When gene-loaded microbubble is injected, the ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction may spew the transported gene to the targeted cells or organ. Meanwhile, high amplitude oscillations of microbubbles increase the permeability of capillary and cell membrane, facilitating uptake of the released gene into tissue and cell. Therefore, efficiency of gene therapy can be significantly improved. To date, UTMD has been successfully investigated in many diseases, and it has achieved outstanding progress in the last two decades. Herein, we discuss the current status of gene therapy of cardiovascular diseases, and reviewed the progress of the delivery of genes to cardiovascular system by UTMD.

2013-01-01

366

Mental stress and the cardiovascular system part V. Chrome mental stress and cardiovascular disease: Job stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of job stress include degree of job control and magnitude of psychological stress. These occupational characteristics may be multiplicative when low job control coexists with high psychological stress. Cardiovascular entities adversely affected by these two occupational characteristics (either alone or in combination) include hypertension, diastolic blood pressure, and coronary artery disease. Some studies challenge these hypotheses. Organism behavior may

W. Victor R. Vieweg; Robin Tucker; Nelson L. Bernardo; Linda M. Dougherty

1998-01-01

367

Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells. PMID:22646022

Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

2012-05-30

368

Impact of obstructive sleep apnoea on diabetes and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a potential cause of systemic hypertension in young and middle-aged people, and treatment helps reduce blood pressure in some patients. Severe OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index [AHI] > 30/h) is strongly associated with increased mortality, stroke and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged populations. The cardiovascular risk from moderate OSA (AHI, 15-30/h) is uncertain, particularly if the oxygen desaturation index is low, although the data suggest an increased risk for stroke (particularly in men). There is no evidence of increased cardiovascular risk from mild OSA (AHI < 15/h). In the elderly, the cardiovascular risks of OSA are uncertain, although there is a likelihood of increased risk of stroke. Current, ongoing randomised controlled trials will inform whether OSA is a reversible cardiovascular risk factor within the next 5 years. Patients with cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity or poorly controlled hypertension are at high risk of OSA and should be questioned for symptoms of OSA, which, if present, may warrant further investigation and treatment. Weight loss has an unpredictable effect on OSA severity, but is independently beneficial for symptoms and metabolic health in OSA patients and is recommended for all overweight and obese OSA patients. PMID:24138362

Hamilton, Garun S; Naughton, Matthew T

2013-10-21

369

An epidemic airborne disease caused by the oak processionary caterpillar.  

PubMed

The oak processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea processionea Lepidoptera) is found in several European countries. It usually lives in oak forests or on single-standing oak trees. The larva of from the 3rd to 6th developmental stage (instar) develops poisonous hair (setae), filled with an urticating toxin that may lead to serious dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and pulmonary affection (summarized as lepidopterism) on contact with the setae. In June 2004 more than 40 people including young children developed symptoms of lepidopterism after resting within 20 m of an infested oak tree. Only a few people had touched the caterpillars. All those with clinical symptoms of lepidopterism could be treated as outpatients, but several needed systemic steroids because of the severity of their complaints. Lepidopterism, an airborne disease caused by the setae of the processionary caterpillar, is a growing public health problem because of the increasing numbers of outbreaks. PMID:16445416

Gottschling, Sven; Meyer, Sascha

370

Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and exposure to inorganic mercury  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To study the mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic non-neoplastic diseases after long term exposure to inorganic mercury. Limited information is available on the effect of chronic exposure to mercury on the cardiovascular system.?METHODS—The mortality was studied among 6784 male and 265 female workers from four mercury mines and mills in Spain, Slovenia, Italy, and the Ukraine. Workers were employed between 1900 and 1990; the follow up period lasted from the 1950s to the 1990s. The mortality of the workers was compared with national reference rates.?RESULTS—Among men, there was a slight increase in overall mortality (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04 to 1.12). An increased mortality was found from hypertension (SMR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.93), heart diseases other than ischaemic (SMR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.53), pneumoconiosis (SMR 27.1, 95% CI 23.1 to 31.6), and nephritis and nephrosis (SMR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.06). The increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases was not consistent among countries. Mortality from hypertension and other heart diseases increased with estimated cumulative exposure to mercury; mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases increased with duration of employment, but not with estimated exposure to mercury. Results among women were hampered by few deaths.?CONCLUSION—Despite limited quantitative data on exposure, possible confounding, and likely misclassification of disease, the study suggests a possible association between employment in mercury mining and refining and risk in some groups of cardiovascular diseases.???Keywords: epidemiology; inorganic mercury; mining; cardiovascular diseases

Boffetta, P; Sallsten, G; Garcia-Gomez, M; Pompe-Kirn, V; Zaridze, D; Bulbulyan, M; Caballero, J; Ceccarelli, F; Kobal, A; Merler, E

2001-01-01

371

ACE2: A novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Hypertension afflicts over 65 million Americans and poses an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity such as stroke, myocardial infarction and end-stage renal disease resulting in significant mortality. Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been identified as an important determinant that is implicated in the etiology of these diseases and therefore represents a major target for therapy. In spite of the successes of drugs inhibiting various elements of the RAS, the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases remain steadily on the rise. This has lead many investigators to seek novel and innovative approaches, taking advantage of new pathways and technologies, for the control and possibly the cure of hypertension and related pathologies. The main objective of this review is to forward the concept that gene therapy and the genetic targeting of the RAS is the future avenue for the successful control and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We will present argument that genetic targeting of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a newly discovered member of the RAS, is ideally poised for this purpose. This will be accomplished by discussion of the following: (i) summary of our current understanding of the RAS with a focus on the systemic versus tissue counterparts as they relate to hypertension and other cardiovascular pathologies; (ii) the newly discovered ACE2 enzyme with its physiological and pathophysiological implications; (iii) summary of the current antihypertensive pharmacotherapy and its limitations; (iv) the discovery and design of ACE inhibitors; (v) the emerging concepts for ACE2 drug design; (vi) the current status of genetic targeting of the RAS; (vii) the potential of ACE2 as a therapeutic target for hypertension and cardiovascular disease treatment; and (viii) future perspectives for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16009403

