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1

Novel therapeutic concepts: the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in the developing world: global implications.  

PubMed

The epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global phenomenon, and the magnitude of its increase in incidence and prevalence in low- and middle-income countries (LIMIC) has potentially major implications for those high-income countries that characterize much of the developed world. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the world and approximately 80% of all cardiovascular-related deaths occur in LIMIC and at a younger age in comparison to high-income countries. The economic impact in regard to loss of productive years of life and the need to divert scarce resources to tertiary care is substantial. The 'epidemiologic transition' provides a useful framework for understanding changes in the patterns of disease as a result of societal and socioeconomic developments in different countries and regions of the world. A burning but as yet unanswered question is whether gains made over the last four decades in reducing cardiovascular mortality in high-income countries will be offset by changes in risk factor profiles, and in particular obesity and diabetes. Much of the population attributable risk of myocardial infarction is accountable on the basis of nine modifiable traditional risk factors, irrespective of geography. Developing societies are faced with a hostile cardiovascular environment, characterized by changes in diet, exercise, the effects of tobacco, socioeconomic stressors, and economic constraints at both the national and personal level in addition to exposure to potential novel risk factors and perhaps a genetic or programmed foetal vulnerability to CVD in later life. There are major challenges for primary and secondary prevention including lack of data, limited national resources, and the lack of prediction models in certain populations. There are two major approaches to prevention: public health/community-based strategies and clinic-based with a targeted approach to high-risk patients and combinations of these. There are concerns that in comparison with communicable diseases, cardiovascular and chronic diseases have a relatively low priority in the global health agenda and that this requires additional emphasis. The human race has had long experience and a fine tradition in surviving adversity, but we now face a task for which we have little experience, the task of surviving prosperity Alan Gregg 1890-1957, Rockefeller Foundation. PMID:20176800

Gersh, Bernard J; Sliwa, Karen; Mayosi, Bongani M; Yusuf, Salim

2010-03-01

2

Obesity and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

Jokinen, E

2015-03-01

3

Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking) risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori) and the United States (Native Americans). Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors. PMID:22624079

Stoner, Lee; Stoner, Krystina R; Young, Joanna M; Fryer, Simon

2012-01-01

4

Cardiovascular Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

5

HIV and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

6

Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, we are experiencing an epidemic of cardiorenal disease characterized by increasing rates of obesity, hypertension, the met- abolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and kidney disease. Whereas ex- cessive caloric intake and physical inactivity are likely important factors driving the obesity epidemic, it is important to consider additional mechanisms. We revisit an old hypothesis that sugar, particularly excessive fructose intake,

Richard J Johnson; Mark S Segal; Yuri Sautin; Takahiko Nakagawa; Daniel I Feig; Duk-Hee Kang; Michael S Gersch; Steven Benner; Laura G Sanchez-Lozada

7

Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.

2008-12-05

8

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Heart diseases and stroke are ...

9

The Importance of Diabetes Mellitus in the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: The Case of the State of Qatar  

PubMed Central

As a manifestation of the epidemiologic transition being experienced throughout the developing world, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing. However, whether an individual's risk of cardiovascular diseases as a consequence of DM is also higher in these countries is unknown. We conducted a case-control study at the medical center in the state of Qatar comparing the prevalence of DM in 512 patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) and 262 cases of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) to 382 hospital and outpatient controls to calculate the odds ratios (OR) associated with DM for MI and CVA. The OR for MI was estimated to be 4.01 compared to 2.92 for other countries in the Middle East and 1.75 for North America. The OR was even higher for Qatari natives. Understanding the reasons for this increase, including genetic differences, lifestyle, and medical management issues, is critical for the design and prioritization of effective interventions. PMID:23303985

Mushlin, Alvin I.; Christos, Paul J.; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Deleu, Dirk; Gehani, Abdul Razak

2012-01-01

10

Understanding cardiovascular disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular disease is the broad term for problems with the heart and blood vessels. These problems are often ... and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that can lead to other problems, such as ...

11

Cardiovascular Diseases (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Diseases Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Heart Disease and Dental Treatment Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) High Blood ... it is a current list. Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Periodontal disease can affect your overall health. Over time, it ...

