Sample records for cardiovascular disease epidemic

  1. Cardiovascular disease in Latin America: the growing epidemic.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Lanas; Pamela, Serón; Alejandra, Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) produce almost a million deaths a year in Latin America (LA), becoming the main cause of death in the last years, and it is estimated that the number of deaths in the region attributable to CVD will increase in the near future. This new epidemic is a consequence of the demographic, economic and social changes observed in LA in recent years. Coronary heart disease and stroke causes 42.5% and 28.8%, respectively of the CVD mortality in the region. Chagas heart involvement and rheumatic heart disease, once a major health problem, are responsible of only 1% of the mortality each. Improving in socioeconomic status, increased life expectancy and high prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis have been the major determinants of this marked epidemiologic change. PMID:25443823

  2. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

  3. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  4. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl J. Lavie; Richard V. Milani; Hector O. Ventura

    2009-01-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing, certain cancers, and major cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Because of its maladaptive effects on various CV risk factors and its adverse effects on CV structure and function, obesity has a

  5. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  6. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Johnson; Mark S Segal; Yuri Sautin; Takahiko Nakagawa; Daniel I Feig; Duk-Hee Kang; Michael S Gersch; Steven Benner; Laura G Sanchez-Lozada

    Currently, we are experiencing an epidemic of cardiorenal disease characterized by increasing rates of obesity, hypertension, the met- abolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and kidney disease. Whereas ex- cessive caloric intake and physical inactivity are likely important factors driving the obesity epidemic, it is important to consider additional mechanisms. We revisit an old hypothesis that sugar, particularly excessive fructose intake,

  7. Ebola virus disease epidemic.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A

    2014-11-01

    The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

  8. Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.

  9. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  10. The epidemic of cardio-vascular disease in renal failure: where does it come from, where do we go?

    PubMed

    Vanholder, R; Van Biesen, W; Verbeke, F; Lameire, N

    2006-01-01

    Cardio-vascular disease and death are among the most important medical and socio-economic challenges of the 21st century. Renal failure, a major medical problem per se, gives rise to an accelerated and strongly magnified model of atherogenesis and vascular damage. Already with a minor decrease in renal function, coronary and vascular risk are increased and play a role next to classical risk factors such as male gender, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia or smoking. The impact of renal failure on cardio-vascular risk remains present even after correction for these traditional risk factors. This suggests that factors specifically related to renal failure play a role. Atheromatosis is currently considered as an inflammatory disorder. Renal failure gives rise to enhanced inflammatory parameters. However, the atherogenic factors related to this inflammation remain largely unknown. Hence, the condition of renal failure may be helpful to answer this question. According to recent data from the USA, close to 5% of the general population (11% of those older than 65 without diabetes or hypertension) has a renal function which is decreased by at least 50%, but other analyses come up with even higher figures. Better identification of the factors at play in this population, optimized secondary preventive actions similar to those applied in diabetics, and timely screening and therapy will be helpful to improve quality of life and reduce socio-economic burden in this population. PMID:17240733

  11. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Heart diseases and stroke are ...

  12. The Importance of Diabetes Mellitus in the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: The Case of the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Mushlin, Alvin I.; Christos, Paul J.; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Deleu, Dirk; Gehani, Abdul Razak

    2012-01-01

    As a manifestation of the epidemiologic transition being experienced throughout the developing world, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing. However, whether an individual's risk of cardiovascular diseases as a consequence of DM is also higher in these countries is unknown. We conducted a case-control study at the medical center in the state of Qatar comparing the prevalence of DM in 512 patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) and 262 cases of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) to 382 hospital and outpatient controls to calculate the odds ratios (OR) associated with DM for MI and CVA. The OR for MI was estimated to be 4.01 compared to 2.92 for other countries in the Middle East and 1.75 for North America. The OR was even higher for Qatari natives. Understanding the reasons for this increase, including genetic differences, lifestyle, and medical management issues, is critical for the design and prioritization of effective interventions. PMID:23303985

  13. Cardiovascular Diseases (and Oral Health)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiovascular Diseases Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Heart Disease and Dental Treatment Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Angina High ...

  14. Obesity and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Poirier; Robert H. Eckel

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a major contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, and yet has only recently\\u000a been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease. Obesity is a chronic metabolic\\u000a disorder associated with cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations\\/alterations\\u000a in cardiac

  15. The relationships between cardiovascular disease and diabetes: focus on pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Jason C; Castellano, Jose M; Farkouh, Michael E; Fuster, Valentin

    2014-03-01

    There is a looming global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Of all the end-organ effects caused by diabetes, the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to the biologic perturbations caused by this disease, and many patients may die from diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the pathobiology of the diabetic vasculature and heart. Clinical studies have illuminated the optimal way to treat patients with cardiovascular manifestations of this disease. This article reviews these aspects of diabetes and the cardiovascular system, broadly classified into diabetic vascular disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the clinical management of the diabetic cardiovascular disease patient. PMID:24582091

  16. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  17. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caren E. Smith; José M. Ordovás

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and

  18. Nanomedicine and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. McCarthy

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine has become an important tool in the imaging and therapy of numerous diseases. This is due, in large part, to\\u000a the ability to generate multifunctional nanoagents bearing combinations of targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic moieties,\\u000a allowing for the tailoring of the properties of the synthesized nanomaterials. With respect to cardiovascular disease and\\u000a its sequelae, nanomedicine has the potential to detect

  19. Epidemic! The World of Infectious Disease - Exhibit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the museum's Epidemic! exhibit, provides an in-depth look at the world of infectious disease. It includes information on how environmental changes can affect the spread of disease, the three major groups of microbes and how disease is spread, and the factors that determine whether an outbreak will become an epidemic or a pandemic. There is a list, organized by topic and specific disease, of more than 250 Web sites and a glossary.

  20. Cardiovascular Disease and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Rupal; Bhatt, Nikita; Shah, Priyanki; Patell, Rushad

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to study the abnormalities in the cardiovascular profile in postmenopausal Indian women and to compare the same with the cardiovascular profile of pre menopausal Indian women belonging to the same age group; taken as controls. The goal was to throw some light on the cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women of the Indian population as this population is thought to be at higher risk than their western counterparts and significant studies of the same kind in this population have been few. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study on 100 women who were either postmenopausal or premenopausal and were between the age group of 40 to 55 years was carried out over a period of ten months at our hospital. The variations in the cardiovascular profile between both groups were studied. All the women were subjected to a detailed history, thorough examination, investigations and imaging studies. Results: The evaluation revealed that Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), hypertension, abnormal Body Mass Index (BMI) and abnormal Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group as compared to the premenopausal group. The post menopausal women had significantly higher prevalence of abnormal lipid profiles as compared to their premenopausal counterparts. The postmenopausal women with a normal lipid profile also had increased prevalence of CAD and SAHT, which emphasizes the non-lipid cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that cardiovascular disease was more common in postmenopausal women of age group 40-55 years as compared to those not yet achieved menopause in a population of western Indian women. And this risk was significantly associated with central obesity, an abnormal lipid profile and the postmenopausal state in itself. PMID:24701484

  1. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara “Bobbi” Leeper; Dl Mcgee

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes has been shown to be increasing at a rapid rate in the United States. There estimates of 23.6 million individuals with diabetes with 1.6 million new cases being diagnosed annually. [1] Diabetes has long been known as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Experts indicate 38% of patients admitted to the hospital are diabetic.[2] Therefore one

  2. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND PERIODONTAL TREATMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Sauvetre; C. V. Diji

    Safe and effective periodontal treatment requires knowledge and understanding of diseases specifically those affecting the cardiovascular system in order to institute necessary modifications to periodontal therapy accordingly. Considering the high incidence of periodontal diseases in elderly individuals, the periodontist must be prepared to provide periodontal therapeutic support for an increasing number of cardiovascular patients. In this review, common cardiovascular disorders

  3. Arsenic and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    States, J. Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase–derived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure. PMID:19015167

  4. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hao Wang; Chuhsing Kate Hsiao; Chi-Ling Chen; Lin-I Hsu; Hung-Yi Chiou; Shu-Yuan Chen; Yu-Mei Hsueh; Meei-Maan Wu; Chien-Jen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose–response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by

  5. Contagion: Historical Views of Disease and Epidemics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    With this rather remarkable collection, the dedicated staff members at Harvard University Library's Open Collections Program have brought together Philadelphia's yellow fever epidemic of 1793, London's Great Plague of 1665, and six other notable epidemics from world history. The collection provides general background information on diseases and epidemics worldwide, and as previously suggested, is organized around significant "episodes" of such diseases. Visitors to the collection will find historical pamphlets, serials, books, and manuscripts totaling over 500,000 pages. The "General Materials" area is worth a look as it provides access to brief overviews of important concepts such as germ theory, public health, vaccination, medical geography, and humoral theory. Overall, it's a tremendous set of offerings, and visitors with a penchant for the history of medicine, public health, or diseases will find that this site is well worth many visits. Also, visitors can share resources on the site via Google Bookmarks and Facebook.

  6. Forgotten cardiovascular diseases in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Sliwa; Ana Olga Mocumbi

    2010-01-01

    Much of the global burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by low and middle income countries. Unfortunately, many\\u000a of these regions are still grappling with poverty and infection-related cardiovascular diseases, such as endomyocardial fibrosis,\\u000a tuberculous pericarditis and rheumatic heart disease. In addition, Africa has its unique diseases that occur more commonly\\u000a in Africans as peripartum cardiomyopathy or, almost uniquely

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Ginter

    1998-01-01

    During the last 30 y the region of highest premature cardiovascular mortality has shifted from the US and Finland to Central and Eastern Europe. Present male cardiovascular mortality in Latvia, Estonia, the Russian Federation, and Hungary has overtaken the maximum cardiovascular mortality reached in the US in the 1960s. This epidemic is only partially explainable by the high prevalence of

  8. Ghrelin and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaigai; Yin, Xinhua; Qi, Yongfen; Pendyala, Lakshmana; Chen, Jack; Hou, Dongming; Tang, Chaoshu

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, is a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor and initially identified as a strong stimulant for the release of GH. Subsequent research has shown that ghrelin and its various receptors are ubiquitous in many other organs and tissues. Moreover, they participate in the regulation of appetite, energy, bodyweight, metabolism of glucose and fat, as well as modulation of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, immune functions and cell proliferation/apoptosis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that ghrelin has a close relationship with cardiovascular system. Ghrelin and its receptors are widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, and there is no doubt that the effects of ghrelin in the cardiovascular system are mediated not only via its growth-hormone-releasing effect but also by its direct effects on the heart. Exogenous administration of ghrelin can dilate peripheral blood vessels, constrict coronary artery, improve endothelial function, as well as inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis. So, ghrelin may have cardiovascular protective effect, including lowering of blood pressure, regulation of atherosclerosis, and protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury as well as improving the prognosis of myocardial infarction and heart failure. Some of these new functions of ghrelin may provide new potential therapeutic opportunities for ghrelin in cardiovascular medicine. In this paper, we will review the existing evidence for cardiovascular effects of ghrelin, including the cardiovascular function, the variations in ghrelin plasma levels in pathophysiologicalogical conditions, the possible protective mechanisms of ghrelin, as well as its future potential therapeutic roles. PMID:21286280

  9. Epidemic diseases at the New York Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, W. A.; Reader, G. G.

    1991-01-01

    The New York Hospital has enjoyed a long, rich history in the development of American health care. AIDS has made relevant an understanding of the failures and successes achieved during past epidemics. Innovations in disease prevention and patient care have been essential in the conquest of pestilence. However, public indifference toward the people at greatest risk for these diseases has traditionally delayed attempts to prevent significant loss of life and socioeconomic destruction. PMID:1933070

  10. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  11. Genetics of Human Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, Sekar; Srivastava, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease encompasses a range of conditions extending from myocardial infarction to congenital heart disease most of which are heritable. Enormous effort has been invested in understanding the genes and specific DNA sequence variants responsible for this heritability. Here, we review the lessons learned for monogenic and common, complex forms of cardiovascular disease. We also discuss key challenges that remain for gene discovery and for moving from genomic localization to mechanistic insights with an emphasis on the impact of next generation sequencing and the use of pluripotent human cells to understand the mechanism by which genetic variation contributes to disease. PMID:22424232

  12. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a model of infectious diseases where a `reservoir' of infection exists that infects a susceptible host population at a constant rate. The final chapter of the thesis describes a general framework of modeling infectious diseases in a network of populations using multitype branching processes.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease 

    E-print Network

    McAllister, David Anthony

    2011-07-05

    Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

  14. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

    2015-05-01

    An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25882781

  15. Lipids, Oxidation, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myron D. Gross

    Blood cholesterol and LDL levels are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and, in particular, coronary\\u000a heart disease. In recent years, the role of LDL in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary heart\\u000a disease, has been studied extensively. These studies have highlighted the complexity of atherosclerotic processes and identified\\u000a oxidative damage and inflammation as important components of

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Papazafiropoulou, A; Tentolouris, N

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular enzymes that are important in many physiologic and pathologic processes. Their activity is regulated mainly by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). MMPs expression is related with the classical cardiovascular risk factors as well as with inflammation. They play a central role in atherosclerosis, plaque formation, platelet aggregation, acute coronary syndrome, restenosis, aortic aneurysms and peripheral vascular disease. Many studies have shown that commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications, glitazones and statins may influence MMPs activity. The aim of the review is to present literature data on the role of MMPs and their inhibitors in cardiovascular disease. PMID:19561775

  17. Food, Poverty and Epidemic Disease, Edinburgh: 1840-1850 

    E-print Network

    MacGillivray, Neil

    2004-01-01

    epidemic disease is studied, concentrating on the fever epidemics of 184 1- 44, 1847-49 and the cholera outbreak of 1848-49 but reviewing also the lesser epidemics of measles, whooping cough and scarlet fever. The history of the identification of typhus...

  18. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  19. Cardiovascular calcification: an inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    New, Sophie E P; Aikawa, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in `early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. PMID:21566338

  20. [Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].

    PubMed

    Picciotto, D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

  1. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, K D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested. PMID:465378

  2. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leading to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease (CAD). When arteries narrow, the heart can't get ... the heart are involved. High blood pressure and CAD are common causes of heart failure. Arrhythmias are ...

  3. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccination Home Recommended Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination ... critical for people with health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, or other cardiovascular disease. If you have ...

  4. Protein Glutathionylation in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Anna; Piemonte, Fiorella

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of thiol-disulfide homeostasis is an important consequence of many diseases, with redox signals implicated in several physio-pathological processes. A prevalent form of cysteine modification is the reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides with glutathione (S-glutathionylation). The abundance of glutathione in cells and the ready conversion of sulfenic acids to S-glutathione mixed disulfides supports the reversible protein S-glutathionylation as a common feature of redox signal transduction, able to regulate the activities of several redox sensitive proteins. In particular, protein S-glutathionylation is emerging as a critical signaling mechanism in cardiovascular diseases, because it regulates numerous physiological processes involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, including myocyte contraction, oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, vasodilation, glycolytic metabolism and response to insulin. Thus, perturbations in protein glutathionylation status may contribute to the etiology of many cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. Various reports show the importance of oxidative cysteine modifications in modulating cardiovascular function. In this review, we illustrate tools and strategies to monitor protein S-glutathionylation and describe the proteins so far identified as glutathionylated in myocardial contraction, hypertrophy and inflammation. PMID:24141185

  5. Reproductive & Cardiovascular Disease Research Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dash, Phil.

    The Reproductive & Cardiovascular Disease Research Group is "based in the Department of Biochemistry and Immunology at St. George's, University of London." The Group's "research interests include a number of areas concerned with reproductive and cardiovascular diseases such as trophoblast biology, nitric oxide and apoptosis, with particular emphasis on the role of these subjects in diseases of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia." This website contains descriptions of protocols commonly utilized by the Research Group such as DNA laddering, Comet Assay, Immunoprecipitation, and Caspase Assay, to name a few. This site also contains informative sections concerning Nitric Oxide, Apoptosis, and Trophoblasts. The website includes a list of publications, and email addresses of group members as well.

  6. Prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.

    1992-01-01

    1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol), fibrates (eg bezafibrate and gemfibrozil) and more recently HMG CoA inhibitors (eg simvastatin). The HMG CoA inhibitors produce large falls in cholesterol and may become first line drugs in future. Because of the current controversy about the effect of lipid-lowering drugs on total mortality, many believe that they should be reserved for those at the highest risk, for example patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia or with pre-existing coronary heart disease and a high plasma cholesterol (> 7.8 mmol/L). 9. The special care group defined by the practice should be offered regular follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1345159

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suma Potiny; Sarah Clauss

    \\u000a The precise genetic mutations that directly cause or play some role in coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiomyopathies, cardiac\\u000a arrhythmias, and pulmonary artery hypertension have begun to be identified. The majority of the genetic mutations of hypertrophic\\u000a and dilated cardiomyopathies have also been described. Many of the genes responsible for cardiac arrhythmias, such as long\\u000a QT syndrome, have been identified as

  8. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare M. Hasler; Susan Kundrat; Deborah Wool

    2000-01-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic\\u000a nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic,\\u000a tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and

  9. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Recent findings Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. Summary The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing. PMID:24717670

  10. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrikopoulos, Georgios K; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios K; Gartaganis, Sotirios P

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is a well-recognized late-onset disease caused by a generalized fibrillopathy. It is linked to a broad spectrum of ocular complications including glaucoma and perioperative problems during cataract surgery. Apart from the long-known intraocular manifestations, PEX deposits have been found in a variety of extraocular locations and they appear to represent a systemic process associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, as published results are inconsistent, the clinical significance of the extraocular PEX deposits remains controversial. Identification of PEX deposits in the heart and the vessel wall, epidemiologic studies, as well as, similarities in pathogenetic mechanisms have led to the hypothesis of a possible relation between fibrillar material and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that PEX syndrome is frequently linked to impaired heart and blood vessels function. Systemic and ocular blood flow changes, altered parasympathetic vascular control and baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular resistance and decreased blood flow velocity, arterial endothelial dysfunction, high levels of plasma homocysteine and arterial hypertension have all been demonstrated in PEX subjects. Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process. PMID:25228963

  11. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zittermann, Armin

    2014-09-01

    It has long been known from case series that vitamin D excess can lead to atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in humans. In the 1980s, ecological studies provided data that deficient human vitamin D status may also increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assumption of a biphasic vitamin D effect on CVD is supported by experimental studies: Numerous studies have demonstrated positive effects of the vitamin D hormone (1,25-dihydroxyviramin D) on the cardiovascular system. However, the effects and mechanisms that lead to vascular calcification by vitamin D excess could also be confirmed. Large prospective observational studies support the hypothesis of a U-shaped association between vitamin D and CVD. These studies indicate that deficient circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (<30 nmol/l) are independently-associated with increased CVD morbidity and mortality. They also suggest that those circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, which have long been considered to be safe (100-150 nmol/l), are associated with an increased CVD risk. Meanwhile, numerous randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of vitamin D supplements or ultraviolet B radiation on biochemical cardiovascular risk markers, cardiovascular physiology, and cardiovascular outcomes. Overall, results are mixed with the majority of studies reporting neither beneficial nor adverse vitamin D effects. Several limitations in the study design, which may have prevented beneficial vitamin D effects, are discussed. In conclusion, it must be stated that the role of vitamin D in the prevention and management of CVD as well as the dose-response relationship of potentially harmful effects still remain to be established. PMID:25202039

  12. Epidemic!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Epidemic! uses three case studies to explore such disease-related environmental considerations as fate and transport, monitoring the environment, pollution prevention, regulations and policy, and risk assessment and decisionmaking. Scientific principles of ecology, evolution, and microbial resistance are also introduced. Instructors will find a wealth of teaching resources including an epidemiology role-play, Web-based activities, alignment of topics with science standards, and many links to additional information and resources on the Web. Designed as a resource for teachers, Epidemic! can also be used as a multidisciplinary learning resource for students in high school and college in the areas of biological sciences, environmental technology, allied health, social sciences, math, and English.

  13. Hypoglycemia, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wadwa, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in people with diabetes, and the risk of CVD for adults with diabetes is at least two to four times the risk in adults without diabetes. Complications of diabetes, including not only CVD but also microvascular diseases such as retinopathy and nephropathy, are a major health and financial burden. Diabetes is a disease of glucose intolerance, and so much of the research on complications has focused on the role of hyperglycemia. Clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the role of hyperglycemia in microvascular complications of diabetes, but there appears to be less evidence for as strong of a relationship between hyperglycemia and CVD in people with diabetes. Hypoglycemia has become a more pressing health concern as intensive glycemic control has become the standard of care in diabetes. Clinical trials of intensive glucose lowering in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes populations has resulted in significantly increased hypoglycemia, with no decrease in CVD during the trial period, although several studies have shown a reduction in CVD with extended follow-up. There is evidence that hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, and this is one potential explanation for the lack of CVD prevention in trials of intensive glycemic control. Hypoglycemia causes a cascade of physiologic effects and may induce oxidative stress and cardiac arrhythmias, contribute to sudden cardiac death, and cause ischemic cerebral damage, presenting several potential mechanisms through which acute and chronic episodes of hypoglycemia may increase CVD risk. In this review, we examine the risk factors and prevalence of hypoglycemia in diabetes, review the evidence for an association of both acute and chronic hypoglycemia with CVD in adults with diabetes, and discuss potential mechanisms through which hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk. PMID:22650225

  14. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy, although the majority of studies have been largely confined to non-cardiac cells. Despite the unique arrangement of mitochondria in the adult heart, emerging data suggest that changes in mitochondrial morphology may be relevant to various aspects of cardiovascular biology—these include cardiac development, the response to ischaemia–reperfusion injury, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and apoptosis. Interestingly, the machinery required for altering mitochondrial shape in terms of the mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins are all present in the adult heart, but their physiological function remains unclear. In this article, we review the current developments in this exciting new field of mitochondrial biology, the implications for cardiovascular physiology, and the potential for discovering novel therapeutic strategies for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:20631158

  15. Web Sites Related to Cardiovascular Disease Web Sites Related to Cardiovascular Disease

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Web Sites Related to Cardiovascular Disease Web Sites Related to Cardiovascular Disease AmericanFiles/Adobe/Adobe%20Dreamweaver%...20Sites%20Related%20to%20Cardiovascular%20Disease.htm [10/6/2010 10://www.escardio.org/ Guide to Heart Disease (Mining Co) http://heartdisease.miningco.com/ Heart Failure Online http

  16. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  17. Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels – or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux – contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future. PMID:21723289

  18. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Luca; House, Andrew; Gorini, Antonio; Santoboni, Alberto; Russo, Domenico; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death represent main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pathogenesis includes close linkage between heart and kidneys and involves traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. According to a well-established classification of cardiorenal syndrome, cardiovascular involvement in CKD is known as "type-4 cardiorenal syndrome" (chronic renocardiac). The following review makes an overview about epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:25344016

  19. Systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Robb MacLellan; Yibin Wang; Aldons J. Lusis

    2012-01-01

    Common cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure, are exceptionally complex, involving a multitude of environmental and genetic factors that often show nonlinear interactions as well as being highly dependent on sex, age, and even the maternal environment. Although focused, reductionistic approaches have led to progress in elucidating the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such approaches are poorly powered

  20. Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christy; Rasmussen, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and intervention trials will be reviewed. Further identification of polyphenols in foods and accurate assessment of exposures through measurement of biomarkers (i.e., polyphenol metabolites) could provide the needed impetus to examine the impact of polyphenol-rich foods on CVD intermediate outcomes (especially those signifying chronic inflammation) and hard endpoints among high risk patients. Although we have mechanistic insight into how polyphenols may function in CVD risk reduction, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for consumption can be made. PMID:23512608

  1. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-06-26

    Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon ?-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase?I?in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in humans primarily by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Highly toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is formed solely in the presence of superoxide anion (O2 (-)). Neopterin and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), as an estimate of IDO enzyme activity, are robust markers of immune activation in vitro and in vivo. Both these diagnostic parameters are able to predict cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients at risk. Likewise, a significant association exists between increase of neopterin concentrations and Kyn/Trp ratio values and the lowering of plasma levels of vitamin-C, -E and -B. Vitamin-B deficiency is usually accompanied by increased plasma homoycsteine. Additional determination of NO metabolites, BH4 and plasma antioxidants in patients with CVD and related clinical settings can be helpful to improve the understanding of redox-regulation in health and disease and might provide a rationale for potential antioxidant therapies in CVD. PMID:24976919

  2. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon ?-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase?I?in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in humans primarily by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Highly toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is formed solely in the presence of superoxide anion (O2-). Neopterin and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), as an estimate of IDO enzyme activity, are robust markers of immune activation in vitro and in vivo. Both these diagnostic parameters are able to predict cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients at risk. Likewise, a significant association exists between increase of neopterin concentrations and Kyn/Trp ratio values and the lowering of plasma levels of vitamin-C, -E and -B. Vitamin-B deficiency is usually accompanied by increased plasma homoycsteine. Additional determination of NO metabolites, BH4 and plasma antioxidants in patients with CVD and related clinical settings can be helpful to improve the understanding of redox-regulation in health and disease and might provide a rationale for potential antioxidant therapies in CVD. PMID:24976919

  3. Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cannarile, Francesca; Valentini, Valentina; Mirabelli, Giulia; Alunno, Alessia; Terenzi, Riccardo; Luccioli, Filippo; Bartoloni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) system involvement is a frequent complication of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It still remains unclear if a premature atherosclerosis (ATS) occurs even in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, in the last few years a number of studies highlighted a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease in SSc patients in comparison to healthy individuals and these data have been correlated with a poorer prognosis. The mechanisms promoting ATS in SSc are not fully understood, but it is believed to be secondary to multi-system organ inflammation, endothelial wall damage and vasculopathy. Both traditional risk factors and endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to participate to the onset and progression of ATS in such patients. In particular, endothelial cell injury induced by anti-endothelial antibodies, ischemia/reperfusion damage, immune-mediated cytotoxicity represent the main causes of vascular injury together with an impaired vascular repair mechanism that determine a defective vasculogenesis. Aim of this review is to analyse both causes and clinical manifestations of macrovascular involvement and ATS in SSc. PMID:25705640

  4. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  5. Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cannarile, Francesca; Valentini, Valentina; Mirabelli, Giulia; Alunno, Alessia; Terenzi, Riccardo; Luccioli, Filippo; Gerli, Roberto; Bartoloni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) system involvement is a frequent complication of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It still remains unclear if a premature atherosclerosis (ATS) occurs even in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, in the last few years a number of studies highlighted a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease in SSc patients in comparison to healthy individuals and these data have been correlated with a poorer prognosis. The mechanisms promoting ATS in SSc are not fully understood, but it is believed to be secondary to multi-system organ inflammation, endothelial wall damage and vasculopathy. Both traditional risk factors and endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to participate to the onset and progression of ATS in such patients. In particular, endothelial cell injury induced by anti-endothelial antibodies, ischemia/reperfusion damage, immune-mediated cytotoxicity represent the main causes of vascular injury together with an impaired vascular repair mechanism that determine a defective vasculogenesis. Aim of this review is to analyse both causes and clinical manifestations of macrovascular involvement and ATS in SSc. PMID:25705640

  6. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  7. Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression Michael Z. Levy1 *, Dylan S, United States of America Abstract Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Schneider; Ulrich Bothner; Susan S. Jick; Christoph R. Meier

    2010-01-01

    Previous large epidemiological studies reporting on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases mainly focussed on prevalent diseases rather than on the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular\\u000a outcomes. We used the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to assess the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases in COPD patients aged 40–79 between 1995 and 2005, and

  9. Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071915

  10. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.; Hsiao, C.K.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Wu, M.-M. [Department of Cardiology, Cardinal Tien Hospital and College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Department of Cardiology, Cardinal Tien Hospital and College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cjchen@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey L. Kibler

    2009-01-01

    A growing literature indicates that posttraumatic stress is associated with cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Research on specific CVD risk factors and their prevalence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may improve understanding of CVD development in this population. The primary purpose of the present article is to outline the evidence relating posttraumatic stress to CVD risk, with an emphasis

  12. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Botnar, R M; Ebersberger, H; Noerenberg, D; Jansen, C H P; Wiethoff, A J; Schuster, A; Kasner, M; Walter, T C; Knobloch, G; Hoppe, P; Diederichs, G; Hamm, B; Makowski, M R

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced. PMID:25585260

  13. Impact of Mendelian Inheritance in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Kim L.; Garg, Vidu

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. While the etiology for the majority of cardiovascular disease is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors, developments in our understanding of the basic biology of cardiac disorders have been greatly advanced through discoveries made studying heart diseases that exhibit Mendelian forms of inheritance. Most of these diseases primarily affect children and young adults and include cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, aortic aneurysms and congenital heart defects. The discovery of the genetic etiologies for these diseases have had significant impact on our understanding of more complex forms of cardiovascular disease and in some cases led to novel diagnostic and treatment modalities. In this review, we will summarize these seminal genetic discoveries, highlighting a few that have resulted in significant impact on human disease, and discuss the potential utility of studying Mendelian-inherited heart disease with the development of new genetic technologies and our increased understanding of the human genome. PMID:20958326

  14. Bayesian Analysis of Epidemics -Zombies, Influenza, and other Diseases

    E-print Network

    Blais, Brian

    Bayesian Analysis of Epidemics - Zombies, Influenza, and other Diseases Caitlyn Witkowski1, , Brian) on the application of disease dynamics to the so-called "zombie apocalypse", and then apply the identical methods to influenza dynamics. Unlike Munz et.al (2009), we include data taken from specific depictions of zombies

  15. INTRODUCTION CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE remains the leading cause

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jian

    . The newly formed HAEC mono- layer stained positive for von Willebrand factor whereas collagen- and calponinINTRODUCTION CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE remains the leading cause of mortality in the United States

  16. Treating lipids in cardiovascular disease: new directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Wiklund

    2001-01-01

    Aims To review the importance of lipid parameters beside low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and their potential as therapeutic targets for lipid-lowering agents. Methods and Results Large numbers of studies have shown that, as well as high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and a high LDL\\/HDL ratio are important cardiovascular disease

  17. Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Taylor C.

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of abundant and widely consumed flavonoid constituents that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors present in many fruit- and vegetable-based food products. Their intake has been estimated to be up to 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins have become increasingly important to the food industry as their use as natural alternatives to artificial colors has become widespread and knowledge of their health-promoting properties has become more evident. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of mortality among men and women. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals, exhibiting synergistic biological effects but making contributions from individual components difficult to decipher. Over the past 2 decades, many peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated that in addition to their noted in vitro antioxidant activity, anthocyanins may regulate different signaling pathways involved in the development of CVD. This review summarizes the latest developments on the bioavailability/bioactivity and CVD preventative activities of anthocyanins, including results from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model systems as related to their multiple proposed mechanisms of action. Limited yet promising data from epidemiological studies and human clinical trials are also presented. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and characterizing their metabolic and/or breakdown products are necessary to ultimately evaluate their use for protection/prevention against the development of CVD. PMID:22211184

  18. Update on Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay M. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death in adults in the United States and based on recent data from the World Health Organization (WHO), it will soon be a major cause of death even in so-called developing societies. CVD is very complex and includes coronary heart disease (CHD), systemic and pulmonary hypertension, stroke, valvular heart disease, congenital heart

  19. Cognitive behaviour therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D W

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the main empirically evaluated from of psychological therapy. When applied to cardiovascular disease it can be directed at preventing the occurrence or recurrence of disease or at altering the psychological consequences of disease. Prevention can be achieved through the modification of behavioural risk factors (e.g. smoking, diet) or by attempting to directly modify the psychological processes involved in atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Successful applications of CBT in cardiovascular disease are described, some the remaining problems indicated and new directions for research pointed out. PMID:11151801

  20. The 2010 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Muroga, Norihiko; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kurogi, Akihiro; Tsuda, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2012-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred recently for the first time in a decade in Japan. The index case was detected on a beef-breeding farm in Miyazaki Prefecture, Southern Japan, on April 20, 2010. After confirmation of this first case, control measures such as stamping out, movement restriction and disinfection were implemented. However, these strategies proved insufficient to prevent the spread of FMD and emergency vaccination was adopted. Up until the last outbreak on July 4, 2010, a total of 292 outbreaks had been confirmed, with about 290,000 animals having been culled. The epidemic occurred in an area with a high density of cattle and pigs, making disease control difficult. Invasion of the disease into a high-density area aided its rapid spread and led to difficulties in locating suitable burial sites. Epidemiological investigations indicated that the disease was introduced into Japan approximately one month before detection. This delay in initial detection is considered to have allowed an increased number of outbreaks in the early stage of the epidemic. Nevertheless, the epidemic was contained within a localized area in Miyazaki Prefecture and was eradicated within three months because of intensive control efforts including emergency vaccination. Although this epidemic devastated the livestock industry in Japan, many lessons can be learnt for the future prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. PMID:22075710

  1. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  2. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in women.