Der Sarkissian, Shant; Huentelman, Matthew J; Stewart, Jillian; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K

2005-06-14

372

Inflammation, Sleep, Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is emerging that disturbances in sleep and sleep disorders play a role in the morbidity of chronic con- ditions. However, the relationship between sleep processes, disease development, disease progression and disease man- agement is often unclear or understudied. Numerous common medical conditions can have an affect on sleep. For example, diabetes or inflammatory conditions such as arthritis can lead

Michelle A. Miller; Francesco P. Cappuccio

2007-01-01

373

Washing our hands of the congenital cytomegalovirus disease epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background Each year in the United States, an estimated 40,000 children are born with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, causing an estimated 400 deaths and leaving approximately 8000 children with permanent disabilities such as hearing or vision loss, or mental retardation. More children are affected by serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood maladies, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. Discussion Congenital CMV is a prime target for prevention not only because of its substantial disease burden but also because the biology and epidemiology of CMV suggest that there are ways to reduce viral transmission. Because exposure to the saliva or urine of young children is a major cause of CMV infection among pregnant women, it is likely that good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing, can reduce the risk of CMV acquisition. Experts agree that such measures are likely to be efficacious (i.e., they will work if consistently followed) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that physicians counsel pregnant women about preventing CMV acquisition through careful attention to hygiene. However, because of concerns about effectiveness (i.e., Will women consistently follow hygienic practices as the result of interventions?), the medical and public health communities appear reluctant to embrace primary CMV prevention via improved hygienic practices, and educational interventions are rare. Current data on the effectiveness of such measures in preventing CMV infection are promising, but limited. There is strong evidence, however, that educational interventions can prevent other infectious diseases with similar transmission modes, suggesting that effective interventions can also be found for CMV. Until a CMV vaccine becomes available, effective educational interventions are needed to inform women about congenital CMV prevention. Summary Perhaps no single cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States currently provides greater opportunity for improved outcomes in more children than congenital CMV. Given the present state of knowledge, women deserve to be informed about how they can reduce their risk of CMV infection during pregnancy, and trials are needed to identify effective educational interventions.

Cannon, Michael J; Davis, Katherine Finn

2005-01-01

374

Immunologic Basis of Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Infected Adults  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular complications are more common in human immunodeficiency virus–infected individuals than in age-matched uninfected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications, suggesting that viral replication directly or indirectly causes vascular disease. Long-term effective antiretroviral therapy does not fully restore vascular health, and treated adults continue to have higher-than-expected rates of disease progression. Although this excess risk during therapy is likely due to multiple factors, a growing body of evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, which persists during effective antiretroviral therapy, is directly and causally associated with vascular dysfunction and the accelerated development of atherosclerosis.

Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Hunt, Peter W.

2012-01-01

375

Omega-3 fatty acids: role in cardiovascular health and disease.  

PubMed

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, play an important role in cardiovascular health and disease. Clinical trials provide substantial evidence to support current dietary recommendations for omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease management. The cardioprotective benefits of omega-3 fatty acids may be attributed to multiple physiological effects on lipids, blood pressure, vascular function, cardiac rhythms, platelet function, and inflammatory responses. The metabolism of omega-3 fatty acids, physiological effects, and clinical considerations with current dietary recommendations and sources of omega-3 fatty acids are presented. PMID:16407732

Engler, Marguerite M; Engler, Mary B

376

Obesity and postprandial lipemia in adolescents: risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In the last 50 years, obesity has become a global epidemic and is one of the main public health problems in many parts of the world. Adolescence is a critical period regarding weight control. The factors determining obesity include a complex group of interrelated biological, behavioral and environmental factors which reinforce each other. In children and adolescents, obesity is associated with premature cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, acanthosis nigricans, respiratory and skeletal muscle problems, as well as psychological problems. The clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease begin in middle age. Nevertheless, studies indicate that the atherosclerotic process begins to develop during childhood. Postprandial hyperlipemia is a physiological process that occurs several times a day after the complete absorption of a diet including lipids and has been suggested as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). New study areas include the effects of different fatty acids, lipid sources (endogenous and exogenous), and the effect ingesting alcoholic beverages during meals. Given the evidence that postprandial lipidemia is an independent risk factor for CHD, it is vital to establish normative values for children and adolescents such that more effective and efficient preventive and therapeutic measures can be adopted. PMID:22137533

Sahade, Viviane; França, Silvana; Badaró, Roberto; Fernando Adán, Luis

2011-12-01

377

Trends and disparities in coronary heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases in the United States: findings of the national conference on cardiovascular disease prevention.  

PubMed

A workshop was held September 27 through 29, 1999, to address issues relating to national trends in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases; the apparent slowing of declines in mortality from cardiovascular diseases; levels and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; disparities in cardiovascular diseases by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography; trends in cardiovascular disease preventive and treatment services; and strategies for efforts to reduce cardiovascular diseases overall and to reduce disparities among subpopulations. The conference concluded that coronary heart disease mortality is still declining in the United States as a whole, although perhaps at a slower rate than in the 1980s; that stroke mortality rates have declined little, if at all, since 1990; and that there are striking differences in cardiovascular death rates by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography. Trends in risk factors are consistent with a slowing of the decline in mortality; there has been little recent progress in risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and hypertension control. There are increasing levels of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with major differences among subpopulations. There is considerable activity in population-wide prevention, primary prevention for higher risk people, and secondary prevention, but wide disparities exist among groups on the basis of socioeconomic status and geography, pointing to major gaps in efforts to use available, proven approaches to control cardiovascular diseases. Recommendations for strategies to attain the year 2010 health objectives were made. PMID:11120707

Cooper, R; Cutler, J; Desvigne-Nickens, P; Fortmann, S P; Friedman, L; Havlik, R; Hogelin, G; Marler, J; McGovern, P; Morosco, G; Mosca, L; Pearson, T; Stamler, J; Stryer, D; Thom, T