12

Geochemistry and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiencies or excesses in the content or availability of trace elements in rocks and soils, or in water flowing through them, is hypothesized as a possible cause of certain chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Geographic distribution of cardiovascular diseases is often associated with geochemical differences. This trend is particularly evident in the United States and in Europe, with higher rates

R. Masironi; J. R. Todd; P. Elwood; D. B. R. Poole

1979-01-01

13

Androgens and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, cardiovascular disease will continue causing most human deaths for the foreseeable future. The consistent gen- der gap in life span of approximately 5.6 yr in all advanced economies must derive from gender differences in age- specific cardiovascular death rates, which rise steeply in par- allel for both genders but 5-10 yr earlier in men. The lack of inflection point

PETER Y. LIU; ALISON K. DEATH; DAVID J. HANDELSMAN

2003-01-01

14

Nanomedicine and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine has become an important tool in the imaging and therapy of numerous diseases. This is due, in large part, to the ability to generate multifunctional nanoagents bearing combinations of targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic moieties, allowing for the tailoring of the properties of the synthesized nanomaterials. With respect to cardiovascular disease and its sequelae, nanomedicine has the potential to detect and treat some of the leading causes of death and disability in the developed world, including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. As such, this review focuses on some of the most poignant examples of the utility of nanomedicine in the detection and treatment of cardiovascular disease that have been recently reported. PMID:20369034

McCarthy, Jason R.

2010-01-01

15

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

16

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

17

Melatonin in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

This editorial refers to "Cardiovascular effects of melatonin receptor agonists". The hormone melatonin is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland, retina, several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Based on the data available, the last 18 years indicate that melatonin influences multiple factors of the cardiovascular function. Multiple evidences reveal that the rhythmicity of melatonin has a crucial role in a variety of cardiovascular pathophysiological processes including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and possibly as an antilipidemic function. Melatonin receptors receive and transduce melatonin's message to influence daily and seasonal rhythms of physiology. The melatonin message is translated through the interaction between the melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) and its coupling to G proteins, which are potential therapeutic targets in disorders ranging from insomnia, circadian sleep disorders, depression and cardiovascular diseases. Based on the data available, melatonin seems to have cardioprotective properties via its direct free radical scavenger activity. Melatonin efficiently interacts with several reactive oxygen species (receptor-independent actions). Collectively, these protective actions of melatonin may have potential clinical applicability for individuals with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22916801

Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto

2012-11-01

18

Alcohol and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol in moderation is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men and women. New evidence suggests\\u000a that this association, described in over 70 epidemiologic studies, is causal and can be explained, in part, by alcohol’s beneficial\\u000a effects on serum lipids and clotting factors. Recently, the inverse association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease\\u000a also has been reported

Eric Rimm

2000-01-01

19

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

A commonly-assumed paradigm holds that the primary genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease resides within the DNA sequence of our genes. This paradigm can be challenged. For example, how do sequence changes in the non-coding region of the genome influence phenotype? Why are all diseases not shared between identical twins? Part of the answer lies in the fact that the environment or exogenous stimuli clearly influence disease susceptibility, but it was unclear in the past how these effects were signalled to the static DNA code. Epigenetics is providing a newer perspective on these issues. Epigenetics refers to chromatin-based mechanisms important in the regulation of gene expression that do not involve changes to the DNA sequence per se. The field can be broadly categorized into three areas: DNA base modifications (including cytosine methylation and cytosine hydroxymethylation), post-translational modifications of histone proteins, and RNA-based mechanisms that operate in the nucleus. Cardiovascular disease pathways are now being approached from the epigenetic perspective, including those associated with atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, ischemia-reperfusion damage, and the cardiovascular response to hypoxia and shear stress, among many others. With increasing interest and expanding partnerships in the field, we can expect new insights to emerge from epigenetic perspectives of cardiovascular health. This paper reviews the principles governing epigenetic regulation, discusses their presently-understood importance in cardiovascular disease, and considers the growing significance we are likely to attribute to epigenetic contributions in the future, as they provide new mechanistic insights and a host of novel clinical applications. PMID:23261320

Webster, Andrew L H; Yan, Matthew Shu-Ching; Marsden, Philip A

2013-01-01

20

Tea and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

21

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes has been shown to be increasing at a rapid rate in the United States. There estimates of 23.6 million individuals with diabetes with 1.6 million new cases being diagnosed annually. [1] Diabetes has long been known as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Experts indicate 38% of patients admitted to the hospital are diabetic.[2] Therefore one

Barbara “Bobbi” Leeper; Dl Mcgee

1979-01-01

22

[Stress and cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been studied intensely since the 1950s. Results on stress as a risk factor for CVD have been inconsistent, but mainly positive. The risk is mediated through lifestyle, but more direct physiological mechanisms (e.g. autonomous nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are also found. Personality and general coping resources influence stress-appraisal, stress-coping and stress-response. Future studies should integrate stress as a cause (stressor), as a subjective reaction (perception), and as a physiological reaction in the same longitudinal studies with repeated measures. PMID:22277363

Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Jørgensen, Torben

2012-01-23

23

Contagion: Historical Views of Disease and Epidemics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this rather remarkable collection, the dedicated staff members at Harvard University Library's Open Collections Program have brought together Philadelphia's yellow fever epidemic of 1793, London's Great Plague of 1665, and six other notable epidemics from world history. The collection provides general background information on diseases and epidemics worldwide, and as previously suggested, is organized around significant "episodes" of such diseases. Visitors to the collection will find historical pamphlets, serials, books, and manuscripts totaling over 500,000 pages. The "General Materials" area is worth a look as it provides access to brief overviews of important concepts such as germ theory, public health, vaccination, medical geography, and humoral theory. Overall, it's a tremendous set of offerings, and visitors with a penchant for the history of medicine, public health, or diseases will find that this site is well worth many visits. Also, visitors can share resources on the site via Google Bookmarks and Facebook.

2008-01-01

24

Geochemistry, soils and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The hypothesis is presented that deficiencies or excesses in the content or availability of trace elements in rocks and soils, or in water flowing through them, may be a possible cause of certain chronic diseases, including cardiovascular ones. The geographic distribution of cardiovascular diseases is often associated with geochemical differences. This trend is particulalry evident in the United States

R. Masironi

1987-01-01

25

Forgotten cardiovascular diseases in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the global burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by low and middle income countries. Unfortunately, many\\u000a of these regions are still grappling with poverty and infection-related cardiovascular diseases, such as endomyocardial fibrosis,\\u000a tuberculous pericarditis and rheumatic heart disease. In addition, Africa has its unique diseases that occur more commonly\\u000a in Africans as peripartum cardiomyopathy or, almost uniquely

Karen Sliwa; Ana Olga Mocumbi

2010-01-01

26

Epidemic diseases at the New York Hospital.  

PubMed Central

The New York Hospital has enjoyed a long, rich history in the development of American health care. AIDS has made relevant an understanding of the failures and successes achieved during past epidemics. Innovations in disease prevention and patient care have been essential in the conquest of pestilence. However, public indifference toward the people at greatest risk for these diseases has traditionally delayed attempts to prevent significant loss of life and socioeconomic destruction. PMID:1933070

Klein, W. A.; Reader, G. G.

1991-01-01

27

[Dietary habits and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. They are the main cause of death in industrialized countries, while the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease is increasing in less developed countries. The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are cigarette smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Obesity has been recorded in 10%-25% of the population, indicating that poor or inappropriate diet is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy dietary habits including place and way of taking meals, number of daily meals and excessive salt intake from processed foods also contribute to body mass gain. In the present study, dietary habits were assessed in cardiovascular patients versus control group by use of Dietary Habits Questionnaire. Study results showed a statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of inappropriate eating habits in cardiovascular patients (lower number of daily meals, more often skipping breakfast and having dinner) than in control group. In conclusion, many lifestyle and individual behavior modifications are needed in most patients with or at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20649073

Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelini?, Jagoda; Bergovec, Mijo; Ruzi?, Alen; Persi?, Viktor

2010-05-01

28

Branching processes in disease epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a model of infectious diseases where a `reservoir' of infection exists that infects a susceptible host population at a constant rate. The final chapter of the thesis describes a general framework of modeling infectious diseases in a network of populations using multitype branching processes.

Singh, Sarabjeet

29

Novel Treatments for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The purpose of this review is to describe novel pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic preventive therapies, as well as new strategies to improve delivery of available therapies. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and prevention plays a critical role in curbing the global epidemic. Despite available treatment for tobacco addiction, platelet inhibition, blood pressure, and lipid lowering for reduction of atherosclerotic disease, significant gaps in treatment of total CVD remain. We review a range of new preventive treatment options, including drugs for tobacco cessation, platelet/thrombotic inhibition, lipid- and blood pressure-lowering; nonpharmacologic options such as left atrial appendage closure devices and caloric restriction; and strategies such as fixed-dose combination drugs, laboratory screening for drug tailoring, and community-based prevention programs. CVD preventive research continues to evolve and provide clinicians and patients with novel pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies, including new preventive strategies. PMID:21884014

Huffman, Mark D.; Bhatnagar, Deepak

2014-01-01

30

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease   

E-print Network

Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

McAllister, David Anthony

2011-07-05

31

Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21403831

Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begoña; Mallavia, Beñat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

2011-01-01

32

[Experimental models of cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals), or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered. PMID:17416033

Gil Hernández, A; Ramírez Tortosa, M C; Aguilera García, M C; Mesa García, M D

2007-01-01

33

Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic  

E-print Network

Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic Dustin Brisson1,*, Daniel E that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using Lyme disease as a model. Host- targeted public health strategies to control the Lyme disease epidemic in North America

34

Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

Rindge, David

2009-02-01

35

[Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].  