    PubMed

    Bavry, Anthony A; Limacher, Marian C

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women. In fact, the cardiovascular disease mortality rate among women exceeds the rate in men. Unfortunately, many minority women are still unaware of the importance of this disease. All women, including those with no history of cardiovascular disease, should have an accurate estimate of the probability of a cardiovascular disease event (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) usually within the next decade. Such an estimate will help determine if women are candidates for preventive measures and specific therapies such as aspirin. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to construct a risk score, which is now widely used; however, other risk scores are available. To prevent cardiovascular disease, women should refrain from smoking, maintain a healthy weight, eat a heart-healthy diet, be physically active, and have normal blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Aspirin can be considered for primary prevention, with expected benefit to prevent ischemic stroke; however, this needs to be balanced against potential bleeding risk. Hormone therapy is no longer recommended due to an increase in adverse events (most consistently seen as increased ischemic stroke risk). Folic acid is also no longer recommended due to lack of benefit. PMID:25321422

  3. The association of periodontal disease, diabetes and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Gadsby

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a link between periodontal disease and several systemic diseases is growing rapidly. Current evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with an increased likelihood of coronary heart disease and diabetesScope: A consensus group reviewed published data on the contributory role of periodontal disease to overall health. Particular consideration was given to a role for periodontal disease in cardiovascular

  4. The Intersection Between Aging and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    North, Brian J.; Sinclair, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although numerous studies in the cardiovascular field have considered both young and aged humans, there are still many unanswered questions as to how the genetic pathways that regulate aging in model organisms influence cardiovascular aging. Likewise, in the molecular biology of aging field, few studies fully assess the role of these aging pathways in cardiovascular health. Fortunately, this gap is beginning to close, and these two fields are merging together. We provide an overview of some of the key genes involved in regulating lifespan and health span, including sirtuins, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 and their roles regulating cardiovascular health. We then discuss a series of review articles that will appear in succession and provide a more comprehensive analysis of studies carried out linking genes of aging and cardiovascular health, and perspectives of future directions of these two intimately linked fields. PMID:22499900

  5. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death among U.S. women and men. Established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated total cholesterol, and risk prediction models based on such factors, perform well but do not perfectly predict future risk of CVD. Thus, there has been much recent interest among cardiovascular researchers in identifying novel biomarkers to aid in risk prediction. Such markers include alternative lipids, B-type natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, coronary artery calcium, and genetic markers. This article reviews the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, risk prediction tools, and selected novel biomarkers and other exposures in predicting risk of developing CVD in women. The predictive role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers for women in primary prevention settings requires additional study, as does the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiac troponins for acute coronary syndromes in clinical settings. Sex differences in the clinical expression and physiology of metabolic syndrome may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes. Consideration of exposures that are unique to, or more prevalent in, women may also help to refine cardiovascular risk estimates in this group. PMID:25487190

  6. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  7. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio

    2003-01-01

    Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

  8. Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended analysis tools for network epidemiology, which has, to date, mostly viewed networks as static entities. We review recent results of network epidemiology for such temporal network data and discuss future developments. PMID:23513178

  9. Inflammation and thrombosis in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagareddy, Prabhakara; Smyth, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review This article will summarize recent observations that provide mechanistic insight into the molecular and cellular links between inflammation and thrombosis in the context of cardiovascular and other thromboinflammatory disease states. Recent findings Several disease conditions are characterized by a thromboinflammatory state in which interactions of blood cells and components with the vascular wall perpetuate both thrombotic and inflammatory pathways. Targeting these pathways may be of benefit in inflammatory conditions and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Summary Ongoing clinical trials should provide additional insight into the hypothesis that the thromboinflammatory state contributes to adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:23892572

  10. Emergence of the concept of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garabed Eknoyan

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the concept of cardiovascular disease is a recent and evolving concept. Well into the eighteenth century, cardiac and vascular diseases were little known and considered a rarity. Description of the circulation by William Harvey (1578–1657) in 1628 marks the beginning of the changes that ensued. However, knowledge was slow to accrue and not until the nineteenth century was the

  11. Pomegranate Protection against Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aviram, Michael; Rosenblat, Mira

    2012-01-01

    The current paper summarizes the antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate polyphenols on serum lipoproteins and on arterial macrophages (two major components of the atherosclerotic lesion), using both in vitro and in vivo humans and mice models. Pomegranate juice and its by-products substantially reduced macrophage cholesterol and oxidized lipids accumulation, and foam cell formation (the hallmark of early atherogenesis), leading to attenuation of atherosclerosis development, and its consequent cardiovascular events. PMID:23243442

  12. Pomegranate Protection against Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Aviram, Michael; Rosenblat, Mira

    2012-01-01

    The current paper summarizes the antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate polyphenols on serum lipoproteins and on arterial macrophages (two major components of the atherosclerotic lesion), using both in vitro and in vivo humans and mice models. Pomegranate juice and its by-products substantially reduced macrophage cholesterol and oxidized lipids accumulation, and foam cell formation (the hallmark of early atherogenesis), leading to attenuation of atherosclerosis development, and its consequent cardiovascular events. PMID:23243442

  13. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    França, Carolina Nunes; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; do Amaral, Jônatas Bussador; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:25626759

  14. Protective Effects of Food on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Giovane; Claudio Napoli

    \\u000a Experimental and epidemiological evidence have been accumulated in the last decades demonstrating a stringent correlation\\u000a between nutrition lifestyle and chronic-inflammatory diseases like cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. It is now agreed\\u000a that the incidence of these diseases can be reduced by diet. The French paradox [1], or the Mediterranean diet [2], has provided\\u000a a scientific explanation, namely that the antioxidants

  15. Endothelin ETA receptor antagonism in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Suzanne A; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

    2014-08-15

    Since the discovery of the endothelin system in 1988, it has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological phenomena. In the cardiovascular system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) acts through intracellular pathways of two endothelin receptors (ETA and ETB) located mainly on smooth muscle and endothelial cells to regulate vascular tone and provoke mitogenic and proinflammatory reactions. The endothelin ETA receptor is believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disease including systemic hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), dilated cardiomyopathy, and diabetic microvascular dysfunction. Growing evidence from recent experimental and clinical studies indicates that the blockade of endothelin receptors, particularly the ETA subtype, grasps promise in the treatment of major cardiovascular pathologies. The simultaneous blockade of endothelin ETB receptors might not be advantageous, leading possibly to vasoconstriction and salt and water retentions. This review summarizes the role of ET-1 in cardiovascular modulation and the therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism. PMID:24952955

  16. Exosome and its roles in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wang; Zheng, Xi-Long; Zhao, Shui-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by cells, which are capable of carrying signaling molecules in the forms of protein, mRNA and miRNA to serve as the platforms for complex intercellular communications. During the past few years, increasing efforts have been devoted to exosome research, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of identifying the molecular composition, elucidating the mechanisms and regulations of biogenesis and characterizing the functions in a variety of physiological and pathological settings including cardiovascular diseases, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern society. This review provides an update on exosome research and summarizes the roles of exosomes in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25549884

  17. Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Disease: epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Ahlehoff, Ole

    2011-11-01

    Atherosclerosis and PS are prevalent chronic immunoinflammatory diseases with pathophysiological, clinical and epidemiological similarities. Results suggest that PS may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Participation of similar immunoinflammatory and prothrombotic mechanisms in PS and cardiovascular disease is supported by evidence that treatment with methotrexate in patients with PS is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, PS is associated with surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and coronary calcification, and with markers of increased platelet activity. However, results of epidemiological studies of the risk of cardiovascular disease in PS have been conflicting, and surveillance bias has been proposed to contribute to the observed association. Although similar considerations of shared immunoinflammatory pathways with PS can be applied to AF and VTE very little is known about the interaction between PS and these common diseases. With the underlying hypothesis that PS had detrimental effects on all prespecified adverse cardiovascular endpoints the objective of the current thesis was to examine in these patients: 1) the risk of atherothrombotic events and compare it with the risk in patients with DM; 2) the risk of AF and ischaemic stroke; 3) the risk of VTE; and 4) the prognosis after first-time MI. By use of the unique Danish nationwide registries approximately 40,000 patients with PS, including approximately 3000 patients with severe PS were identified in the study period 1997-2006. Paper I provided a comparison of cardiovascular risk between patients with PS, approximately 127,000 patients with DM, and the general population, respectively. Patients with PS were at increased risk of all endpoints including, MI, stroke, invasive coronary revascularization, cardiovascular death, and a composite cardiovascular endpoint (MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death). For the composite endpoint the rate ratios (RRs) were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.25), 1.58 (CI 1.36-1.85), and 1.59 (CI1.56-1.63) for mild PS, severe PS, and DM, respectively. Paper II documented an up to 2.5 fold increase in risk of AF and ischaemic stroke in patients with PS, with the highest risk estimates for young patients with severe disease. The main results of paper III were that patients with PS had an increased risk of VTE with RR 1.35 (CI 1.21-1.49) and RR 2.06 (CI 1.63-2.61) for mild and severe PS, respectively. Paper IV on post-MI prognosis included 615 patients with PS and a recent MI. The results documented that after first-time MI, these patients had an increased risk of a composite of recurrent MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death with hazard ratio 1.26 (CI 1.12-1.41) as compared to patients without PS. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated that all patients with PS were at increased risk of atherothrombotic events and that the risk with severe PS was comparable to that of patients with DM. Furthermore, the thesis provided novel evidence of PS as a possible risk factor for AF and VTE. Finally, we demonstrated an association between PS and adverse prognosis following first-time MI. The results add importantly to evidence indicating that PS is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and should form the background for studies of interventions aimed at improved primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with PS. PMID:22047936

  18. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently been investigated. In this article, we review the emerging role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease. Recent Advances: Changes in mitochondrial dynamics have been implicated in vascular smooth cell proliferation, cardiac development and differentiation, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, and heart failure. Critical Issues: Many of the experimental studies investigating mitochondrial dynamics in the cardiovascular system have been confined to cardiac cell lines, vascular cells, or neonatal cardiomyocytes, in which mitochondria are distributed throughout the cytoplasm and are free to move. However, in the adult heart where mitochondrial movements are restricted by their tightly-packed distribution along myofibrils or beneath the subsarcolemma, the relevance of mitochondrial dynamics is less obvious. The investigation of transgenic mice deficient in cardiac mitochondrial fission or fusion proteins should help elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the adult heart. Future Directions: Investigating the role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease should result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for treating patients with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability globally. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 400—414. PMID:22793879

  19. The global burden of cardiovascular diseases: a challenge to improve.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Shanthi; Chestnov, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    There are many challenges that need to be overcome to address the global cardiovascular disease epidemic. They include (1) lack of multisectoral action to support reduction of behavioral risk factors and their determinants, (2) weak public health and health care system capacity for forging an accelerated national response, and (3) inefficient use of limited resources. To make progress, countries need to develop and implement multisectoral national action plans guided by the global action plan for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, strengthen surveillance and monitoring systems, and set national targets consistent with global voluntary targets, which are to be attained by 2025. In addition, a set of cost-effective preventive and curative interventions need to be prioritized. Further, resources need to be generated and capacity developed to ensure sustainable country-wide implementation of the prioritized interventions. According to WHO estimates, the implementation of a core set of very cost-effective interventions for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease requires about 4 % of current health spending in lower income countries, 2 % in lower middle income countries, and less than 1 % in upper middle income and high income countries. PMID:24718672

  20. Primary care research and clinical practice: cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Mavaddat; J Mant

    2010-01-01

    Improvement in survival of patients with cardiovascular diseases and an ageing population mean that management of cardiovascular conditions remains an important challenge for primary care. Traditionally cardiovascular research has been based largely in secondary or tertiary care settings. The majority of care for people with cardiovascular diseases, however, takes place in the community and within primary care. In recent years,

  1. Proteinuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Gemma; Delles, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated morbidity pose a worldwide health problem. As well as risk of endstage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death among the CKD population. Proteinuria is a marker of renal injury that can often be detected earlier than any tangible decline in glomerular filtration rate. As well as being a risk marker for decline in renal function, proteinuria is now widely accepted as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review will address the prognostic implications of proteinuria in the general population as well as other specific disease states including diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. A variety of pathophysiological mechanisms that may underlie the relationship between renal and cardiovascular disease have been proposed, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. As proteinuria has evolved into a therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction in the clinical setting we will also review therapeutic strategies that should be considered for patients with persistent proteinuria. PMID:24379690

  2. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

    2013-01-01

    Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukins-1, -6, and -17, C-reactive protein, coagulation molecules, cellular adhesion molecules, and visfatin. Finally, a discussion of the limitations of current studies and future directions is provided. PMID:23901303

  3. MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Koh; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Han, Jiahuai

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have gained status as important regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the cardiovascular system under some pathological conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function studies using in vitro and in vivo models have revealed distinct roles for specific miRNAs in cardiovascular development and physiological function. The implications of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease have recently been recognized, representing the most rapidly evolving research field. In the present article, the currently relevant findings on the role of miRNAs in cardiac diseases will be updated and the target genes of these miRNAs are summarized. PMID:21395978

  4. Advanced Tracers in PET Imaging of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Hua; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the noninvasive detection and characterization of biological changes at the molecular level, leading to earlier disease detection, objective monitoring of therapies, and better prognostication of cardiovascular diseases progression. Here we review, the current role of PET in cardiovascular disease, with emphasize on tracers developed for PET imaging of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25389529

  5. Visceral Obesity- The Link Among Inflammation, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patrick Mathieu (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Surgery)

    2009-02-23

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity, fostered by the modern lifestyle characterized by the lack of physical activity and an energy-dense diet, has contributed to create an unprecedented condition in human history where a majority of overfed individuals will soon surpass the number of malnourished.1 Obesity-associated disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, an atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, have undoubtedly contributed to create an atherosclerosis-prone environment and thereby the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality in Westernized societies. A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution is closely associated with metabolic perturbations and, thus, with CVD risk.2 In this regard, accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is strongly associated with insulin resistance and with a typical atherogenic dyslipidemic state.3

  6. Cardiovascular disease prevention: talking occurs at all levels--does understanding?

    PubMed

    Pipe, A

    1995-01-01

    The magnitude of the health problems posed by cardiovascular disease is well known and represents a major public health challenge. Traditionally programmes of prevention have had a 'lifestyle' orientation, focusing on individual behaviours. Ironically, it may well be that profound societal changes, notably the agricultural and industrial revolutions, have largely been responsible in the most fundamental sense for the modern epidemic of cardiovascular disease. Thus attempts to deal with individually expressed behaviours alone may not be the most effective way to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease in our society. Ultimately, it will be the creation of social environments in which healthy behaviours are the norm that will have the most profound effect on the community's cardiovascular health. Misunderstandings abound. Politicians, while speaking favourably about the importance of prevention, do not match their rhetoric with resources. Many health professionals mistake 'risk-factor identification' with 'prevention'. Private industry has often confused or distorted public understanding in the process of marketing products deemed to have cardiovascular benefits. The public's awareness of many of the basic epidemiological realities concerning the prevention of cardiovascular disease is often sadly lacking. In spite of the misunderstandings, preventive approaches have played a significant role in the reduction of cardiovascular disease, a role that should become more prominent in the future. PMID:7850671

  7. Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc F. Van Gaal; Ilse L. Mertens; Christophe E. De Block

    2006-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also insulin resistance — the core feature of type 2 diabetes — as well as alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We are now

  8. Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 18,2014 AHA Recommendation The American Heart Association has not yet called hyperhomocysteinemia ( ... We don't recommend widespread use of folic acid and B vitamin supplements to reduce the risk ...

  9. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 9-1-1 immediately. Learn you risk of heart attack today! “Diabetes won’t threaten my heart as long as ... Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High ...

  10. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Cholesterol Lowering, Cardiovascular Diseases,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Cholesterol Lowering, Cardiovascular Diseases, and the Rosuvastatin. To understand the rosuvastatin- JUPITER controversy, we critically review several significant issues of that study. The JUPITER trial tested the effects of rosuvastatin therapy (20 mg/d) in pa- tients without

  11. Polyphenols and prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudine Manach; Andrzej Mazur; Augustin Scalbert

    2005-01-01

    Summary Future intervention studies should include a detailed assessment of the bioavailability of polyphenols. Beyond clinical trials carried out with polyphenol-rich foods, more studies with pure polyphenols will also be needed to establish their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Update: ebola virus disease epidemic - west Africa, january 2015.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to end the ongoing epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and the World Health Organization. PMID:25654613

  13. Update: ebola virus disease epidemic - west Africa, february 2015.

    PubMed

    2015-02-27

    CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to end the ongoing epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and the World Health Organization. PMID:25719681

  14. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Anna C.; Thomas, Merlin C.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPAR? agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPAR? agonists, and more recently dual PPAR?/? coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPAR? receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:18288280

  15. Astaxanthin in cardiovascular health and disease.

    PubMed

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and ?-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail is one such agent. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Limited, short duration and small sample size studies have assessed the effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers and have investigated bioavailability and safety. So far no significant adverse events have been observed and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation are attenuated with astaxanthin supplementation. Experimental investigations in a range of species using a cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion model demonstrated cardiac muscle preservation when astaxanthin is administered either orally or intravenously prior to the induction of ischaemia. Human clinical cardiovascular studies using astaxanthin therapy have not yet been reported. On the basis of the promising results of experimental cardiovascular studies and the physicochemical and antioxidant properties and safety profile of astaxanthin, clinical trials should be undertaken. PMID:22349894

  16. Traditional Chinese medication for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hao, Pan-Pan; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Yu-Guo; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Yun

    2015-02-01

    Traditional Chinese medication (TCM) is increasingly used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China and some other Asian countries. However, therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of TCM are difficult to evaluate because few large-scale, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling patients with CVD have been performed. In this Review, we critically examine the current evidence on the cardiovascular effects of TCM. We reviewed 68 RCTs that included a total of 16,171 patients. The methodological quality of the trials was generally low. Only three reports described adverse cardiovascular events specifically, although in most studies TCM was associated with significant improvements in surrogate end points for hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure. The risk of adverse effects was not increased compared with no intervention, placebo, or Western medications. However, whether TCM is effective in reducing the all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in patients with CVD remains unknown and must be tested in large-scale RCTs with adverse cardiovascular events as primary end points. PMID:25384847

  17. Fluctuations in epidemic modeling - disease extinction and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ira

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of infectious disease fluctuations has recently seen an increasing rise in the use of new tools and models from stochastic dynamics and statistical physics. Examples arise in modeling fluctuations of multi-strain diseases, in modeling adaptive social behavior and its impact on disease fluctuations, and in the analysis of disease extinction in finite population models. Proper stochastic model reduction [1] allows one to predict unobserved fluctuations from observed data in multi-strain models [2]. Degree alteration and power law behavior is predicted in adaptive network epidemic models [3,4]. And extinction rates derived from large fluctuation theory exhibit scaling with respect to distance to the bifurcation point of disease onset with an unusual exponent [5]. In addition to outbreak prediction, another main goal of epidemic modeling is one of eliminating the disease to extinction through various control mechanisms, such as vaccine implementation or quarantine. In this talk, a description will be presented of the fluctuational behavior of several epidemic models and their extinction rates. A general framework and analysis of the effect of non-Gaussian control actuations which enhance the rate to disease extinction will be described. In particular, in it is shown that even in the presence of a small Poisson distributed vaccination program, there is an exponentially enhanced rate to disease extinction. These ideas may lead to improved methods of controlling disease where random vaccinations are prevalent. [4pt] Recent papers:[0pt] [1] E. Forgoston and I. B. Schwartz, ``Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales,'' arXiv:0809.1345 2008.[0pt] [2] L. B. Shaw, L. Billings, I. B. Schwartz, ``Using dimension reduction to improve outbreak predictability of multi-strain diseases,'' J. Math. Bio. 55, 1 2007.[0pt] [3] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Fluctuating epidemics on adaptive networks,'' Physical Review E 77, 066101 2008.[0pt] [4] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Noise induced dynamics in adaptivenetworks with applications to epidemiology,'' arXiv:0807.3455 2008.[0pt] [5] M. I. Dykman, I. B. Schwartz, A. S. Landsman, ``Disease Extinction in the Presence of Random Vaccination,'' Phys. Rev. Letts. 101, 078101 2008.

  18. Noninvasive imaging of apoptosis in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan Chauncey Korngold; Farouc Amin Jaffer; Ralph Weissleder; David Edwin Sosnovik

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular imaging have permitted the noninvasive imaging of apoptosis, a critical process underlying the\\u000a pathogenesis of many diseases of the cardiovascular system including atherosclerotic vascular disease, myocardial ischemia\\u000a and reperfusion injury, chronic heart failure, myocarditis, and cardiac allograft rejection. Multiple molecular targets including\\u000a phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and caspases have been targeted by a variety of imaging agents

  19. Spread of epidemic disease on networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. J. Newman

    2002-01-01

    The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on\\u000anetworks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community.\\u000aIn this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models,\\u000athe so-called susceptible\\/infective\\/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly\\u000aon a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case\\u000aof

  20. Immunologic aspects of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ledford, D K

    1992-11-25

    The spectrum of vasculitis is diverse, and numerous entities do not fit the aforementioned broad categories. Examples of these include Buerger's disease; vaso-occlusive vasculitis of the lower extremities associated with cigarette smoking; Behçet's disease, which is prevalent in the Orient and Middle East and is characterized by recurrent aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations, uveitis, meningoencephalitis, and phlebitis; and isolated central nervous system vasculitis, a rare disease with a poor prognosis that primarily affects intracranial arteries without a systemic acute-phase response. Improvement in the classification and definitive therapy of vasculitis awaits identification of etiologic agents and definition of host factors and the immune response responsible for the pathology. PMID:1359164

  1. Tetrahydrobiopterin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bendall, Jennifer K.; Douglas, Gillian; McNeill, Eileen; Channon, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) functions as a cofactor for several important enzyme systems, and considerable evidence implicates BH4 as a key regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the setting of cardiovascular health and disease. BH4 bioavailability is determined by a balance of enzymatic de novo synthesis and recycling, versus degradation in the setting of oxidative stress. Augmenting vascular BH4 levels by pharmacological supplementation has been shown in experimental studies to enhance NO bioavailability. However, it has become more apparent that the role of BH4 in other enzymatic pathways, including other NOS isoforms and the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, may have a bearing on important aspects of vascular homeostasis, inflammation, and cardiac function. This article reviews the role of BH4 in cardiovascular development and homeostasis, as well as in pathophysiological processes such as endothelial and vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy. We discuss the therapeutic potential of BH4 in cardiovascular disease states and attempt to address how this modulator of intracellular NO-redox balance may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 3040–3077. PMID:24294830

  2. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

  3. Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Anida Sarajlic1.

    E-print Network

    Przulj, Natasa

    Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajlic´1. , Vuk Janjic´1. , Neda, United Kingdom, 2 Institute for Cardiovascular Disease ``Dedinje,'' University of Belgrade, Belgrade used as a source of new biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major

  4. Introduction Worldwide, cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    Articles Introduction Worldwide, cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause declined in several developed countries in past decades, rates of cardiovascular disease have risen greatly for cardiovascular disease in different geographic regions and among various ethnic groups. Current knowledge about

  5. Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajlic1,

    E-print Network

    Przulj, Natasa

    1 Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajli´c1, , Vuk Janji´c1, SW72AZ, UK 2 Institute for Cardiovascular Disease "Dedinje," University of Belgrade, Serbia E biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major global cause of death, many

  6. Postdoctoral Scholar position Area: Cardiovascular Disease, Faculty of Nursing

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    Postdoctoral Scholar position Area: Cardiovascular Disease, Faculty of Nursing Duration: 1 year-doctoral position Cardiovascular Disease. Dr. King-Shier has a multi-methods program of research, which is focused on the impact of ethnicity on cardiovascular disease management as well as determinants of heart health

  7. Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Salvatore; Marasco, Silvana F; Haas, Steven J; Sheeran, Freya L; Krum, Henry; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

    2007-06-01

    In this review we summarise the current state of knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of action of CoQ(10) in cardiovascular disease. Our conclusions are: 1. There is promising evidence of a beneficial effect of CoQ(10) when given alone or in addition to standard therapies in hypertension and in heart failure, but less extensive evidence in ischemic heart disease. 2. Large scale multi-centre prospective randomised trials are indicated in all these areas but there are difficulties in funding such trials. 3. Presently, due to the notable absence of clinically significant side effects and likely therapeutic benefit, CoQ(10) can be considered a safe adjunct to standard therapies in cardiovascular disease. PMID:17485243

  8. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Meggan E.; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-01-01

    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

  9. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population.

    PubMed

    Craft, Meggan E; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-05-22

    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

  10. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne Hyson; John C. Rutledge; Lars Berglund

    2003-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia, characterized by a rise in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins after eating, is a dynamic, nonsteady-state\\u000a condition in which humans spend the majority of time. There are several lines of evidence suggesting that postprandial lipemia\\u000a increases risk of atherogenesis. Clinical data show a correlation between postprandial lipoproteins and the presence\\/progression\\u000a of coronary artery disease and carotid intimal thickness. Mechanistic studies demonstrate

  11. Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.

    PubMed

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

    2014-01-01

    Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage. PMID:25581946

  12. Optimal Sampling Strategies for Detecting Zoonotic Disease Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jake M.; Langebrake, Jessica B.; Cannataro, Vincent L.; Garcia, Andres J.; Hamman, Elizabeth A.; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests. PMID:24968100

  13. Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Dustin; Dykhuizen, Daniel E; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic pathogens are a constant threat to human health throughout the world. Control strategies to protect public health regularly fail, due in part to the tendency to focus on a single host species assumed to be the primary reservoir for a pathogen. Here, we present evidence that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using Lyme disease as a model. Host-targeted public health strategies to control the Lyme disease epidemic in North America have focused on interrupting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) transmission between blacklegged ticks and the putative dominant reservoir species, white-footed mice. However, B. burgdorferi ss infects more than a dozen vertebrate species, any of which could transmit the pathogen to feeding ticks and increase the density of infected ticks and Lyme disease risk. Using genetic and ecological data, we demonstrate that mice are neither the primary host for ticks nor the primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi ss, feeding 10% of all ticks and 25% of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks. Inconspicuous shrews feed 35% of all ticks and 55% of infected ticks. Because several important host species influence Lyme disease risk, interventions directed at a multiple host species will be required to control this epidemic. PMID:18029304

  14. Understanding impacts of climatic extremes on diarrheal disease epidemics: Insights from mechanistic disease propagation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    An epidemic outbreak of diarrheal diseases (primarily cholera) in Haiti in 2010 is a reminder that our understanding on disease triggers, transmission and spreading mechanisms is incomplete. Cholera can occur in two forms - epidemic (defined as sudden outbreak in a historically disease free region) and endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years). Examples of countries with epidemic cholera include Pakistan (2008), Congo (2008), and most recently Haiti (2010). A significant difference between endemic and epidemic regions is the mortality rate, i.e., 1% or lower in an endemic regions versus 3-7% during recent epidemic outbreaks. A fundamentally transformational approach - a warning system with several months prediction lead time - is needed to prevent disease outbreak and minimize its impact on population. Lack of information on spatial and temporal variability of disease incidence as well as transmission in human population continues to be significant challenge in the development of early-warning systems for cholera. Using satellite data on regional hydroclimatic processes, water and sanitation infrastructure indices, and biological pathogen growth information, here we present a Simple, Mechanistic, Adaptive, Remote sensing based Regional Transmission or SMART model to (i) identify regions of potential cholera outbreaks and (ii) quantify mechanism of spread of the disease in previously disease free region. Our results indicate that epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for the growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. We discuss the above findings in light of increased climatic variability, such as acceleration of hydrological cycle, hydroclimatic hazards, etc on diarrheal disease outbreaks.

  15. Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cedzy?ski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host. PMID:24877121

  16. Cardiovascular Disease and the Endothelium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Porro (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)

    1997-12-01

    FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Millions of Americans are counting cholesterol, spending more time on the stairmaster and less in front of TV, and trading their burgers for broiled fishÂ?all in an effort to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Doctors and scientists are doing their part, too. Their biomedical research is unraveling the complex causes of these deadly disorders, which kill almost half the people who die every year in the United States,Japan, and Europe.Some of the most important progress has been in research on a disease called atherosclerosis. Doctors know atherosclerosis all too well as the main cause of heart attacks and strokes. In the last decade, researchers investigating what causes the disease have discovered that the endothelium, an extremely thin lining of the walls of the bodyÂ?s arteries, plays a crucial role. Recent discoveries about how that lining operates are providing doctors new tools for preventing atherosclerosis, diagnosing it if it occurs,and treating it effectively.

  17. Concise Review: Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developed countries. Various therapies for cardiovascular disease are investigated actively and are performed clinically. Recently, cell-based regenerative medicine using several cell sources has appeared as an alternative therapy for curing cardiovascular diseases. Scaffold-based or cell sheet-based tissue engineering is focused as a new generational cell-based regenerative therapy, and the clinical trials have also been started. Cell-based regenerative therapies have an enormous potential for treating cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the recent research of cell sources and cell-based-regenerative therapies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23197760

  18. Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Small, Dylan S.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has low chronic pathogenicity. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence of clinical cases in Arequipa: transmission in the city may be so recent that most infected individuals have yet to progress to late stage disease. Here we describe a new method, epicenter regression, that allows us to infer the spatial and temporal history of disease transmission from a snapshot of a population's infection status. We show that in a community of Arequipa, transmission of T. cruzi by the insect vector Triatoma infestans occurred as a series of focal micro-epidemics, the oldest of which began only around 20 years ago. These micro-epidemics infected nearly 5% of the community before transmission of the parasite was disrupted through insecticide application in 2004. Most extant human infections in our study community arose over a brief period of time immediately prior to vector control. According to our findings, the symptoms of chronic Chagas disease are expected to be absent, even if the strain is pathogenic in the chronic phase of disease, given the long asymptomatic period of the disease and short history of intense transmission. Traducción al español disponible en Alternative Language Text S1/A Spanish translation of this article is available in Alternative Language Text S1 PMID:21935346

  19. Depression in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mastrogiannis, Dimos; Giamouzis, Gregory; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Karayannis, George; Chroub-Papavaiou, Artemis; Kremeti, Dimitra; Spiliopoulos, Kyriakos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Koutsias, Stelios; Bonotis, Konstantinos; Mantzorou, Marianna; Skoularigis, John; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Butler, Javed; Triposkiadis, Filippos

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely suggested that depression negatively affects patients with cardiovascular disease. There are several pathophysiological mechanisms as well as behavioral processes linking depression and cardiac events. Improvements in nursing and medical care have prolonged survival of this patient population; however, this beneficial outcome has led to increased prevalence of depression. Since mortality rates in chronic heart failure patients remain extremely high, it might be as equally important to screen for depression and there are several valid and reliable screening tools that healthcare personnel could easily employ to identify patients at greater risk. Consultation should be provided by a multidisciplinary team, consisting of cardiologists, psychiatrists, and hospital or community nurses so as to carefully plan, execute, and evaluate medical intervention and implement lifestyle changes. We aim to systematically review the existing knowledge regarding current definitions, prognostic implications, pathophysiological mechanisms, and current and future treatment options in patients with depression and cardiovascular disease, specifically those with heart failure. PMID:22830072

  20. ORAL HEALTH, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka H. Meurman; Mariano Sanz; Sok-Ja Janket

    During the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the impact of oral health on atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). The advent of the inflammation paradigm in coronary pathogenesis stimulated research in chronic infections caused by a variety of micro-organisms—such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and cytomegalovirus—as well as dental pathogens, since these chronic infections are

  1. Physical activity to prevent cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Haennel; Francine Lemire

    ABSTRACT O BJ ECTIVETo review the role of physical activity in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases with particular attention to the intensity and amount,of physical activity needed,to benefit health. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched,for articles published in the indexed,English literature from January 1991 to December 2000 using key words related to physical activity (eg, exercise, physical fitness), CV

  2. Perinatal and childhood origins of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R C Huang; V Burke; J P Newnham; F J Stanley; G E Kendall; L I Landau; W H Oddy; K V Blake; L J Palmer; L J Beilin

    2007-01-01

    Background:Features of the metabolic syndrome comprise a major risk for cardiovascular disease and will increase in prevalence with rising childhood obesity. We sought to identify early life influences on development of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia in children.Methods and results:Cluster analysis was used on a subset of a longitudinal Australian birth cohort who had blood samples at age 8 (n=406). A

  3. Oral Health, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka H. Meurman; Mariano Sanz; Sok-Ja Janket

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the impact of oral health on atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). The advent of the inflammation paradigm in coronary pathogenesis stimulated research in chronic infections caused by a variety of micro-organisms—such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and cytomegalovirus—as well as dental pathogens, since these chronic infections are

  4. Epidemic spreading on uniform networks with two interacting diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yun; Fan, Qingli; Ma, Lin; Ding, Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a pair of homogeneous diseases spreading concurrently on uniform networks based on the SIS model. A new model describing the transmission process of the interacting diseases is established. The influence of the transmission parameters, the interacting parameter and the initial density value of infected nodes on the epidemic spreading is presented by simulating the transmission process of the proposed model. The mathematical expressions of the conditions among the transmission parameters, the interacting parameter and the network parameter when diseases can exist in the network based on the simplified model are presented. Comparing the transmission process of this interacting model under different intervals of the interacting parameter, it is found that the interacting of the two diseases leads to larger scale prevalence with a relatively larger interacting parameter when the infection breaks out.

  5. Modeling the spatial spread of infectious diseases: the GLobal Epidemic and Mobility computational model

    PubMed Central

    Balcan, Duygu; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, José J.; Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Here we present the Global Epidemic and Mobility (GLEaM) model that integrates sociodemographic and population mobility data in a spatially structured stochastic disease approach to simulate the spread of epidemics at the worldwide scale. We discuss the flexible structure of the model that is open to the inclusion of different disease structures and local intervention policies. This makes GLEaM suitable for the computational modeling and anticipation of the spatio-temporal patterns of global epidemic spreading, the understanding of historical epidemics, the assessment of the role of human mobility in shaping global epidemics, and the analysis of mitigation and containment scenarios. PMID:21415939

  6. Improving the odds: ezetimibe and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, A; Wierzbicki, A S

    2015-04-01

    The beauty of science is that well-conducted experiments provide answers to questions which were posed in times of greater ignorance. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and will be for some time. Cholesterol is a critical player which drives the underlying pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis. Statins are the first line treatment for lipids in CVD given their ability to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by up to 50%, and their proven benefits in both primary and secondary intervention . Despite the unprecedented efficacy of statins, additional treatments are sought to potentially reduce the residual risk that remains despite statin treatment such as that associated with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C) or triglycerides . In the last 5 years, several trials have reported on their potential additional benefit beyond statin therapy. These include omega-3 fatty acids in patients with prediabetes or diabetes , fibrates in diabetes , nicotinic acid/niacin in cardiovascular disease and cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors in cardiovascular disease . Despite their promise, none of these treatments were able to demonstrate benefit beyond baseline statin therapy when compared with placebo . The idea that benefit beyond statin treatment may be an unachievable goal has dogged the medical community working on CVD prevention. The phrase, 'Statins for atherosclerosis - as good as it gets?' was coined in 2005 and has rung true up until now . PMID:25816908

  7. Cardiovascular disease and bridging the diagnostic gap.

    PubMed

    Wachira, John Kelly; Stys, Tom P

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death worldwide. It continues to be on the rise and has become a true pandemic that has no respect to borders.' Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of CVD. It continues to be the leading cause of mortality both in men and women in the U.S.' Approximately every 25 seconds, an American will suffer an acute coronary syndrome, and approximately every minute someone will die of one. Risk stratification and early disease detection continue to be the bedrock of most preventative strategies. Risk assessment tools like Framingham Heart Score (FHS used in the U.S.), prospective cardiovascular monster (PROCAM used in Germany), or systemic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE used in Europe) are among the common and widely available estimators of a multi-factorial absolute risk of developing CVD.6 Recently, coronary artery calcium (CAC) has emerged as a non-invasive modality that might improve prediction of future cardiovascular events. We have conducted a comprehensive review of CVD risk factors, risk assessment and screening tools being applied to aid in early detection of CVD. As we work on bridging the diagnostic gap of the leading cause of mortality across the globe, utility of accurate and sensitive risk assessment and screening tools for early CVD detection is vital. This will aid in our goal of early detection, modifying risk factors and prevention of CVD incidence. PMID:24279112

  8. Correlation between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Sprini, Delia; Rini, Giovam Battista; Di Stefano, Laura; Cianferotti, Luisella; Napoli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Summary Several evidences have shown in the last years a possible correlation between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. Patients affected with osteoporosis, for example, have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than subjects with normal bone mass. However, the heterogeneous approaches and the different populations that have been studied so far have limited the strength of the findings. Studies conducted in animal models show that vascular calcification is a very complex mechanism that involves similar pathways described in the normal bone calcification. Proteins like BMP, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin play an important role at the bone level but are also highly expressed in the calcified vascular tissue. In particular, it seems that the OPG protect from vascular calcification and elevated levels have been found in patients with CVD. Other factors like oxidative stress, inflammation, free radicals, lipids metabolism are involved in this complex scenario. It is not a case that medications used for treating osteoporosis also inhibit the atherosclerotic process, acting on blood pressure and ventricular hypertrophy. Given the limited amount of available data, further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease which may be important in the future also for preventive and therapeutic approaches of both conditions. PMID:25285139

  9. Phytochemicals from plants to combat cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, H R; ShriShriMal, N; Das, D K

    2012-01-01

    For many decades, the use of synthetic chemicals as drugs has been effective in the treatment of most diseases. Moreover, from ancient to modern history, many traditional plant based medicines are playing an important role in health care. Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, aromatic plants, leaves, flowers and roots which act as a defense system to combat against diseases. The phytochemicals from natural products cover a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organosulphur compounds and vitamins. A number of bioactive compounds generally obtained from terrestrial plants such as isoflavones, diosgenin, resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, sulforaphane, tocotrienols and carotenoids are proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and aid in cardioprotection which is the leading cause of death globally. The cardioprotective effects of the various phytochemicals are perhaps due to their antioxidative, antihypercholesteroemic, antiangiogenic, anti-ischemic, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti inflammatory activities that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The multi-faceted role of the phytochemicals is mediated by its structure-function relationship and can be considered as leads for cardiovascular drug design in future. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on selected phytochemicals as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in cardioprotection. PMID:22414106

  10. Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

    1987-06-01

    An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

  11. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  12. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Coronary heart disease

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    have a greater prevalence in women · Osteoporosis · Autoimmune disease A. Osteoporosis · Osteoporosis ­ disorder of low bone mass, microarchitectural denegra7on% of all women >65 years old have osteoporosis (15% of all Caucasian women

  13. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... which can place added strain on the heart. Kidney failure Although research is continuing on this topic, ... people living with HIV have higher risks for kidney disease. Your kidneys are very important to your ...