2000-12-19

378

Mendelian forms of structural cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Clinical and molecular genetics are inextricably linked. In the last two decades genetic studies have revealed the causes of several forms of structural heart disease. Recent work is extending the insights from inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies to other forms of heart disease. In this review we outline the current state of the art for the genetics of adult structural heart disease, in particular the cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease and aortic disease. The general approaches are described with a focus on clinical relevance, while potential areas for imminent innovation in diagnosis and therapeutics are highlighted. PMID:24046092

Macrae, Calum A

2013-10-01

379

Oxidative stress and inflammation, a link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This seems to be consequence of the cardiovascular risk factor clustering in CKD patients. Non traditional risk factors such as oxidative stress and inflammation are also far more prevalent in this population than in normal subjects. Renal disease is associated with a graded increase in oxidative stress

Victoria Cachofeiro; Marian Goicochea; Soledad García de Vinuesa; Pilar Oubiña; Vicente Lahera; José Luño

2008-01-01

380

Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a reduced lifespan, and a substantial proportion of these individuals die from cardiovascular disease. Although a large percentage of patients with CKD have traditional cardiac risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and abnormalities in cholesterol, interventions to address these factors—which have significantly decreased cardiovascular mortality in the general population—have not shown such benefit

Jessica Kendrick; Michel B Chonchol

2008-01-01

381

Reappraisal of the pathogenesis and consequences of hyperuricemia in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elevated uric acid level is associated with cardiovascular disease. Hyperuricemia is predictive for the development of both hypertension and coronary artery disease; it is increased in patients with hypertension, and, when present in hypertension, an elevated uric acid level is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Serum uric acid level should be measured in patients at risk for

Richard J. Johnson; Salah D. Kivlighn; Yoon-Goo Kim; Shinichi Suga; Agnes B. Fogo

1999-01-01

382

Workplace bullying and the risk of cardiovascular disease and depression  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine exposure to workplace bullying as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and depression in employees. Methods: Logistic regression models were related to prospective data from two surveys in a cohort of 5432 hospital employees (601 men and 4831 women), aged 18–63 years. Outcomes were new reports of doctor diagnosed cardiovascular disease and depression during the two year follow up among those who were free from these diseases at baseline. Results: The prevalence of bullying was 5% in the first survey and 6% in the second survey. Two per cent reported bullying experiences in both surveys, an indication of prolonged bullying. After adjustment for sex, age, and income, the odds ratio of incident cardiovascular disease for victims of prolonged bullying compared to non-bullied employees was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.6). A further adjustment for overweight at baseline attenuated the odds ratio to 1.6 (95% CI 0.8 to 3.5). The association between prolonged bullying and incident depression was significant, even after these adjustments (odds ratio 4.2, 95% CI 2.0 to 8.6). Conclusions: A strong association between workplace bullying and subsequent depression suggests that bullying is an aetiological factor for mental health problems. The victims of bullying also seem to be at greater risk of cardiovascular disease, but this risk may partly be attributable to overweight.

Kivimaki, M; Virtanen, M; Vartia, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Keltikangas-Jarvi..., L

2003-01-01

383

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and cardiovascular diseases: a review.  

PubMed

The role of inflammatory markers in cardiovascular diseases has been studied extensively and a consistent relationship between various inflammatory markers and cardiovascular diseases has been established in the past. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new addition to the long list of these inflammatory markers. NLR, which is calculated from complete blood count with differential, is an inexpensive, easy to obtain, widely available marker of inflammation, which can aid in the risk stratification of patients with various cardiovascular diseases in addition to the traditionally used markers. It has been associated with arterial stiffness and high coronary calcium score, which are themselves significant markers of cardiovascular disease. NLR is reported as an independent predictor of outcome in stable coronary artery disease, as well as a predictor of short- and long-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. It is linked with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and higher long-term mortality in patients undergoing PCI irrespective of indications of PCI. In patients admitted with advanced heart failure, high NLR was reported with higher inpatient mortality. Recently, NLR has been reported as a prognostic marker for outcome from coronary artery bypass grafting and postcoronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation. PMID:23259445

Bhat, Tariq; Teli, Sumaya; Rijal, Jharendra; Bhat, Hilal; Raza, Muhammad; Khoueiry, Georges; Meghani, Mustafain; Akhtar, Muhammad; Costantino, Thomas

2013-01-01

384

PPAR Genomics and Pharmacogenomics: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) consist of three related transcription factors that serve to regulate a number of cellular processes that are central to cardiovascular health and disease. Numerous pharmacologic studies have assessed the effects of specific PPAR agonists in clinical trials and have provided insight into the clinical effects of these genes while genetic studies have demonstrated clinical associations between PPAR polymorphisms and abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes. With the abundance of data available from these studies as a background, PPAR pharmacogenetics has become a promising and rapidly advancing field. This review focuses on summarizing the current state of understanding of PPAR genetics and pharmacogenetics and the important implications for the individualization of therapy for patients with cardiovascular diseases.

Cresci, Sharon

2008-01-01

385

An object simulation model for modeling hypothetical disease epidemics - EpiFlex  

PubMed Central

Background EpiFlex is a flexible, easy to use computer model for a single computer, intended to be operated by one user who need not be an expert. Its purpose is to study in-silico the epidemic behavior of a wide variety of diseases, both known and theoretical, by simulating their spread at the level of individuals contracting and infecting others. To understand the system fully, this paper must be read together in conjunction with study of the software and its results. EpiFlex is evaluated using results from modeling influenza A epidemics and comparing them with a variety of field data sources and other types of modeling. EpiFlex is an object-oriented Monte Carlo system, allocating entities to correspond to individuals, disease vectors, diseases, and the locations that hosts may inhabit. EpiFlex defines eight different contact types available for a disease. Contacts occur inside locations within the model. Populations are composed of demographic groups, each of which has a cycle of movement between locations. Within locations, superspreading is defined by skewing of contact distributions. Results EpiFlex indicates three phenomena of interest for public health: (1) R0 is variable, and the smaller the population, the larger the infected fraction within that population will be; (2) significant compression/synchronization between cities by a factor of roughly 2 occurs between the early incubation phase of a multi-city epidemic and the major manifestation phase; (3) if better true morbidity data were available, more asymptomatic hosts would be seen to spread disease than we currently believe is the case for influenza. These results suggest that field research to study such phenomena, while expensive, should be worthwhile. Conclusion Since EpiFlex shows all stages of disease progression, detailed insight into the progress of epidemics is possible. EpiFlex shows the characteristic multimodality and apparently random variation characteristic of real world data, but does so as an emergent property of a carefully constructed model of disease dynamics and is not simply a stochastic system. EpiFlex can provide a better understanding of infectious diseases and strategies for response.