PubMed

The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

Picciotto, D

2010-01-01

36

[Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

2004-10-01

37

Protein Glutathionylation in Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

The perturbation of thiol-disulfide homeostasis is an important consequence of many diseases, with redox signals implicated in several physio-pathological processes. A prevalent form of cysteine modification is the reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides with glutathione (S-glutathionylation). The abundance of glutathione in cells and the ready conversion of sulfenic acids to S-glutathione mixed disulfides supports the reversible protein S-glutathionylation as a common feature of redox signal transduction, able to regulate the activities of several redox sensitive proteins. In particular, protein S-glutathionylation is emerging as a critical signaling mechanism in cardiovascular diseases, because it regulates numerous physiological processes involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, including myocyte contraction, oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, vasodilation, glycolytic metabolism and response to insulin. Thus, perturbations in protein glutathionylation status may contribute to the etiology of many cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. Various reports show the importance of oxidative cysteine modifications in modulating cardiovascular function. In this review, we illustrate tools and strategies to monitor protein S-glutathionylation and describe the proteins so far identified as glutathionylated in myocardial contraction, hypertrophy and inflammation. PMID:24141185

Pastore, Anna; Piemonte, Fiorella

2013-01-01

38

Reproductive & Cardiovascular Disease Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Reproductive & Cardiovascular Disease Research Group is "based in the Department of Biochemistry and Immunology at St. George's, University of London." The Group's "research interests include a number of areas concerned with reproductive and cardiovascular diseases such as trophoblast biology, nitric oxide and apoptosis, with particular emphasis on the role of these subjects in diseases of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia." This website contains descriptions of protocols commonly utilized by the Research Group such as DNA laddering, Comet Assay, Immunoprecipitation, and Caspase Assay, to name a few. This site also contains informative sections concerning Nitric Oxide, Apoptosis, and Trophoblasts. The website includes a list of publications, and email addresses of group members as well.

Dash, Phil.

39

Genomics in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

A paradigm shift towards biology occurred in the 1990’s subsequently catalyzed by the sequencing of the human genome in 2000. The cost of DNA sequencing has gone from millions to thousands of dollars with sequencing of one’s entire genome costing only $1,000. Rapid DNA sequencing is being embraced for single gene disorders, particularly for sporadic cases and those from small families. Transmission of lethal genes such as associated with Huntington’s disease can, through in-vitro fertilization, avoid passing it on to one’s offspring. DNA sequencing will meet the challenge of elucidating the genetic predisposition for common polygenic diseases, especially in determining the function of the novel common genetic risk variants and identifying the rare variants, which may also partially ascertain the source of the missing heritability. The challenge for DNA sequencing remains great, despite human genome sequences being 99.5% identical, the 3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for most of the unique features add up to 60 new mutations per person which, for 7 billion people, is 420 billion mutations. It is claimed that DNA sequencing has increased 10,000 fold while information storage and retrieval only 16 fold. The physician and health user will be challenged by the convergence of two major trends, whole genome sequencing and the storage/retrieval and integration of the data. PMID:23524054

Roberts, Robert; Marian, A.J.; Dandona, Sonny; Stewart, Alexandre F.R.

2013-01-01

40

Rheumatoid Arthritis and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Rheumatic disease and heart disease share common underpinnings involving inflammation. The high levels of inflammation that characterize rheumatic diseases provide a “natural experiment” to help elucidate the mechanisms by which inflammation accelerates heart disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common of the rheumatic diseases and has the best studied relationships with heart disease. Methods Review of current literature on heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis Results Patients with RA have an increased risk of developing heart disease that is not fully explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Therapies used to treat RA may also affect the development of heart disease; by suppressing inflammation, they may also reduce the risk of heart disease. However, their other effects, as in the case of steroids, may increase heart disease risk. Conclusions Investigations of the innate and adaptive immune responses occurring in RA may delineate novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of heart disease, and help identify novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of heart disease. PMID:24093840

Crowson, Cynthia S; Liao, Katherine P; Davis, John M; Solomon, Daniel H; Matteson, Eric L; Knutson, Keith L; Hlatky, Mark A; Gabriel, Sherine E

2014-01-01

41

Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Recent findings Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. Summary The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing. PMID:24717670

Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A.