  14. Reliability of questionnaire information on cardiovascular disease and diabetes: cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steinar Tretli; Per G Lund-Larsen; Olav Per Foss

    1982-01-01

    In a cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county, Norway, which was repeated after three years (1977), 12 694 men and women twice answered a questionnaire on myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, other heart diseases, atherosclerosis obliterans, stroke, and diabetes. The reliability of these data is studied by using different indicators. These indicators suggest that questionnaire information on myocardial infarction is reliable

  15. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig D. Williams; Michael Pignone

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin is effective for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of vascular disease, as so-called secondary prevention. In general populations with no history of previous myocardial infarction or stroke, aspirin also seems useful for primary prevention of cardiovascular events, although the absolute benefits are smaller than those seen in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Patients with

  16. Spousal Suffering and Partner's Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The

    E-print Network

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

    the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbiditySpousal Suffering and Partner's Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Health (cardiovascular disease [CVD]) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design

  17. Update: Ebola virus disease epidemic--West Africa, November 2014.

    PubMed

    2014-11-21

    CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to end the ongoing epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus and the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases, which are defined similarly by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all cases, and reporting delays that vary from country to country. PMID:25412064

  18. Resveratrol: a therapeutic promise for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Das, Samarjit; Das, Dipak K

    2007-06-01

    The heart is an aerobic organ, and most of the energy required for the contraction and maintenance of ion gradients comes from oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative stress caused by free radicals plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology associated with atherosclerosis, neoplasia and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, a great deal of attention has focused on the naturally occurring antioxidant phytochemicals as potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases. One of the most recognized and widely studied compounds is resveratrol, a member of a family of polyphenols called viniferins. Although resveratrol was first isolated in 1940 from the roots of white hellebore (Veratrum grandiflorum), the importance of resveratrol was recognized only after the widely publicized historic "French Paradox" associated with drinking of red wine. Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that drinking wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. A growing body of evidence supports the role of resveratrol as evidence based cardiovascular medicine. Resveratrol protects the cardiovascular system by multidimensional way. The most important point about resveratrol is that at a very low concentration, it inhibits apoptotic cell death, thereby providing protection from various diseases including myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and ventricular arrhythmias. Both in acute and in chronic models, resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection is achieved through the preconditioning effect (the state-of-the-art technique of cardioprotection), rather than direct effect as found in conventional medicine. The same resveratrol when used in higher doses, it facilitates apoptotic cell death, and behaves as a chemo-preventive alternative. Resveratrol likely fulfills the definition of a pharmacological preconditioning compound and gives hope for the therapeutic promise of alternative medicine. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence in favor of resveratrol to be used as a preventive medicine and related patents for the maintenance of healthy heart. PMID:18221111

  19. Does treatment of psoriasis reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Churton, Sarah; Brown, Liza; Shin, Thuzar M; Korman, Neil J

    2014-02-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease associated with multiple comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular death. It has been proposed that overlapping mechanisms of systemic inflammation contribute to the link between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease. Some psoriasis treatments decrease systemic inflammation, but the effect of psoriasis treatments on heart disease is unknown. In this review of 23 original research publications, we present preliminary evidence that some psoriasis therapies improve cardiovascular biomarkers and the incidence of cardiovascular risk. Phototherapy may reduce some inflammatory cytokines, but there is little evidence for a decreased risk of CVD outcomes. Both methotrexate and tumour necrosis factor-? inhibitors improve cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers and improve CVD outcomes. Short-term data on interleukin-12/23 inhibitors are varied, but most data suggest there is not an increase in cardiovascular events. PMID:24420963

  20. The Role of Immunogenicity in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Michael; Virtue, Anthony T.; Pansuria, Meghanaben; Liu, Jingshan; Xiong, Xinyu; Fang, Pu; Meng, Shu; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many of the complexities associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been unlocked. However, despite these breakthroughs, CVD and its related complications are the leading contributors of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which indicates the shortcomings of current treatment regimens and the need for continued research. Published data within the field clearly indicates that CVD are built on inflammation and autoimmune platforms, though a strong, fundamental understanding of the mechanisms remains elusive. Areas such as the mechanisms underlying increased immunogenicity of self-proteins in the cardiovascular system, the roles of immunogenic auto-antigens in eliciting inflammatory autoimmune responses, and the immunosuppressive mechanisms involved in controlling inflammatory and autoimmune cardiovascular diseases remain to be well-understood. We will delve into these topics and the advancements made within the field in this review. Specifically, we will concentrate on the innate and adaptive immune responses mediating immunogenicity; the mechanisms of inflammation and autoimmunity in atherogenesis; the mechanisms of inflammation and autoimmunity in diabetic atherosclerosis; immunogenicity and stem cell therapy; as well as immunogenicity and immunosuppression. In depth examination and comprehension of these topics will provide insight into the recent progress of the field and bring to the forefront potentially novel therapeutic avenues. PMID:24511305

  1. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

  2. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  3. Emergence of the concept of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2004-07-01

    Historically, the concept of cardiovascular disease is a recent and evolving concept. Well into the eighteenth century, cardiac and vascular diseases were little known and considered a rarity. Description of the circulation by William Harvey (1578-1657) in 1628 marks the beginning of the changes that ensued. However, knowledge was slow to accrue and not until the nineteenth century was the heart taken as a specific object of study. The description of end-stage kidney disease by Richard Bright (1789-1858) in 1827 launched studies of the vasculature, which were to lead to the recognition of hypertension and subsequent identification of the lesions of arteriosclerosis (1833) and atherosclerosis (1904) as diseases of the vasculature. Only between the two world wars did the full impact of these lesions on mortality and morbidity come to be finally recognized. Their study and therapy has defined much of the profound changes that affected twentieth century medicine. PMID:15241744

  4. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signaling modulates the protein function, the various sources of increased oxidative stress in CVD, and the labyrinth of redox-sensitive molecular mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and ischemia–reperfusion injury. Advances in redox biology and pharmacology for inhibiting ROS production in specific cell types and subcellular organelles combined with the development of nanotechnology-based new in vivo imaging systems and targeted drug delivery mechanisms may enable fine-tuning of redox signaling for the treatment and prevention of CVD. PMID:23583330

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

  6. Fc? receptors and ligands and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Sundgren, Nathan; Khera, Amit; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2015-01-16

    Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) classically modulate intracellular signaling on binding of the Fc region of IgG in immune response cells. How Fc?R and their ligands affect cardiovascular health and disease has been interrogated recently in both preclinical and clinical studies. The stimulation of activating Fc?R in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and monocytes/macrophages causes a variety of cellular responses that may contribute to vascular disease pathogenesis. Stimulation of the lone inhibitory F?cR, Fc?RIIB, also has adverse consequences in endothelial cells, antagonizing NO production and reparative mechanisms. In preclinical disease models, activating Fc?Rs promote atherosclerosis, whereas Fc?RIIB is protective, and activating Fc?Rs also enhance thrombotic and nonthrombotic vascular occlusion. The Fc?R ligand C-reactive protein (CRP) has undergone intense study. Although in rodents CRP does not affect atherosclerosis, it causes hypertension and insulin resistance and worsens myocardial infarction. Massive data have accumulated indicating an association between increases in circulating CRP and coronary heart disease in humans. However, Mendelian randomization studies reveal that CRP is not likely a disease mediator. CRP genetics and hypertension warrant further investigation. To date, studies of genetic variants of activating Fc?Rs are insufficient to implicate the receptors in coronary heart disease pathogenesis in humans. However, a link between Fc?RIIB and human hypertension may be emerging. Further knowledge of the vascular biology of Fc?R and their ligands will potentially enhance our understanding of cardiovascular disorders, particularly in patients whose greater predisposition for disease is not explained by traditional risk factors, such as individuals with autoimmune disorders. PMID:25593280

  7. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  8. Kidney Disease as a Risk Factor for Development of Cardiovascular Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-06-25

    This is a scientific statement on kidney disease as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention.

  9. Women and Cardiovascular Disease—Prevention of Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Whayne

    2005-01-01

    The specific characteristics of cardiovascular (CV) disease in women are discussed, emphasizing that coronary heart disease\\u000a (CHD) is the major health problem in women but, overall, women are still less likely to die of CHD than men. This is clarified\\u000a by the fact that women under age 75 are more likely to die from a myocardial infarction when one occurs

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger K. Schindhelm; Michaela Diamant; Robert J. Heine

    2007-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in people with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Evidence\\u000a is now accumulating that NAFLD is associated with obesity and diabetes and may serve as a predictor of cardiovascular disease.\\u000a Although at present, treatment of the individual risk factors pertinent to NAFLD is advocated, novel therapies are emerging\\u000a that may target steatosis

  11. Sympathetic overactivity in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manolis, A J; Poulimenos, L E; Kallistratos, M S; Gavras, I; Gavras, H

    2014-01-01

    From the first description of its anatomy by T. Willis to the novel therapeutic manipulations, it is unanimously recognized that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) holds a crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis. The introduction of sophisticated techniques, as microneurography and regional norepinephrine spillover provided the evidence for the role of sympathetic overactivity in various cardiovascular disease entities. Sympathetic activation is common in patients with essential hypertension and contributes to initiation, maintenance and progression of the disease and it contributes to the manifestation of its major complications. A considerable body of evidence relates SNS overactivity with high sodium intake in experimental animals and humans and the underlying mechanisms have nowadays been elucidated. SNS activity is more pronounced in patients with resistant hypertension and there are several conditions that lead to this phenomenon, as older age, kidney disease, obesity and metabolic syndrome, mental stress and sleep apnea. SNS overactivity holds also a key physiopathological role in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes and arrhythmias. Moreover, inhibition of sympathetic overactivity by various means, including central SNS suppressing drugs, peripheral alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptor blockers, or novel approaches as renal sympathetic denervation have been used successfully in the treatment of all these disorders. PMID:23905597

  12. Cardiovascular disease and work place exposures.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D

    1984-01-01

    The typical occupational cohort study includes all causes of mortality. However, emphasis is usually placed on the presence or absence of excess cancer mortality. A systematic review of completed occupational cohort studies to assess the findings and patterns of cardiovascular mortality would be useful. Although many of these studies will illustrate the "healthy worker effect" with deficits in mortality, particularly from cardiovascular causes, a thorough review should indicate certain exposures needing further research. A recently published study of heart disease mortality in the rubber industry illustrates the potential use of such a literature review with subsequent follow up. Production workers in the rubber industry have shown small excesses in CAHD mortality. A follow-up study at one plant confirmed the known association between carbon disulfide and atherosclerosis, as well as suggested two new causal associations between CAHD and the use of phenol and ethanol as solvents. What additional techniques can be used to generate hypotheses on heart disease and occupation? Some possibilities include: A recent article describes the use of the results of occupational disease surveillance systems for occupational cancer research. A review of such systems for heart disease would be equally useful. It would be useful to review the quality and quantity of occupational data that has been collected in prospective cohort studies, such as those in Framingham and Evans County. The importance of examining the association between occupational exposures and heart disease include: Assessing whether adequate protection is afforded by current limits on exposure to substances known to cause heart disease (carbon disulfide, nitrates, and carbon monoxide).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6380427

  13. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P-Y; Xu, X; Li, X-C

    2014-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here. PMID:25392110

  14. Cardiovascular disease and diet: the public view.

    PubMed Central

    Heimbach, J T

    1985-01-01

    A national probability sample of the public was asked questions dealing with perceived relationships between diet (especially sodium, cholesterol, and saturated fats) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than half of the respondents were aware of the suspected relationship between sodium and hypertension, and nearly half were aware that saturated fats and cholesterol may be factors in other types of CVD. Majorities expressed concern about these substances, and substantial minorities claimed to be making efforts to reduce consumption of them. The data provide a baseline against which future developments may be measured. PMID:3918324

  15. Native American medicine and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nauman, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Native American medicine provides an approach to the treatment of cardiovascular disease that is unique and that can complement modern medicine treatments. Although specific practices among the various Native American tribes (Nations) can vary, there is a strong emphasis on the power of shamanism that can be supplemented by the use of herbal remedies, sweat lodges, and special ceremonies. Most of the practices are passed down by oral tradition, and there is specific training regarding the Native American healer. Native American medicine has strong testimonial experiences to suggest benefit in cardiac patients; however, critical scientific scrutiny is necessary to confirm the validity of the benefits shown to date. PMID:17172882

  16. Evolving concepts of cardiovascular disease prevention in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Yazdanyar; Anne B. Newman

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Clinical and subclinical disease increase\\u000a in prevalence with age and impose a significant burden on this population. Given the increase in absolute cardiovascular risk\\u000a with age, there is tremendous potential for benefit from primary and secondary cardiovascular disease preventive interventions\\u000a in the elderly. Recent clinical trials focusing

  17. [Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2012-05-21

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines. PMID:22640784

  18. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A Herzog; Richard W Asinger; Alan K Berger; David M Charytan; Javier Díez; Robert G Hart; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Bertram L Kasiske; Peter A McCullough; Rod S Passman; Stephanie S DeLoach; Patrick H Pun; Eberhard Ritz

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, and the presence of CKD worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is associated with specific risk factors. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathology and manifestation of CVD differ in the presence of CKD. During a clinical update conference convened by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes

  19. Gene Therapy Ameliorates Cardiovascular Disease in Dogs With Mucopolysaccharidosis VII

    E-print Network

    Ponder, Katherine P.

    Gene Therapy Ameliorates Cardiovascular Disease in Dogs With Mucopolysaccharidosis VII M.M. Sleeper;110:815-820.) Key Words: cardiovascular diseases gene therapy lysosomes mucopolysaccharidosis--Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient -glucuronidase (GUSB) activity

  20. PHYLLOQUINONE INTAKE AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN MEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns high in fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases. The association between phylloquinone intake, derived mainly from green vegetables, and risk of cardiovascular diseases [total and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), non-fatal myocardial ...

  1. Use of Alternative Pharmacotherapy in Management of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larisa Chagan; Anna Ioselovich; Liya Asherova; Judy W. M. Cheng

    AUDIENCE This activity is designed for healthcare profes- sionals who provide care to patients with cardiovascular diseases GOAL To describe clinical trials on the use of alterna- tive pharmacotherapy in patients with cardio- vascular diseases. OBJECTIVES 1. Discuss clinical trials on the use of alterna- tive pharmacotherapy in cardiovascular disease management. 2. Explain potential interactions between alter- native pharmacotherapy and

  2. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Risti?-Medi?, Danijela; Risti?, Gordana; Tepsi?, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  3. Oral Fluids that Detect Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kolasa, Justin; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the utility of oral fluids for assessment of coronary and cardiovascular (CVD) health. Study Design Twenty-nine patients with pre-existing CVD disease underwent an invasive cardiac procedure (alcohol septal ablation or percutaneous coronary intervention) and provided unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), sublingual swabs (LS), gingival swabs (GS) and serum at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr. Concentrations of 13 relevant biomarkers were determined and correlated with levels in serum and the oral fluids. Results Concentrations of the majority of biomarkers were higher in UWS than LS and GS. Coronary and CVD disease biomarkers in UWS correlated better with serum than LS and GS based on group status and measures of time effect. Seven biomarkers demonstrated time effect changes consistent with serum biomarkers, including C-reactive protein and troponin I. Conclusions Changes in serum biomarker profiles are reflected in oral fluids suggesting that oral fluid biomarkers could aid in the assessment of cardiac ischemia/necrosis. PMID:22769406

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Among Alaska Native Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    Although Alaska Native peoples were thought to be protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), data now show that this is not the case, despite traditional lifestyles and high omega-3 fatty acid intake. In this article, the current understanding of CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples, particularly among the Yupik and Inupiat populations, will be discussed, using data from three major studies funded by the National Institutes of Health: Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease among Alaska Natives (GOCADAN), Center for Native Health Research (CANHR), and Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH). Data from these epidemiologic studies have focused concern on CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples. This review will summarize the findings of these three principal studies and will suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. PMID:24367710

  5. Cardiovascular complications of collagen vascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary E. Sander; Thomas D. Giles

    2002-01-01

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Collagen vascular diseases commonly affect the heart; cardiovascular events are the major cause of mortality in people with\\u000a these diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a A striking feature of the cardiac involvement in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis\\u000a is aggressive and accelerated atherosclerosis; women with SLE in the 35-to 44-year-old age group are more than 50 times

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25720716

  7. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men.

    PubMed

    Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

    2012-05-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This 'Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the 'cause' versus 'effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

  8. Therapeutic potential of midkine in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kadomatsu, Kenji; Bencsik, Péter; Görbe, Anikó; Csonka, Csaba; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Kishida, Satoshi; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, stroke and their pathological consequences are life-threatening conditions that account for about half of deaths in developed countries. Pathology of these diseases includes cell death due to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, vascular stenosis and cardiac remodelling. The growth factor midkine plays a pivotal role in these events. Midkine shows an acute cytoprotective effect in ischaemia/reperfusion injury at least in part via its anti-apoptotic effect. Moreover, while midkine promotes endothelial cell proliferation, it also recruits inflammatory cells to lesions. These activities eventually enhance angiogenesis, thereby preventing cardiac tissue remodelling. However, midkine's activity in recruiting inflammatory cells into the vascular wall also triggers neointima formation, and consequently, vascular stenosis. Moreover, midkine is induced in cancer tissues where it enhances angiogenesis. Therefore, midkine may promote tumour formation through its angiogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. This review focuses on the roles of midkine in ischaemic cardiovascular disease and their pathological consequences, that is angiogenesis, vascular stenosis, and cardiac remodelling, and discusses the possible therapeutic potential of modulation of midkine in these diseases. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24286213

  9. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk. PMID:25710019

  10. Peripheral blood gene expression profiling for cardiovascular disease assessment

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Hamza; Zaas, Aimee

    2008-01-01

    Whole blood gene expression profiling has the potential to be informative about dynamic changes in disease states and to provide information on underlying disease mechanisms. Having demonstrated proof of concept in animal models, a number of studies have now tried to tackle the complexity of cardiovascular disease in human hosts to develop better diagnostic and prognostic indicators. These studies show that genomic signatures are capable of classifying patients with cardiovascular diseases into finer categories based on the molecular architecture of a patient’s disease and more accurately predict the likelihood of a cardiovascular event than current techniques. To highlight the spectrum of potential applications of whole blood gene expression profiling approach in cardiovascular science, we have chosen to review the findings in a number of complex cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and myocardial infarction as well as thromboembolism, aortic aneurysm, and heart transplant. PMID:18923935

  11. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications. PMID:22312218

  12. CT angiography in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: a transformation in cardiovascular CT practice

    PubMed Central

    Al Moudi, Mansour; Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) angiography represents the most important technical development in CT imaging and it has challenged invasive angiography in the diagnostic evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities. Over the last decades, technological evolution in CT imaging has enabled CT angiography to become a first-line imaging modality in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic applications of CT angiography (CTA) in cardiovascular disease, with a focus on selected clinical challenges in some common cardiovascular abnormalities, which include abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism (PE) and coronary artery disease. An evidence-based review is conducted to demonstrate how CT angiography has changed our approach in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease. Radiation dose reduction strategies are also discussed to show how CT angiography can be performed in a low-dose protocol in the current clinical practice. PMID:25392823

  13. Risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Jess, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Abundant scientific evidence supporting an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and venous thromboembolic events, caused by an IBD related hypercoagulability, is acknowledged and thromboprophylactic treatment strategies are now implemented in the management of IBD patients. In contrary, the risk of arterial thromboembolic disease, as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and mesenteric ischemia in patients with IBD remains uncertain and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated, with ambiguous risk estimates among studies. The evident role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis forms the basis of a biological plausible link; the chronic systemic inflammation in IBD patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby the risk of thrombotic events. Further, studies have shown that the burden of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia is lower in IBD populations, thus further strengthen the role of non-traditional risk factors, as chronic inflammation in the linking of the two disease entities. Likewise, mortality from cardiovascular disease in IBD remains questioned. The aim of the current review is to give an up-date on the existing evidence of the possible association between IBD and cardiovascular disease and to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors. PMID:25133036

  14. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events in Metabolically Benign Obese Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra D. Ogorodnikova; Mimi Kim; Aileen P. McGinn; Paul Muntner; Unab Khan; Rachel P. Wildman

    2012-01-01

    Nearly one-third of obese individuals are classified as metabolically benign; however whether this subgroup is at a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. Using pooled data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Studies, we assessed incident CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) using three definitions of the metabolically benign phenotype: (i) the ATP-III metabolic syndrome

  15. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart…

  17. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

  18. Nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-09-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

  19. Health Insurance and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erica L.; Preis, Sarah Rosner; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Murabito, Joanne M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Sorlie, Paul; Levy, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Compared to those with health insurance, the uninsured receive less care for chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes and they experience higher mortality. Methods We investigated the relations of health insurance status to prevalence, treatment, and control of major cardiovascular disease risk factors, hypertension and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, among Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants in sex-specific age-adjusted analyses. Participants who attended either the seventh Offspring cohort examination cycle (1998–2001) or the first Third Generation cohort examination cycle (2002–2005) were studied. Results Among 6098 participants, 3.8% were uninsured at the time of the FHS clinic examination and participants’ ages ranged from 19 to 64 years. The prevalence of hypertension and elevated LDL cholesterol was similar for the insured and uninsured, however the proportion of those who obtained treatment and achieved control of these risk factors was lower among the uninsured. Uninsured men and women were less likely to be treated for hypertension with odds ratios for treatment of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07–0.56) for men and 0.31 (95% CI 0.12–0.79) for women. Among men, the uninsured were less likely to receive treatment or achieve control of elevated LDL cholesterol than the insured, with odds ratios of 0.12 (95% CI 0.04–0.38) for treatment and 0.17 (95% CI 0.05–0.56) for control. Conclusions The treatment and control of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are lower among uninsured adults. Increasing the proportion of insured individuals may be a means to improve the treatment and control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and reduce health disparities. PMID:20670729

  20. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  1. A Speedy Cardiovascular Diseases Classifier Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wah Ching; Hung, Faan Hei; Tsang, Kim Fung; Tung, Hoi Ching; Lau, Wing Hong; Rakocevic, Veselin; Lai, Loi Lei

    2015-01-01

    Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC) for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented. PMID:25587978

  2. A speedy cardiovascular diseases classifier using multiple criteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wah Ching; Hung, Faan Hei; Tsang, Kim Fung; Tung, Hoi Ching; Lau, Wing Hong; Rakocevic, Veselin; Lai, Loi Lei

    2015-01-01

    Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC) for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented. PMID:25587978

  3. Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Sachdev, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury to multiple vital organ systems and a chronic hemolytic anemia, both contributing to progressive organ dysfunction. The introduction of treatments that induce protective fetal hemoglobin and reduce infectious complications has greatly prolonged survival. However, with increased longevity, cardiovascular complications are increasingly evident, with the notable development of a progressive proliferative systemic vasculopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is reported in autopsy studies and numerous clinical studies have shown that increased pulmonary pressures are an important risk marker for mortality in these patients. In epidemiological studies, the development of PH is associated with intravascular hemolysis, cutaneous leg ulceration, renal insufficiency, iron overload and liver dysfunction. Chronic anemia in sickle cell disease results in cardiac chamber dilation and a compensatory increase in left ventricular mass. This is often accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction which has also been a strong independent predictor of mortality patients with sickle cell disease. Both PH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with marked abnormalities in exercise capacity in these patients. Sudden death is an increasingly recognized problem and further cardiac investigations are necessary to recognize and treat high-risk patients. PMID:22440212

  4. Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovi?, Neda; Radak, Djordje; Pržulj, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    The structure of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has already been successfully used as a source of new biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major global cause of death, many CVD genes still await discovery. We explore ways to utilize the structure of the human PPI network to find important genes for CVDs that should be targeted by drugs. The hope is to use the properties of such important genes to predict new ones, which would in turn improve a choice of therapy. We propose a methodology that examines the PPI network wiring around genes involved in CVDs. We use the methodology to identify a subset of CVD-related genes that are statistically significantly enriched in drug targets and “driver genes.” We seek such genes, since driver genes have been proposed to drive onset and progression of a disease. Our identified subset of CVD genes has a large overlap with the Core Diseasome, which has been postulated to be the key to disease formation and hence should be the primary object of therapeutic intervention. This indicates that our methodology identifies “key” genes responsible for CVDs. Thus, we use it to predict new CVD genes and we validate over 70% of our predictions in the literature. Finally, we show that our predicted genes are functionally similar to currently known CVD drug targets, which confirms a potential utility of our methodology towards improving therapy for CVDs. PMID:23977067

  5. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Andrew J.

    Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history, and approved June 22, 2010 (received for review December 7, 2009) Amphibian populations around the world.Despitetheseverityofthecrisis,quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable

  6. Periodically Forced Discrete-Time SIS Epidemic Model With Disease Induced Mortality

    E-print Network

    Franke, J. E.

    Periodically Forced Discrete-Time SIS Epidemic Model With Disease Induced Mortality John E. Franke@howard.edu. July 29, 2010 Abstract We use a periodically forced SIS epidemic model with dieases induced mortality;SIS MODEL IN SEASONAL ENVIRONMENTS 2 tion sizes are often either enhanced via resonance or diminished

  7. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Risk of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: What Is Important for Primary Care Physicians?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed H.; Husain, Nazik Elmalaika OS.; Almobarak, Ahmed O.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common chronic liver condition in Western World and across the globe. NAFLD prevalence is estimated to be around one-third of the total population. There are no published data that project the future prevalence of NAFLD, but with an increase in epidemic of diabetes and obesity, it is possible to suggest an increase in a number of individuals with NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and occurs with an increase in cluster of features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to exclude the possibility of diabetes in those individuals with evidence of fatty liver. The global diabetes epidemic continues to grow, and it is estimated that the number of people with diabetes will double by year 2030. NAFLD is also a risk factor for an increase in cardiovascular incidence independent of age, sex, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, smoking, and cluster of metabolic syndromes. It is expected that NAFLD will be an important challenge for health providers in the near future. Taking all these factors into consideration, we believe that increasing awareness of metabolic and cardiovascular impact of NAFLD among general practitioners and health authorities may decrease the serious consequences of late diagnosis of NAFLD. Importantly, the collaboration between medical specialties is vital in decreasing the impact of the epidemic of NAFLD. The focus of this review is in the role of primary care physician in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of NAFLD and patients education.

  8. Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Boaz; S Smetana; T Weinstein; Z Matas; U Gafter; A Iaina; A Knecht; Y Weissgarten; D Brunner; M Fainaru

    2000-01-01

    Summary Background Excess cardiovascular mortality has been documented in chronic haemodialysis patients. Oxidative stress is greater in haemodialysis patients with prevalent cardiovascular disease than in those without, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in excess cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis. We investigated the effect of high-dose vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular disease outcomes in haemodialysis patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Methods

  9. Cardiovascular adaptation and cardiac disease in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Del Río-santiago, Valentín; Santiago Trinidad, Ricardo; Vicenty Rivera, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are uncommon among trained athletes. Their occurrences mostly depend on the individual's age and fitness levels. Adequate understanding of the cardiovascular adaptations undergone by the competitive athletes' heart is of paramount importance in order to differentiate them from serious cardiovascular conditions. Diagnosing these abnormalities early may prevent rare but devastating potential complications associated with athletic activities and defines appropriate activity restrictions to minimize the risk of sudden cardiac death. This article will review concerns related to competitive athlete's cardiovascular adaptations and diseases, in light of specific recommendations presented in the 36th Bethesda Conference guidelines. PMID:23882976

  10. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. PMID:25447615

  11. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations. PMID:16283930

  12. Black-white differences in subclinical cardiovascular disease among older adults: The cardiovascular health study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teri A. Manolio; Gregory L. Burke; Bruce M. Psaty; Anne B. Newman; Mary Haan; Neil Powe; Russell P. Tracy; Daniel H. O'Leary

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality are higher in black than white Americans, but racial differences in clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been examined in older adults. Clinical and subclinical CVD and its risk factors were compared in 4926 white and 244 black men and women aged 65 years and older. Black participants had lower socioeconomic status and generally

  13. Methods of assessing prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce M. Psaty; Lewis H. Kuller; Diane Bild; Gregory L. Burke; Steven J. Kittner; Maurice Mittelmark; Thomas R. Price; Pentti M. Rautaharju; John Robbins

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the methods of assessing cardiovascular conditions among older adults recruited to the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort study of risk factors for coronary disease and stroke. Medicare eligibility lists from four US communities were used to obtain a representative sample of 5201 community-dwelling elderly, who answered standardized questionnaires and underwent an

  14. Association of Fibrinogen With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in the Framingham Offspring Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Stec; Halit Silbershatz; Geoffrey H. Tofler; Travis H. Matheney; Patrice Sutherland; Izabela Lipinska; Joseph M. Massaro; Peter F. W. Wilson; James E. Muller; Ralph B. D'Agostino Sr

    2010-01-01

    Background—Fibrinogen has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Also, the role of elevated fibrinogen in thrombosis suggests that it may be on the causal pathway for certain risk factors to exert their effect. These associations remain incompletely characterized. Moreover, the optimal fibrinogen assay for risk stratification is uncertain. Methods

  15. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    PubMed Central

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  16. Computational fluid dynamics in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Kwon

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mechanical engineering field for analyzing fluid flow, heat transfer, and associated phenomena, using computer-based simulation. CFD is a widely adopted methodology for solving complex problems in many modern engineering fields. The merit of CFD is developing new and improved devices and system designs, and optimization is conducted on existing equipment through computational simulations, resulting in enhanced efficiency and lower operating costs. However, in the biomedical field, CFD is still emerging. The main reason why CFD in the biomedical field has lagged behind is the tremendous complexity of human body fluid behavior. Recently, CFD biomedical research is more accessible, because high performance hardware and software are easily available with advances in computer science. All CFD processes contain three main components to provide useful information, such as pre-processing, solving mathematical equations, and post-processing. Initial accurate geometric modeling and boundary conditions are essential to achieve adequate results. Medical imaging, such as ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for modeling, and Doppler ultrasound, pressure wire, and non-invasive pressure measurements are used for flow velocity and pressure as a boundary condition. Many simulations and clinical results have been used to study congenital heart disease, heart failure, ventricle function, aortic disease, and carotid and intra-cranial cerebrovascular diseases. With decreasing hardware costs and rapid computing times, researchers and medical scientists may increasingly use this reliable CFD tool to deliver accurate results. A realistic, multidisciplinary approach is essential to accomplish these tasks. Indefinite collaborations between mechanical engineers and clinical and medical scientists are essential. CFD may be an important methodology to understand the pathophysiology of the development and progression of disease and for establishing and creating treatment modalities in the cardiovascular field. PMID:21949524

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Asian Indian population: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally and are the leading cause of death in India also. Several surveys conducted across the country over the past few decades have shown a rising prevalence of major risk factors for CVD in Asian Indian population. The problem of increasing risk factors for CVD in India is because of lack of surveillance system and lack of proper diagnosis. This study will help to point out the need of research so that some advanced diagnosis system may be developed for proper diagnosis of CVDs and to reduce the growing burden of CVDs in the country. Methods We did a literature search for the period from 1968 to 2012 using PUBMED search to identify all relevant studies of cardiovascular diseases. Besides PUBMED searching, manual searching has also been done. This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, particularly, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and related risk factors in Asian Indian population. Results Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among Asian Indian population, which may explain their high rate of stroke and heart attack in India. The increasing rate of CVD may be explained by the high rates of other risk factors including adverse lipid profile. The etiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is multifactorial and no single factor is an absolute cause. Conclusion The cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors are increasing with a rapid pace in Asian Indian population. Though the prevalence of CVD risk factors is found higher in urban population, yet it is increasing at an alarming rate in rural population also, which is a serious threatening to the nation. Since majority of the Indians live in rural area, CVD may lead to epidemic proportions. We need health promotion programs and reorientation of primary health care to improve CVD detection in earlier stage and its management. PMID:24653585

  18. Sexually transmitted disease epidemics in a natural insect population.

    PubMed

    Webberley, K Mary; Buszko, Jaros?aw; Isham, Valerie; Hurst, Gregory D D

    2006-01-01

    1. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in human and domesticated populations is well documented. However, there has been less study of STDs in natural populations. 2. We investigated STD dynamics in the model system involving a host from the most speciose group of animals: the insects. We investigated temporal variation in the prevalence of the sexually transmitted mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae on its ladybird host, Adalia bipunctata. 3. Field surveys over two seasons showed a repeated pattern of a profound epidemic in the overwintered cohort and a later prevalence decline. 4. In order to understand the key factors in the dynamics of this system we studied the phenology of the host and simulated parasite dynamics in the overwintered cohort using a model with within-sex homogeneity in mating rate and field-measured parameter values. The similarity of natural and simulation prevalence levels allowed us to carry out sensitivity analysis and hence to identify the key determinants of the dynamics. 5. The observed pattern of periodic extreme prevalence combined with system persistence probably results from time lags in host recruitment and widespread promiscuity. 6. Our findings improve our understanding of STDs in natural populations and illustrate the importance of examining seasonality and time delays in population dynamics in order to fully understand the characteristics of natural populations and their parasites. PMID:16903041