Hanley, Brian

2006-01-01

386

Spatiotemporal relationships between disease development and airborne inoculum in unmanaged and managed Botrytis leaf blight epidemics.  

PubMed

Comparatively little quantitative information is available on both the spatial and temporal relationships that develop between airborne inoculum and disease intensity during the course of aerially spread epidemics. Botrytis leaf blight and Botrytis squamosa airborne inoculum were analyzed over space and time during 2 years (2002 and 2004) in a nonprotected experimental field, using a 6 x 8 lattice of quadrats of 10 x 10 m each. A similar experiment was conducted in 2004 and 2006 in a commercial field managed for Botrytis leaf blight using a 5 x 5 lattice of quadrats of 25 x 25 m each. Each quadrat was monitored weekly for lesion density (LD) and aerial conidium concentration (ACC). The adjustment of the Taylor's power law showed that heterogeneity in both LD and ACC generally increased with increasing mean. Unmanaged epidemics were characterized in either year, with aggregation indices derived from SADIE (Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices). For LD, the aggregation indices suggested a random pattern of disease early in the season, followed by an aggregated pattern in the second part of the epidemic. The index of aggregation for ACC in 2002 was significantly greater than 1 at only one date, while it was significantly greater than 1 at most sampling dates in 2004. In both years and for both variables, positive trends in partial autocorrelation were observed mainly for a spatial lag of 1. In 2002, the overall pattern of partial autocorrelations over sampling dates was similar for LD and ACC with no significant partial autocorrelation during the first part of the epidemic, followed by a period with significant positive autocorrelation, and again no autocorrelation on the last three sampling dates. In 2004, there was no significant positive autocorrelation for LD at most sampling dates while for ACC, there was a fluctuation between significant and non-significant positive correlation over sampling dates. There was a significant spatial correlation between ACC at given date (t(i)) and LD 1 week later (t(i + 1)) on most sampling dates in both 2002 and 2004 for the unmanaged and managed sites. It was concluded that LD and ACC were not aggregated in the early stage of epidemics, when both disease intensity and airborne conidia concentration were low. This was supported by the analysis of LD and ACC from a commercial field, where managed levels of disease were low, and where no aggregation of both variables was detected. It was further concluded that a reliable monitoring of airborne inoculum for management of Botrytis leaf blight is achievable in managed fields using few spore samplers per field. PMID:18943236

Carisse, O; Savary, S; Willocquet, L

2008-01-01

387

Periodontal disease and risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease in U.S. male physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to prospectively assess whether self-reported periodontal disease is associated with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in a large population of male physicians.BACKGROUNDPeriodontal disease, the result of a complex interplay of bacterial infection and chronic inflammation, has been suggested to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease.METHODSPhysicians’ Health Study I was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin and beta-carotene

Charles H Hennekens

2001-01-01

388

DIABETIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: getting to the heart of the matter  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart disease, and heart disease is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality among people living with diabetes. The diabetic metabolic milieu predisposes to aggressive obstructive coronary artery disease that causes heart attacks, heart failure and death. Furthermore, diabetes can be associated with heart failure, independent of underlying coronary artery disease, hypertension or valve abnormalities. The pathogenesis of the vascular and myocardial complications of diabetes is, as yet, incompletely understood. Although a number of medical and surgical approaches can improve outcomes in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease, much remains to be learned in order to optimize approaches to these critical complications.

Peterson, Linda R.; McKenzie, Clark R.; Schaffer, Jean E.

2012-01-01

389

Ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review compares blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic with those obtained outside the clinic to predict cardiovascular and renal injury and outcomes. Recent findings Data are accumulating that suggest that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a superior prognostic marker compared to blood pressures obtained in the clinic. Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can detect white coat hypertension and masked hypertension which results in less misclassification of blood pressures. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a marker of cardiovascular end points in CKD. Non dipping is associated with proteinuria and lower GFR. Although non-dipping is associated with more ESRD and cardiovascular events, adjustment for other risk factors removes the prognostic significance of non-dipping. For patients with CKD, not on dialysis, 24 hour ambulatory BP of <125/75 mm Hg, daytime ambulatory of <130/85 mm Hg and nighttime ambulatory BP of <110/70 mm Hg appear to be reasonable goal BP targets. In the management of hypertension in patients with CKD, control of hypertension is important. Ambulatory BP monitoring may be useful to assign more aggressive treatment to patients with masked hypertension and withdraw antihypertensive therapy in patients with white-coat hypertension. Summary Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can refine cardiovascular and renal risk assessment in all stages of chronic kidney disease. The independent prognostic role of non-dipping is unclear.

Agarwal, Rajiv

2007-01-01

390

Methods and Compositions for Correlating Genetic Markers with Cardiovascular Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides methods of identifying a subject having an increased or decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, comprising: (a) correlating the presence of one or more genetic markers in chromosome 3q13.31 with an increased or ...

J. M. Vance P. J. Goldschmidt S. G. Gregory W. E. Kraus

2005-01-01

391

Associations between Eating Competence and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Explore the relationship between eating competence (EC) and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Secondary analysis of data collected for a larger, 2-way crossover clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient clinical research center. Participants: Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [greater than or equal]…

Psota, Tricia L.; Lohse, Barbara; West, Sheila G.