2014-01-01

42

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is a well-recognized late-onset disease caused by a generalized fibrillopathy. It is linked to a broad spectrum of ocular complications including glaucoma and perioperative problems during cataract surgery. Apart from the long-known intraocular manifestations, PEX deposits have been found in a variety of extraocular locations and they appear to represent a systemic process associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, as published results are inconsistent, the clinical significance of the extraocular PEX deposits remains controversial. Identification of PEX deposits in the heart and the vessel wall, epidemiologic studies, as well as, similarities in pathogenetic mechanisms have led to the hypothesis of a possible relation between fibrillar material and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that PEX syndrome is frequently linked to impaired heart and blood vessels function. Systemic and ocular blood flow changes, altered parasympathetic vascular control and baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular resistance and decreased blood flow velocity, arterial endothelial dysfunction, high levels of plasma homocysteine and arterial hypertension have all been demonstrated in PEX subjects. Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process. PMID:25228963

Andrikopoulos, Georgios K; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios K; Gartaganis, Sotirios P

2014-08-26

43

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is a well-recognized late-onset disease caused by a generalized fibrillopathy. It is linked to a broad spectrum of ocular complications including glaucoma and perioperative problems during cataract surgery. Apart from the long-known intraocular manifestations, PEX deposits have been found in a variety of extraocular locations and they appear to represent a systemic process associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, as published results are inconsistent, the clinical significance of the extraocular PEX deposits remains controversial. Identification of PEX deposits in the heart and the vessel wall, epidemiologic studies, as well as, similarities in pathogenetic mechanisms have led to the hypothesis of a possible relation between fibrillar material and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that PEX syndrome is frequently linked to impaired heart and blood vessels function. Systemic and ocular blood flow changes, altered parasympathetic vascular control and baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular resistance and decreased blood flow velocity, arterial endothelial dysfunction, high levels of plasma homocysteine and arterial hypertension have all been demonstrated in PEX subjects. Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process. PMID:25228963

Andrikopoulos, Georgios K; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios K; Gartaganis, Sotirios P

2014-01-01

44

Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

It has long been known from case series that vitamin D excess can lead to atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in humans. In the 1980s, ecological studies provided data that deficient human vitamin D status may also increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assumption of a biphasic vitamin D effect on CVD is supported by experimental studies: Numerous studies have demonstrated positive effects of the vitamin D hormone (1,25-dihydroxyviramin D) on the cardiovascular system. However, the effects and mechanisms that lead to vascular calcification by vitamin D excess could also be confirmed. Large prospective observational studies support the hypothesis of a U-shaped association between vitamin D and CVD. These studies indicate that deficient circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (<30 nmol/l) are independently-associated with increased CVD morbidity and mortality. They also suggest that those circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, which have long been considered to be safe (100-150 nmol/l), are associated with an increased CVD risk. Meanwhile, numerous randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of vitamin D supplements or ultraviolet B radiation on biochemical cardiovascular risk markers, cardiovascular physiology, and cardiovascular outcomes. Overall, results are mixed with the majority of studies reporting neither beneficial nor adverse vitamin D effects. Several limitations in the study design, which may have prevented beneficial vitamin D effects, are discussed. In conclusion, it must be stated that the role of vitamin D in the prevention and management of CVD as well as the dose-response relationship of potentially harmful effects still remain to be established. PMID:25202039

Zittermann, Armin

2014-09-01

45

Personalized Genomes and Cardiovascular Disease.  

PubMed

The emerging ability to obtain a personalized genome, that is, to perform whole-genome sequencing to determine the entirety of the DNA sequence in an individual patient's chromosomes, holds out the promise of transforming patient care by allowing physicians to more accurately predict the risk of disease and to tailor therapy to that individual. Although no established applications of personalized genomics in cardiovascular medicine yet exist, there are at least two emerging applications that may ultimately become everyday practice. In the first application, DNA sequence variants that have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease may be incorporated in risk-prediction algorithms to more accurately forecast whether patients will develop disease. In the second application, known as pharmacogenomics, DNA sequence variants that have been found to be associated with either beneficial effects or adverse effects of a medication may be used to help decide which medications or dosages of medications to prescribe to patients. It remains to be seen whether either of these applications will prove to be both cost effective as well as of clinical benefit. PMID:25256177

Musunuru, Kiran

2014-09-25

46

Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

Meyer, James H., Comp.

47

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

48

Functional cardiovascular assessment in congenital heart disease.  