  19. HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie A.; Chang, Chung?Chou H.; So?Armah, Kaku A.; Alcorn, Charles; Baker, Jason V.; Brown, Sheldon T.; Budoff, Matthew; Butt, Adeel A.; Gibert, Cynthia; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gottdiener, John; Gottlieb, Stephen; Justice, Amy C.; Leaf, David; McGinnis, Kathleen; Rimland, David; Rodriguez?Barradas, Maria C.; Sico, Jason; Skanderson, Melissa; Tindle, Hilary; Tracy, Russell P.; Warner, Alberta; Freiberg, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men. Whether HIV is an independent risk factor for CVD in women has not yet been established. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on 2187 women (32% HIV infected [HIV+]) who were free of CVD at baseline. Participants were followed from their first clinical encounter on or after April 01, 2003 until a CVD event, death, or the last follow?up date (December 31, 2009). The primary outcome was CVD (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], unstable angina, ischemic stroke, and heart failure). CVD events were defined using clinical data, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, and/or death certificate data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between HIV and incident CVD, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, lipids, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, renal disease, obesity, hepatitis C, and substance use/abuse. Median follow?up time was 6.0 years. Mean age at baseline of HIV+ and HIV uninfected (HIV?) women was 44.0 versus 43.2 years (P<0.05). Median time to CVD event was 3.1 versus 3.7 years (P=0.11). There were 86 incident CVD events (53%, HIV+): AMI, 13%; unstable angina, 8%; ischemic stroke, 22%; and heart failure, 57%. Incident CVD/1000 person?years was significantly higher among HIV+ (13.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]=10.1, 18.1) than HIV? women (5.3; 95% CI=3.9, 7.3; P<0.001). HIV+ women had an increased risk of CVD, compared to HIV? (hazard ratio=2.8; 95% CI=1.7, 4.6; P<0.001). Conclusions HIV is associated with an increased risk of CVD in women. PMID:25324353

  20. The global epidemic of noncommunicable disease: the role of early-life factors.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Atul

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is probably the most important global health problem of the 21st century. Already in every region except Africa, NCDs account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle behaviors in adult life are the main risk factors, substantial evidence now suggests that factors in early life also have a major role in the development of NCDs. For instance, breastfeeding and a slower pattern of infant weight gain have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in both low-income and high-income countries. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but include epigenetic changes and resetting of endocrine systems that affect energy metabolism and appetite. These early life factors may interact with and exacerbate the detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle and energy-dense diets later in life. As a consequence, the impact of early-life factors on long-term health may be particularly important in low- and middle-income countries, which face the fastest increases in urbanization and greatest changes to lifestyle. Strategies to optimize infant nutrition could therefore make a major contribution to stemming the current global epidemic of NCD. PMID:24504213

  1. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  2. NADPH oxidase CYBA polymorphisms, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    San José, Gorka; Fortuño, Ana; Beloqui, Oscar; Díez, Javier; Zalba, Guillermo

    2008-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several major cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, stroke and diabetes. ROS (reactive oxygen species) affect multiple tissues either directly or through NO depletion. ROS induce cardiovascular dysfunction by modulating cell contraction/dilation, migration, growth/apoptosis and extracellular matrix protein turnover, which contribute to vascular and cardiac remodelling. Of the several sources of ROS within the cardiovascular system, a family of multisubunit NADPH oxidases appears to be a predominant contributor of superoxide anion. Recent findings suggest a significant role of the genetic background in NADPH oxidase regulation. Common genetic polymorphisms within the promoter and exonic sequences of CYBA, the gene that encodes the p22(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase, have been characterized in the context of cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to present the current state of research into these polymorphisms in their relationship to cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18184111

  3. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an up-to-date summary of the evidence from clinical and epidemiologic studies indicating that persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have an increased risk of coronary heart disease and possibly thromboembolic stroke. Persons with PTSD, a common anxiety disorder in both veteran and nonveteran populations, have been reported to have an increased risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Increased activity of the sympathoadrenal axis may contribute to cardiovascular disease through the effects of catecholamines on the heart, vasculature, and platelet function. Reported links between PTSD and hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors may partly account for reported associations between PTSD and heart disease. The associations observed between PTSD and cardiovascular diseases have implications for cardiology practice and research. PMID:21792377

  4. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Maahs; Stephen R. Daniels; Robert H. Eckel; Kristen J. Nadeau

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and

  5. A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N J Wald

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To determine the combination of drugs and vitamins, and their doses, for use in a single daily pill to achieve a large effect in preventing cardiovascular disease with minimal adverse effects. The strategy was to simultaneously reduce four cardiovascular risk factors (low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, serum homocysteine, and platelet function) regardless of pretreatment levels. Design We quantified

  6. Management of cardiovascular disease risk in chronic inflammatory disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana J. Kaplan

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders are at increased risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the effects of inflammatory pathways on the vasculature, clear guidelines on the management of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic autoimmunity are lacking. Thus, rigorous studies assessing the individual contributions of the various treatments used

  7. Vascular calcification and cardiovascular function in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mhairi Sigrist; Peter Bungay; Maarter W. Taal; Christopher W. McIntyre

    2005-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcification and arterial stiff- ening are independent predictors of all causes and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Few data are currently available comparing vascular calcification and its attendant functional cardiovascular consequences between CKD stage 4 patients and both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) (CKD stage 5) patients. Method. We studied 134 subjects (60 HD, 28

  8. Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Risk Factor in African Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Folake Samuel; Tola Atinmo

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is relevant not only in developed nations but also recently, in developing countries of Africa. Given that obesity is associated with morbidity and mortality from several health conditions including cardiovascular diseases this has attracted growing concern. In addition, scientific evidence is accumulating regarding the links between diet, obesity and the prevalence of cardiovascular

  9. Homocysteine, Iron and Cardiovascular Disease: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Baggott, Joseph E.; Tamura, Tsunenobu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations (hyperhomocysteinemia) have been regarded as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, several large clinical trials to correct hyperhomocysteinemia using B-vitamin supplements (particularly folic acid) have largely failed to reduce the risk of CVD. There is no doubt that a large segment of patients with CVD have hyperhomocysteinemia; therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that circulating tHcy concentrations are in part a surrogate marker for another, yet-to-be-identified risk factor(s) for CVD. We found that iron catalyzes the formation of Hcy from methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and cystathionine. Based on these findings, we propose that an elevated amount of non-protein-bound iron (free Fe) increases circulating tHcy. Free Fe catalyzes the formation of oxygen free radicals, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a well-established risk factor for vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our findings on iron-catalyzed formation of Hcy from thioethers as well as recent findings by other investigators on this issue. Collectively, these support our hypothesis that circulating tHcy is in part a surrogate marker for free Fe, which is one of the independent risk factors for CVD. PMID:25668155

  10. Methyl nutrients, DNA methylation, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Glier, Melissa B; Green, Timothy J; Devlin, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. DNA methylation has been implicated as an underlying molecular mechanism that may account for the effect of dietary factors on the development and prevention of CVD. DNA methylation is an epigenetic process that provides "marks" in the genome by which genes are set to be transcriptionally activated or silenced. Epigenomic marks are heritable but are also responsive to environmental shifts, such as changes in nutritional status, and are especially vulnerable during development. S-adenosylmethionine is the methyl group donor for DNA methylation and several nutrients are required for the production of S-adenosylmethionine. These methyl nutrients include vitamins (folate, riboflavin, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, choline) and amino acids (methionine, cysteine, serine, glycine). As such, imbalances in the metabolism of these nutrients have the potential to affect DNA methylation. The focus of this review is to provide an overview on the current understanding of the relationship between methyl nutrient status and DNA methylation patterns and the potential role of this interaction in CVD pathology. PMID:23661599

  11. Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices. PMID:25219908

  12. Association of catalytic iron with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rajapurkar, Mohan M; Shah, Sudhir V; Lele, Suhas S; Hegde, Umapati N; Lensing, Shelly Y; Gohel, Kalpesh; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Gang, Sishir; Eigenbrodt, Marsha L

    2012-02-01

    The ability of iron to cycle reversibly between its ferrous and ferric oxidation states is essential for the biological functions of iron but may contribute to vascular injury through the generation of powerful oxidant species. We examined the association between chemical forms of iron that can participate in redox cycling, often referred to as "catalytic" or "labile" iron, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In our cross-sectional study of 496 participants, 85 had CVD. Serum catalytic iron was measured using the bleomycin-detectable iron assay that detects biologically active iron. The odds of existing CVD for subjects in the upper third of catalytic iron were 10 times that of subjects with lower catalytic iron in unadjusted analyses. The association was decreased by 1/2 by age adjustment, but little additional attenuation occurred after adjusting for age, Framingham Risk Score, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension status, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure, with the association remaining strong and significant (odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 10.1). In conclusion, we provide preliminary evidence for a strong detrimental association between high serum catalytic iron and CVD even after adjusting for several co-morbid conditions; however, broader prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings, which would support therapeutic trials to assess the beneficial effects of iron chelators on CVD. PMID:22071209

  13. Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Yoon, Hye-Won; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

  14. Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices. PMID:25219908

  15. Androgens and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spoletini, I; Vitale, C; Pelliccia, F; Fossati, C; Rosano, G M C

    2014-12-01

    Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on the link between androgens and cardiovascular disease and the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women has been conducted. The few existing studies on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women indicate no effect or a deleterious effect of increasing androgens and increased cardiovascular risk. However, there is evidence of a favorable effect of androgens on surrogate cardiovascular markers in postmenopausal women, such as high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, body fat mass and triglycerides. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the impact of therapy with androgens on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. The cardiovascular effect of testosterone or methyltestosterone with or without concomitant estrogens needs to be elucidated. PMID:24559253

  16. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  17. Can Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Take Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Can Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Take Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs? Kathryn ... or stroke. This risk is likely greatest in patients who have a prior history of CVD or ...

  18. Some notes on stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Reza Mohammadhasani, Mohammad; Hasanzad, Mandana; Mohammadhasani, Amirreza; Samzadeh, Mohammad; Eslami, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have become an increasing clinical issue worldwide. Acute ischaemic injury and chronic cardiomyopathies lead to permanent loss of cardiac tissue and ultimately heart failure. Current therapies widely aim to attenuate the pathological changes that occur after injury and to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However, they do not improve the patient's quality of life or the prognosis more than moderate. A new challenge in the treatment of the cardiovascular disease is cellular transplantation or cellular cardiomyoplasty. Different types of stem cells have been used for stem cell therapy. Clinical trials using primary bone-marrow-derived cells and skeletal myoblasts have also shown some encouraging results. An additional clinical and pre-clinical study to further enhance the beneficial effects of cell therapy is necessary. Recent studies have shown that there are various pools of putative resident stem cells in an adult heart, raising the hope that these cells can contribute to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22577419

  19. Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly. Facts and Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Grau, Maria; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor that increases the incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in adults, although the association is less well established in the elderly. The role of statins is well characterized for the reduction of myocardial infarction incidence or death in individuals with a history or high risk of cardiovascular diseases, regardless of age. Therapeutic measures recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce cholesterol levels in the elderly, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, are based on studies conducted in younger adults. This narrative review aims to summarize the main observational studies and randomized clinical trials that have studied the relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and the potential benefits and drawbacks of statins use in elderly patients. PMID:23730531

  20. Kidney disease is both a cause and a consequence of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer of all Americans. Cardiovascular disease, or heart disease is the primary cause

    E-print Network

    Kidney disease is both a cause and a consequence of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer than 20 million people in the U.S. with chronic kidney disease. Having chronic kidney disease amplifies disease accounts for more than half of all deaths among people with kidney failure. Even early or mild

  1. Cardiovascular Disease And Global Health: Threat And Opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Greenberg; Susan U. Raymond; Stephen R. Leeder

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The transition in global health from infectious to chronic disease, especially cardiovascular disease, poses a threat to the economies of the less developed world. As a more sophisticated workforce becomes,a highly valued and harder-to-replace economic,in- vestment, the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a threat to eco- nomic,development. The next two decades,offer a critical period for intervention to

  2. High Antibody Levels to P. gingivalis in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bohnstedt; M. P. Cullinan; P. J. Ford; J. E. Palmer; S. J. Leishman; B. Westerman; R. I. Marshall; M. J. West; G. J. Seymour

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that strain variation in the serum IgG response to Porphyromonas gingivalis occurs in periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that different P. gingivalis strains would elicit different levels of IgG, depending on a patient’s cardiovascular (CV) and periodontal health. For CVD patients, serum antibody levels increased significantly with increasing numbers

  3. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in older adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Joshua I; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Kizer, Jorge R

    2015-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70-74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus, diabetes mellitus in older adults deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age. PMID:25453299

  4. Systemic Inflammation in Cardiovascular and Periodontal Disease: Comparative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Glurich; Sara Grossi; Boris Albini; Alex Ho; Rashesh Shah; Mohamed Zeid; Heinz Baumann; Robert J. Genco; Ernesto De Nardin

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontal disease (PD) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies addressed the premise that local infection may perturb the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators, thereby promoting mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Levels of inflammatory mediators in the sera of subjects with only PD, only CVD, both diseases, or neither condition were compared.

  5. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular disease: Which methods, which diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Jonathan R.; Sinusas, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Techniques for in vivo assessment of disease-related molecular changes are being developed for all forms of non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. The ability to evaluate tissue molecular or cellular phenotype in patients has the potential to not only improve diagnostic capabilities but to enhance clinical care either by detecting disease at an earlier stage when it is more amenable to therapy, or by guiding most appropriate therapies. These new techniques also can be used in research programs in order to characterize pathophysiology and as a surrogate endpoint for therapeutic efficacy. The most common approach for molecular imaging involves the creation of novel-targeted contrast agents that are designed so that their kinetic properties are different in disease tissues. The main focus of this review is not to describe all the different molecular imaging approaches that have been developed, but rather to describe the status of the field and highlight some of the clinical and research applications that molecular imaging will likely provide meaningful benefit. Specific target areas include assessment of atherosclerotic disease, tissue ischemia, and ventricular and vascular remodeling. PMID:24092271

  6. Cardiovascular disease in Navajo Indians with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, W; Light, A; Megill, D

    1995-01-01

    Rates of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have risen sharply in recent years among Navajo Indians, the largest reservation-based American Indian tribe, but the association between the two conditions is not entirely clear. Rates of cardiovascular disease and some possible associations in several hundred diabetic and non-diabetic Navajos were estimated. Nearly one-third (30.9 percent) of those with diabetes had formal diagnoses of cardiovascular disease--25.3 percent had heart disease, 4.4 percent had cerebrovascular disease, and 4.1 percent had peripheral vascular disease. (The percentages exceed the total because some people had more than one diagnosis. Age-adjusted rates were 5.2 times those of nondiabetics for heart disease, 10.2 times for cerebrovascular disease, and 6.8 times for peripheral vascular disease. Accentuation of risk was most marked in young diabetics and in female diabetics. Hypertensive diabetics had a twofold increase in heart disease and more than a fivefold increase in cerebral and peripheral vascular disease over nonhypertensive diabetics. Age, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and albumenuria were independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Triglyceride levels or body weight were not. Male sex and diabetes duration were independent risk factors for cerebral and peripheral vascular disease but not for heart disease. In view of the impressive segregation of cardiovascular disease in the diabetic Navajo population, the prevention of diabetes through population-based health promotion seems basic to its containment. Over the short term, vigorous treatment of hypertension in subjects who are already diabetic is mandatory. PMID:7838949

  7. Cardiovascular disease and its relationship with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Li, X-C; Lu, L; Cao, Y; Sun, R-R; Chen, S; Zhang, P-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death, is mostly precipitated by cardiometabolic risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD). CVD and kidney disease are closely interrelated and disease of one organ cause dysfunction of the other, ultimately leading to the failure of both organs. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at much higher risk of mortality due to CVD. Traditional CVD risk factors viz., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes do not account for the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients and also standard clinical interventions for managing CVD that are successful in the general population, are ineffective to lower the death rate in CKD patients. Nontraditional factors, related to disturbed mineral and vitamin D metabolism were able to provide some explanation in terms of vascular calcification, for the increased risk of CVD in CKD. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, a bone-derived hormone that regulates vitamin D synthesis in renal proximal tubules and renal phosphate reabsorption, has been suggested to be the missing link between CKD and CVD. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is strongly related to the progress of CVD and its early diagnosis and treatment has significant positive effect on the outcomes of CVD in the affected patients. Besides this, non-dialysable protein-bound uraemic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, produced by colonic microbes from dietary amino acids, appear to cause renal dysfunction. Thus, therapeutic approaches targeting colonic microbiota, have led to new prospects in early intervention for CKD patients. Intervention targets for preventing CVD events in CKD patients ideally should include control of blood pressure and dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, lowering proteinuria, correction of anemia, management of mineral metabolism abnormalities and life style changes including smoking cessation, decreased consumption of salt, and achievement of normal body mass index. Use of ?-blockers, renin-angiotensin blockers, diuretics, statins, and aspirin are helpful in the early stages of CKD. In this review, we will address the biological, pathological and clinical relationship between CVD and CKD and their therapeutic management. PMID:25339487

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Health Knowledge among Freshman College Students with a Family History of Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamragouri, Ravikiran N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular health knowledge, perception of risk factors, and health behavior of 69 freshmen with a family history of cardiovascular disease with 154 freshmen without this history. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  9. Cadmium Exposure and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Jones, Miranda R; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that cadmium, a toxic metal found in tobacco, air and food, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease. Twelve studies were identified. Overall, the pooled relative risks (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were: 1.36 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.66), 1.30 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.52), 1.18 (95%CI: 0.86, 1.59), and 1.49 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.92), respectively. The pooled relative risks for cardiovascular disease in men, women and never smokers were 1.29 (1.12, 1.48), 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) and 1.27 (0.97, 1.67), respectively. Together with experimental evidence, our review supports the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease, especially for coronary heart disease. The number of studies with stroke, HF and PAD endpoints was small. More studies, especially studies evaluating incident endpoints, are needed. PMID:23955722

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Chronic Kidney Disease—FGF23: A Key Molecule in the Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Rika

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Moreover, abnormal mineral and bone metabolism, the so-called CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD), occurs from early stages of CKD. This CKD-MBD presents a strong cardiovascular risk for CKD patients. Discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has altered our understanding of CKD-MBD and has revealed more complex cross-talk and endocrine feedback loops between the kidney, parathyroid gland, intestines, and bone. During the past decade, reports of clinical studies have described the association between FGF23 and cardiovascular risks, left ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular calcification. Recent translational reports have described the existence of FGF23-Klotho axis in the vasculature and the causative effect of FGF23 on cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest FGF23 as a promising target for novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes of CKD patients. PMID:24678415

  11. The Western Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic Exhibits Both Global Exponential and Local Polynomial Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Hyman, James M; Simonsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Background: While many infectious disease epidemics are initially characterized by an exponential growth in time, we show that district-level Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in West Africa follow slower polynomial-based growth kinetics over several generations of the disease. Methods: We analyzed epidemic growth patterns at three different spatial scales (regional, national, and subnational) of the Ebola virus disease epidemic in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia by compiling publicly available weekly time series of reported EVD case numbers from the patient database available from the World Health Organization website for the period 05-Jan to 17-Dec 2014. Results: We found significant differences in the growth patterns of EVD cases at the scale of the country, district, and other subnational administrative divisions. The national cumulative curves of EVD cases in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia show periods of approximate exponential growth. In contrast, local epidemics are asynchronous and exhibit slow growth patterns during 3 or more EVD generations, which can be better approximated by a polynomial than an exponential function. Conclusions: The slower than expected growth pattern of local EVD outbreaks could result from a variety of factors, including behavior changes, success of control interventions, or intrinsic features of the disease such as a high level of clustering. Quantifying the contribution of each of these factors could help refine estimates of final epidemic size and the relative impact of different mitigation efforts in current and future EVD outbreaks. PMID:25685633

  12. The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  13. The role of aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ittaman, Sunitha V; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Rezkalla, Shereif H

    2014-12-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  14. Social Support, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Schwarzer; Nina Rieckmann

    This chapter presents a conceptual and selective review of the relationship between social support and cardiovascular illness and death. It is argued that cardio- vascular health is not only determined by biological factors but also by social and psychological factors. For decades, epidemiological studies have linked mortality rates to marital status and social networks, thus indicating a beneficial effect of

  15. Education and income: double-edged swords in the epidemiologic transition of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 World Health Report warns that the allies of poverty and ignorance are joining forces with the new formidable enemies of health. This describes the epidemiologic transition of burden of disease from infectious and parasitic diseases to that of noncommunicable diseases. All parts of the world, with the possible exception of sub-Saharan Africa, have well-established epidemics of coronary heart disease and stroke. Hypertension contributes significantly to mortality everywhere and is a leading global problem. Education and wealth have strong influences on the epidemiologic transition and might serve as a double-edged sword of benefit and risk. While improved education and enhanced resources are necessary to reduce infectious, parasitic, and perinatal diseases, these factors are also associated with adoption of deleterious health behaviors, which lead to the atherosclerotic diseases. The diffusion of innovation theory describes the early adoption of unhealthy lifestyles in the educated and wealthy, who soon recognize the costs to their community and modify these lifestyles. The uneducated poor may adopt these unhealthy lifestyles later, but, once that occurs, are left with higher risk and burden of cardiovascular disease. One possible reason for this is that discretionary income and the desire for modern conveniences quickly attract unhealthy products (tobacco, high fat/high salt foods) and unhealthy behaviors (sedentary entertainment transportation without physical exertion). The commercial interests of these products have been efficient and effective in delivering their messages to developing societies. Heart health organizations must be more aggressive in their assessment of needs for programs, education of people over a broad range of education levels, assurance of access to heart health services, alteration of the environment to facilitate heart health, and the development of policies and laws to limit deleterious products and behaviors. These late-adopter communities are assumed to require additional efforts and services to counterbalance deleterious influences. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only WHO region in which cardiovascular disease is not the leading cause of death. There is no precedent to support the notion that Africa will, without special efforts, avoid progression to later stages of the epidemiologic transition. The goal of improved education and eradication of poverty in Africa should not and need not carry the unhappy consequence of a cardiovascular disease epidemic. PMID:13677431

  16. Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  17. Future Directions for Cardiovascular Disease Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Hlatky, Mark A; Douglas, Pamela S; Cook, Nakela L; Wells, Barbara; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dickersin, Kay; Goff, David C; Hirsch, Alan T; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric; Roger, Véronique L; Selby, Joseph V; Udelson, James E; Lauer, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide decision-makers the evidence needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of alternative clinical management strategies. CER has become a national priority, with considerable new research funding allocated. Cardiovascular disease is a priority area for CER. This workshop report provides an overview of CER methods, with an emphasis on practical clinical trials and observational treatment comparisons. The report also details recommendations to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for a new framework for evidence development to foster cardiovascular CER, and specific studies to address eight clinical issues identified by the Institute of Medicine as high priorities for cardiovascular CER. PMID:22796257

  18. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  19. Coenzyme Q10 and cardiovascular disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Barbara

    2002-07-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of 30 years of research on the use of coenzyme Q10 in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. This endogenous antioxidant has potential for use in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, particularly hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. It appears that levels of coenzyme Q10 are decreased during therapy with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, gemfibrozil, Adriamycin, and certain beta blockers. Further clinical trials are warranted, but because of its low toxicity it may be appropriate to recommend coenzyme Q10 to select patients as an adjunct to conventional treatment. PMID:12597259

  20. Timing of antimicrobial use influences the evolution of antimicrobial resistance during disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mark M.; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance have been well studied for endemic infections, comparably little is understood for epidemic infections such as influenza. The availability of antimicrobial treatments for epidemic diseases raises the urgent question of how to deploy treatments to achieve maximum benefit despite resistance evolution. Recent simulation studies have shown that the number of cases prevented by antimicrobials can be maximized by delaying the use of treatments during an epidemic. Those studies focus on indirect effects of antimicrobial use: preventing disease among untreated individuals. Here, we identify and examine direct effects of antimicrobial use: the number of successfully treated cases. Methodology: We develop mathematical models to study how the schedule of antiviral use influences the success or failure of subsequent use due to the spread of resistant strains. Results: Direct effects are maximized by postponing drug use, even with unlimited stockpiles of drugs. This occurs because the early use of antimicrobials disproportionately drives emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, leading to subsequent treatment failure. However, for antimicrobials with low effect on transmission, the relative benefit of delaying antimicrobial deployment is greatly reduced and can only be reaped if the trajectory of the epidemic can be accurately estimated early. Conclusions and implications: Health planners face uncertainties during epidemics, including the possibility of early containment. Hence, despite the optimal deployment time near the epidemic peak, it will often be preferable to initiate widespread antimicrobial use as early as possible, particularly if the drug is ineffective in reducing transmission. PMID:25376480

  1. Tristetraprolin family proteins may prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most deadly disease in the U. S., according to the American Heart Association statistics. CVD have been consistently ranked the No. 1 killer since 1900 (except 1918), accounted for 38.5% of all deaths in 2001, and was estimated to cost $368.4 billion in 2004 in t...

  2. Leukotriene modifiers as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. Funk

    2005-01-01

    Owing to their anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene modifiers have been the primary therapeutics in asthma management for several years. Although blocking the inflammatory component of human disease is a long-standing and established concept, the use of leukotriene modifiers in treating the inflammatory component of cardiovascular disease encompassing atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and aortic aneurysm has, surprisingly, only been seriously contemplated in

  3. Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Schrier; Tevfik Ecder

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable

  4. Update on cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George I. Gorodeski

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), and in particular coronary artery heart disease (CAHD), is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Until recently, most of our knowledge about the pathophysiology of CVD in women – and, subsequently, management guidelines – were based on studies conducted mostly in men. While similar mechanisms operate to induce CVD in women and men, gender-related

  5. Cardiovascular risk in pediatric-onset rheumatological diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health concerns for adults with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The enhanced atherogenesis in this patient population is promoted by the exposure to traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional cardiovascular insults, such as corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammation and autoantibodies. Despite definite differences between many adult-onset and pediatric-onset rheumatologic diseases, it is extremely likely that atherosclerosis will become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this pediatric patient population. Because cardiovascular events are rare at this young age, surrogate measures of atherosclerosis must be used. The three major noninvasive vascular measures of early atherosclerosis - namely, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity - can be performed easily on children. Few studies have explored the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and even fewer have used the surrogate vascular measures to document signs of early atherosclerosis in children with pediatric-onset rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on cardiovascular risk and early atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis patients, and to review cardiovascular preventive strategies that should be considered in this population. PMID:23731870

  6. Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ecder, Tevfik; Schrier, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable in ADPKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a powerful, independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, also occurs frequently in patients with ADPKD. Both hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy have important roles in cardiovascular complications in these individuals. Moreover, biventricular diastolic dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired coronary flow velocity reserve are present even in young patients with ADPKD who have normal blood pressure and well-preserved renal function. These findings suggest that cardiovascular involvement starts very early in the course of ADPKD. Intracranial and extracranial aneurysms and cardiac valvular defects are other potential cardiovascular problems in patients with ADPKD. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, has the potential to decrease the cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease in ADPKD. PMID:19322187

  7. [Decrease in hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Roeters van Lennep, J E; van der Wall, E E

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1970s there has been a decline in cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands. In recent years, the number of hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease has decreased, whereas short-stay admissions and outpatients' visits are increasing. One explanation for this phenomenon, suggested by Koek et al. in this issue, is the limited availability and closure of hospital beds in recent years. However, there are other possible reasons for the decrease in cardiovascular mortality. First of all, there has been a substantial improvement in survival following acute myocardial infarction, mainly as a result of advances in the treatment. As all patients with an acute myocardial infarction are admitted anyway, the observed decrease in hospital admissions due to acute myocardial infarction reflects a decrease in the incidence as opposed to a decrease in the availability of hospital beds. Secondly, primary preventive measures aimed at modifying risk factors have been shown to result in a clear decrease in cardiovascular mortality. Lastly, mortality and morbidity due to chronic cardiovascular disease, such as heart failure, have decreased significantly. The range of options to adequately treat this category of patients has expanded considerably with, for example, the introduction of new drugs and biventricular pacemakers. There are many factors, other than the closure of hospital beds, which could explain the observed decline in the number of admissions due to cardiovascular disease. PMID:14750447

  8. Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: Indian context

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sushil; Gudapati, Ramesh; Gaurav, Kumar; Bhise, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient's life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context. PMID:24083161

  9. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ?45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (?22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  10. Genetic Profiling for Risk Reduction in Human Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Puckelwartz, Megan J.; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern affecting over 80,000,000 people in the U.S. alone. Heart failure, cardiomyopathy, heart rhythm disorders, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation have significant heritable contribution. Supported by familial aggregation and twin studies, these cardiovascular diseases are influenced by genetic variation. Family-based linkage studies and population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have each identified genes and variants important for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The advent of next generation sequencing has ushered in a new era in the genetic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and this is especially evident when considering cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by morphologically abnormal heart with abnormal function. Genetic testing for cardiomyopathy employs gene panels, and these panels assess more than 50 genes simultaneously. Despite the large size of these panels, the sensitivity for detecting the primary genetic defect is still only approximately 50%. Recently, there has been a shift towards applying broader exome and/or genome sequencing to interrogate more of the genome to provide a genetic diagnosis for cardiomyopathy. Genetic mutations in cardiomyopathy offer the capacity to predict clinical outcome, including arrhythmia risk, and genetic diagnosis often provides an early window in which to institute therapy. This discussion is an overview as to how genomic data is shaping the current understanding and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24705294

  11. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ?45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (?22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  12. Impacts of hot and cold temperature extremes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; K?íž, B.

    2010-09-01

    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in mortality during heat waves were examined in many European countries; much less is known about the effects of heat waves on morbidity, measured for example by the number of hospital admissions. Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study examines links between hot and cold temperature extremes and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic over 1994-2007. We make use of a recently completed database of all admissions for cardiovascular diseases to hospitals in the area of the Czech Republic since 1994, with a detailed classification of diseases and detailed information concerning each patient (in total 1,467,675 hospital admissions over 1994-2007). The main goals of the study are (i) to identify excess/deficit morbidity during and after periods of heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter, (ii) to compare the links for individual diseases (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, I21; angina pectoris, I20; cerebral infarction, I63; brain ischemia, I64) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to weather, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and mortality. Periods when morbidity data were affected by epidemics of influenza and acute respiratory infections in winter were excluded from the analysis.

  13. Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

  14. Therapeutic manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hadoke, Patrick WF; Iqbal, Javaid; Walker, Brian R

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic potential for manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease was revolutionized by the recognition that access of glucocorticoids to their receptors is regulated in a tissue-specific manner by the isozymes of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Selective inhibitors of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 have been shown recently to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. This article addresses the possibility that inhibition of 11?-hydroxsteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in cells of the cardiovascular system contributes to this beneficial action. The link between glucocorticoids and cardiovascular disease is complex as glucocorticoid excess is linked with increased cardiovascular events but glucocorticoid administration can reduce atherogenesis and restenosis in animal models. There is considerable evidence that glucocorticoids can interact directly with cells of the cardiovascular system to alter their function and structure and the inflammatory response to injury. These actions may be regulated by glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid receptors but are also dependent on the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases which may be expressed in cardiac, vascular (endothelial, smooth muscle) and inflammatory (macrophages, neutrophils) cells. The activity of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in these cells is dependent upon differentiation state, the action of pro-inflammaotory cytokines and the influence of endogenous inhibitors (oxysterols, bile acids). Further investigations are required to clarify the link between glucocorticoid excess and cardiovascular events and to determine the mechanism through which glucocorticoid treatment inhibits atherosclerosis/restenosis. This will provide greater insights into the potential benefit of selective 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19239478

  15. Mechanisms of lead-induced hypertension and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that is capable of causing numerous acute and chronic illnesses. Population studies have demonstrated a link between lead exposure and subsequent development of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that chronic lead exposure causes HTN and cardiovascular disease by promoting oxidative stress, limiting nitric oxide availability, impairing nitric oxide signaling, augmenting adrenergic activity, increasing endothelin production, altering the renin-angiotensin system, raising vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, lowering vasodilator prostaglandins, promoting inflammation, disturbing vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ signaling, diminishing endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and modifying the vascular response to vasoactive agonists. Moreover, lead has been shown to cause endothelial injury, impede endothelial repair, inhibit angiogenesis, reduce endothelial cell growth, suppress proteoglycan production, stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and phenotypic transformation, reduce tissue plasminogen activator, and raise plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production. Via these and other actions, lead exposure causes HTN and promotes arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, studies performed in experimental animals, isolated tissues, and cultured cells have provided compelling evidence that chronic exposure to low levels of lead can cause HTN, endothelial injury/dysfunction, arteriosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. More importantly, these studies have elucidated the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lead's action on cardiovascular/renal systems, a task that is impossible to accomplish using clinical and epidemiological investigations alone. PMID:18567711

  16. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure (HF). PMID:25013816

  17. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Artaza, Jorge N.; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities. PMID:22102304

  18. Predictive Utility of the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile for Cognitive Function: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Predictive Utility of the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile for Cognitive of potentially relevant cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, angina, and peripheral artery disease. We used the recently developed Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk

  19. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Kendrick; Michel B Chonchol

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a reduced lifespan, and a substantial proportion of these individuals die from cardiovascular disease. Although a large percentage of patients with CKD have traditional cardiac risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and abnormalities in cholesterol, interventions to address these factors—which have significantly decreased cardiovascular mortality in the general population—have not shown such benefit

  20. Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With or at Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-06-25

    This is a science advisory From the American Heart Association Kidney and Cardiovascular Disease Council; the Councils on High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and Epidemiology and Prevention; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group: Developed in Collaboration With the National Kidney Foundation

  1. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2011-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. PMID:21556169

  2. Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Robert G.; Coombes, Jeff S.

    2011-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. PMID:21556169

  3. The Association of Endothelial Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Events in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Shechter; Ibrahim Marai; Saed Marai MPH; Yaniv Sherer; Ben-Ami Sela; Micha S. Feinberg; Ardon Rubinstein; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    2007-01-01

    Background: Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as a major factor in the development of atherosclerosis and it has a prognostic value. Objectives: To detect the long-term association of peripheral vascular endothelial function and clinical outcome in healthy subjects and patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods: We prospectively assessed brachial artery flow- mediated dilatation in 110 consecutive subjects (46 CVD patients and 64

  4. Depression: a shared risk factor for cardiovascular and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Wint, Dylan

    2011-08-01

    Depression has been linked to cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer disease, but the exact nature of the relationship is poorly understood. Although depression seems to progress little after the onset of Alzheimer disease, depression in earlier life increases the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment many years in the future. Depression is also associated with reduced vascular function and is a poorly recognized but significant risk factor for stroke. PMID:21972330

  5. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle ... fatty deposits called plaque build up in the arteries, especially those in the legs. Over time, the ...