2007-01-01

392

Hyperosmotic activation of CNS sympathetic drive: implications for cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Evidence now indicates that exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) significantly contributes to salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases. Although CNS mechanisms that support the elevation of SNA in various cardiovascular disease models have been intensively studied, many mechanistic details remain unknown. In recent years, studies have shown that SNA can rise as a result of both acute and chronic increases of body fluid osmolality. These findings have raised the possibility that salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases could result, at least in part, from direct osmosensory activation of CNS sympathetic drive. In this brief review we emphasize recent findings from several laboratories, including our own, which demonstrate that neurons of the forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) play a pivotal role in triggering hyperosmotic activation of SNA by recruiting neurons in specific regions of the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. Although OVLT neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive and shrink when exposed to extracellular hypertonicity, it is not yet clear if these processes are functionally linked. Whereas acute hypertonic activation of OVLT neurons critically depends on TRPV1 channels, studies in TRPV1?/? mice suggest that acute and long-term osmoregulatory responses remain largely intact. Therefore, acute and chronic osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons may be mediated by distinct mechanisms. We speculate that organic osmolytes such as taurine and possibly novel processes such as extracellular acidification could contribute to long-term osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons and might therefore participate in the elevation of SNA in salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases.

Toney, Glenn M; Stocker, Sean D

2010-01-01

393

Sleep-related breathing disorders and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep-related breathing disorders, ranging from habitual snoring to the increased upper airway resistance syndrome to sleep apnea, are now recognized as major health problems. The majority of patients have excessive daytime sleepiness and tiredness. Neuropsychological dysfunction results in poor work performance, memory impairment, and even depression. Until recently, the coexistence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with sleep-related breathing disorders was

Francoise Roux; Carolyn D’Ambrosio; Vahid Mohsenin

2000-01-01

394

Factors that Affect Perceived Susceptibility to Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify CVD risk factors that are related to perceived susceptibility for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in West Virginia women.Although risk factors for CVD in women have been identified, it is not clear to what extent that information has reached women in West Virginia, or whether women's beliefs about susceptibility to CVD are in accordance with that knowledge. As

D. Humphries; D. Krummel; S. Rye; K. Simon

1997-01-01

395

Cerebrovascular Disease and Depression Symptoms in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Evidence is mounting linking cerebrovascular disease with depressive symptoms in the elderly. Lesions in both white and gray matter have been associated with depressive symptoms and major depression. We sought to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and white and gray matter lesions in subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods—In a sample of 3660 men and

David C. Steffens; Michael J. Helms; K. Ranga Rama Krishnan; Gregory L. Burke

2010-01-01

396

Cardiovascular disease knowledge among culturally Deaf patients in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Deaf persons experience communication barriers that may impact on their knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, data measuring this deficit are limited. A comprehensive health survey of Deaf adults included questions on CVD knowledge. Methods. Between November 2002 and March 2003, 203 Deaf adults participated in the survey, which was conducted via face-to-face interviews in American Sign Language. Questions

Helen Margellos-Anast; Melanie Estarziau; Gary Kaufman

397

Translating evidence into policy for cardiovascular disease control in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of premature mortality in India. Evidence from developed countries shows that mortality from these can be substantially prevented using population-wide and individual-based strategies. Policy initiatives for control of CVD in India have been suggested but evidence of efficacy has emerged only recently. These initiatives can have immediate impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. Of

Rajeev Gupta; Soneil Guptha; Rajnish Joshi; Denis Xavier

2011-01-01

398

Perceived risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We set out to assess the perceived risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus in an urban setting using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to collect data from different stakeholders constituting the triangle of care. Ethnomethodological anal- ysesweredone manuallyandwith Ethnograph software. The results showed an awareness of emergence of CVD and diabetes in Cameroon and perceived relationships

Paschal K. Awah; Andre P. Kengne; Leopold L. K. Fezeu; Jean-Claude Mbanya

2007-01-01

399

Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

Jeffery, Robert W.

1988-01-01

400

Patterns of population differentiation of candidate genes for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The basis for ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility is not fully understood. We investigated patterns of population differentiation (FST) of a set of genes in etiologic pathways of CVD among 3 ethnic groups: Yoruba in Nigeria (YRI), Utah residents with European ancestry (CEU), and Han Chinese (CHB) + Japanese (JPT). We identified 37 pathways implicated in CVD

Iftikhar J Kullo; Keyue Ding

2007-01-01

401

Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

402

RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are at high cardio- vascular risk. Although some risk factors are unmodifiable (for example, age, sex, genetics), others are exacerbated in the unfriendly uremic milieu (inflammation, oxidative stress, mineral disturbances) or contribute per se to kid- ney disease and cardiovascular progression (diabetes mel- litus, hypertension). Moreover, several factors associated with PD therapy may both increase

Elvia García-López; Juan J. Carrero; Mohamed E. Suliman; Bengt Lindholm; Peter Stenvinkel

403

Diagonal earlobe creases and fatal cardiovascular disease: a necropsy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between diagonal earlobe creases and fatal cardiovascular disease was investigated in a consecutive series of 303 coroner's necropsies. Those studied all died outside hospital in the Brighton Health District. Data were analysed on the cause of death and on the type of earlobe, the presence or absence of diagonal creases, age, sex, height, and any previous history of

N Kirkham; T Murrells; D H Melcher; E A Morrison

1989-01-01

404

Cardiovascular complications in sickle cell disease: Clinical and echocardiographic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autossomal recessive disorder and one of the most common genetic disorder in our miscegenated brazilian population. The cardiovascular and pulmonary complications remain the prime cause of morbidity and mortality in SCD. The aim of the study was to report the clinical and echocardiographics features in a population with documented SCD,recruited from the Rio de

João Carlos Tress; Monica A. Oliveira; Lílian S. Costa; Cantidio Drumond Neto; Katia Motta

2005-01-01

405

Job strain and autonomic indices of cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the etiologic mechanisms. This, in turn, would help to more precisely identify risk. Methods We measured Job Strain using the Job Content Questionnaire, 8\\/day diary reports, and nationally standardized occupational code linkage, as well as autonomic regulation utilizing heart rate variability including spectral-derived components

Sean M. Collins; Robert A. Karasek; Kevin Costas

2005-01-01

406

Job Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: A Theoretic Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 15 years, the research on job stress and cardiovascular diseases has been dominated by the job strain model developed by R. Karasek (1979) and colleagues (R. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990). In this article the results of this research are briefly summarized, and the theoretical and methodological basis is discussed and criticized. A sociological interpretation of the