E-print Network

??abstractAdequate and serial functional cardiovascular assessment is important in patients with congenital heart disease because many show disruption of normal myocardial geometry, which may or… (more)

W.J.B.W. van den Berg

2007-01-01

49

Cardiovascular disease in Hajj pilgrims  

PubMed Central

The changing pattern of hospital admissions during Hajj, the Muslims yearly pilgrimage attracting millions of pilgrims from all around the globe, has gradually seen infectious causes of hospital admission replaced by cardiovascular diseases as a leading cause of both intensive care unit admission and death. While this trend is partly associated with the high quality of medical services and awareness programs targeted at reducing the spread of infections, at the same time it underscores an urgent need to establish a pragmatic system to manage the challenge of cardiovascular morbidities and mortality during Hajj. Search strategy and inclusion criteria A PubMed Central (PMC) literature search without date restrictions was performed for articles reporting on the medical experience during Hajj. There were 109 articles were returned using “Hajj” and “mortality” as search terms. After determining relevance to the current theme based on both direct and indirect reference to the pattern hospital admission during Hajj, 20 articles reporting on conducted studies were obtained. Data from these studies reporting on the pattern and outcome of hospitalization during Hajj were examined and helped in arriving at the conclusions presented in this review. PMID:23960680

Al Shimemeri, Abdullah

2012-01-01

50

Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

51

Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular (CV) system involvement is a frequent complication of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It still remains unclear if a premature atherosclerosis (ATS) occurs even in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, in the last few years a number of studies highlighted a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease in SSc patients in comparison to healthy individuals and these data have been correlated with a poorer prognosis. The mechanisms promoting ATS in SSc are not fully understood, but it is believed to be secondary to multi-system organ inflammation, endothelial wall damage and vasculopathy. Both traditional risk factors and endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to participate to the onset and progression of ATS in such patients. In particular, endothelial cell injury induced by anti-endothelial antibodies, ischemia/reperfusion damage, immune-mediated cytotoxicity represent the main causes of vascular injury together with an impaired vascular repair mechanism that determine a defective vasculogenesis. Aim of this review is to analyse both causes and clinical manifestations of macrovascular involvement and ATS in SSc.

Cannarile, Francesca; Valentini, Valentina; Mirabelli, Giulia; Alunno, Alessia; Terenzi, Riccardo; Luccioli, Filippo; Bartoloni, Elena

2015-01-01

52

Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

2014-01-01

53

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous large epidemiological studies reporting on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases mainly focussed on prevalent diseases rather than on the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular\\u000a outcomes. We used the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to assess the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases in COPD patients aged 40–79 between 1995 and 2005, and

Cornelia Schneider; Ulrich Bothner; Susan S. Jick; Christoph R. Meier

2010-01-01

54

[Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is one of the most common respiratory disorders in humans. There is emerging evidence linking OSA to vascular disease, particularly hypertension. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that link OSA to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation are not entirely understood, although they certainly include mechanical events, increased sympathetic activity and oxidative stress. This review will examine the evidence and mechanisms linking OSA syndrome to cardiovascular disease. PMID:18678213

Bentivoglio, Maurizio; Bergamini, Eva; Fabbri, Marta; Andreoli, Chiara; Bartolini, Claudia; Cosmi, Deborah; Capasso, Vincenzo; Bottini, Paolo; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

2008-07-01

55

Bayesian Analysis of Epidemics -Zombies, Influenza, and other Diseases  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis of Epidemics - Zombies, Influenza, and other Diseases Caitlyn Witkowski1, , Brian) on the application of disease dynamics to the so-called "zombie apocalypse", and then apply the identical methods to influenza dynamics. Unlike Munz et.al (2009), we include data taken from specific depictions of zombies

Blais, Brian

56

Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Studies of chronic stressors are discussed in terms of job stress, marital unhappiness, and burden of caregiving. From all of these studies there are extensive data concerning stressors’ contributions to diverse pathophysiological changes including sudden death, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and wall motion abnormalities, as well as to alterations in cardiac regulation as indexed by changes in sympathetic nervous system activity and hemostasis. Although stressors trigger events, it is less clear that stress “causes” the events. There is nonetheless overwhelming evidence both for the deleterious effects of stress on the heart and for the fact that vulnerability and resilience factors play a role in amplifying or dampening those effects. Numerous approaches are available for stress management that can decrease patients’ suffering and enhance their quality of life. PMID:18371552

Dimsdale, Joel E.

2009-01-01

57

Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

58

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population.BackgroundThe extent of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Medicare population is relatively unknown. Also unknown is the effect of these diseases on patient survival before end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsPrevalent cohorts of Medicare enrollees from 1996 to 2000 were assessed for diabetes and CKD, presence of

Allan J. Collins; Shuling Li; David T. Gilbertson; Jiannong Liu; Shu-Cheng Chen; Charles A. Herzog

2003-01-01

59

Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.  