  6. Periodontal disease and risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease in U.S. male physicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H Hennekens

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe sought to prospectively assess whether self-reported periodontal disease is associated with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in a large population of male physicians.BACKGROUNDPeriodontal disease, the result of a complex interplay of bacterial infection and chronic inflammation, has been suggested to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease.METHODSPhysicians’ Health Study I was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin and beta-carotene

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Bogaert; Marco Francone

    2009-01-01

    The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases;

  8. Inflammation, Sleep, Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle A. Miller; Francesco P. Cappuccio

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that disturbances in sleep and sleep disorders play a role in the morbidity of chronic con- ditions. However, the relationship between sleep processes, disease development, disease progression and disease man- agement is often unclear or understudied. Numerous common medical conditions can have an affect on sleep. For example, diabetes or inflammatory conditions such as arthritis can lead

  9. Emerging and reemerging epidemic-prone diseases among settling nomadic pastoralists in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Matthew J; Wamala, Joseph F; Komakech, Innocent; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa

    2014-09-01

    Epidemic-prone diseases have traditionally been uncommon among nomadic pastoralists as mobility allows already dispersed populations to migrate away from epidemic threats. In the Karamoja region of Uganda, nomadic pastoralists are transitioning to an increasingly settled lifestyle due to cattle raiding and associated civil insecurity. In attempts to reduce conflict in the region, the Ugandan government has instituted disarmament campaigns and encouraged sedentism in place of mobility. In Karamoja, this transition to sedentism has contributed to the emergence and reemergence of epidemic-prone diseases such as cholera, hepatitis E, yellow fever, and meningococcal meningitis. The incidence of these diseases remains difficult to measure and several challenges exist to their control. Challenges to communicable disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists are related to nomadic mobility, remote geography, vaccination and immunity, and poor sanitation and safe water access. In addition to improving gaps in infrastructure, attracting well-trained government health workers to Karamoja and similar areas with longstanding human resource limitations is critical to address the challenges to epidemic-prone disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists. In conjunction with government health workers, community health teams provide a sustainable method by which public health programs can be improved in the austere environments inhabited by mobile and settling pastoralists. PMID:24784434

  10. Neurocardiology: therapeutic implications for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S

    2012-04-01

    The term "neurocardiology" refers to physiologic and pathophysiological interplays of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. This selective review provides an update about cardiovascular therapeutic implications of neurocardiology, with emphasis on disorders involving primary or secondary abnormalities of catecholamine systems. Concepts of scientific integrative medicine help understand these disorders. Scientific integrative medicine is not a treatment method or discipline but a way of thinking that applies systems concepts to acute and chronic disorders of regulation. Some of these concepts include stability by negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, instability by positive feedback loops, allostasis, and allostatic load. Scientific integrative medicine builds on systems biology but is also distinct in several ways. A large variety of drugs and non-drug treatments are now available or under study for neurocardiologic disorders in which catecholamine systems are hyperfunctional or hypofunctional. The future of therapeutics in neurocardiology is not so much in new curative drugs as in applying scientific integrative medical ideas that take into account concurrent chronic degenerative disorders and interactions of multiple drug and non-drug treatments with each other and with those disorders. PMID:21108771

  11. DIABETIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: getting to the heart of the matter

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Linda R.; McKenzie, Clark R.; Schaffer, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart disease, and heart disease is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality among people living with diabetes. The diabetic metabolic milieu predisposes to aggressive obstructive coronary artery disease that causes heart attacks, heart failure and death. Furthermore, diabetes can be associated with heart failure, independent of underlying coronary artery disease, hypertension or valve abnormalities. The pathogenesis of the vascular and myocardial complications of diabetes is, as yet, incompletely understood. Although a number of medical and surgical approaches can improve outcomes in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease, much remains to be learned in order to optimize approaches to these critical complications. PMID:22639341

  12. Diabetes to cardiovascular disease: Is depression the potential missing link?

    PubMed

    Singh, Puneetpal; Khullar, Shallu; Singh, Monica; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2015-04-01

    The etiopathological consequences of diabetes and its imperative sequels have been explored extensively in the scientific arena of cardiovascular diabetology. Innumerable risk covariates and confounders have been delineated for the primary and secondary prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, an intricate interaction of depression on them has been largely overlooked. Depression influences and participates in each and every step that worsens the diabetic state for developing cardiovascular complications. The dilemma is that it coexists, remains silent and generally not considered as relevant clinical parameter amenable to intervention. In this review, it is highlighted that depression has strong association and linkages with both diabetes and CVD and it should be considered and diagnosed at every stage of the diabetes to CVD continuum. Careful attention to the diagnosis and management of these disease states would contribute in lessening the CVD burden of the society. PMID:25655224

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzymes and drug discovery in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lijun; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a major target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In addition to ACE, ACE2 – which is a homolog of ACE and promotes the degradation of angiotensin II (AngII) to Ang (1–7) – has been recognized recently as a potential therapeutic target in the management of CVDs. This article reviews different metabolic pathways of ACE and ACE2 (AngI-AngII-AT1 receptors and AngI-Ang (1–7)-Mas receptors) in the regulation of cardiovascular function and their potential in new drug development in the therapy of CVDs. In addition, recent progress in the study of angiotensin and ACE in fetal origins of cardiovascular disease, which might present an interesting field in perinatal medicine and preventive medicine, is briefly summarized. PMID:20170743

  14. Novel cardiovascular risk markers in women with ischaemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Dana; D?dârlat, Alexandra; Zdrenghea, D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abstract The incidence of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women is lower than in men because of their hormonal protection. Angina pectoris occurs in women about 10 years later than in men. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease remains higher in women than in men. Current studies are focusing on novel cardiovascular risk biomarkers because it seems that traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their assessment scores underestimate the risk in females. Increased plasma levels of these newly established biomarkers of risk have been found to worsen endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which play a key role in the pathogenesis of microvascular angina, which is very common in women. These novel cardiovascular risk markers can be classified into three categories: inflammatory markers, markers of haemostasis, and other biomarkers. PMID:25000444

  15. Name: dhr. prof. dr. M.L. Bots Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Name: dhr. prof. dr. M.L. Bots Profile Teaching commitment Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease. Atherosclerosis is the central theme, since the majority of cardiovascular disease arises from diseases stiffness and the risk of new vascular events in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease. The SMART

  16. Estimating the spatial distribution of a plant disease epidemic from a sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling is of central importance in plant pathology. It facilitates our understanding of how epidemics develop in space and time and can also be used to inform disease management decisions. Making inferences from a sample is necessary because we rarely have the resources to conduct a complete censu...

  17. Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the Doomsday scenario be averted?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Zimmet

    2000-01-01

    Abstract. Zimmet,P (International Diabetes Insti- tute, Melbourne, Australia). Globalization, coca- colonization and the chronic,disease epidemic: can the Doomsday,scenario be averted? J Intern Med 2000; 247: 301?310. There are at present,approximately,110 million

  18. Prevention of cardiovascular disease: From biomedical research to health policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Muntoni

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the developed world. Broad consensus exists on CVD preventability through reduction of their risk factors at both the individual and population level. The latter kind of intervention implies involvement of policymaking institutions, owing to the manifold implications (agriculture, industry, environment) of such programmes. They have to be

  19. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Dialyzed Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Usberti; Gian Mario Gerardi; Rosa Maria Gazzotti; Stefania Benedini; Silvana Archetti; Lidia Sugherini; Melissa Valentini; Paola Tira; Giuseppe Bufano; Alberto Albertini; Diego Di Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Oxidative damage has been suggested to play a key role in accelerated atherosclerosis and to be involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD) of dialyzed patients who are at risk of increased oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the severity of CVD and some markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in our

  20. Associations between Eating Competence and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psota, Tricia L.; Lohse, Barbara; West, Sheila G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Explore the relationship between eating competence (EC) and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Secondary analysis of data collected for a larger, 2-way crossover clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient clinical research center. Participants: Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [greater than or equal]…

  1. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

  2. Lead, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Lead has been shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure in males in the NHANES 2 survey and in numerous other studies. This study confirms the association in males ages 20 to 74 and documents a singificant, although weaker, association in females as well. Prospective cardiovascular disease studies such as the Framingham study indicate that increases in blood pressure should be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Using electrocardiogram data from NHANES 2, this study confirms the expected association oflead with left ventricular hypertrophy. The logistic risk coefficients from the Framingham study can be combined with the study's association between lead and blood pressure to examine its implication for more serious outcomes. The results suggest that a halving of the population mean blood lead level would reduce myocardial infarctions by approximately 24,000 events per year and incidence of all cardiovascular disease by over 100,000. These numbers suggest a small attributable risk compared ot the vast incidence of cardiovascular disease in the US, but a large attributable risk compared to most environmental toxins. Several biological mechanisms have been identified, with different implications for the use of bone lead as an exposure measure.

  3. Hyperosmotic activation of CNS sympathetic drive: implications for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Toney, Glenn M; Stocker, Sean D

    2010-09-15

    Evidence now indicates that exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) significantly contributes to salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases. Although CNS mechanisms that support the elevation of SNA in various cardiovascular disease models have been intensively studied, many mechanistic details remain unknown. In recent years, studies have shown that SNA can rise as a result of both acute and chronic increases of body fluid osmolality. These findings have raised the possibility that salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases could result, at least in part, from direct osmosensory activation of CNS sympathetic drive. In this brief review we emphasize recent findings from several laboratories, including our own, which demonstrate that neurons of the forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) play a pivotal role in triggering hyperosmotic activation of SNA by recruiting neurons in specific regions of the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. Although OVLT neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive and shrink when exposed to extracellular hypertonicity, it is not yet clear if these processes are functionally linked. Whereas acute hypertonic activation of OVLT neurons critically depends on TRPV1 channels, studies in TRPV1(-/-) mice suggest that acute and long-term osmoregulatory responses remain largely intact. Therefore, acute and chronic osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons may be mediated by distinct mechanisms. We speculate that organic osmolytes such as taurine and possibly novel processes such as extracellular acidification could contribute to long-term osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons and might therefore participate in the elevation of SNA in salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20603334

  4. Gut microorganisms and cardiovascular disease: carnitine is the answer.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2014-01-01

    This short paper summarizes the current understanding regarding carnitine and gut bacteria which will provide new clues to uncover the background of multifactorial diseases such as cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from phosphatidylcholine and the amino acids lysine and methionine (Fig. 3, Ref. 12). PMID:25428533

  5. Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease Allan H Smith professor, Oakland, California, USA Arsenic has more effects on health than any other toxicant, and the list of inorganic arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, bladder, lung, liver, and kidney.1 2 Mounting

  6. Job strain and autonomic indices of cardiovascular disease risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Collins; Robert A. Karasek; Kevin Costas

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the etiologic mechanisms. This, in turn, would help to more precisely identify risk. Methods We measured Job Strain using the Job Content Questionnaire, 8\\/day diary reports, and nationally standardized occupational code linkage, as well as autonomic regulation utilizing heart rate variability including spectral-derived components

  7. Sleep-related breathing disorders and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francoise Roux; Carolyn D’Ambrosio; Vahid Mohsenin

    2000-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders, ranging from habitual snoring to the increased upper airway resistance syndrome to sleep apnea, are now recognized as major health problems. The majority of patients have excessive daytime sleepiness and tiredness. Neuropsychological dysfunction results in poor work performance, memory impairment, and even depression. Until recently, the coexistence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with sleep-related breathing disorders was

  8. Physical activity to prevent cardiovascular disease How much is enough?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Haennel; Francine Lemire

    O BJ ECTIVE To review the role of physical activity in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases with particular attention to the intensity and amount of physical activity needed to benefit health. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched for articles published in the indexed English literature from January 1991 to December 2000 using key words related to physical activity (eg,

  9. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  10. Platelet Inhibition in Cardiovascular Disease Management: Aspirin and Beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Harrington

    1998-01-01

    Intracoronary thrombosis is the central event in the pathophysiology of the acute coronary syndromes and of the complications of percutaneous coronary intervention. Hemostasis and thrombosis involve a complex series of interactions of both platelets and the coagulation system. Standard antithrombotic therapy for cardiovascular disease typically combines use of antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and antithrombin therapy with heparin. Ticlopidine appears to

  11. BENEFITS OF DIETARY FIBER FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND DIABETES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common problem confronting those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, an independent risk factor for CVD, is associated with a high incidence of CVD and increased short-and long-term mortality. The nutritional approach to CVD and diabetes is an importa...

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor J. Dzau; Massimiliano Gnecchi; Alok S. Pachori; Fulvio Morello; Luis G. Melo

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and cell loss are prominent features in cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) originating from the bone marrow play a significant role in neovascularization of ischemic tissues and in re-endothelialization of injured blood vessels. Several studies have shown the therapeutic potential of EPC transplan- tation in rescue of tissue ischemia and in repair of blood vessels and bioengineering

  13. Translating evidence into policy for cardiovascular disease control in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Gupta; Soneil Guptha; Rajnish Joshi; Denis Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of premature mortality in India. Evidence from developed countries shows that mortality from these can be substantially prevented using population-wide and individual-based strategies. Policy initiatives for control of CVD in India have been suggested but evidence of efficacy has emerged only recently. These initiatives can have immediate impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. Of

  14. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: is the evidence solid?

    PubMed Central

    Al Mheid, Ibhar; Patel, Riyaz S.; Tangpricha, Vin; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, prevalent in 30–50% of adults in developed countries, is largely due to inadequate cutaneous production that results from decreased exposure to sunlight, and to a lesser degree from low dietary intake of vitamin D. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) <20 ng/mL indicate vitamin D deficiency and levels >30 ng/mL are considered optimal. While the endocrine functions of vitamin D related to bone metabolism and mineral ion homoeostasis have been extensively studied, robust epidemiological evidence also suggests a close association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental studies have demonstrated novel actions of vitamin D metabolites on cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Low 25-OH D levels are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular dysfunction, and renin–angiotensin system activation. Despite a large body of experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, a causal relationship remains to be established. Moreover, the cardiovascular benefits of normalizing 25-OH D levels in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism have not been established, and questions of an epiphenomenon where vitamin D status merely reflects a classic risk burden have been raised. Randomized trials of vitamin D replacement employing cardiovascular endpoints will provide much needed evidence for determining its role in cardiovascular protection. PMID:23751422

  15. Cardiovascular regulation by skeletal muscle reflexes in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Megan N.; Mizuno, Masaki; Mitchell, Jere H.

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure are elevated at the onset and throughout the duration of dynamic or static exercise. These neurally mediated cardiovascular adjustments to physical activity are regulated, in part, by a peripheral reflex originating in contracting skeletal muscle termed the exercise pressor reflex. Mechanically sensitive and metabolically sensitive receptors activating the exercise pressor reflex are located on the unencapsulated nerve terminals of group III and group IV afferent sensory neurons, respectively. Mechanoreceptors are stimulated by the physical distortion of their receptive fields during muscle contraction and can be sensitized by the production of metabolites generated by working skeletal myocytes. The chemical by-products of muscle contraction also stimulate metaboreceptors. Once activated, group III and IV sensory impulses are transmitted to cardiovascular control centers within the brain stem where they are integrated and processed. Activation of the reflex results in an increase in efferent sympathetic nerve activity and a withdrawal of parasympathetic nerve activity. These actions result in the precise alterations in cardiovascular hemodynamics requisite to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle. Coordinated activity by this reflex is altered after the development of cardiovascular disease, generating exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, heart rate, and vascular resistance. The basic components and operational characteristics of the reflex, the techniques used in human and animals to study the reflex, and the emerging evidence describing the dysfunction of the reflex with the advent of cardiovascular disease are highlighted in this review. PMID:21841019

  16. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjian; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2014-10-16

    Cardiovascular cells derived from patient specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) harbor gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of inherited cardiac diseases and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Numerous reports have demonstrated the utilization of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) to model cardiac diseases as a means of investigating their underlying mechanisms. So far, they have been shown to investigate the molecular mechanisms of many cardiac disorders, such as long-QT syndrome (LQT), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Barth syndrome (BTHS), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and other CHD. This article summarizes the growing body of research related to modeling various cardiac diseases using hiPSCs. Moreover, by reviewing the methods used in previous studies, we propose multiple novel applications of hiPSCs to investigate comprehensive cardiovascular disorders and facilitate drug discovery. PMID:25322695

  17. Work-related cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seong; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-12-01

    Cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of compensable occupational diseases in Korea as in Japan or Taiwan. However, most countries accept only cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart diseases) as compensable occupational diseases if any, but not cerebrovascular diseases. Korea has a prescribed list of compensable occupational diseases. CVD was not included in the list until 1993. In the early 1990s, a case of cerebral infarction was accepted as occupational disease by the Supreme Court. The decision was based on the concept that workers' compensation system is one of the social security systems. In 1994, the government has established a diagnostic criterion of CVD. The crude rate of compensated cerebrovascular disease decreased by 60.0% from 18.5 in 2003 to 7.4 in 2008 per 100,000 workers, and that of compensated coronary heart disease decreased by 60.5% from 3.8 in 2003 to 1.5 in 2008 per 100,000 workers. The compensated cases of CVD dramatically increased and reached its peak in 2003. Since many preventive activities were performed by the government and employers, the compensated cases have slowly decreased since 2003 and sharply decreased after 2008 when the diagnostic criterion was amended. The strategic approach is needed essentially because CVDs are common, serious and preventable diseases which lead to economic burden. PMID:21258582

  18. Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Disease Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin C. Maki; Martyn R. Rubin

    \\u000a Over 80 million people in the United States exhibit one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and atherosclerotic\\u000a CVD (mainly coronary heart disease and stroke) is, by far, the leading cause of death among men and women. More women die\\u000a from CVD in the United States each year than men. Atherosclerotic CVD has become a worldwide pandemic. While CVD

  19. Health care disparities in cardiovascular disease: A focus on gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon A. Henry

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease remains the number one killer of women; stroke is number three.1 Despite significantadvances in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), women remain at risk—in black and Hispanic women, that risk is disproportionately higher than in white women.Awareness of disparities in health care has been stimulated in part by two sweeping reports. The first, “Unequal Treatment: Confronting

  20. Summary, conclusions and future perspectives Cardiovascular disease, together with cancer, remains the most important cause of death in

    E-print Network

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    Summary, conclusions and future perspectives Cardiovascular disease, together with cancer, remains chemokine markers in atherosclerosis related cardiovascular disease. In addition, leukocyte CETP expression on available clinical data on chemokine expression in patient cohorts with cardiovascular disease. Various

  1. competency Course Objective 1 1a Describe the pathophysiology of common and major diseases of the cardiovascular organ system.

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    of common and major diseases of the cardiovascular organ system. 2 1a,1b Recognize abnormalities of these mechanisms produce important cardiovascular diseases. 3 1c Describe of the common cardiovascular disease, including behavioral, pharmacological, and interventional

  2. Links between Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: A Bidirectional Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel E. Berbari

    \\u000a A strong relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and accelerated cardiovascular disease, defined as the cardiorenal\\u000a syndrome, is well documented, whether the initial event is in the kidney or in the heart. In the kidney context, mechanisms\\u000a that link CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) involve both conventional and CKD (uremia)-related CVD risk factors. Several\\u000a pathophysiologic processes responsible for the accelerated

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease: Traditional, Nontraditional, and Uremia-related Threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan J. Carrero; Peter Stenvinkel

    \\u000a Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and there is\\u000a an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to reduce this excessive risk. In the context of uremia, this has been\\u000a problematic, as the extremely high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk seems to be the result of a complex interplay between\\u000a a vast

  4. High-Oleic Ground Beef and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Postmenopausal Women

    E-print Network

    Ghahramany, Ghazal

    2012-07-16

    About half of all deaths in developed countries are caused by cardiovascular disease. It is well known that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk can be influenced by diet, but optimal dietary content of fatty acids continues to be debated. The effect...

  5. Gender, smoking and blood pressure and the initial presentation of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    .................................................................................................................................20 2.1. Onset of cardiovascular disease1 Gender, smoking and blood pressure and the initial presentation of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Prospective cohort study in 1.5 million patients using linked electronic health records Julia

  6. A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOOGICAL STUDIES ON DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Major risk factors do not entirely explain the worldwide variability of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Several environmental factors, including the hardness of drinking water may affect cardiovascular disease risks. We conducted a qualitative...

  7. Does Exposure to Low or Moderate Levels of Arsenic Increase the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    Does Exposure to Low or Moderate Levels of Arsenic Increase the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease? The full ... titled “Association Between Exposure to Low to Moderate Arsenic Levels and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. A Prospective Cohort ...

  8. Persistence and extinction of disease in non-autonomous SIRS epidemic models with disease-induced mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhidong Teng; Yanping Liu; Long Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, non-autonomous SIRS epidemic models with bilinear incidence and disease-induced mortality are studied. Under the quite weak assumptions, the sufficient and necessary conditions on the permanence and strong persistence of the disease and the sufficient condition on the extinction of the disease are established. Some new threshold values of the integral form R0?, R1? and R2? are obtained.

  9. Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Z. Levy; Dylan S. Small; Daril A. Vilhena; Natalie M. Bowman; Vivian Kawai; Juan G. Cornejo del Carpio; Eleazar Cordova-Benzaquen; Robert H. Gilman; Caryn Bern; Joshua B. Plotkin

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi,

  10. Inside epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Tacconelli, Stefania; Patrignani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generated from arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases have many biological functions. Importantly, CYP epoxygenase-derived EETs are involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. In fact, in addition to their potent vasodilating effect, EETs have potent anti-inflammatory properties, inhibit platelet aggregation, promote fibrinolysis, and reduce vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. All EETs are metabolized to the less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Numerous evidences support the role of altered EET biosynthesis in the pathophysiology of hypertension and suggest the utility of antihypertensive strategies that increase CYP-derived EET or EET analogs. Indeed, a number of studies have demonstrated that EET analogs and sEH inhibitors induce vasodilation, lower blood pressure and decrease inflammation. Some of these agents are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. However, the role of CYP epoxygenases and of the metabolites generated in cancer progression may limit the use of these drugs in humans. PMID:25426071

  11. The role of epigenetic dysregulation in the epidemic of allergic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Prescott; Richard Saffery

    The epidemic of allergic disease in early life is one of the clearest indicators that the developing immune system is vulnerable\\u000a to modern environmental changes. A range of environmental exposures epidemiologically associated with allergic disease have\\u000a been shown to have effects on the foetal immune function in pregnancy, including microbial burden, dietary changes and environmental\\u000a pollutants. Preliminary studies now suggest

  12. Influence of Family History of Cardiovascular Disease on Clinicians’ Preventive Recommendations and Subsequent Adherence of Patients without Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Zlot; R. Valdez; Y. Han; K. Silvey; R. F. Leman

    2010-01-01

    Background: Family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, efforts to prevent CVD among asymptomatic persons with a family history are warranted. Little is known about preventive recommendations clinicians offer their patients with a family history of CVD, and adherence to preventive recommendations by patients at risk for CVD has not been well described.

  13. Are there genetic paths common to obesity, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and cardiovascular risk factors?

    PubMed

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-02-27

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ? 1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  14. A Case Study on Medical Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using a Genetic Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    A Case Study on Medical Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using a Genetic Algorithm for Tuning cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, we use a methodology in which the linguistic labels of the classifier, Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets, Tuning, Ignorance Functions, Genetic Fuzzy Systems, Cardiovascular Disease. I

  15. A Tool for Telediagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases in a Collaborative and Adaptive Approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Tool for Telediagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases in a Collaborative and Adaptive Approach the medical aspect and pathol- ogy of the cardiovascular diseases. Then, in the third section, we present algo Context Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death worldwide. Al- though

  16. Cardiovascular disease and periodontitis: an update on the associations and risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gösta Rutger Persson; Rigmor Elisabeth Persson

    2008-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases have been recognized. Material and Methods: New literature since the last European Workshop on Periodontology has been reviewed. Results: The lack of reliable epidemiological data on disease prevalence makes an assessment of the associations and risks between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases difficult. Two recent meta-analysis reports have identified associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  17. Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiongying; Yang, Mina; Xu, Han; Yu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25548592

  18. Caveolin and caveolae in age associated cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Fridolfsson, Heidi N.; Patel, Hemal H.

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that the elderly (> 65 years of age) will increase from 13%?14% to 25% by 2035. If this trend continues, > 50% of the United States population and more than two billion people worldwide will be “aged” in the next 50 years. Aged individuals face formidable challenges to their health, as aging is associated with a myriad of diseases. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with > 50% of mortality attributed to coronary artery disease and > 80% of these deaths occurring in those age 65 and older. Therefore, age is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. The efficiency of youth is built upon cellular signaling scaffolds that provide tight and coordinated signaling. Lipid rafts are one such scaffold of which caveolae are a subset. In this review, we consider the importance of caveolae in common cardiovascular diseases of the aged and as potential therapeutic targets. We specifically address the role of caveolin in heart failure, myocardial ischemia, and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23610576

  19. Role of reactive aldehyde in cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Uchida

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that aldehydes generated endogenously during the degradation process of biological molecules are involved in many of the pathophysiologies associated with cardiovasular diseases such as atherosclerosis and the long-term complications of diabetes. Major sources of reactive aldehydes in vivo are lipid peroxidation, glycation, and amino acid oxidation. Although the types of aldehydes are varied, the important aldehydes

  20. MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahmood; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of heart attacks—and the assessment of damage—are critical for improving coronary care. Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant, easily measured, and relatively stable in blood plasma. If they prove indicative of disease states, miRNAs measured from peripheral blood may be a particularly attractive source for routine clinical assessments. PMID:21654926

  1. Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 ?g/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure. PMID:17431501

  2. The Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Patients Affected by Autoimmune Diseases: Review of the Various Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Alessandro; Bronzato, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are among major health concerns in developed countries, and both represent a significant source of morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Despite they are thought to affect subjects at different ages, most of the deaths of patients affected by autoimmune diseases are represented by cardiovascular deaths. Several manifestations of cardiovascular diseases can be observed in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as endothelial dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis and an increase in the rate of acute coronary syndromes. Thus, people with autoimmune diseases have an increased cardiovascular risk and a worse outcome in the case of cardiovascular events. In this review, we will describe the correlations between the two spectra of diseases.

  3. Detection of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks by CUSUM-based overcrowd-severe-respiratory-disease-index model.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008-2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  4. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    PubMed Central

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  5. Cardiovascular effects of drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Howes, Laurence Guy

    2014-06-01

    Drugs that are used to treat Alzheimer's disease include the acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (ACHIs) donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Adverse cardiovascular events with these drugs are very uncommon. However, there is evidence that ACHI therapy is associated with a small but significant increase in the risk of syncope and bradycardia. There are also a few reports that these drugs may occasionally be associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. Adverse cardiovascular effects of ACHIs including syncope and bradycardia are less common than their adverse gastrointestinal effects, but they remain important considerations in susceptible individuals. In contrast, animal studies and some observational studies suggest that ACHIs may reduce myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality and have favourable effects on hemodynamics and survival in heart failure. Further research is required to confirm these potential beneficial effects. Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of memantine but there have been reports of bradycardia and reduced cardiovascular survival associated with its use. PMID:24777654

  6. Extracellular Vesicles as Therapeutic Tools in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Audrey; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Le Lay, Soazig

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes, are small vesicles secreted from a wide variety of cells. Whereas MVs are particles released by the outward budding of the plasma membrane, exosomes are derived from endocytic compartments. Secretion of EVs can be enhanced by specific stimuli, and increased plasma circulating levels of EVs have been correlated with pathophysiological situations. MVs, already present in the blood of healthy individuals, are considerably elevated in several cardiovascular diseases associated with inflammation, suggesting that they can mediate deleterious effects such as endothelial dysfunction or thrombosis. Nonetheless, very recent studies also demonstrate that MVs may act as biological information vectors transferring proteins or genetic material to maintain cell homeostasis, favor cell repair, or even promote angiogenesis. Additionally, exosomes have also been shown to have pro-angiogenic and cardio-protective properties. These beneficial effects, therefore, reveal the potential therapeutical use of EVs in the field of cardiovascular medicine and regenerative therapy. In this review, we will provide an update of cellular processes modulated by EVs of specific interest in the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. A special focus will be made on the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) associated with EVs (EVsShh+), which have been shown to mediate many pro-angiogenic effects. In addition to offer a potential source of cardiovascular markers, therapeutical potential of EVs reveal exciting opportunities to deliver specific agents by non-immunogenic means to cardiovascular system. PMID:25136343

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review of a growing epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Bhalla, Varun; Ezz El Regal, Mohammed; A-Kader, H Hesham

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is quickly becoming one of the most prominent causes of liver disease worldwide. The increasing incidence of NAFLD is tied to the obesity epidemic and the subsequent metabolic derangements brought along with it. Current efforts to elucidate the mechanism and causes of the disease have answered some questions, but much remains unknown about NAFLD. The aim of this article is to discuss the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as the current and future diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic options available to clinicians for the management of NAFLD. PMID:25232245

  8. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-02-29

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices utilizes an open-loop configuration involving a team consisting of neurosurgeon, neurologist and neurophysiologist all present and participating in the decision process of delivery. We propose the development of an integrated system which provides for distributed decision making and tele-manipulation of the instrument delivery system.

  9. [Epidemic diseases in the Polish Kingdom in the thirties of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    We can observe that after downfall of the November Insurrection the authorities of the Polish Kingdom were effectively engaged in the fight against numerous epidemic diseases plaguing the local society. Among "contagions" of the time there were varicella, "gastric-nervous fever", "gastric-rhinitis fever" and typhus (especially in 1836). As usual, cholera was the most dangerous one. All medical and epidemiological services in the Polish Kingdom were making effective remedial measures in order to neutralize results of the epidemics. The implemented methods were effective enough to limit considerably the incidence and number of deceased during the epidemic, which started in October 1836 and lasted till the next year. An obligation of effective cooperation between the Polish authorities and the Russian army was introduced then. The sanitary action against cholera in 1836-1837 should be very highly assessed from the logistic point of view. The wide action of protective vaccination against varicella and numerous sanitary rules completed the favorable image of the Polish Kingdom sanitary services. All the factors mentioned above lead to a conclusion that in the thirtieth of the 19th century both civil and military authorities of the Polish Kingdom did practically utmost in order to limit negative results of cyclical recurrences of epidemic diseases. It should be also stressed that the protective actions undertaken in that time were both direct and long lasting enterprises. PMID:15586458

  10. Ebola viral disease: What should be done to combat the epidemic in 2014?

    PubMed

    Ba?tu?, Aliye; Bodur, Hürrem

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) was defined first in 1976. Since then, more than 24 epidemics have been reported from Africa, predominantly with the Zaire species. On 21 March 2014, the current West Africa outbreak was reported by the World Health Organization, the largest one ever recorded. The Congo epidemic was reported in July 2014. It was considered that the two epidemics had unrelated origins with 96.8% identical genomic sequence of the virus. EVD outbreaks occurred in areas with limited resources but it has a potentially global effect due to the possibility of imported infection and the potential misuse of the virus as a bioweapon agent. Although EVD is a zoonotic disease with the reservoir of fruit bats, human-to-human transmission is essential in the spread of the infection. The case-fatality rate of EVD was reported as 70.8%. There is no approved prophylaxis, effective treatment, or licensed vaccine. Early diagnosis and isolation of the patients, contact tracing, appropriate use of personal protective equipment, and adherence to the guidance for safe funeral practices constitute the essential requirements to control the epidemics. This article provides a review of the literature regarding the characteristics and management of EVD outbreak. PMID:25790522

  11. CD147 in cardiovascular disease and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Gabrielle J; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    Thrombotic and inflammatory pathways play a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (aka CD147) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed on many cell types including hematopoietic, endothelial cells, leukocytes, keratinocytes, platelets, and others. The binding partners of CD147 are numerous and diverse, and give some indication to the various roles that CD147 can play; these include homophilic interactions, integrins, cyclophilins, glycoprotein VI (GPVI), caveolin 1, and monocarboxylate transporters. Recent evidence suggests a role for CD147 in both thrombosis and inflammation, as well as involvement in CAD and cancer. In this review, we summarize the role of CD147 and its binding partners in platelets, thrombosis, and arterial disease and assess mechanistic aspects of CD147 biology. PMID:25280014

  12. New Perspectives of Infections in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ignatius W

    2009-01-01

    Infections have been recognized as significant causes of cardiac diseases for many decades. Various microorganisms have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases involving all classes of microbial agents. All components of the heart structure can be affected by infectious agents, i.e. pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, valves, autonomic nervous system, and some evidence of coronary arteries. A new breed of infections have evolved over the past three decades involving cardiac implants and this group of cardiac infectious complications will likely continue to increase in the future, as more mechanical devices are implanted in the growing ageing population. This article will review the progress made in the past decade on understanding the pathobiology of these infectious complications of the heart, through advances in genomics and proteomics, as well as potential novel approach for therapy. An up-to-date, state-of-the-art review and controversies will be outlined for the following conditions: (i) perimyocarditis; (ii) infective endocarditis; (iii) cardiac device infections; (iv) coronary artery disease and potential role of infections. PMID:20436849

  13. The similarities and differences of epidemic cycles of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Neil W

    2007-12-01

    The majority of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma exacerbations in both children and adults are associated with respiratory viral infections and are cyclic in nature. Some variation in these cycles is associated with the timing of the appearance of respiratory viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. Much more, however, is associated with signal events that are of either fixed or predictable timing. In children, asthma exacerbations reach epidemic levels following school return after the summer vacation and these are predominantly associated with rhinovirus infections. Although younger adults experience a rise in asthma exacerbations at this time, these are secondary to the epidemic in children. Older adults with either COPD or asthma experience only a slightly elevated risk of exacerbations after school return, and hospital presentations for pneumonia in any age group show only marginal increases at that time. Exacerbations of both COPD and adult asthma, with increasing risk with age, are at their highest average annual levels during the Christmas period. This effect appears to be independent of the timing of above average levels of influenza, RSV, parainfluenza, or adenovirus detections; however, hospitalization for respiratory tract infections in all age groups reaches high levels at the same time. Both the post-summer vacation asthma epidemic and the Christmas epidemic of COPD, asthma, and pneumonia are synchronous with the timing of signal events, the day of school return for the former and Christmas Day for the latter, and have been for several years. The agents responsible for the Christmas epidemic of respiratory diseases have not yet been identified. The differences between age and disease exacerbation patterns after school return and at Christmas suggest that either different agents are involved or that the response to a common agent is different between the two signal events. PMID:18073388

  14. Integrative Treatments to Reduce Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Ryan; Oberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the contribution and interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors is critical to prioritizing treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Lipoprotein factors still dominate risk for developing cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. Some emerging risk factors such as C-reactive protein are gaining acceptance due to recent prospective clinical trials demonstrating clinical benefit in reducing these markers. Other emerging risk factors, including lipoprotein particle size, remain to be validated. In this second article of a 2-part series, we will begin with a review of formal risk assessment, discussing the contribution of multiple “risky” and “healthy” components that play a part in overall cardiovascular health. Following risk assessment, we will discuss evidence-based integrative therapies that can be used to modify any risky lipoprotein and inflammatory patient profiles, including medications, functional foods, supplements, and lifestyle approaches. The focus is on low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. Understanding the interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors, and finding efficient methods of treating multiple risk factors simultaneously, will not only improve the long-term health of patients but will also save on the expenditure of healthcare dollars for unnecessary testing and ineffective treatments. Integrative practitioners who understand the contribution of lifestyle factors, and who have numerous effective treatment options at their disposal, are well positioned to counsel patients on cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21461347

  15. The Advancing Clinical Impact of Molecular Imaging in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (PET, SPECT, MRI), as well in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g. the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in Phase II clinical trials. Here we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

  16. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wong, May-Kuen; Lai, Jin Shin

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD. PMID:24348732

  17. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  18. Adipokines at the crossroad between obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Molica, F; Morel, S; Kwak, B R; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Steffens, S

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, and especially excessive visceral adipose tissue accumulation, is considered as a low-grade inflammatory state that is responsible for adipocyte dysfunction and associated metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue displays endocrine functions by releasing pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactive molecules named adipokines. An altered expression of these molecules, provoked by obesity or adipocyte dysregulation, contributes to major metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus that are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, obesity is also characterised by the expansion of perivascular adipose tissue that acts locally via diffusion of adipokines into the vascular wall. Local inflammation within blood vessels induced by adipokines contributes to the onset of endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, but also to vascular remodelling and hypertension. A fast expansion of obesity is expected in the near future, which will rapidly increase the incidence of these cardiovascular diseases. The focus of this review is to summarise the link between metabolic and cardiovascular disease and discuss current treatment approaches, limitations and future perspectives for more targeted therapies. PMID:25338625

  19. Improving adherence to cardiovascular disease medications with information technology.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, William M; Owen-Smith, Ashil A; Tom, Jeffrey O; Laws, Reesa; Ditmer, Diane G; Smith, David H; Waterbury, Amy C; Schneider, Jennifer L; Yonehara, Cyndee H; Williams, Andrew; Vupputuri, Suma; Rand, Cynthia S

    2014-11-01

    Objectives Evaluate the utility of 2 electronic medical record (EMR)-linked, automated phone reminder interventions for improving adherence to cardiovascular disease medications. Study Design A 1-year, parallel arm, pragmatic clinical trial in which 21,752 adults were randomized to receive either usual care (UC) or 1 of 2 interventions in the form of interactive voice recognition calls-regular (IVR) or enhanced (IVR+). The interventions used automated phone reminders to increase adherence to cardiovascular disease medications. The primary outcome was medication adherence; blood pressure and lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Methods The study took place in 3 large health maintenance organizations. We enrolled participants who were 40 years or older, had diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and were suboptimally adherent. IVR participants received automated phone calls when they were due or overdue for a refill. IVR+ participants received these phone calls, plus personalized reminder letters, live outreach calls, EMR-based feedback to their primary care providers, and additional mailed materials. Results Both interventions significantly increased adherence to statins and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) compared with UC (1.6 to 3.7 percentage points). Adherence to ACEIs/ARBs was also significantly higher for IVR+ relative to IVR participants. These differences persisted across subgroups. Among statin users, IVR+ participants had significantly lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels at follow-up compared with UC (? = -1.5; 95% CI, -2.7 to -0.2 mg/dL); this effect was seen mainly in those with baseline LDL levels ? 100 mg/dL (? = -3.6; 95% CI, -5.9 to -1.3 mg/dL). Conclusions Technology-based tools, in conjunction with an EMR, can improve adherence to chronic disease medications and measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:25811824

  20. Alzheimer's Disease: A Healthcare Burden of Epidemic Proportion

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, T.S.; Gunturu, Srinivas G.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and increases in prevalence exponentially with age, with trends in the United States likely to worsen in ensuing decades. The pathology in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by an increase in extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneural neurofibrillary tangles, with neuronal destruction in several areas of the brain, and biochemically by a deficiency in acetylcholine; clinical manifestations include progressive loss of memory, change in personality, and behavioral disturbances. Pharmacotherapy includes the T.S. Dharmarajan Srinivas G. Gunturu use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine; addressing the many behavioral manifestations of the disease, especially in advanced stages, imposes tremendous burden to caregivers and healthcare resources. PMID:25126271

  1. Optimization Methods for Disease Prevention and Epidemic Control ...

    E-print Network

    2013-09-29

    and high-quality responsive actions can significantly alleviate damages [9, 11]. ... Suppose that disease may spread differently across subgroups of .... usually at very different cost scales, we use two separate budgets for vaccination and for ...