Tage S. Kristensen

1996-01-01

407

Angiogenic gene therapy in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Encouraging preliminary data suggest that gene therapy may soon be an option for the treatment of patients with advanced coronary artery disease that is not amenable to conventional treatment. A critical consideration in developing cardiovascular gene transfer as a therapy is the ability to deliver the vector, viral or plasmid, to the desired tissue in a safe fashion. Attempts

Tamer A. Malik; Cesario Bianchi; Frank W. Sellke

2004-01-01

408

Effectiveness of three models for comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost and accessibility contribute to low participation rates in phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation programs in the United States. In this study, we compared the clinical effectiveness of 2 less costly and potentially more accessible approaches to cardiovascular risk reduction with that of a contemporary phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation program. Low- or moderate-risk patients (n = 155) with coronary artery disease

Neil F. Gordon; Carla D. English; Aashish S. Contractor; Richard D. Salmon; Richard F. Leighton; Barry A. Franklin; William L. Haskell

2002-01-01

409

Exercise training for patients with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review surveys effort training, a validated and recommended therapy, in patients with atheromatous cardiovascular disease. This true therapy reduces mortality by 25–35%, reduces clinical manifestations and complications (rhythm problems, thrombosis) and improves physical capacity, reintegration and quality of life. The effects are essentially linked to improved metabolic performance of muscles and reduced endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and neurohormonal abnormalities.

J. M. Casillas; V. Gremeaux; S. Damak; A. Feki; D. Pérennou

2007-01-01

410

The role of cytokines in cardiovascular disease in menopause.  

PubMed

Various studies suggest that increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in the declining ovarian function and the resulting complications associated with menopause. In this review article, the authors outline the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiovascular disease during menopause. PMID:22992012

Camilleri, G; Borg, M; Brincat, S; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

2012-09-19

411

Epidemiologic Studies of Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A physically more active life, while not being related to atherosclerosis, could enable some individuals to live longer with atherosclerosis before dying from or showing symptoms of coronary heart disease. (MJB)

Montoye, Henry J.

1977-01-01

412

Cardio-metabolic risk prediction should be superior to cardiovascular risk assessment in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases represent the main cause of death in the developed and developing populations. Although\\u000a major progress has been made in the management of the classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, unhealthy lifestyle\\u000a conduces to an increasing prevalence of overweight, obesity, metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus, premature atherosclerosis\\u000a and cardiovascular diseases. That is why cardio-metabolic risk prediction should be

Hana Rosolova; Barbora Nussbaumerova

2011-01-01

413

Genotype, obesity and cardiovascular disease--has technical and social advancement outstripped evolution?  

PubMed

Teleologically, our ancestors were highly adapted hunter-gatherers. In recent history, the environment in which Homo sapiens exists has altered drastically and humans are exposed to environments for which the hunter-gatherer genotype is ill-suited. The adoption of a sedentary Western lifestyle, and the case of obtaining food of a high calorific content imposed upon a thrifty genotype, have resulted in the current global epidemic of obesity, Type 2 diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome. The ramification of this epidemic is that cardiovascular disease is becoming a global healthcare problem, which will have its greatest impact on the developing nations. A global strategy is required to reduce the impact of the Western lifestyle on the health of developing nations and prevent obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Such an approach needs to be culturally sensitive, integrated, and multidisciplinary and involve a range of interventions that work at the individual and community levels. If lifestyle measures fail, then pharmacological intervention may be necessary. For this, novel agents such as dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists may be the therapy of the future. PMID:12859692

Zimmet, P; Thomas, C R

2003-08-01

414

Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

2006-01-01

415

Work-related Cerebro-Cardiovascular Diseases in Korea  

PubMed Central

Cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of compensable occupational diseases in Korea as in Japan or Taiwan. However, most countries accept only cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart diseases) as compensable occupational diseases if any, but not cerebrovascular diseases. Korea has a prescribed list of compensable occupational diseases. CVD was not included in the list until 1993. In the early 1990s, a case of cerebral infarction was accepted as occupational disease by the Supreme Court. The decision was based on the concept that workers' compensation system is one of the social security systems. In 1994, the government has established a diagnostic criterion of CVD. The crude rate of compensated cerebrovascular disease decreased by 60.0% from 18.5 in 2003 to 7.4 in 2008 per 100,000 workers, and that of compensated coronary heart disease decreased by 60.5% from 3.8 in 2003 to 1.5 in 2008 per 100,000 workers. The compensated cases of CVD dramatically increased and reached its peak in 2003. Since many preventive activities were performed by the government and employers, the compensated cases have slowly decreased since 2003 and sharply decreased after 2008 when the diagnostic criterion was amended. The strategic approach is needed essentially because CVDs are common, serious and preventable diseases which lead to economic burden.

Kang, Seong-Kyu

2010-01-01

416

Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolomics studies hold promise for the discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Here we used a metabolomics approach to generate unbiased small-molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine--choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine--were identified and then shown

Zeneng Wang; Elizabeth Klipfell; Brian J. Bennett; Robert Koeth; Bruce S. Levison; Brandon Dugar; Ariel E. Feldstein; Earl B. Britt; Xiaoming Fu; Yoon-Mi Chung; Yuping Wu; Phil Schauer; Jonathan D. Smith; Hooman Allayee; W. H. Wilson Tang; Joseph A. Didonato; Aldons J. Lusis; Stanley L. Hazen

2011-01-01

417

Most important outcomes research papers on anticoagulation for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The following are highlights from the new series, Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes Topic Review. This series will summarize the most important manuscripts, as selected by the Editor, that have been published in the Circulation portfolio. The objective of this new series is to provide our readership with a timely, comprehensive selection of important papers that are relevant to the quality and outcomes, and general cardiology audience. The studies included in this article represent the most significant research in the area of anticoagulation for cardiovascular disease. PMID:22991352

Bikdeli, Behnood; Gupta, Aakriti; Mody, Purav; Lampropulos, Julianna F; Dharmarajan, Kumar

2012-09-01

418

Impact of Diabetes on Cardiovascular Disease: An Update  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Matheus, Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos; Tannus, Lucianne Righeti Monteiro; Cobas, Roberta Arnoldi; Palma, Catia C. Sousa; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Gomes, Marilia de Brito

2013-01-01

419

[Cardiovascular disease and aircraft transportation: specificities and issues].  