PubMed

Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may play an important role in atherogenesis. Inflammation and complement depositions in the vessel wall are likely to contribute to vascular stiffness. Based on biopsy findings, also inflammation in the myocardium and small vessels may contribute to premature CVD in ARDs (cardiac ischemia and heart failure). There is an enormous need for an improved CVD prevention in ARDs. Studies examining the effect of DMARDs/biologics on vascular inflammation and CV risk are warranted. PMID:23541482

Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

2013-08-01

60

Cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease. National Kidney Foundation guidelines define chronic kidney disease (CKD) as persistent kidney damage (confirmed by renal biopsy or markers of kidney damage) and\\/or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL\\/min\\/1.73m2 for greater than three months.Patients with CKD experience higher mortality and adverse cardiovascular (CV) event rates, which remains significant after adjustment for conventional coronary risk

Nagesh S. Anavekar; Marc A. Pfeffer

2004-01-01

61

Geochemical environments, trace elements, and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are often found to be associated with certain physicochemical characteristics of the environment—namely, the hardness of the water and the types of rock and soil underlying the area. Areas supplied with soft water usually have higher cardiovascular death rates than do areas supplied with hard water. Evidence linking cardiovascular diseases with the geochemistry of rocks and soils is more limited. The nature of these associations is still speculative but it is possible that certain trace elements are involved, some being beneficial and others harmful. Further epidemiological studies to identify these various trace elements are desirable. PMID:4539410

Masironi, R.; Miesch, A. T.; Crawford, M. D.; Hamilton, E. I.

1972-01-01

62

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Cholesterol Lowering, Cardiovascular Diseases,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Cholesterol Lowering, Cardiovascular Diseases, and the Rosuvastatin in the risk of cardiovascu- lar diseases among patients without coronary heart dis- ease and with normal not support the use of statin treatment for primary prevention of cardio- vascular diseases and raise

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality remains alarmingly high in all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CVD often begins before end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and patients with reduced kidney function are more likely to die of CVD than to develop ESRD. Three pathological forms of CVD should be considered in patients with CKD: alterations in cardiac

Mark J. Sarnak

2003-01-01

64

Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... is peripheral artery disease? What is cardiovascular disease? Cardiovascular disease affects the heart and blood vessels. It is ...

65

Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal failure. Patients with chronic kidney disease have significant CVD, and carry a high cardiovascular burden by the time they commence renal replacement therapy (RRT). The severity of CVD that has been observed in dialysis patients lead to a growing body of research examining the pathogenesis

Majd I. Jaradat; Bruce A. Molitoris

2002-01-01

66

Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease do not progress to end stage renal failure, but do have a significantly higher incidence of all cardiovascular co-morbidities. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors only partially account for this increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In patients with kidney disease the basic biology underlying cardiovascular disease may be similar to that in patients without kidney disease, but it would seem many more risk factors are involved as a consequence of renal dysfunction. Although emphasis is placed on delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease, it must be appreciated that for many patients it is vital to address their cardiovascular risk factors at an early stage to prevent premature cardiovascular death. This review examines available epidemiological evidence, discusses common cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease, and suggests possible treatment strategies. Potential areas for important research are also described. PMID:19756163

Wright, Julian; Hutchison, Alastair

2009-01-01

67

Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended analysis tools for network epidemiology, which has, to date, mostly viewed networks as static entities. We review recent results of network epidemiology for such temporal network data and discuss future developments. PMID:23513178

Holme, Petter

2013-01-01

68

Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in women.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death among U.S. women and men. Established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated total cholesterol, and risk prediction models based on such factors, perform well but do not perfectly predict future risk of CVD. Thus, there has been much recent interest among cardiovascular researchers in identifying novel biomarkers to aid in risk prediction. Such markers include alternative lipids, B-type natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, coronary artery calcium, and genetic markers. This article reviews the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, risk prediction tools, and selected novel biomarkers and other exposures in predicting risk of developing CVD in women. The predictive role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers for women in primary prevention settings requires additional study, as does the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiac troponins for acute coronary syndromes in clinical settings. Sex differences in the clinical expression and physiology of metabolic syndrome may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes. Consideration of exposures that are unique to, or more prevalent in, women may also help to refine cardiovascular risk estimates in this group. PMID:25487190

Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

2015-03-01

69

The Intersection Between Aging and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although numerous studies in the cardiovascular field have considered both young and aged humans, there are still many unanswered questions as to how the genetic pathways that regulate aging in model organisms influence cardiovascular aging. Likewise, in the molecular biology of aging field, few studies fully assess the role of these aging pathways in cardiovascular health. Fortunately, this gap is beginning to close, and these two fields are merging together. We provide an overview of some of the key genes involved in regulating lifespan and health span, including sirtuins, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 and their roles regulating cardiovascular health. We then discuss a series of review articles that will appear in succession and provide a more comprehensive analysis of studies carried out linking genes of aging and cardiovascular health, and perspectives of future directions of these two intimately linked fields. PMID:22499900

North, Brian J.; Sinclair, David A.

2012-01-01

70

Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.  