  2. Ayurveda and yoga in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering. PMID:15834238

  3. Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Mamtani, Ronac

    Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering. PMID:15831140

  4. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Normoalbuminuric Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Ulrik Madvig; Jensen, Tonny; Køber, Lars; Kelbæk, Henning; Mathiesen, Anne Sophie; Dixen, Ulrik; Rossing, Peter; Hilsted, Jannik; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality in diabetes. Since CAN often develops in parallel with diabetic nephropathy as a confounder, we aimed to investigate the isolated impact of CAN on cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric patients. Fifty-six normoalbuminuric, type 1 diabetic patients were divided into 26 with (+) and 30 without (?) CAN according to tests of their autonomic nerve function. Coronary artery plaque burden and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were evaluated using computed tomography. Left ventricular function was evaluated using echocardiography. Blood pressure and electrocardiography were recorded through 24 h to evaluate nocturnal drop in blood pressure (dipping) and pulse pressure. In patients +CAN compared with ?CAN, the CACS was higher, and only patients +CAN had a CACS >400. A trend toward a higher prevalence of coronary plaques and flow-limiting stenosis in patients +CAN was nonsignificant. In patients +CAN, left ventricular function was decreased in both diastole and systole, nondipping was more prevalent, and pulse pressure was increased compared with ?CAN. In multivariable analysis, CAN was independently associated with increased CACS, subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, and increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, CAN in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients is associated with distinct signs of subclinical cardiovascular disease. PMID:22498696

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Could be Contained based on Currently Available Data!

    PubMed Central

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the incidence of chronic age-related diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and late-onset diabetes have increased and have become serious public health problem, as well. The etiology of these disorders is still incompletely understood, therefore, neither preventive strategies nor long-term effective treatment modalities are available for these disorders. In keeping with the aforementioned, the ultimate goal in cardiovascular research is to prevent the onset of cardiovascular episodes and thereby allow successful ageing without morbidity and cognitive decline. Herein, I argue that cardiovascular episodes could be contained with relatively simple approaches. Cardiovascular disorder is characterized by cellular and molecular changes that are commonplace in age-related diseases in other organ system, such alterations include increased level of oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and “horror autotoxicus” largely brought about by the perturbation of ubiquitin -proteasome system, and excessive oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle cells and tissues, and cross-reactions of specific antibodies against human heat shock protein 60 with that of mycobacterial heat shock protein 65.” Horror autotoxicus”, a Latin expression, is a term coined by Paul Ehrlich at the turn of the last century to describe autoimmunity to self, or the attack of “self” by immune system, which ultimately results to autoimmune condition. Based on the currently available data, the risk of cardiovascular episodes and several other age-related disorders, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, is known to be influenced by the nature and level of food intake. Now, a wealth of scientific data from studies of rodents and monkeys has documented the significant beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) or dietary restriction (DR), and multiple antioxidant agents in extending life span and reducing the incidence of progeroid-related diseases. Reduced levels of cellular oxidative stress, protection of genome from deleterious damage, detoxification of toxic molecules, and enhancement of energy homeostasis, contribute to the beneficial effects of dietary restriction and multiple antioxidant agents. Recent findings suggest that employment of DR and multiple antioxidant agents (including, catalase, gluthatione peroxidase, CuZn superoxide dismutase, and Mn superoxide dismutase = enzymes forming the primary defense against oxygen toxicity), and ozone therapy may mount an effective resistance to pathogenic factors relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular episodes. Hence, while further studies will be needed to establish the extent to which CR and multiple antioxidant agents will reduce incidence of cardiovascular episodes in humans, it would seem prudent to recommend CR and multiple antioxidant agents as widely applicable preventive approach for cardiovascular disorders and other progeroid-related disorders. PMID:18648594

  6. Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hervás, Ramón; Fontecha, Jesús; Ausín, David; Castanedo, Federico; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2013-01-01

    With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. PMID:23681093

  7. Mobile monitoring and reasoning methods to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Ramón; Fontecha, Jesús; Ausín, David; Castanedo, Federico; Bravo, José; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2013-01-01

    With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. PMID:23681093

  8. Relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular disease. Selected historical highlights.

    PubMed

    Conti, A A; Macchi, C; Molino Lova, R; Conti, A; Gensini, G F

    2007-03-01

    The full awareness that physical exercise represents a form of prevention and therapy for cardiovascular diseases is rather recent, considering that the discovery of blood circulation dates back to the 17th century and that the definition of major cardiovascular risk factors is an acquisition of the 20th century. In this paper a historical review has been undertaken so as to evidence major selected highlights of cardiovascular knowledge applied to physical activity from antiquity to the present day. Despite of the fact that the role of physical activity for the sake of a good body equilibrium is an ancient concept, as documented by the recurrent term ''exercise'' in the works of Hippocrates, only about 70 years have passed from the time when, in the '30s, myocardial infarction patients were strictly advised to observe a period of bed rest of at least 6 weeks; less than a century has passed since the so-called ''chair therapy'' constituted the cornerstone of the therapy of the cardiovascular patient. In the '40s and the '50s a certain amount of attentive mobilization proved to be beneficial, given that it was associated with a remarkable reduction of thromboembolic risk. In the '70s an increasing amount of clinical literature documented that even healthy subjects, remaining in bed for a long period, showed relatively rapidly signs of de-conditioning. In 1973 Kavanagh et al. demonstrated that the patients included in cardiac rehabilitation showed an improvement in their physical work capacity, an increase in their global cardiovascular function and went back more quickly and safely to their work environment, as compared with cardiac patients not performing rehabilitative physical exercise. The studies performed in the '70s provided the bases of modern cardiovascular rehabilitation, a multidimensional and integrated approach, one of whose pillars is structured physical activity. PMID:17369803

  9. Rapid emergence of a focal epidemic of Lyme disease in coastal Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Lastavica, C C; Wilson, M L; Berardi, V P; Spielman, A; Deblinger, R D

    1989-01-19

    We describe a focal epidemic of Lyme disease, which spread from a nature preserve and affected an adjacent community of permanent residents in coastal Massachusetts. The attack rate from 1980 through 1987 was 35 percent among 190 residents living within 5 km of the nature preserve and was greatest (66 percent) among those living closest to the preserve. The risk of infection bore little relation to sex or age. Late Lyme disease, which clustered near the preserve, occurred mainly in residents infected early in the epidemic who did not have a history of erythema migrans and did not receive antibiotic therapy. All the residents with serologic evidence of infection had early or late clinical manifestations of Lyme disease, or both, during the period of study. The seasonal risk of infection was bimodal--greatest in June, with a secondary peak in October--and corresponded to periods of increased transmission. In the nature preserve, the density of the vector tick, Ixodes dammini, exceeded that in other New England sites. The zoonosis rapidly became endemic, and the severity of its impact correlated with the abundance of deer. This epidemic of Lyme disease demonstrated that outbreaks can be focal and can spread rapidly within a community of permanent residents. PMID:2911294

  10. MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery diseases (CAD) and heart failure have high mortality rate in the world, although much progress has been made in this field in last two decades. There is still a clinical need for a novel diagnostic approach and a therapeutic strategy to decrease the incidence of CAD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved noncoding small RNA molecules that regulate a large fraction of the genome by binding to complementary messenger RNA sequences, resulting in posttranscriptional gene silencing. Recent studies have shown that specific miRNAs are involved in whole stage of atherosclerosis, from endothelium dysfunction to plaque rupture. These findings suggest that miRNAs are potential biomarkers in early diagnosis and therapeutic targets in CAD. In the present review, we highlight the role of miRNAs in every stage of atherosclerosis, and discuss the prospects of miRNAs in the near future. PMID:25710020

  11. Periodontal disease: a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Madore

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that periodontal disease is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. To date, however, a causal relation has not been firmly established. In addition, the extent to which treatment of periodontal disease might result in lower incidence of CVD has not been addressed in any study to

  12. Sortilin, Encoded by the Cardiovascular Risk Gene SORT1, and Its Suggested Functions in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kjolby, Mads; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Petersen, Claus Munck

    2015-04-01

    Several genome-wide association studies have linked novel loci to a wide range of cardiovascular phenotypes including low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, early onset myocardial infarction, coronary artery calcification, coronary artery stenosis, and abdominal aorta aneurysm. Especially, one locus, namely, 1p13.3, has attracted much attention. This locus harbors four candidate genes, CELSR2, PSRC1, MYBPHL, and SORT1. SORT1 encodes sortilin, a type I sorting receptor that has recently been implicated in LDL-cholesterol metabolism, VLDL secretion, PCSK9 secretion, and development of atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, sortilin also seems to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, by mechanisms not directly involving LDL-cholesterol, but possibly resulting from the attenuated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL6 and TNF?, which accompanies lack of sortilin in immune cells. Sortilin seems to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and have functions beyond regulating LDL-cholesterol. PMID:25702058

  13. Parenting styles, peer influences, and adolescent cardiovascular disease risk factors

    E-print Network

    Tramm, Amy Bishop

    2000-01-01

    studies assessing the causal factors of obesity and cardiovascular disease focused on diet, activity, genetics or other risk events. predominant cardiac risk factors that have been well researched and documented in the literature include hypertension...) of nutrients for healthy people (30, 31). Nearly three decades ago researchers in the 1973-1974 Bogalusa Heart Study reported that the macronutrient content of adolescent diets was approximately 13'r'o of energy from protein, 49'l0 of energy from...

  14. Early growth and death from cardiovascular disease in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Osmond; D J Barker; P D Winter; C H Fall; S J Simmonds

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the link suggested between growth in utero and during infancy and death from cardiovascular disease in men is also present in women. DESIGN--Follow up study of women and men whose birth weight and weight at 1 year of age had been recorded. SETTING--Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS--5585 women and 10,141 men born during 1911-30. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Standardised mortality ratios

  15. Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W Erdman Jr; LeaAnn Carson; Catherine Kwik-Uribe; Ellen M

    Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as

  16. Herbs and alternative therapies: Relevance to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaula K. Vora; George A. Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    Herbal remedies, supplements, and alternative therapeutic items are used by many patients with hypertension and cardiovascular\\u000a diseases. Scientific knowledge about their efficacy and safety is lacking, and unfortunately, physicians are frequently not\\u000a aware that patients are using these nontraditional forms of medical care. Patients may anticipate physicians’ disapproval\\u000a of their use, or not realize that it is important for the

  17. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction Models: Evaluation Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richi Nayak; Ellen Pitt

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a This paper uses a real world anaesthesia time-series monitoring data in the prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in a\\u000a manner similar to exercise electrocardiography. Models derived using the entire anaesthesia population and subgroups based\\u000a on pre-anaesthesia likelihood of complications are compared in an attempt to ascertain which model performance measures are\\u000a best suited to populations with differing pre-test probability of

  18. Physical activity and the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shari S. Bassuk; JoAnn E. Manson

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes recent evidence on the role of physical activity in the prevention of overt and subclinical vascular\\u000a disease. Epidemiologic data suggest that as little as 30 minutes per day of moderate-intensity physical activity, including\\u000a brisk walking, reduces the incidence of clinical cardiovascular events in men and women. Regular exercise may also retard\\u000a the progression of asymptomatic coronary and

  19. Programming of cardiovascular disease across the life-course

    E-print Network

    Blackmore, Heather L.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2014-12-12

    ]). Oxidative stress – A situation of oxidative stress occurs as a consequence of excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) relative to antioxidant defense capacity. Although ROS are bi-products of physiological respiration, they are responsible... for cellular damage and are key players in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Elevated ROS levels in tissues associated with the cardiovascular system have been found in a number of programming animal models, some of which include maternal...

  20. Metabolism of Homocysteine and its Relationship with Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo Aguilar; Julio C. Rojas; María T. Collados

    2004-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, or the rise of plasmatic homocysteine levels above 15 µg\\/dL, is accepted nowadays as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in men and women. Homocysteine (Hcy) is a non-protein forming aminoacid (aa) derivated from the loss of the methyl group, found within methionine. Methionine regenerates by retrieving the methyl radical from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) creating tetrahydrofolate (THF) which will

  1. Dietary polyphenols regulate endothelial function and prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Tagami, Motoki; Yamori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction strongly induces development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated a preventative effect of dietary polyphenols toward cardiovascular disease. In studies using cultured vascular ECs, polyphenols were recognized to regulate nitric oxide and endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. Furthermore, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules by a signaling pathway that is similar to that of high-density lipoprotein and involves induction of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, liver kinase B, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression. The effects of polyphenols on ECs include antioxidant activity and enhancement of the expression of several protective proteins, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase and paraoxonase 1. However, the observed effects of dietary polyphenols in vitro do not always translate to an in vivo setting. As such, there are many questions concerning their physiological mode of action. In this review, we discuss research on the effect of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and their protective effect on EC dysfunction. PMID:25466651

  2. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

  3. The "Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy" of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease.

    PubMed

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a "multifactorial" etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  4. The “Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy” of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease

    PubMed Central

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a “multifactorial” etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  5. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Miao, Xiao; Liu, Yucheng; Li, Fengsheng; Liu, Quan; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide. PMID:24693336

  6. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martín R. Bustamante; Jamie A. Consuegra; Michael P. L. Fogden; Pru N. Foster; Enrique La Marca; Karen L. Masters; Andrés Merino-Viteri; Robert Puschendorf; Santiago R. Ron; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Christopher J. Still; Bruce E. Young; J. Alan Pounds

    2006-01-01

    As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of

  7. Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic

    E-print Network

    have focused on interrupting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) transmission between blacklegged pathogen that causes Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is maintained and amplified ticks and the putative dominant reservoir species, white-footed mice. However, B. burgdorferi ss infects

  8. Erectile dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular disease RA Kloner1,2

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    REVIEW Erectile dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular disease RA Kloner1,2 1 Heart Institute May 2008 Keywords: erectile dysfunction; coronary artery disease; cardiovascular risk factors, Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles, CA, USA and 2 Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department

  9. P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease David Erlinge & Geoffrey Burnstock

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    REVIEW P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease David Erlinge & Geoffrey Burnstock in cardiovascular regulation and disease. The research field has grown rapidly since the term P2 recepto roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysi- ology, acting via P2X (ion channel) and P2Y (G

  10. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated. PMID:25351669

  11. Hepatokines as a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hye Jin

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, independently increases the risks of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent emerging evidence suggests that a group of predominantly liver-derived proteins called hepatokines directly affect the progression of atherosclerosis by modulating endothelial dysfunction and infiltration of inflammatory cells into vessel walls. Here, we summarize the role of the representative hepatokines fibroblast growth factor 21, fetuin-A, and selenoprotein P in the progression of CVD. PMID:25729707

  12. Hepatokines as a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2015-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, independently increases the risks of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent emerging evidence suggests that a group of predominantly liver-derived proteins called hepatokines directly affect the progression of atherosclerosis by modulating endothelial dysfunction and infiltration of inflammatory cells into vessel walls. Here, we summarize the role of the representative hepatokines fibroblast growth factor 21, fetuin-A, and selenoprotein P in the progression of CVD. PMID:25729707

  13. Periodontitis, cardiovascular disease and pregnancy outcome--focal infection revisited?

    PubMed

    Ide, M; Linden, G J

    2014-10-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a renewed interest around the possible effects of periodontal disease on both cardiovascular health and pregnancy outcome (among other diseases), a topic which has interested science for hundreds of years. These have led to a range of studies, workshops and consensus documents being published, with corresponding coverage in general and professional media. In this article the authors summarise the history and supporting theories behind such associations, whether clinical studies have been able to confirm these and what this might mean for general practitioners who are questioned on this topic by patients. PMID:25342358

  14. Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

  15. Risk of cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Bonapace, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Loria, Paola; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health problem of epidemic proportions worldwide. Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that NAFLD is not only associated with liver-related morbidity and mortality but also with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), abnormalities of cardiac function and structure (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy, and heart failure), valvular heart disease (e.g., aortic valve sclerosis) and arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation). Experimental evidence suggests that NAFLD itself, especially in its more severe forms, exacerbates systemic/hepatic insulin resistance, causes atherogenic dyslipidemia, and releases a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiac and arrhythmic complications. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease the risk for CHD and other cardiac/arrhythmic complications. The purpose of this clinical review is to summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that supports a strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications, to briefly examine the putative biological mechanisms underlying this association, and to discuss some of the current treatment options that may influence both NAFLD and its related cardiac and arrhythmic complications. PMID:24587651

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis: genetic variants as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; López-Mejias, Raquel; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; González-Gay, Miguel A; Martín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with premature mortality, severe morbidity, and functional impairment leading to considerable financial burden for both patients and society. Since disease progression and complications can differ from one patient to another, genetic markers are of potential relevance for identifying those individuals at a higher risk of more severe disease. RA is a complex polygenic disease. Cardiovascular (CV) disease due to accelerated atherogenesis is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with RA. Several studies support the implication of genetic factors in the development of CV disease in RA. In addition to the strong association between alleles of the HLA-DRB1*04 shared epitope and both subclinical and clinically evident CV disease, genes implicated in inflammation and metabolism, such as TNFA, MTHFR, and CCR5, seem to be associated with a higher risk of CV disease in patients with RA. We propose the use of these genetic variants as molecular biomarkers that could help to predict disease outcome at diagnosis of RA and, therefore, to optimize the treatment and management of other risk factors from an early stage of the disease. PMID:25163740

  17. Roles of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Cardiovascular Physiology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Susan S.; Cheng, Hsin-Yuan; Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Morris, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) exerts a range of effects on the cardiovasculature that suggest a role in a variety of critical cardiovascular functions and clinically important cardiovascular diseases. LPA is an activator of platelets from a majority of human donors identifying a possible role as a regulator of acute thrombosis and platelet function in atherogenesis and vascular injury responses. Of particular interest in this context, LPA is an effective phenotypic modulator of vascular smooth muscle cells promoting the de-differentiation, proliferation and migration of these cells that is required for the development of intimal hyperplasia. Exogenous administration of LPA results in acute and systemic changes in blood pressure in different animal species, suggesting a role for LPA in both normal blood pressure regulation and hypertension. Advances in our understanding of the molecular machinery responsible for the synthesis, actions and inactivation of LPA now promises to provide the tools required to define the role of LPA in cardiovascular physiology and disease. In this review we discuss aspects of LPA signaling in the cardiovasculature focusing on recent advances and attempting to highlight presently unresolved issues and promising avenues for further investigation. PMID:18586114

  18. Epidemic Legionnaires' disease. Airborne transmission down a chimney.

    PubMed

    Band, J D; LaVenture, M; Davis, J P; Mallison, G F; Skaliy, P; Hayes, P S; Schell, W L; Weiss, H; Greenberg, D J; Fraser, D W

    1981-06-19

    Between June 18 and July 9, 1979, Legionnaires' disease (LD) developed in 13 persons who had visited a hotel complex in Wisconsin. All had visited the part of the hotel that contains the restaurants and meeting rooms (building A). Legionnaires' disease occurred in 1% who had been exclusively in the meeting rooms and in 0.1% who had eaten only at the hotel restaurants. Furthermore, 1.5% exposed to meeting room 1 and none of those exposed only to the other meeting rooms had LD. Legionella pneumophila was isolated from water in the cooling tower on top of building A. Located within 5 m downwind of the cooling-tower exhaust, a chimney with an open damper allowed cooling-tower exhaust (as demonstrated by air tracer studies) to enter meeting room 1 via the fireplace. Although cases did not occur after the cooling-tower water was treated by continuous hyperchlorination and the chimney was sealed, a seven-day lag occurred between treatment and elimination of the organism from the tower water. PMID:7230470

  19. Lipophilic chemical exposure as a cause of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure has been linked to numerous diseases in humans. These diseases include cancers; neurological and neurodegenerative diseases; metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity; reproductive and developmental disorders; and endocrine disorders. Many studies have associated the link between exposures to environmental chemicals and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These chemicals include persistent organic pollutants (POPs); the plastic exudates bisphenol A and phthalates; low molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWHCs); and poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Here it is reported that though the chemicals reported on differ widely in chemical properties and known points of attack in humans, a common link exists between them. All are lipophilic species that are found in serum. Environmentally induced CVD is related to total lipophilic chemical load in the blood. Lipophiles serve to promote the absorption of otherwise not absorbed toxic hydrophilic species that promote CVD. PMID:24179429

  20. Pathophysiologic and treatment strategies for cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease and kidney transplantations.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Mythili; Kozicky, Mark; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    The inextricable link between the heart and the kidneys predestines that significant cardiovascular disease ensues in the face of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a point of fact, the leading cause of mortality of patients on dialysis is still from cardiovascular etiologies, albeit differing in particular types of disease from the general population. For example, sudden cardiac death outnumbers coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD, which is the reverse for the general population. In this review, we will focus on the pathophysiology and treatment options of important traditional and nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients such as hypertension, anemia, vascular calcification, hyperparathyroidism, uremia, and oxidative stress. The evidence of erythropoietin-stimulating agents, phosphate binders, calcimimetics, and dialysis modalities will be presented. We will then discuss how these risk factors may be changed and perhaps exacerbated after renal transplantation. This is largely due to the immunosuppressive agents that are both crucial yet potentially detrimental in the posttransplant state. Calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, the mainstay of transplant immunosuppression, are all known to increase the risks of developing new onset diabetes as well as the metabolic syndrome. Thus, we need to carefully negotiate between patients' cardiovascular profile and their risks of rejection. Finally, we end by considering strategies by which we may minimize cardiovascular disease in the transplant population, as this modality still confers the highest chance of survival in patients with ESRD. PMID:25420053

  1. Plasmid-mediated gene therapy for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul D; Kingston, Paul A

    2011-09-01

    Gene transfer within the cardiovascular system was first demonstrated in 1989 yet, despite extensive basic-science and clinical research, unequivocal benefit in the clinical setting remains to be demonstrated. Potential reasons for this include the fact that recombinant viral vectors, used in the majority of clinical studies, have inherent problems with immunogenicity that are difficult to circumvent. Attention has turned therefore to plasmid vectors, which possess many advantages over viruses in terms of safety and ease of use, and many clinical studies have now been performed using non-viral technology. This review will provide an overview of clinical trials for cardiovascular disease using plasmid vectors, recent developments in plasmid delivery and design, and potential directions for this modality of gene therapy. PMID:21742674

  2. Pharmacogenomics: Application to the Management of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JA; Cavallari, LH; Beitelshees, AL; Lewis, JP; Shuldiner, AR; Roden, DM

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen substantial advances in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics. Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and warfarin have been defined, resulting in changes to the product labels for these drugs that suggest the use of genetic information as a guide for therapy. Genetic tests are available, as are guidelines for incorporation of genetic information into patient-care decisions. These guidelines and the literature supporting them are reviewed herein. Significant advances have also been made in the pharmacogenomics of statin-induced myopathy and the response to ?-blockers in heart failure, although the clinical applications of these findings are less clear. Other areas hold promise, including the pharmacogenomics of antihypertensive drugs, aspirin, and drug-induced long-QT syndrome (diLQTS). The potential value of pharmacogenomics in the discovery and development of new drugs is also described. In summary, pharmacogenomics has current applications in the management of cardiovascular disease, with clinically relevant data continuing to mount. PMID:21918509

  3. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  4. Effects of Epidemic Diseases on the Distribution of Bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how outbreaks and the occurrence of Anthrax, Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis may differentially affect the distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Using a combination of mapping, Jaccard overlapping coefficients and binary regressions, the study determined how each disease correlated with the extent of occurrence of, and the areas occupied by, bonobos. Anthrax has only been reported to occur outside the range of bonobos and so was not considered further. Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis were each reported within the area of occupancy of bonobos. Their respective overlap coefficients were: J?=?0.10; Q??=?0.05?=?2.00 (odds ratios?=?0.0001, 95% CI?=?0.0057; Z?=??19.41, significant) for Ebola; J?=?1.00; Q??=?0.05?=?24.0 (odds ratios?=?1.504, 95% CI?=?0.5066–2.6122) for Monkeypox; and, J?=?0.33; Q??=?0.05?=?11.5 (Z?=?1.14, significant) for Trypanosomiasis. There were significant relationships for the presence and absence of Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis and the known extent of occurrence of bonobos, based on the equations y?=?0.2368Ln(x)+0.8006 (R2?=?0.9772) and y?=??0.2942Ln(x)+0.7155 (R2?=?0.698), respectively. The positive relationship suggested that bonobos tolerated the presence of Monkeypox. In contrast, the significant negative coefficient suggested that bonobos were absent in areas where Trypanosomiasis is endemic. Our results suggest that large rivers may have prevented Ebola from spreading into the range of bonobos. Meanwhile, Trypanosomiasis has been recorded among humans within the area of occurrence of bonobos, and appears the most important disease in shaping the area of occupancy of bonobos within their overall extent of occupancy. PMID:23251431

  5. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

  6. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Andrew J.; Lips, Karen R.; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

  7. An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation?

    PubMed Central

    Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J.K.; Suskin, N.; St. Lawrence, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compared to age-matched controls, and 2) the effects of a six-month exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation program on CAD-related GMV decline. Compared to controls, significant decreases in regional GMV were found in the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyrus; superior and inferior parietal gyrus; middle and superior temporal gyrus and in the posterior cerebellum of CAD patients. Cardiovascular rehabilitation was associated with the recovery of regional GMV in the superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellum of the CAD patients as well as the increase in GMV in the supplementary motor area. Total and regional GMV correlated with fitness level, defined by the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), at baseline but not after cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study demonstrates that cardiovascular disease can adversely affect age-related decline in GMV; and that these disease-related effects could be mitigated by moderate levels of exercise training as part of cardiovascular rehabilitation. PMID:24273722

  8. Controlling ischemic cardiovascular disease: from basic mechanisms to clinical management.

    PubMed

    Beyar, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    Progress in cardiovascular disease understanding and management continues at an exponential pace. Our understanding of the molecular basis of disease is enhanced by newer molecular measurement techniques, sophisticated models of physiological protein functions, understanding of the genetic foundation for diseases, and the incorporation of population genetic tools in our clinical analysis. In this review, I discuss prevention and therapy of coronary stenosis impeding coronary flows, prevention of acute and chronic manifestation of coronary flow impairment, and interfering with myocardial manifestation of acute or chronic deprivation of coronary flow. Mechanical heart failure and arrhythmias are common causes of myocardial dysfunction that originate, in part, from the loss of myocardial tissue and function. Techniques for interfering with cardiac function, in order to address the molecular mechanisms associated with restenosis, range from pharmacologic to mechanical procedures including mechanical dilation and scaffolding of coronary stenosis. The use of stents with and without drug coating is leading the clinical world of revascularization side-by-side with cardiac bypass surgery. Other topics that are discussed here include managing myocardial damage and acute and chronic pump failure. Finally, population genetics of cardiac health and the potential for genetic therapeutic guidance in managing ischemic cardiovascular diseases are discussed. PMID:18375595

  9. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto; Santos, Raul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Objective This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ? 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Conclusion Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients. PMID:25029472

  10. Inflammatory proteins as predictors of cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmine Zoccali; Francesca Mallamaci; Giovanni Tripepi

    2004-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk from potentially devastating cardiovascular sequelae due to the unique clustering of risk factors in these patients. Inflammation is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of these cardiovascular lesions. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced from monocytes, and also from adipocytes, have been studied in this regard. Pro-inflammatory

  11. Cardiovascular Disease: Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Calcification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasan Beddhu

    \\u000a Coronary artery disease is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis patients. There is strong evidence that kidney\\u000a disease is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In addition, traditional risk factors such as obesity, hypertension\\u000a and diabetes, as well as nontraditional factors such as inflammation and oxidative stress, likely contribute to the excess\\u000a risk of atherosclerosis in CKD. It

  12. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Predicts Chronic Kidney Disease Awareness in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Whaley-Connell; Andrew S. Bomback; Samy I. McFarlane; Suying Li; Tricia Roberts; Shu-Cheng Chen; Allan J. Collins; Keith Norris; George L. Bakris; James R. Sowers; Peter A. McCullough

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Lack of chronic kidney disease (CKD) awareness is common. Recent data suggest that the presence of concurrent diabetes may heighten CKD awareness, but current data have not supported the hypothesis that healthcare delivery or insurance status improves awareness in the diabetic population. Diabetes is associated with high cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity, especially in patients with CKD. We hypothesized that

  13. Developmental plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Low, Felicia M; Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    The importance of developmental factors in influencing the risk of later-life disease has a strong evidence base derived from multiple epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies in animals and humans. During early life, an organism is able to adjust its phenotypic development in response to environmental cues. Such developmentally plastic responses evolved as a fitness-maximizing strategy to cope with variable environments. There are now increasing data that these responses are, at least partially, underpinned by epigenetic mechanisms. A mismatch between the early and later-life environments may lead to inappropriate early life-course epigenomic changes that manifest in later life as increased vulnerability to disease. There is also growing evidence for the transgenerational transmission of epigenetic marks. This article reviews the evidence that susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular disease in humans is linked to changes in epigenetic marks induced by early-life environmental cues, and discusses the clinical, public health and therapeutic implications that arise. PMID:22122338

  14. Therapeutic potential of endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Dzau, Victor J; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Pachori, Alok S; Morello, Fulvio; Melo, Luis G

    2005-07-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and cell loss are prominent features in cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) originating from the bone marrow play a significant role in neovascularization of ischemic tissues and in re-endothelialization of injured blood vessels. Several studies have shown the therapeutic potential of EPC transplantation in rescue of tissue ischemia and in repair of blood vessels and bioengineering of prosthetic grafts. Recent small-scale trials have provided preliminary evidence of feasibility, safety, and efficacy in patients with myocardial and critical limb ischemia. However, several studies have shown that age and cardiovascular disease risk factors reduce the availability of circulating EPCs (CEPCs) and impair their function to varying degrees. In addition, the relative scarcity of CEPCs limits the ability to expand these cells in sufficient numbers for some therapeutic applications. Priority must be given to the development of strategies to enhance the number and improve the function of CEPCs. Furthermore, alternative sources of EPC such as chord blood need to be explored. Strategies for improvement of cell adhesion, survival, and prevention of cell senescence are also essential to ensure therapeutic viability. Genetic engineering of EPCs may be a useful approach to developing these cells into efficient therapeutic tools. In the clinical arena there is pressing need to standardize the protocols for isolation, culture, and therapeutic application of EPC. Large-scale multi-center randomized trials are required to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of EPC therapy. Despite these hurdles, the outlook for EPC-based therapy for cardiovascular disease is promising. PMID:15956118