PubMed

With the development of air transport and travel to distant destinations, the number of passengers and elderly passengers on board increases each year. In this population, cardiovascular events are a major concern. Among medical incidents occurring in-flight they are second-ranked (10%) behind gastrointestinal disorders (25%). Their occurrence may involve life-threatening events and require resuscitation, difficult to perform during flight or in a precarious health environment. Coronary heart disease and pulmonary thromboembolic disease are the most serious manifestations. They are the leading cause of hospitalization in a foreign country and sudden cardiac death occurring during or subsequent to the flight. Their occurrence is explained on aircraft by hypoxia, hypobaria and decreased humidity caused by cabin pressurization and upon arrival by a different environmental context (extreme climates, tropical diseases). Moreover, the occurrence of a cardiovascular event during flight can represent for the air carrier a major economic and logistic problem when diversion occurred. Furthermore, the liability of the practitioner passenger could be involved according to airlines or to the country in which the aircraft is registered. In this context, cardiovascular events during aircraft transportation can be easily prevented by identifying high risk patients, respect of cardiovascular indications to travel, the implementation of simple preventive measures and optimization of medical equipment in commercial flights. PMID:21719248

Touze, Jean-Étienne; Métais, Patrick; Zawieja, Philippe

2011-06-29

420

Finding Cardiovascular Disease Genes in the Dog  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in canine genomics are changing the landscape of veterinary biology, and by default, veterinary medicine. No longer are clinicians locked into traditional methods of diagnoses and therapy. Rather major advances in canine genetics and genomics from the past five years are now changing the way the veterinarian of the 21st century practices medicine. First, the availability of a dense genome map gives canine genetics a much needed foothold in comparative medicine, allowing advances made in human and mouse genetics to be applied to companion animals. Second, the recently released 7.5x whole genome sequence of the dog is facilitating the identification of hereditary disease genes. Finally, development of genetic tools for rapid screening of families and populations at risk for inherited disease means that the cost of identifying and testing for disease loci will significantly decrease in coming years. Out of these advances will come major changes in companion animal diagnostics and therapy. Clinicians will be able to offer their clients genetic testing and counseling for a myriad of disorders. Such advances are certain to generate healthier and more long lived dogs, improving quality of life for owner and pet alike. The clinician of the 21st century, therefore, faces incredible opportunities as well as challenges in the management of genetic disease. In this review we summarize recent findings in canine genomics and discuss their application to the study of canine cardiac health.

Parker, Heidi G.; Meurs, Kathryn M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

2013-01-01

421

Effects of Wine Consumption on Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of epidemiological cohort studies have shown the influence of a moderate consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits) and their effects on coronary heart diseases, with an increased protective effect in the case of wine. This increased protective effect may be due to the phenolic compounds (flavonoids and non-flavonoids) that wine contains. Moderate wine consumption,

Jean-Max Rouanet; Pierre-Louis Teissédre

2011-01-01

422

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease: Traditional, Nontraditional, and Uremia-related Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and there is\\u000a an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to reduce this excessive risk. In the context of uremia, this has been\\u000a problematic, as the extremely high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk seems to be the result of a complex interplay between\\u000a a vast

Juan J. Carrero; Peter Stenvinkel

423

[Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention].  

PubMed

Fatty acids, in addition to its known energy value and its structural function, have other beneficial properties. In particular, the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 acting on the cardiovascular apparatus through many channels exerting a protective effect against cardiovascular risk. The benefits associated with the reduction in cardiac mortality and sudden death particular, are related to the incorporation of EPA and DHA in phospholipid membrane of cardiomyocytes. An index is established that relates the percentage of EPA + DHA of total fatty acids in erythrocytes and risk of death from cardiovascular disease may layering in different degrees. Therefore, the primary source of fatty fish w-3 PUFA, behaves like a reference food in cardiosaludables diets. PMID:23808424

Piñeiro-Corrales, Guadalupe; Lago Rivero, N; Culebras-Fernández, Jesús M

424

Cardiovascular disease risk in young people with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), despite modern advances in glycemic control and CVD risk factor modification. CVD risk identification is essential in this high-risk population, yet remains poorly understood. This review discusses the risk factors for CVD in young people with T1D, including hyperglycemia, traditional CVD risk factors (dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, hypertension), as well as novel risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and hypoglycemia. We present evidence that adverse changes in cardiovascular function, arterial compliance, and atherosclerosis are present even during adolescence in people with T1D, highlighting the need for earlier intervention. The methods for investigating cardiovascular risk are discussed and reviewed. Finally, we discuss the observational studies and clinical trials which have thus far attempted to elucidate the best targets for early intervention in order to reduce the burden of CVD in people with T1D. PMID:22528676

Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen

2012-04-12

425

The Relationship Between HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Over 30 million people are currently living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and over 2 million new infections occur per year. HIV has been found to directly affect vascular biology resulting in an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to uninfected persons. Although HIV infection can now be treated effectively with combination antiretroviral medications, significant toxicities such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and excess cardiovascular co-morbidity; as well as the potential for significant drug-drug interactions between HIV and cardiovascular medications, present new challenges for the management of persons infected with HIV. We first review basic principles of HIV pathogenesis and treatment and then discuss relevant clinical management strategies that will be useful for cardiologists who might be involved in the care of HIV infected patients.

Dau, Birgitt; Holodniy, Mark

2008-01-01

426

Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease  

SciTech Connect

This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices utilizes an open-loop configuration involving a team consisting of neurosurgeon, neurologist and neurophysiologist all present and participating in the decision process of delivery. We propose the development of an integrated system which provides for distributed decision making and tele-manipulation of the instrument delivery system.

Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

2008-02-29

427

Prevalence and predictors of coexistent silent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm without previous symptomatic cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Although patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) often have other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the exact prevalence remains unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of coexistent silent atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (SACVDs) in patients with AAA without a history of CVD. Consecutive 157 patients with AAA (mean age, 73 years), without any previous history of CVD, were included. Silent myocardial ischemia (SMI), cerebrovascular disease (CeVD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) without symptoms coexisted in 29.3%, 25.5%, 15.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. The significant predictors of SMI were diabetes mellitus (P = .025) and male sex (P = .048). The significant predictor of silent CeVD was older age (P = .039). The borderline predictors of asymptomatic PAD and TAA were diabetes mellitus (P = .056) and AAA size (P = .053), respectively. Even with no previous symptomatic CVD, patients with AAA have high prevalence of coexistent SACVD. PMID:21948971

Takigawa, Masateru; Yoshimuta, Tsuyoshi; Akutsu, Koichi; Takeshita, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Naoyuki

2011-09-22

428

C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. METHODS We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. RESULTS The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P<0.001), and yielded a net reclassification improvement of 1.52% and 0.83%, respectively, for the predicted 10-year risk categories of “low” (<10%), “intermediate” (10% to <20%), and “high” (?20%) (P<0.02 for both comparisons). We estimated that among 100,000 adults 40 years of age or older, 15,025 persons would initially be classified as being at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event if conventional risk factors alone were used to calculate risk. Assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of ?20% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), additional targeted assessment of CRP or fibrinogen levels in the 13,199 remaining participants at intermediate risk could help prevent approximately 30 additional cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. CONCLUSIONS In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.)

2013-01-01

429

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hypertension is one of several major risk factors for the future development of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related\\u000a morbidity. The additional major risk factors that precede myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, peripheral\\u000a arterial disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm include dyslipidemia (elevated LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and elevated\\u000a triglycerides), tobacco use, and diabetes mellitus (1). Age, gender (female gender is protective),

Samuel S. Gidding

430

Secondhand smoke exposure and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among nonsmokers,\\u000a which has been estimated to be 20% to 30%. SHS may also increase the risk of stroke; however, the link is equivocal compared\\u000a with that for CHD. In addition, data from clinical and animal studies support the biologic plausibility of the

Saverio Stranges; K. Michael Cummings; Francesco P. Cappuccio; Maurizio Trevisan

2007-01-01

431

Mortality Associated with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Older Women  

PubMed Central

Background Current guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) recommend diabetes as a CVD risk equivalent. However, reports that have examined the risk of diabetes in comparison to pre-existing CVD are lacking among older women. We aimed to assess whether diabetes was associated with a similar risk of total and cause-specific mortality as a history of CVD in older women. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 9218 women aged 68 years or older enrolled in a prospective cohort study (Study of Osteoporotic Fracture) during a mean follow-up period of 11.7 years and compared all-cause, cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality among 4 groups: non-diabetic women with and without existing CVD, diabetic women with and without existing CVD. Mean (SD) age of the participants was 75.2 (5.3) years, 3.5% reported diabetes and 6.8% reported existing CVD. During follow-up, 5117 women died with 36% from CVD. The multivariate adjusted risk of cardiovascular mortality was increased among both non-diabetic women with CVD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.32, 95% CI: 1.97–2.74, P<0.001) and diabetic women without CVD (HR 2.06, CI: 1.62–2.64, P<0.001) compared to non-diabetic women without existing CVD. All-cause, cardiovascular and coronary mortality of non-diabetic women with CVD were not significantly different from diabetic women without CVD. Conclusions/Significance Older diabetic women without CVD have a similar risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-diabetic women with pre-existing CVD. The equivalence of diabetes and CVD seems to extend to older women, supporting current guidelines for cardiovascular prevention.

Nanchen, David; Rodondi, Nicolas; Cornuz, Jacques; Hillier, Teresa; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Bauer, Douglas C.

2012-01-01

432

Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease--A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 ?g/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure.

Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

433

Caveolin and caveolae in age associated cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that the elderly (> 65 years of age) will increase from 13%?14% to 25% by 2035. If this trend continues, > 50% of the United States population and more than two billion people worldwide will be “aged” in the next 50 years. Aged individuals face formidable challenges to their health, as aging is associated with a myriad of diseases. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with > 50% of mortality attributed to coronary artery disease and > 80% of these deaths occurring in those age 65 and older. Therefore, age is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. The efficiency of youth is built upon cellular signaling scaffolds that provide tight and coordinated signaling. Lipid rafts are one such scaffold of which caveolae are a subset. In this review, we consider the importance of caveolae in common cardiovascular diseases of the aged and as potential therapeutic targets. We specifically address the role of caveolin in heart failure, myocardial ischemia, and pulmonary hypertension.

Fridolfsson, Heidi N.; Patel, Hemal H.

2013-01-01

434

Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.

Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastao; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

2013-01-01

435

Influence of socioeconomic status on cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to explore the relationships between five socioeconomic variables and three main cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart disease, hypertensive disease, and cerebrovascular disease) in Hong Kong. DESIGN--This cross sectional study used data from the 1986 by-census and registered death data for 1985 to 1987 in Hong Kong. For each of 24 districts, the correlation coefficients between log standardised mortality ratios for the three cardiovascular diseases and the percentages of professional and administrative workers, production and agricultural workers, persons aged 15 and over having tertiary education, households with higher income, and people living in private residential blocks were calculated. Besides simple linear regression and correlation, factor analysis was used to produce a new single surrogate measure summarising the five most useful variables in 24 sets of districts. SETTING--The whole Hong Kong area (population approximately 5.5 million) was divided into 24 districts, which were the study units. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--For ischaemic heart disease in men, the correlation coefficients of the log standardised mortality ratios with the five socioeconomic variables as well as with the factor score were all statistically significant. For women, statistical significance was obtained in only two of five socioeconomic variables. No such trends were obtained for the other two cardiovascular diseases for either men or women. CONCLUSIONS--The study suggests that in Hong Kong in recent years, a higher level of socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk of death from ischaemic heart disease; but this association is not present for hypertensive disease and cerebrovascular disease.

Wong, S L; Donnan, S P

1992-01-01