  15. Cardiovascular disease. Physician attitudes toward prevention and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, A. M.; Niyonsenga, T.; Dion, I.; Delisle, E.; Xhignesse, M.; Bernier, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Survey of physician attitudes toward practising cardiovascular disease prevention. DESIGN: Questionnaire administered via telecommunication from 1992 through 1994. SETTING: The FAMUS (Family Medicine, University of Sherbrooke) project, between 1992 and 1996, used weekly telecommunication to collect data from 200 general practitioners throughout the province of Quebec on cardiovascular disease risk factors and their treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Of 200 physicians contributing to the FAMUS project, 156 completed questionnaires (response rate 78%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variations in attitudes to prevention policy and risk factor interventions. RESULTS: Survey results revealed physicians knew important risk factors for cardiovascular disease but differed in attitudes toward efficacy of treatment. Intervention to control cholesterol was thought to be very effective by 21.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2 +/- 6.4) and without effect by 10.3% (95% CI 10.3 +/- 4.8). Intervention to improve dietary habits was considered ineffective by 48.1% (95% CI 48.1 +/- 7.8). Confidence in managing risk factors varied; most respondents described themselves as only moderately skilled. A few practitioners (30.1%; 95% CI 30.1 +/- 7.2) acknowledged practice guidelines as an important source of information on which to base preventive interventions. Only 14.7% (95% CI 14.7 +/- 5.6) of those surveyed included remuneration as contributing to their implementation of prevention activities in practice. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in physician attitudes could influence risk factor intervention. Interventions to change lifestyle are associated with uncertainty about patient compliance, efficacy of treatment, and ability to effect lifestyle changes. PMID:9585851

  16. Pharmacogenetics and Cardiovascular Disease—Implications for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the genetic factors influencing response to a variety of drugs, including those targeted at treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the case of clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins, the literature has become sufficiently strong that guidelines are now available describing the use of genetic information to guide treatment with these therapies, and some health centers are using this information in the care of their patients. There are many challenges in moving from research data to translation to practice; we discuss some of these barriers and the approaches some health systems are taking to overcome them. The body of literature that has led to the clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotyping for clopidogrel, VKORC1, CYP2C9; and CYP4F2 for warfarin; and SLCO1B1 for statins is comprehensively described. We also provide clarity for other genes that have been extensively studied relative to these drugs, but for which the data are conflicting. Finally, we comment briefly on pharmacogenetics of other cardiovascular drugs and highlight ?-blockers as the drug class with strong data that has not yet seen clinical implementation. It is anticipated that genetic information will increasingly be available on patients, and it is important to identify those examples where the evidence is sufficiently robust and predictive to use genetic information to guide clinical decisions. The review herein provides several examples of the accumulation of evidence and eventual clinical translation in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics. PMID:23686351

  17. P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Erlinge, David

    2007-01-01

    The role of ATP as an extracellular signalling molecule is now well established and evidence is accumulating that ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, UTP and UDP) play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, acting via P2X (ion channel) and P2Y (G protein-coupled) receptors. In this article we consider the dual role of ATP in regulation of vascular tone, released as a cotransmitter from sympathetic nerves or released in the vascular lumen in response to changes in blood flow and hypoxia. Further, purinergic long-term trophic and inflammatory signalling is described in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and death in angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, restenosis and atherosclerosis. The effects on haemostasis and cardiac regulation is reviewed. The involvement of ATP in vascular diseases such as thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes will also be discussed, as well as various heart conditions. The purinergic system may be of similar importance as the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems in cardiovascular regulation and pathophysiology. The extracellular nucleotides and their cardiovascular P2 receptors are now entering the phase of clinical development. PMID:18368530

  18. Signature biomarkers in diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Tanusri; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Chakraborty, Arpita; Maiti, Animesh; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2015-01-01

    Platelet signatures indicating differential dysfunction, hyperactivation, aggregation or adhesion are capable of expressing their characters during the journey of a disease process, and can be utilized as cost effective biomarkers with immense clinical value. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major lifestyle disease of contemporary world with progression to diabetes associated cardiovascular diseases (DM-CVD). We identified a few potential biomarkers in platelets of T2DM to analyze the thrombotic risk in diabetes subjects by utilizing flow cytometric quantification with different flurochrome conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Our study describes interesting correlations (p<0.0001) for different clinical parameters of concurrent threat for vessel occlusion and the status of indices like reactive oxygen species, von Willebrand factor and mitochondrial membrane potential using western blotting and fluorescence techniques. Our study involved 32 T2DM, and 31 T2DM-CVD subjects compared to 29 healthy controls without any history of T2DM or CVD. An altered expression of platelet surface markers P-selectin (CD62p) and GpIIb/IIIa (CD 41/61, PAC1) along with changes in the platelet size due to agonist induced activation contributed to the enhanced thrombotic potential in the patients. This work elucidates the prospect of platelet biomarkers as diagnostic tool to predict cardiovascular risk in DM subjects. PMID:24531124

  19. [Barriers to professional activity among people with cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Aneta; Ojrzanowski, Marcin; Lipi?ska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a very important issue for the health care system. They are usually chronic diseases widespread in the society that require costly treatment and cause long-term sick absenteeism and partial or total incapacity for work. CVD are one of the most common cause of disability in Poland, therefore they constitute a medical, social and economic problem. Low occupational activity of people with CVD at working age requires special effort to develop and implement methods of their professional activation. A key role in this process should be played by physicians of occupational health services (OHS). In the case of disabled workers with cardiovascular disease, the decision about avoiding professional activity is often medically unjustified. It arises from a lack of sufficient knowledge ofjurisprudence and the fear of both the physician and the employee ofpatient's health deteriorations. Therefore, educational actions addressed to OHS physicians and to the patients are needed to enable the patients with CVD to remain at or to return to work. PMID:22774469

  20. Epigenetic mechanisms that underpin metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A; Buklijas, Tatjana; Low, Felicia M; Beedle, Alan S

    2009-07-01

    Cellular commitment to a specific lineage is controlled by differential silencing of genes, which in turn depends on epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation and histone modification. During early embryogenesis, the mammalian genome is 'wiped clean' of most epigenetic modifications, which are progressively re-established during embryonic development. Thus, the epigenome of each mature cellular lineage carries the record of its developmental history. The subsequent trajectory and pattern of development are also responsive to environmental influences, and such plasticity is likely to have an epigenetic basis. Epigenetic marks may be transmitted across generations, either directly by persisting through meiosis or indirectly through replication in the next generation of the conditions in which the epigenetic change occurred. Developmental plasticity evolved to match an organism to its environment, and a mismatch between the phenotypic outcome of adaptive plasticity and the current environment increases the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. These considerations point to epigenetic processes as a key mechanism that underpins the developmental origins of chronic noncommunicable disease. Here, we review the evidence that environmental influences during mammalian development lead to stable changes in the epigenome that alter the individual's susceptibility to chronic metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and discuss the clinical implications. PMID:19488075

  1. Endothelium and Its Alterations in Cardiovascular Diseases: Life Style Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, Corrado; Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium, which forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and lymphatics, is a highly metabolically active organ that is involved in many physiopathological processes, including the control of vasomotor tone, barrier function, leukocyte adhesion, and trafficking and inflammation. In this review, we summarized and described the following: (i) endothelial cell function in physiological conditions and (ii) endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in the main cardiovascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis, and hypertension) and to diabetes, cigarette smoking, and aging physiological process. Finally, we presented the currently available evidence that supports the beneficial effects of physical activity and various dietary compounds on endothelial functions. PMID:24719887

  2. Epidemiology and Management of Antiretroviral-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B; Henderson, Harold; Stover, Kayla R

    2015-01-01

    Risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will continue to evolve as improved treatments and life expectancy of these patients increases. Although initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been shown to reduce this risk, some ARV medications may induce metabolic abnormalities, further compounding the risk of CVD. In this patient population, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies should be employed to treat and reduce further risk of CVD. This review summarizes epidemiology data of the risk factors and development of CVD in HIV and provides recommendations to manage CVD in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25866592

  3. Dying to be equal: women, alcohol, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hanna, E; Dufour, M C; Elliott, S; Stinson, F; Harford, T C

    1992-11-01

    This data note explores the relationship of gender, alcohol consumption and premature death from cardiovascular disease (MCVD). Data on the 8164 deaths attributed to MCVD from the National Mortality Followback Study (NMFS) were analyzed controlling for gender and consumption. Women who are heavy drinkers die young at a rate equal to that of men who drink heavily. In light of this, we recommend that future research and preventive efforts in this area include females as subjects and alcohol as a major risk factor. PMID:1458038

  4. Lysophosphatidic acid metabolism and elimination in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salous, Abdelghaffar Kamal

    The bioactive lipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are present in human and mouse plasma at a concentration of ~0.1-1 microM and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system including atherothrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and immune function, edema formation, and permeability. PPAP2B, the gene encoding LPP3, a broad activity integral membrane enzyme that terminates LPA actions in the vasculature, has a single nucleotide polymorphism that been recently associated with coronary artery disease risk. The synthesis and signaling of LPA and S1P in the cardiovascular system have been extensively studied but the mechanisms responsible for their elimination are less well understood. The broad goal of this research was to examine the role of LPP3 in the termination of LPA signaling in models of cardiovascular disease involving vascular wall cells, investigate the role of LPP3 in the elimination of plasma LPA, and further characterize the elimination of plasma LPA. The central hypothesis is that LPP3 plays an important role in attenuating the pathological responses to LPA signaling and that it mediates the elimination of exogenously applied bioactive lipids from the plasma. These hypotheses were tested using molecular biological approaches, in vitro studies, synthetic lysophospholipid mimetics, modified surgical procedures, and mass spectrometry assays. My results indicated that LPP3 played a critical role in attenuating LPA signaling mediating the pathological processes of intimal hyperplasia and vascular leak in mouse models of disease. Additionally, enzymatic inactivation of lysophospholipids by LPP and PLA enzymes in the plasma was not a primary mechanism for the rapid elimination of plasma LPA and S1P. Instead, evidence strongly suggested a transcellular uptake mechanism by hepatic non-parenchymal cells as the predominant mechanism for elimination of these molecules. These results support a model in which LPP3 is critical to regulating localized rather than systemic LPA signaling and elimination and provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the association of LPP3 polymorphism with cardiovascular disease as well as implications for lysophospholipid therapeutic drug design. KEYWORDS: Lysophosphatidic acid, Lipid Phosphate Phosphatas; Lipid Signaling, Transcellular Uptake, Hepatic Extraction

  5. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.; Tamene, Mahader; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated that exposure to discrimination may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but compared to other psychosocial risk factors, large-scale epidemiologic and community based studies examining associations between reports of discrimination and CVD risk have only emerged fairly recently. This review summarizes findings from studies of self-reported experiences of discrimination and CVD risk published between 2011–2013. We document the innovative advances in recent work, the notable heterogeneity in these studies, and the considerable need for additional work with objective clinical endpoints other than blood pressure. Implications for the study of racial disparities in CVD and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24729825

  6. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan; Butterworth, Adam S.; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kondapally Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao; Thompson, Alex; Sarwar, Nadeem; Willeit, Peter; Ridker, Paul M; Barr, Elizabeth L.M.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Psaty, Bruce M.; Brenner, Hermann; Balkau, Beverley; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Daimon, Makoto; Willeit, Johann; Njølstad, Inger; Nissinen, Aulikki; Brunner, Eric J.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Price, Jackie F.; Sundström, Johan; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Verschuren, W. M. M.; Wald, Nicholas; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Whincup, Peter H.; Ford, Ian; Goldbourt, Uri; Gómez-de-la-Cámara, Agustín; Gallacher, John; Simons, Leon A.; Rosengren, Annika; Sutherland, Susan E.; Björkelund, Cecilia; Blazer, Dan G.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Onat, Altan; Marín Ibañez, Alejandro; Casiglia, Edoardo; Jukema, J. Wouter; Simpson, Lara M.; Giampaoli, Simona; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Selmer, Randi; Wennberg, Patrik; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Dankner, Rachel; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kavousi, Maryam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Evans, Denis; Wallace, Robert B.; Cushman, Mary; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Umans, Jason G.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Sato, Shinichi; Gillum, Richard F.; Folsom, Aaron R.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Moons, Karel G.; Griffin, Simon J.; Sattar, Naveed; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Thompson, Simon G.; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Analysis of individual-participant data available from 73 prospective studies involving 294 998 participants without a known history of diabetes mellitus or CVD at the baseline assessment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Measures of risk discrimination for CVD outcomes (eg, C-index) and reclassification (eg, net reclassification improvement) of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (<5%), intermediate (5%to <7.5%), and high (?7.5%) risk. RESULTS During a median follow-up of 9.9 (interquartile range, 7.6-13.2) years, 20 840 incident fatal and nonfatal CVD outcomes (13 237 coronary heart disease and 7603 stroke outcomes) were recorded. In analyses adjusted for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors, there was an approximately J-shaped association between HbA1c values and CVD risk. The association between HbA1c values and CVD risk changed only slightly after adjustment for total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations or estimated glomerular filtration rate, but this association attenuated somewhat after adjustment for concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. The C-index for a CVD risk prediction model containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors alone was 0.7434 (95% CI, 0.7350 to 0.7517). The addition of information on HbA1c was associated with a C-index change of 0.0018 (0.0003 to 0.0033) and a net reclassification improvement of 0.42 (?0.63 to 1.48) for the categories of predicted 10-year CVD risk. The improvement provided by HbA1c assessment in prediction of CVD risk was equal to or better than estimated improvements for measurement of fasting, random, or postload plasma glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In a study of individuals without known CVD or diabetes, additional assessment of HbA1c values in the context of CVD risk assessment provided little incremental benefit for prediction of CVD risk. PMID:24668104

  7. Periodontal Disease and Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Joshipura; H. C. Wand; A. T. Merchant; E. B. Rimm

    2004-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the gums characterized by a loss of attachment between the tooth and bone, and by bone loss. We evaluated cross-sectionally the association between periodontal disease and C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, factor VII, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), LDL-C, von Willebrand factor, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2. The final sample consisted

  8. Using blood glucose data as an indicator for epidemic disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Arsand, Eirik; Walseth, Ole Anders; Andersson, Niklas; Fernando, Ruchith; Granberg, Ove; Bellika, Johan G; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    In the future, transfer of vital sensor data from patients to the public health care system is likely to become commonplace. Systems for automatic transfer of sensor data are now at the prototype stage. As electronic health record (EHR) systems adapt such functionality, widespread use may become an actuality in the foreseeable future.To prevent spreading of diseases, an early detection of infection is important. At the time an outbreak is diagnosed, many people may already be infected due to the incubation period. This study suggests an approach for detecting an epidemic outbreak at an early stage by monitoring blood glucose data collected from people with diabetes. Continuous analysis of blood glucose data may have the potential to prevent large outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as different strains of Influenza, Cholera, Plague, Ebola, Anthrax and SARS.When a person gets infected, the blood glucose value increases. If the blood glucose data from a large number of patients with diabetes are collected in a central database, it may be possible to detect an epidemic disease outbreak at an early stage. Advanced data analysis on the data may detect predominant numbers of incidences, indicating a possible outbreak. This gives the health authorities the possibilities to take actions to limit the outbreak and its consequences for all the inhabitants in an affected area.At the Norwegian Centre for Telemedicine, a mobile system for automatic transfer of blood glucose values has been constructed. By using wireless communication standards such as Bluetooth and GSM, the system transfers blood glucose data to an electronic health record system. Combined with a system accessing and querying data from EHR systems for patient surveillance we are extending our work into an Epidemic Disease Detection using blood Glucose (EDDG) system. PMID:16160262

  9. Penile Doppler ultrasound predicting cardiovascular disease in men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nikhil; Herati, Amin; Gilbert, Bruce R

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. Traditional risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, and diet are used to screen for cardiovascular disease. However, these risk factors miss a significant population who are at risk for future cardiac events. Erectile dysfunction (ED) has many associated conditions in common with cardiovascular disease and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular. Measurements made on penile Doppler ultrasound (PDU), such as cavernosal artery peak systolic velocity (PSV), cavernosal artery intima-medial thickness, and the finding of cavernosal artery calcification, are indicators of generalized vascular disease. Thus, elements of PDU can identify men at higher risk for cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the proper technique for PDU and the literature supporting the use of PDU to predict cardiovascular disease in men with erectile dysfunction. PMID:25677231

  10. Risk Factors in the Initial Presentation of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-03

    Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina; Chronic Stable Angina; Ischemic Stroke; Cerebrovascular Accident; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Sudden Coronary Death; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Sudden Death; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Failure

  11. Epigenetics of Cardiovascular Disease – A New “Beat” in Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Paul J.; Sukumar, Aravin N.; Marsden, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a powerful tool in the identification of disease-associated variants. Unfortunately, many of these studies have found that the estimated variability in cardiovascular disease risk cannot be fully explained by traditional paradigms of genetic variation in protein coding genes. Moreover, traditional views do not sufficiently explain the well-known link between cardiovascular disease and environmental influence. We posit that epigenetics, defined as chromatin-based mechanisms important in the regulation of gene expression that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence per se, represents the missing link. The nuclear-based mechanisms that contribute to epigenetic gene regulation can be broadly separated into three unique but highly interrelated processes: DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone density and post-translational modifications; and RNA-based mechanisms. Together they complement the cis/trans perspective on transcriptional control paradigms in blood vessels. Moreover, it provides a molecular basis for understanding how the environment impacts the genome to modify cardiovascular disease risk over the lifetime of a cell and its offspring. This review provides an introduction to epigenetic function and cardiovascular disease, with a focus on endothelial cell biology. Additionally, we highlight emerging concepts on epigenetic gene regulation that are highly relevant to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. PMID:25408699

  12. Therapy Insight: management of cardiovascular disease in patients with cancer and cardiac complications of cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarif Y Khakoo; Edward TH Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac disease in patients with cancer or caused by cancer therapy is a clinical problem of emerging importance. Optimum management of cardiovascular disease can mean that patients with cancer can successfully receive therapies to treat their malignancy and can reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease in cancer survivors. The presence of cancer and cancer-related morbidities substantially complicates the

  13. The influence of cardiovascular disease on quality of life in type 2 diabetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. de Visser; H. J. G. Bilo; K. H. Groenier; W. de Visser; B. Meyboom-de Jong

    2002-01-01

    Background and Aims: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, disease-related complications have a considerable effect on the quality of life. We studied the influence of cardiovascular disease on quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients in a longitudinal design. We also studied whether quality of life in any way predicts the manifes- tation of cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: A

  14. The influence of cardiovascular disease on quality of life in type 2 diabetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. de Visser; H. J. G. Bilo; K. H. Groenier; W. de Visser; B. Meyboom-de Jong

    2002-01-01

    Background and Aims: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, disease-related complications have a considerable effect on the quality of life. We studied the influence of cardiovascular disease on quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients in a longitudinal design. We also studied whether quality of life in any way predicts the manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: A prospective

  15. Cardiovascular Involvement in Connective Tissue Disease: The Role of Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoBing; Lou, MeiNa; Li, Yongji; Ye, WenJing; Zhang, ZhiYong; Jia, Xiufen; Shi, HongYing; Zhu, XiaoChun; Wang, LiangXing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular involvement in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD), and determine whether interstitial lung disease (ILD) in these patients is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. Methods This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of 436 CTD patients admitted to a large teaching hospital in Zhejiang province, China, along with an additional 436 participants of an annual community health screening conducted in the physical examination center who served as age- and gender-matched controls. Demographic, clinical, serologic and imaging characteristics, as well as medications used by each participant were recorded. Cardiovascular involvement was defined by uniform criteria. Correlations between clinical/serologic factors and cardiovascular involvement were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results CTD patients had a significantly higher cardiovascular involvement rate than controls (64.7% vs 23.4%), with higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, elevated systolic and diastolic pressures, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower albumin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, CTP patients with cardiovascular involvement were significantly older, had higher systolic and diastolic pressures, C-reactive protein, glucose, and uric acid, higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and use of moderate- to high-dose glucocorticoids, and longer disease duration compared to patients without involvement (all p < 0.05). Moreover, CTD in patients with cardiovascular involvement was more likely to be complicated by ILD (p < 0.01), which manifested as a higher alveolar inflammation score (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, cardiovascular involvement in CTD patients was associated with age, systolic pressure, body mass index, uric acid, disease duration > 2 years, use of moderate- to high-dose glucocorticoids, and ILD with a high alveolar inflammation score. Conclusion Cardiovascular involvement is increased in CTD patients, and is associated with ILD with a higher alveolar inflammation score. Thus, early-stage echocardiography and CT scans should be used to detect potential cardiovascular complications in these patients. PMID:25775471

  16. Cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease: so near, so far.

    PubMed

    Picano, Eugenio; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ferrari, Gian Franco; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2014-07-15

    In the spectrum of cognitive impairment, ranging from "pure" vascular dementia to Alzheimer's disease (AD), clinical interest has recently expanded from the brain to also include the vessels, shifting the pathophysiological focus from the leaves of synaptic dysfunction to the sap of cerebral microcirculation and the roots of cardiovascular function. From a diagnostic viewpoint, a thorough clinical evaluation of individuals presenting cognitive impairment might systematically include the assessment of the major cardiovascular rings of the chain linking regional perfusion to brain function: 1) lung (with assessment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome); 2) heart function (with clinical examination and echocardiography) and cardiovascular risk factors; 3) orthostatic hypotension (with medical history and measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in supine and upright positions); 4) aorta and large artery stiffness (with assessment of pulse wave velocity); 5) large cerebro-vascular vessel status (with neuroimaging techniques); 6) assessment of microcirculation (with cerebrovascular reactivity testing with transcranial Doppler sonography or MRI perfusion imaging); and 7) assessment of venous cerebral circulation. The apparent difference in approaches to "brain" and "vascular" environmental enrichment with physical, cognitive and sensorial training is conceptually identical to that of a constant gardener caring for an unhealthy tree, watering the leaves ("train the brain") or simply the roots ("mind the vessel"). The therapeutic difference probably consists in the amount and quality of water added to the tree, rather than by where one pours it, with either a top-down (leaves to roots) or bottom-up (roots to leaves) approach. PMID:24856805

  17. Relation between Body Iron Status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Shidfar, Farzad; Zamani, Atefeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between iron stores and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study aimed to investigate the association between body iron indices and some cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In a case–control study conducted in the south of Shiraz, Iran, we determined ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), metabolic risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), and anthropometric measurements in 100 men aged 45 years and higher with newly diagnosed CVD and 100 adjusted controls without evidence for CVD. Results: The mean of low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), CRP, and ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in cases than controls, and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) was significantly lower in cases than controls. Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and the other risk factors in case group showed that only ferritin, serum iron, waist circumference, and LDL-c significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.32 with P < 0.001, r = 0.29 with P < 0.05, r = 0.41 with P < 0.01, and r = 0.36 with P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicated an association between a positive balance of body iron and CVD. Hence, caution should be exercised in administration of iron supplements to patients with CVD and in consumption of food rich in iron by them. PMID:24049617

  18. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Tassell, Mary C.; Kingston, Rosari; Gilroy, Deirdre; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers research into the various mechanisms of action proposed for Crataegus preparations, clinical trials involving Crataegus preparations, and the herb's safety profile. Clinical trials reviewed have been inconsistent in terms of criteria used (sample size, preparation, dosage, etc) but have been largely consistent with regard to positive outcomes. An investigation into data available to date regarding hawthorn preparations and herb/drug interactions reveals that theoretical adverse interactions have not been experienced in practice. Further, adverse reactions relating to the use of hawthorn preparations are infrequent and mild, even at higher dosage ranges. A recent retrospective study by Zick et al. has suggested a negative outcome for the long-term use of hawthorn in the prognosis of heart failure. These findings are examined in this paper. Although further research is needed in certain areas, current research to date suggests that hawthorn may potentially represent a safe, effective, nontoxic agent in the treatment of CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD). PMID:22228939

  19. Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jonathan T; Haworth, Kevin J; Pyne-Geithman, Gail; Holland, Christy K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound (US) has been developed as both a valuable diagnostic tool and a potent promoter of beneficial tissue bioeffects for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. These effects can be mediated by mechanical oscillations of circulating microbubbles, or US contrast agents, which may also encapsulate and shield a therapeutic agent in the bloodstream. Oscillating microbubbles can create stresses directly on nearby tissue or induce fluid effects that effect drug penetration into vascular tissue, lyse thrombi or direct drugs to optimal locations for delivery. Areas covered The present review summarizes investigations that have provided evidence for US-mediated drug delivery as a potent method to deliver therapeutics to diseased tissue for cardiovascular treatment. In particular, the focus will be on investigations of specific aspects relating to US-mediated drug delivery, such as delivery vehicles, drug transport routes, biochemical mechanisms and molecular targeting strategies. Expert opinion These investigations have spurred continued research into alternative therapeutic applications, such as bioactive gas delivery and new US technologies. Successful implementation of US-mediated drug delivery has the potential to change the way many drugs are administered systemically, resulting in more effective and economical therapeutics, and less-invasive treatments. PMID:23448121

  20. Life satisfaction and cardiovascular disease risk in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna; Jankowska, Ewa Anita; Kozie?, S?awomir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. Life satisfaction is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, irrespectively of objective measures of health status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between life satisfaction (LS) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) assessed with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in Polish adults. Material and methods Past, present and projected LS were estimated. The FRS reflecting 10-year CVD risk was calculated from health indices and lifestyle parameters. Relationships between LS and FRS were tested by two-way analysis of variance in 489 men and 591 women, 40–50 years of age. Results Subjects with a reduction in LS over time had a higher FRS compared to peers with an improvement in LS. The relationship between current LS and FRS had a J-shape in men; FRS was lowest in men with an LS of 5–7 (average LS), slightly higher in men with an LS of 8–10 (highest LS), and highest in men with an LS of 1–4 (lowest LS). Among women, there was an inverse linear relationship between LS and FRS: the higher the LS, the lower FRS. There was a strong linear relationship between predicted LS and CVD risk. Highest risk was evident in subjects with low LS in whom low LS was predicted over the next five years. Conclusions Low LS (dissatisfaction) thus has a long-term negative effect on CVD risk in Polish adults of both sexes. PMID:24049521

  1. Scavenger receptors: a key player in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad Z; Sahu, Anita

    2012-08-01

    Abstract The scavenger receptor (SR) super family consists of integral membrane glycoproteins that are involved in recognition of polyanionic structures of either endogenous (e.g., oxidized low-density lipoprotein) or exogenous (e.g., bacterial lipopolysaccharides) origin. SRs are structurally diverse and can be classified into seven different classes (A-G) based on the multidomain structure of the individual members. SRs are present on various types of tissues, such as vascular, adipose, and steroidogenic tissues. In addition to modified lipoprotein uptake, these proteins are also known to regulate apoptotic cell clearance, initiate signal transduction, and serve as pattern recognition receptors for pathogens. Different SRs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes; more importantly, the function of SRs is highly implicated in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. Targeting the SR gene products that mediate the response to and uptake of modified lipids holds great promise in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Inhibition of SR expression using a combined gene therapy and RNA interference strategy also appears to be an option for long-term therapy. The present review focuses on the involvement of SRs in atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and other cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the role of SRs is not restricted to vascular lesions; it is also implicated in a number of different cellular functions. PMID:25436543

  2. Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

  3. The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L

    2014-10-01

    Our group recently discovered that certain dietary nutrients possessing a trimethylamine (TMA) moiety, namely choline/phosphatidylcholine and L-carnitine, participate in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease. A meta-organismal pathway was elucidated involving gut microbiota-dependent formation of TMA and host hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3-dependent (FMO3-dependent) formation of TMA-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite shown to be both mechanistically linked to atherosclerosis and whose levels are strongly linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Collectively, these studies reveal that nutrient precursors, gut microbiota, and host participants along the meta-organismal pathway elucidated may serve as new targets for the prevention and treatment of CVD. PMID:25271725

  4. Cardiovascular disease and occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Aviado, D M

    1996-03-01

    Results of chemical analysis, animal experiments, and human studies are reviewed, criticized, and found not to support claims of an association between workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and occupational coronary heart disease. This review also recommends refinement of the use of dose surrogates, as presently practiced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), for regulating indoor emissions from combustion engines, coal furnaces, tobacco leaf processing, rayon viscose manufacturing, and rubber curing. The work standards OSHA uses for regulation of these complex mixtures could also be used in evaluating ETS and relate to the following constituents of ETS: nicotine, carbon monoxide, benzo[a]pyrene, and carbon disulfide. The data indicate that the levels of these substances potentially arising from ETS are many orders of magnitude below their respective PELs. Thus, based on the standards for exposure surrogates for other complex mixtures, the potential worker exposure from ETS does not require further regulation by OSHA, based on cardiovascular disease. PMID:8776200

  5. The Hispanic paradox in cardiovascular disease and total mortality.

    PubMed

    Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Jean, Nathalie; Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Health statistics and epidemiologic studies have shown that Hispanics live longer than Non Hispanic Whites, despite a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and an average low socioeconomic status, both strong predictors of CVD and mortality. This phenomenon has been dubbed "The Hispanic paradox" and has been demonstrated in old and contemporary cohorts. To date, no factor has been identified that could explain this phenomenon, but socio demographic factors, dietary intake and genetic predisposition have been proposed as possible explanations for the Hispanic paradox. As with the French paradox, where French were found to have a lower rate of coronary heart disease (CHD), helped to identify the role of the Mediterranean diet and wine consumption in the prevention of CHD, the Hispanic paradox could help identify protective factors against CHD. This article describes the current evidence supporting the existence of the Hispanic paradox and provides a brief review on the possible explanations. PMID:25246267

  6. The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    Our group recently discovered that certain dietary nutrients possessing a trimethylamine (TMA) moiety, namely choline/phosphatidylcholine and L-carnitine, participate in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease. A meta-organismal pathway was elucidated involving gut microbiota–dependent formation of TMA and host hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3–dependent (FMO3-dependent) formation of TMA–N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite shown to be both mechanistically linked to atherosclerosis and whose levels are strongly linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Collectively, these studies reveal that nutrient precursors, gut microbiota, and host participants along the meta-organismal pathway elucidated may serve as new targets for the prevention and treatment of CVD. PMID:25271725

  7. A note on parameter estimation for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paul S; Ghani, Azra C

    2007-02-10

    A recent series of papers has raised issues regarding estimation of the key epidemiological parameters of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) from fitting survival models to case data. In particular, it was stated that the scale of the epidemic cannot be estimated and must be fixed in any analysis. We show that this problem is an artefact of the approximate likelihood used in these papers to facilitate model-fitting, and is not a concern if estimation is based on the full likelihood. We also address comments in these papers regarding the choice of incubation period distribution. PMID:16612835

  8. Serum Amyloid P and Cardiovascular Disease in Older Men and Women Results from the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Swords Jenny; Alice M. Arnold; Lewis H. Kuller; Russell P. Tracy; Bruce M. Psaty

    2010-01-01

    Objective—Serum amyloid P (SAP), a pentraxin like C-reactive protein (CRP), functions in innate immunity. However, associations of SAP with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are unknown. Methods and Results—We examined these associations in the Cardiovascular Health Study using a case-cohort design. Nonexclusive case groups were incident angina (n523), myocardial infarction (MI; n308), stroke (n323), and CVD death (n288). 786 participants had no

  9. Cardiovascular disease detection using bio-sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Zeynep; Fakanya, Wellington M; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2014-10-01

    Universally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is recognised as the prime cause of death with estimates exceeding 20 million by 2015 due to heart disease and stroke. Facts regarding the disease, its classification and diagnosis are still lacking. Hence, understanding the issues involved in its initiation, its symptoms and early detection will reduce the high risk of sudden death associated with it. Biosensors developed to be used as rapid screening tools to detect disease biomarkers at the earliest stage and able to classify the condition are revolutionising CVD diagnosis and prognosis. Advances in interdisciplinary research areas have made biosensors faster, highly accurate, portable and environmentally friendly diagnostic devices. The recent advances in microfluidics and the advent of nanotechnology have resulted in the development of improved diagnostics through reduction of analysis time and integration of several clinical assays into a single, portable device as lab-on-a-chip (LOC). The development of such affinity based systems is a major drive of the rapidly growing nanotechnology industry which involves a multidisciplinary research effort encompassing nanofluidics, microelectronics and analytical chemistry. This review summarised the classification of CVD, the biomarkers used for its diagnosis, biosensors and their application including the latest developments in the field of heart-disease detection. PMID:25059146

  10. Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; López-Mejías, Raquel; García-Bermúdez, Mercedes; González-Juanatey, Carlos; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Martín, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is the result of an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Both RA and atherosclerosis are complex polygenic diseases. Besides traditional CV risk factors and chronic inflammation, a number of studies have confirmed the role of genetic factors in the development of the atherogenesis observed in RA. In this regard, besides a strong association between the HLA-DRB1?04 shared epitope alleles and both endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the atherosclerotic process, and clinically evident CV disease, other polymorphisms belonging to genes implicated in inflammatory and metabolic pathways, located inside and outside the HLA region, such as the 308 variant (G > A, rs1800629) of the TNFA locus, the rs1801131 polymorphism (A > C; position + 1298) of the MTHFR locus, or a deletion of 32 base pairs on the CCR5 gene, seem to be associated with the risk of CV disease in patients with RA. Despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic basis of CV disease in RA, further studies are required to better establish the genetic influence in the increased risk of CV events observed in patients with RA. PMID:22927710

  11. A General Stochastic Information Diffusion Model in Social Networks based on Epidemic Diseases

    E-print Network

    Sotoodeh, Hamidreza; Sanei, Arghavan; Daei, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    Social networks are an important infrastructure for information, viruses and innovations propagation. Since users behavior has influenced by other users activity, some groups of people would be made regard to similarity of users interests. On the other hand, dealing with many events in real worlds, can be justified in social networks; spreading disease is one instance of them. People manner and infection severity are more important parameters in dissemination of diseases. Both of these reasons derive, whether the diffusion leads to an epidemic or not. SIRS is a hybrid model of SIR and SIS disease models to spread contamination. A person in this model can be returned to susceptible state after it removed. According to communities which are established on the social network, we use the compartmental type of SIRS model. During this paper, a general compartmental information diffusion model would be proposed and extracted some of the beneficial parameters to analyze our model. To adapt our model to realistic beha...

  12. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in the Aetiology of Different Cardiovascular Disease Phenotypes: a CALIBER Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-28

    Chronic Stable Angina; Unstable Angina; Coronary Heart Disease Not Otherwise Specified; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Heart Failure; Ventricular Arrhythmias; Cardiac Arrest; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Ischaemic Stroke; Subarachnoid Haemorrhagic Stroke; Intracerebral Haemorrhagic Stroke; Stroke Not Otherwise Specified; Sudden Cardiac Death; Unheralded Coronary Death; Mortality; Coronary Heart Disease (CHD); Cardiovascular Disease (CVD); Fatal Cardiovascular Disease (Fatal CVD); ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI); Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (nSTEMI); Myocardial Infarction Not Otherwise Specified (MI NOS)

  13. Vitamin B6 Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease – Relation to Transsulfuration, Advanced Glycation and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Busch; Andrea Göbert; Sybille Franke; Undine Ott; Jens Gerth; Andreas Müller; Günter Stein; Roland Bitsch; Gunter Wolf

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vitamin deficiency is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on B6 supply and possible relationships to cardiovascular events (CVE) in CKD are rare. Pyridoxamine exerts inhibitory effects on the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) implicated in the pathogenesis of CKD and atherosclerosis. Methods: In 48 CKD patients at stage 2–4, 72 hemodialysis patients (HD), 38 renal transplant

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don D. Sin; S. F. Paul Man

    2005-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada and elsewhere. It affects 5% of all adult Canadians and is the fourth leading cause of death. Interestingly, the leading causes of hospitalizations and mortality among COPD patients are cardiovascular events. In the Lung Health Study, over 5 800 patients with mild to

  15. Olfactory dysfunction and cardiovascular dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Oka, Hisayoshi; Toyoda, Chizuko; Yogo, Makiko; Mochio, Soichiro

    2010-06-01

    Several studies have reported that olfactory dysfunction is an early neuropathological manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduced cardiac meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) uptake may be one of the earliest signs of PD. We studied the relation of olfactory dysfunction to cardiovascular dysautonomia in patients with PD. The study group comprised 66 patients with PD (70.5 years) and 26 controls (70.3 years) for olfactory assessment, 21 controls (72.1 years) for cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and heart rate variability (HRV), assessed using the coefficient of variation for RR intervals (HRV), and 23 controls (69.2 years) for orthostatic blood pressure response. Olfactory function was assessed by the odor stick identification test Japan (OSIT-J), and cardiovascular autonomic function was evaluated by (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy of the heart, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV. Patients with PD had a significantly lower OSIT-J score than did the controls (4.1 +/- 3.0 vs. 9.9 +/- 1.7, p = 0.001). The OSIT-J score was unrelated to variables other than gender, including age, disease duration, motor score on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, score on the mini-mental state examination, motor phenotype, visual hallucinations, and dopaminergic medication on multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. The OSIT-J score was related to the heart/mediastinum ratio of cardiac (123)I-MIBG uptake, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV, after adjustment for other clinical variables. Olfactory dysfunction in PD was, thus, significantly related to both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction, as well as vascular sympathetic dysfunction. As non-motor symptoms of PD, olfactory dysfunction and autonomic network failure appear to be closely related in PD. PMID:20119648

  16. microRNAs in the onset and development of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    VICKERS, Kasey C.; RYE, Kerry-Anne; TABET, Fatiha

    2013-01-01

    Physiological and pathological roles for small non-encoding miRNAs (microRNAs) in the cardiovascular system have recently emerged and are now widely studied. The discovery of widespread functions of miRNAs has increased the complexity of gene-regulatory processes and networks in both the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, it has recently been shown that miRNAs are implicated in the regulation of many of the steps leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. These findings represent novel aspects in miRNA biology and, therefore, our understanding of the role of these miRNAs during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is critical for the development of novel therapies and diagnostic interventions. The present review will focus on understanding how miRNAs are involved in the onset and development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24102098

  17. MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Quiat, Daniel; Olson, Eric N

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk through lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy is paramount to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have identified obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension as interrelated factors that negatively affect cardiovascular health. Recently, genetic and pharmacological evidence in model systems has implicated microRNAs as dynamic modifiers of disease pathogenesis. An expanded understanding of the function of microRNAs in gene regulatory networks associated with cardiovascular risk will enable identification of novel genetic mechanisms of disease and inform the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:23281405

  18. MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Quiat, Daniel; Olson, Eric N.

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk through lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy is paramount to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have identified obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension as interrelated factors that negatively affect cardiovascular health. Recently, genetic and pharmacological evidence in model systems has implicated microRNAs as dynamic modifiers of disease pathogenesis. An expanded understanding of the function of microRNAs in gene regulatory networks associated with cardiovascular risk will enable identification of novel genetic mechanisms of disease and inform the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:23281405

  19. Develop Anti-Inflammatory Nanotherapies to Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jun

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease-related death in the world, accounting for 30 % global mortality. The majority of CVD is caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of major arteries featured by the deposition of lipids and cholesterol. Inflammation of atherosclerosis is mainly promoted by the pathological macrophages and monocytes, and modulating their functions has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target. This dissertation first presents the development of a novel simvastatin-loaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) based nanoparticle ([S]-rHDL), which was able to deliver anti-inflammatory simvastatin preferentially to inflammatory monocytes in the blood and to macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the reduced inflammation in the tissue. Second, extensive in vivo characterization of [S]-rHDL in a mouse atherosclerosis model revealed that the anti-inflammatory capability of [S]-rHDL derived from its effects on blood monocytes, endothelial layer, monocyte recruitment, and plaque macrophage function. Third, a translational study that integrated the use of [S]-rHDL into oral statin treatment demonstrated a great potential for this nanomedicine as an attractive addition to the current high-dose oral statin standard-of-care for acute coronary syndrome. Finally, preliminary results suggested potential applications of the rHDL platform to other macrophage-implicated diseases.

  20. Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Ferber, Philippe; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Cutler, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), which constitutes the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among such patients. Although such effects are partly explained by a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, many studies indicate that such factors do not fully explain the enhanced CV risk in these patients. In addition, risk stratification algorithms based upon traditional CV risk factors are not as predictive in autoimmune diseases as in the general population. For these reasons, the timely and accurate assessment of CV risk in these high-risk populations still remains an unmet clinical need. An enhanced contribution of different inflammatory components of the immune response, as well as autoimmune elements (e.g. autoantibodies, autoantigens, and cellular response), has been proposed to underlie the incremental CV risk observed in these populations. Recent advances in proteomic tools have contributed to the discovery of proteins involved in CVDs, including some that may be suitable to be used as biological markers. In this review we summarize the main markers in the field of CVDs associated with autoimmunity, as well as the recent advances in proteomic technology and their application for biomarker discovery in autoimmune disease. PMID:25523513

  1. The increased cardiovascular risk in patients affected by autoimmune diseases: review of the various manifestations.

    PubMed

    Durante, Alessandro; Bronzato, Sofia

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are among major health concerns in developed countries, and both represent a significant source of morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Despite they are thought to affect subjects at different ages, most of the deaths of patients affected by autoimmune diseases are represented by cardiovascular deaths. Several manifestations of cardiovascular diseases can be observed in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as endothelial dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis and an increase in the rate of acute coronary syndromes. Thus, people with autoimmune diseases have an increased cardiovascular risk and a worse outcome in the case of cardiovascular events. In this review, we will describe the correlations between the two spectra of diseases. PMID:25883699

  2. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  3. Pleiotropic preventive effects of dietary polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Y; Tani, M; Kondo, K

    2013-05-01

    Polyphenols are common constituents of the diet, and research on their health benefits has developed quickly over the past few years. Our purpose is to review recent findings highlighting daily dietary polyphenol intake and the diverse function of polyphenols and their possible relationships to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several cohort studies have reported an inverse relationship between the daily consumption of polyphenols and CVD risk. Many studies showed that beverages could be a large source of polyphenols. Our previous findings provide that Japanese people intake polyphenols mainly from beverages, especially coffee and green tea (in descending order of polyphenol content). Many kinds of polyphenols act as an antioxidant against low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which is known to promote atherosclerosis. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols could exert their cardioprotective actions through their potential to improve metabolic disorder and vascular inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that polyphenols have a wide variety of roles in the intestine, liver and vascular tissue. In addition to identifying mechanisms of polyphenol bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced cardiovascular risk with dietary polyphenols intake are needed. PMID:23403879

  4. Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

  5. Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24632108

  6. Long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in 10-year survivors of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Hooning; A. Botma; B. M. P. Aleman; M. H. A. Baaijens; H. Bartelink; J. G. M. Klijn; C. W. Taylor; Leeuwen van F. E

    2007-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy for breast cancer as delivered in the 1970s has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but recent studies of associations with modern regimens have been inconclusive. Few data on long-term cardiovascular disease risk according to specific radiation fields are available, and interaction with known cardiovascular risk factors has not been examined. Methods: The studied treatment-specific incidence

  7. Approaches in the Management of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eberhard Ritz

    \\u000a Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is increased even in the earliest stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is comparable\\u000a to that conferred by diabetes. The main causes of death from CVD in CKD patients are a specific form of cardiomyopathy and\\u000a accelerated atherosclerosis. Although the causes of the high CV risk are not yet fully understood, the main factors responsible

  8. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, selected cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the 5-year incidence of age-related cataract and progression of lens opacities: the beaver dam eye study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E. K Klein; Ronald Klein; Kristine E Lee

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the relationships of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors to cumulative incidence of age-related cataract and to progression of lens opacities over a 5-year interval.METHODS: A follow-up examination of the Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort was performed 5 years after the baseline evaluation. Ages at the census prior to baseline ranged from 43

  9. AptaCDSS-E: A classifier ensemble-based clinical decision support system for cardiovascular disease level prediction

    E-print Network

    AptaCDSS-E: A classifier ensemble-based clinical decision support system for cardiovascular disease); Cardiovascular disease; Classifier ensemble; Support vector machines; Neural networks; Decision trees; Bayesian that cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes heart disease and stroke, is one of the lead- ing causes of death

  10. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients to CVD, and so achieving normoglycaemia would be expected to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation

  11. Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of the Princeton consensus panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert DeBusk; Yaacov Drory; Irwin Goldstein; Graham Jackson; Sanjay Kaul; Stephen E Kimmel; John B Kostis; Robert A Kloner; Milton Lakin; Cindy M Meston; Murray Mittleman; James E Muller; Harin Padma-Nathan; Raymond C Rosen; Richard A Stein; Randall Zusman

    2000-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in both sexes and adversely affects patients’ quality of life and well being. Given the frequent association between sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, in addition to the potential cardiac risk of sexual activity itself, a consensus panel was convened to develop recommendations for clinical management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. Based upon

  12. Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOEY C. EISENMANN; GREGORY J. WELK; MICHELLE IHMELS; JAMES DOLLMAN

    2007-01-01

    EISENMANN, J. C., G. J. WELK, M. IHMELS, and J. DOLLMAN. Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 8, pp. 1251-1256, 2007. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors across four cross-tabulated groups of cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in

  13. Guanidino Compounds as Cause of Cardiovascular Damage in Chronic Kidney Disease: An in vitro Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Schepers; Griet Glorieux; Laetitia Dou; Claire Cerini; Nathalie Gayrard; Loïc Louvet; Charlotte Maugard; Pierre Preus; Maria Rodriguez-Ortiz; Angel Argiles; Philippe Brunet; Gerald Cohen; Joachim Jankowski; Vera Jankowski; Ziad Massy; Mariano Rodriguez; Raymond Vanholder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered a major cause of cardiovascular risk and non-traditional risk factors remain largely unknown. The in vitro toxicity of 10 guanidino compounds (GCs) was evaluated via a standardized approach on different cell systems of relevance in cardiovascular disease. The parameters evaluated were production of reactive oxygen species, expression of surface molecules, cell proliferation, cytotoxicity and calcification.

  14. Is there an association between Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and cardiovascular disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Olsen

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate whether there is a clinical association between Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy of the cornea and atherosclerosis, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease was studied retrospectively in 27 patients with Fuchs' dystrophy and in 27 age- and sex-matched controls. The presence of cardiovascular disease was judged from a patient history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or heart insufficiency treated

  15. "In Our Voice": Lessons Learned from a Cardiovascular Disease Curriculum for American Indian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, D.; Burgoyne, K.; Vallie, D. La; Buchwald, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: American Indian children and adolescents are at risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and smoking, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To address these health issues, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a culturally appropriate cardiovascular disease curriculum…

  16. Importance of frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Stewart, Ralph; White, Harvey

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. With the ageing population, the prognostic determinants among others include frailty, health status, disability, and cognition. These constructs are seldom measured and factored into clinical decision-making or evaluation of the prognosis of these at-risk older adults, especially as it relates to high-risk interventions. Addressing this need effectively requires increased awareness and their recognition by the treating cardiologists, their incorporation into risk prediction models when treating an elderly patient with underlying complex CVD, and timely referral for comprehensive geriatric management. Simple measures such as gait speed, the Fried score, or the Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale can be used to assess frailty as part of routine care of elderly patients with CVD. This review examines the prevalence and outcomes associated with frailty with special emphasis in patients with CVD. PMID:24864078

  17. Penile condylomata: a gynecological epidemic disease: a review of the current approach and management aspects.

    PubMed

    Maymon, R; Shulman, A; Maymon, B; Bekerman, A; Werchow, M; Faktor, J H; Altaras, M

    1994-11-01

    Viral venereal infection caused by human Papillomavirus has reached epidemic state. The proper management of this infection in men is of great benefit, because it may possibly decrease the reservoir of disease in both sexes from which genital condylomata and associated lesions may arise. We report a selection of current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male condyloma, occurring predominantly among male consorts of women with genital human Papillomavirus infection. In a review of 1455 affected women, compiled from the literature, 1019 (70 per cent) of their sexual partners were diagnosed as having been infected with the same viral disease. The current diagnostic and treatment modalities and their outcomes are discussed with appropriate recommendations for their use. PMID:7530820

  18. ALTERATIONS OF FE HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MODELS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO CARDIOPULMONARY TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Fe homeostasis can be disrupted in human cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We addressed how dysregulation of Fe homeostasis affected the pulmonary inflammation/oxidative stress response and disease progression after exposure to Libby amphibole (LA), an asbestifonn mine...

  19. P21-activated kinase in inflammatory and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Taglieri, Domenico M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Monasky, Michelle M

    2014-09-01

    P-21 activated kinases, or PAKs, are serine-threonine kinases that serve a role in diverse biological functions and organ system diseases. Although PAK signaling has been the focus of many investigations, still our understanding of the role of PAK in inflammation is incomplete. This review consolidates what is known about PAK1 across several cell types, highlighting the role of PAK1 and PAK2 in inflammation in relation to NADPH oxidase activation. This review explores the physiological functions of PAK during inflammation, the role of PAK in several organ diseases with an emphasis on cardiovascular disease, and the PAK signaling pathway, including activators and targets of PAK. Also, we discuss PAK1 as a pharmacological anti-inflammatory target, explore the potentials and the limitations of the current pharmacological tools to regulate PAK1 activity during inflammation, and provide indications for future research. We conclude that a vast amount of evidence supports the idea that PAK is a central molecule in inflammatory signaling, thus making PAK1 itself a promising prospective pharmacological target. PMID:24794532

  20. Pathogenic Mechanisms Shared between Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh, Ramin; Shimizu, Hajime; Tosa, Mamiko; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a hallmark of which is atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to review the pertinent literature and highlight pathogenic mechanisms shared between psoriasis and atherosclerosis in an effort to advocate early therapeutic or preventive measures. We conducted a review of the current literature available from several biomedical search databases focusing on the developmental processes common between psoriasis and atherosclerosis. Our results revealed that the pathogenic mechanisms shared between the two diseases converged onto “inflammation” phenomenon. Within the lymph nodes, antigen-presenting cells activate naive T-cells to increase expression of LFA-1 following which activated T-cells migrate to blood vessel and adhere to endothelium. Extravasation occurs mediated by LFA-1 and ICAM-1 (or CD2 and LFA-3) and activated T-cells interact with dendritic cells (and macrophages and keratinocytes in psoriasis or smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis). These cells further secrete chemokines and cytokines that contribute to the inflammatory environment, resulting in the formation of psoriatic plaque or atherosclerotic plaque. Additionally, some studies indicated clinical improvement in psoriasis condition with treatment of associated hyperlipidemia. In conclusion, therapeutic or preventive strategies that both reduce hyperlipidemia and suppress inflammation provide potentially useful approaches in the management of both diseases. PMID:20827428

  1. Cardiovascular disease as a late complication of end-stage renal disease in children.

    PubMed

    Groothoff, Jaap W; Lilien, Marc R; van de Kar, Nicole C A J; Wolff, Eric D; Davin, Jean Claude

    2005-03-01

    As in older adults, cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in adolescents and young adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) since childhood. This concerns patients on dialysis as well as transplant patients, despite the fact that a long duration of dialysis during childhood is an extra mortality risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), aortic valve calcification, and increased arterial stiffness, but not increased arterial intima media thickening, are the most frequently observed alterations in young adult survivors with childhood ESRD. In transplanted patients a concentric LVH as a result of chronic hypertension is mostly observed; in dialysis patients a more asymmetric septal LVH is found as a result of chronic volume overload. These results suggest that in children and young adults with ESRD chronic pressure and volume overload, a high calcium-phosphate product, and chronic inflammation, but not dyslipidemia, play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:15549413

  2. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, D; Furlong, N J; Wilding, J P H; MacFarlane, I A

    2007-01-01

    Objective Adults with hypothalamic?pituitary disease have increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the prevalence of CVD and adequacy of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (according to current treatment guidelines) was studied in a large group of patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease. Study design In 2005, 152 consecutive adult patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease attending our neuro?endocrine centre were clinically examined and blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body composition and smoking status were assessed. Results Of the 152 patients, 36.8% had treated hypertension and 28.2% had treated dyslipidaemia. Many of these patients had inadequate BP control (BP >140/85?mm?Hg, 44.6%) and undesirable lipid levels (total cholesterol >4.0?mmol/l, 69%). Also, many of the untreated patients had BP and lipid levels which should have been considered for treatment (26 patients (27%) and 83 patients (76%), respectively). Smoking was admitted in 18% of patients. Central adiposity was present in 86% and obesity (body mass index ?30) was present in 50%. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent and often inadequately treated in adult patients with hypothalamic?pituitary disease. Aggressive treatment of these factors is essential to reduce mortality and morbidity from CVD in these patients. PMID:17403957

  3. Plasma Phospholipid Trans?Fatty Acids Levels, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Total Mortality: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianyi; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Rimm, Eric B.; Wang, Molin; King, Irena B.; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Background While self?reported trans–fatty acid (TFA) consumption is linked to coronary heart disease (CHD), relationships between objective biomarkers of TFA subtypes (t?16:1n9, total t?18:1, and cis/trans?(c/t?), t/c? and t/t?18:2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or total mortality are not well established. Methods and Results We evaluated 2742 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged 74±5 years and free of prevalent CVD, with plasma phospholipid TFA measures in 1992. Incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events, CVD and non?CVD mortality, and total mortality were centrally adjudicated through 2010. Risks were assessed using Cox proportional hazards. During 31 494 person?years, 1735 total deaths and 639 total CHD events occurred. In the multivariate model including mutual adjustment for the 5 TFA subtypes, circulating t/t?18:2 was associated with higher total mortality (extreme quintile hazard ratio (HR)=1.23, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.44, P?trend=0.01), CVD mortality (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.86, P?trend=0.02), and total CHD (HR=1.39, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.83, P?trend=0.01). t/c?18:2 was positively related to total mortality (HR=1.19, P?trend=0.05), total CHD (HR=1.67, P?trend=0.002), and nonfatal CHD (HR=2.06, P?trend=0.002) after mutual adjustment; these associations were insignificant without mutual adjustment. Neither t?16:1n9 nor t?18:1 was significantly associated with total mortality or CVD, nor was c/t?18:2 if we excluded early cases. Conclusions Among circulating TFAs, t/t?18:2 was most adversely associated with total mortality, mainly due to the increased risk of CVD. t/c?18:2 was also positively associated with total mortality and CHD, but only after adjustment for other TFAs. These results highlight the need for further investigation of dietary sources, nondietary determinants, and health effects of specific TFA subtypes, especially t?18:2 isomers. PMID:25164946

  4. Overview of saxagliptin efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have or will develop multiple independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and treating these patients is challenging. The risk of hypoglycemia, weight gain, or fluid retention with some diabetes medications should be considered when developing a treatment plan for individuals with a history of CAD or at risk for CAD. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are oral antihyperglycemic agents that inhibit the breakdown of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, resulting in increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon secretion. Saxagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that improves glycemic control and is generally well tolerated when used as monotherapy and as add-on therapy to other antihyperglycemic medications. This review summarizes findings from recently published post hoc analyses of saxagliptin clinical trials that have been conducted in patients with and without a history of cardiovascular disease and in patients with and without various risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results show that saxagliptin was generally well tolerated and consistently improved glycemic control, as assessed by reductions from baseline in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose concentration, and postprandial glucose concentration, regardless of the presence or absence of baseline cardiovascular disease, hypertension, statin use, number of cardiovascular risk factors, or high Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk score. PMID:25565858

  5. Redesigning primary care to tackle the global epidemic of noncommunicable disease.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Nigenda, Gustavo; Knaul, Felicia M

    2015-03-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the major contributors to death and disability worldwide. Nearly 80% of the deaths in 2010 occurred in low- and middle-income countries, which have experienced rapid population aging, urbanization, rise in smoking, and changes in diet and activity. Yet the health systems of low- and middle-income countries, historically oriented to infectious disease and often severely underfunded, are poorly prepared for the challenge of caring for people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease. We have discussed how primary care can be redesigned to tackle the challenge of NCDs in resource-constrained countries. We suggest that four changes will be required: integration of services, innovative service delivery, a focus on patients and communities, and adoption of new technologies for communication. PMID:25602898

  6. The Response of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Obesity Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dietz, William H

    2015-03-18

    The recognition of the obesity epidemic as a national problem began in 1999 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) publication of a series of annual state-based maps that demonstrated the rapid changes in the prevalence of obesity. Increasing rates of obesity had been noted in earlier CDC studies, but the maps provided evidence of a rapid, nationwide increase. The urgent need to respond to the epidemic led to the identification of state targets and the first generation of interventions for obesity prevention and control. The CDC's role was to provide setting- and intervention-specific guidance on implementing these strategies, and to assess changes in targeted policies and behaviors. The CDC's efforts were augmented by Congressional funding for community initiatives to improve nutrition and increase physical activity. Complementary investments by Kaiser Permanente, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Institute of Medicine improved the evidence base and provided policy recommendations that reinforced the need for a multisectoral approach. Legislative, regulatory, and voluntary initiatives enacted by President Obama's administration translated many of the strategies into effective practice. Whether current efforts to address obesity can be sustained will depend on whether they can be translated into greater grass-roots engagement consistent with a social movement. PMID:25581155

  7. Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa: lessons learned and issues arising from West African countries.

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna O; Salako, Babatunde L; Ka, M Mourtalla; Akpalu, Albert; McConnochie, Mairi; Foster, Matthew; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-02-01

    The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak ravaging three nations in West Africa has affected more than 14,000 persons and killed over 5,000. It is the longest and most widely spread Ebola epidemic ever seen. At the time of this overview (written November 2014), having affected eight different nations, Nigeria and Senegal were able to control and eliminate the virus within a record time. Ghana has successfully, to date, kept the virus away from the country, despite economic and social relationships with affected nations. What lessons can we learn from Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana in the current epidemic? How can the world improve the health systems in low- and middle-income countries to effectively manage future outbreaks? Recently, the Royal College of Physicians launched a new partnership with the West African College of Physicians to curtail the effects of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in the region. We believe that strengthened health systems, skilled human resources for health and national ownership of problems are key to effective management of outbreaks such as EVD. PMID:25650199

  8. Dietary fibre intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary fibre intake and any potential dose-response association with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review of available literature and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies using random effects models. Data sources The Cochrane Library, Medline, Medline in-process, Embase, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, BIOSIS, and hand searching. Eligibility criteria for studies Prospective studies reporting associations between fibre intake and coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease, with a minimum follow-up of three years and published in English between 1 January 1990 and 6 August 2013. Results 22 cohort study publications met inclusion criteria and reported total dietary fibre intake, fibre subtypes, or fibre from food sources and primary events of cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease. Total dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (risk ratio 0.91 per 7 g/day (95% confidence intervals 0.88 to 0.94)) and coronary heart disease (0.91 (0.87 to 0.94)). There was evidence of some heterogeneity between pooled studies for cardiovascular disease (I2=45% (0% to 74%)) and coronary heart disease (I2=33% (0% to 66%)). Insoluble fibre and fibre from cereal and vegetable sources were inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Fruit fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Greater dietary fibre intake is associated with a lower risk of both cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Findings are aligned with general recommendations to increase fibre intake. The differing strengths of association by fibre type or source highlight the need for a better understanding of the mode of action of fibre components. PMID:24355537

  9. Impact of non-cardiovascular disease comorbidity on cardiovascular disease symptom severity: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, C.A.; Kadam, U.T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Non-cardiovascular comorbidity is common in cardiovascular disease (CVD) populations but its influence on chest pain (CP) and shortness of breath (SOB) symptom-specific physical limitations is unknown. We wanted to test the a priori hypothesis that an unrelated comorbidity would influence symptom-specific physical limitations and to investigate this impact in different severities of CVD. Method and results The study was based on 5426 patients from ten family practices, organised into eight a priori exclusive severity groups: (i) no CVD or osteoarthritis (OA) (reference), (ii) index hypertension, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) without OA, (iii) index OA without CVD and (iv) same CVD groups with comorbid OA. The measure of CP physical limitations was Seattle Angina Questionnaire and for SOB physical limitations was the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Adjusted baseline associations between the cohorts and symptom-specific physical limitations were assessed using linear regression methods. In the study population, 1443 (27%) reported CP and 2097 (39%) SOB. CP and SOB physical limitations increased with CVD severity in the index and comorbid groups. Compared with the respective index CVD group, the CP physical limitation scores for comorbid CVD groups with OA were lower by: ? 14.7 (95% CI ? 21.5, 7.8) for hypertension, ? 5.5 (? 10.4, ? 0.7) for IHD and ? 22.1 (? 31.0, ? 6.7) for HF. For SOB physical limitations, comorbid scores were lower by: ? 9.2 (? 13.8, ? 4.6) for hypertension, ? 6.4 (? 11.1, ? 1.8) for IHD and ? 8.8 (? 19.3, 1.65) for HF. Conclusions CP and SOB are common symptoms, and OA increases the CVD symptom-specific physical limitations additively. Comorbidity interventions need to be developed for CVD specific health outcomes. PMID:24856803

  10. Simulation Modelling of Population Dynamics of Mosquito Vectors for Rift Valley Fever Virus in a Disease Epidemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mweya, Clement N.; Holst, Niels; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics. Methods/Findings Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD) and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML) files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district. Conclusion/Significance Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings. PMID:25259792

  11. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J.W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N.M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C.M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A.A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Paré, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is causal. A recent phase III clinical trial of an sPLA2 inhibitor (varespladib) was stopped prematurely for lack of efficacy. Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis of 19 general population studies (8,021 incident, 7,513 prevalent major vascular events [MVE] in 74,683 individuals) and 10 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohorts (2,520 recurrent MVE in 18,355 individuals) using rs11573156, a variant in PLA2G2A encoding the sPLA2-IIA isoenzyme, as an instrumental variable. Results PLA2G2A rs11573156 C allele associated with lower circulating sPLA2-IIA mass (38% to 44%) and sPLA2 enzyme activity (3% to 23%) per C allele. The odds ratio (OR) for MVE per rs11573156 C allele was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98 to 1.06) in general populations and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.03) in ACS cohorts. In the general population studies, the OR derived from the genetic instrumental variable analysis for MVE for a 1-log unit lower sPLA2-IIA mass was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.13), and differed from the non-genetic observational estimate (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.79). In the ACS cohorts, both the genetic instrumental variable and observational ORs showed a null association with MVE. Instrumental variable analysis failed to show associations between sPLA2 enzyme activity and MVE. Conclusions Reducing sPLA2-IIA mass is unlikely to be a useful therapeutic goal for preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:23916927

  12. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Miller, Aaron W; Rezkalla, Shereif H

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention in some European populations, but the degree to which aspirin is overutilized in the US remains unknown. This study examined the association between regular aspirin use and demographic/clinical factors in a population-based sample of adults without a clinical indication for aspirin for primary prevention. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed using 2010–2012 data from individuals aged 30–79 years in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (WI, USA). Regular aspirin users included those who took aspirin at least every other day. Results There were 16,922 individuals who were not clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary CVD prevention. Of these, 19% were regular aspirin users. In the final adjusted model, participants who were older, male, lived in northern Wisconsin, had more frequent medical visits, and had greater body mass index had significantly higher odds of regular aspirin use (P<0.001 for all). Race/ethnicity, health insurance, smoking, blood pressure, and lipid levels had negligible influence on aspirin use. A sensitivity analysis found a significant interaction between age and number of medical visits, indicating progressively more aspirin use in older age groups who visited their provider frequently. Conclusion There was evidence of aspirin overutilization in this US population without CVD. Older age and more frequent provider visits were the strongest predictors of inappropriate aspirin use. Obesity was the only significant clinical factor, suggesting misalignment between perceived aspirin benefits and cardiovascular risks in this subgroup of patients. Prospective studies that examine cardiac and bleeding events associated with regular aspirin use among obese samples (without CVD) are needed to refine clinical guidelines in this area. PMID:25506245

  13. Canada's contribution to global research in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai V; de Oliveira, Claire; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wong, William W L; Woo, Gloria; Grootendorst, Paul; Liu, Peter P; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-06-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Canada and other developed countries is growing, in part because of the aging of the population and the alarming rise of obesity. Studying Canada's contribution to the global body of CVD research output will shed light on the effectiveness of investments in Canadian CVD research and inform if Canada has been responding to its CVD burden. Search was conducted using the Web-of-Science database for publications during 1981 through 2010 on major areas and specific interventions in CVD. Search was also conducted using Canadian and US online databases for patents issued between 1981 and 2010. Search data were used to estimate the proportions of the world's pool of research publications and of patents conducted by researchers based in Canada. The results indicate that Canada contributed 6% of global research in CVD during 1981 through 2010. Further, Canada's contribution shows a strong upward trend during the period. Based on patent data, Canada's contribution level was similar (5%-7%). Canada's contribution to the global pool of CVD research is on par with France and close to the UK, Japan, and Germany. Canada's contribution in global CVD research is higher than its average contribution in all fields of research (6% vs 3%). As the burden of chronic diseases including CVD rises with Canada's aging population, the increase in Canadian research into CVD is encouraging. PMID:23219608

  14. Tradeoffs in cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment, and research.

    PubMed

    Miller, George; Daly, Matthew; Roehrig, Charles

    2013-06-01

    It is widely believed that the US health care system needs to transition from a culture of reactive treatment of disease to one of proactive prevention. As a tool for understanding the appropriate allocation of spending to prevention versus treatment (including research into improved prevention and treatment), a simple Markov model is used to represent the flow of individuals among states of health, where the transition rates are governed by the magnitude of appropriately-lagged expenditures in each of these categories. The model estimates the discounted cost and discounted effectiveness (measured in quality adjusted life years or QALYs) associated with a given spending mix, and it allows computing the marginal cost-effectiveness associated with additional spending in a category. We apply the model to explore interactions of alternative investments in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to identify an optimal spending mix. Under the assumptions of our model structure, we find that the marginal cost-effectiveness of prevention of CVD varies with changes in spending on treatment (and vice versa), and that the optimal mix of CVD spending (i.e., the spending mix that maximizes the overall QALYs achieved) would, indeed, shift spending from treatment to prevention. PMID:23090664

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a biochemical link between bone and cardiovascular system diseases?

    PubMed

    Petramala, L; Acca, M; Francucci, C M; D'Erasmo, E

    2009-01-01

    Homocysteine (HCY) is a sulfur-containing amino acid involved in two metabolic pathways, catalized by cystathionine-B-synthase and methionine synthase, depending on vitamin (vit) B6, B12, and folate levels and enzymatic activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate. High HCY levels (HHCY) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) and bone diseases, in particular osteoporosis (OP)/hip fracture. As regards the mechanisms involved in the link between HHCY, CV diseases (CVD), and OP, it has been proposed the role of lysyl-oxydase inhibition that might interfere with collagen crosslink formation. Some studies suggested the dysregulation of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand/RANK axis, others the involvement of oxidative stress. These mechanisms may act both on bone and CV system, but whether the common denominator is HCY itself or HCY is merely a marker, remains to be clearly established. Folate, vit B6, and B12 supplementation is associated with HCY reduction, but is unable to certainly reduce the incidence of OP/fracture and CVD, probably because, in the majority of patients, HCY is only moderately increased. PMID:19724160

  16. Lost work days in the 6 years leading to premature death from cardiovascular disease in men and women

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lost work days in the 6 years leading to premature death from cardiovascular disease in men of Turku & Turku University Hospital, Finland Word count: 2619 Keywords: cardiovascular disease, stroke individuals experience specific patterns of morbidity prior to premature death from cardiovascular disease

  17. Initial genetic analysis reveals tzi predisposed to cardiovascular disease Scientific magazine "Nature Communications" publishes new findings about physiognomy,

    E-print Network

    Tübingen, Universität

    Initial genetic analysis reveals Ã?tzi predisposed to cardiovascular disease Scientific magazine was genetically predisposed to cardiovascular diseases, according to recent studies carried out by the team of cardiovascular disease. He was not overweight and no stranger to exercise. "The evidence that such a genetic

  18. Individual social class, area-based deprivation, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and mortality: the Renfrew and Paisley Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Smith; C. Hart; G. Watt; D. Hole; V. Hawthorne

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of individual and area-based socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular disease risk factors and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: The towns of Renfrew and Paisley in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 6961 men and 7991 women included in a population-based cardiovascular disease screening study between 1972 and 1976. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiorespiratory

  19. Type 2 diabetes care: the role of insulin-sensitizing agents and practical implications for cardiovascular disease prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Henry

    1998-01-01

    Millions of Americans are at risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality related to disorders of glucose intolerance—particularly type 2 diabetes and prediabetic conditions, including the insulin resistance, or “cardiovascular dysmetabolic,” syndrome. The latter is apparently more intricately associated with macrovascular disease—myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. In some situations the risk of cardiovascular disease might be reduced by the

  20. Modeling sheep pox disease from the 1994-1998 epidemic in Evros Prefecture, Greece.

    PubMed

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Abas, Z; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T

    2014-10-01

    Sheep pox is a highly transmissible disease which can cause serious loss of livestock and can therefore have major economic impact. We present data from sheep pox epidemics which occurred between 1994 and 1998. The data include weekly records of infected farms as well as a number of covariates. We implement Bayesian stochastic regression models which, in addition to various explanatory variables like seasonal and environmental/meteorological factors, also contain serial correlation structure based on variants of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We take a predictive view in model selection by utilizing deviance-based measures. The results indicate that seasonality and the number of infected farms are important predictors for sheep pox incidence. PMID:25457592