PubMed

The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

2009-01-01

71

Method of thermography in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the possibility of using infrared thermography (IT) in diagnosing the commonest cardiovascular diseases: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and hypertensive disease (HD). We show that the IT method allows one to evaluate the condition of peripheral blood flow, but the results of examination depend greatly on the presence of accompanying diseases (osteochondrosis, varicosis). The IT method is not specific enough to evaluate the functional state of a myocardium.

Lazyuk, D. G.; Sidorenko, I. V.; Krushevskaya, T. V.

1996-05-01

72

Emergence of the concept of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the concept of cardiovascular disease is a recent and evolving concept. Well into the eighteenth century, cardiac and vascular diseases were little known and considered a rarity. Description of the circulation by William Harvey (1578–1657) in 1628 marks the beginning of the changes that ensued. However, knowledge was slow to accrue and not until the nineteenth century was the

Garabed Eknoyan

2004-01-01

73

Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the impact of smoking on mortality indicate that 35% of smoking-related deaths are due to cardiovascular causes. Current\\u000a cigarette smoking is associated with a threefold to sixfold increase in risk of myocardial infarction and increased rates\\u000a of ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Tobacco smoking has the greatest deleterious effect on peripheral arteries,\\u000a with multiple effects ranging from increased

John H. Fish III; John R. Bartholomew

2007-01-01

74

Pomegranate Protection against Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

The current paper summarizes the antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate polyphenols on serum lipoproteins and on arterial macrophages (two major components of the atherosclerotic lesion), using both in vitro and in vivo humans and mice models. Pomegranate juice and its by-products substantially reduced macrophage cholesterol and oxidized lipids accumulation, and foam cell formation (the hallmark of early atherogenesis), leading to attenuation of atherosclerosis development, and its consequent cardiovascular events. PMID:23243442

Aviram, Michael; Rosenblat, Mira

2012-01-01

75

Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis: Balancing risk management  

PubMed Central

In this narrative review of the current literature, we examine the traditional risk factors and patient profiles leading to cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. We discuss the interrelationships between risk factors and common pathophysiological mechanisms for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. We evaluate the increasing evidence that supports an association between these disabling conditions. We reveal that vascular health appears to have a strong effect on skeletal health, and vice versa. We highlight the importance of addressing the risk benefit of preventative interventions in both conditions. We discuss how both sexes are affected by these chronic conditions and the importance of considering the unique risk of the individual. We show that habitual physical activity is an effective primary and secondary preventative strategy for both cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. We highlight how a holistic approach to the prevention and treatment of these chronic conditions is likely warranted. PMID:18078019

Warburton, Darren ER; Nicol, Crystal Whitney; Gatto, Stephanie N; Bredin, Shannon SD

2007-01-01

76

Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Growing Epidemic.  

PubMed

Medical and surgical breakthroughs in the care of children born with heart defects have generated a growing population of adult survivors and spawned a new subspecialty of cardiology: adult congenital heart disease. The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease is escalating at a rampant rate, outpacing the relatively static prevalence of pediatric congenital heart disease, because adults now surpass children in numbers by a ratio of 2:1. As such, congenital heart disease can no longer be considered primarily a pediatric specialty. Most congenital heart defects are not curable and require lifelong specialized care. Health care systems worldwide are challenged to meet the unique needs of this increasingly complex patient population, including the development of supraregional centres of excellence to provide comprehensive and multidisciplinary specialized care. In this review, we explore the incidence and prevalence of congenital heart disease and their changing patterns, address organization and delivery of care, highlight the importance of appropriate training and dedicated research, summarize the high burden of health care resource utilization, and provide an overview of common issues encountered in adults with congenital heart disease. PMID:25432136

Avila, Pablo; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Dore, Annie; Marcotte, François; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Ibrahim, Reda; Asgar, Anita; Miro, Joaquim; Andelfinger, Gregor; Mondésert, Blandine; de Guise, Pierre; Poirier, Nancy; Khairy, Paul

2014-12-01

77

Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently been investigated. In this article, we review the emerging role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease. Recent Advances: Changes in mitochondrial dynamics have been implicated in vascular smooth cell proliferation, cardiac development and differentiation, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, and heart failure. Critical Issues: Many of the experimental studies investigating mitochondrial dynamics in the cardiovascular system have been confined to cardiac cell lines, vascular cells, or neonatal cardiomyocytes, in which mitochondria are distributed throughout the cytoplasm and are free to move. However, in the adult heart where mitochondrial movements are restricted by their tightly-packed distribution along myofibrils or beneath the subsarcolemma, the relevance of mitochondrial dynamics is less obvious. The investigation of transgenic mice deficient in cardiac mitochondrial fission or fusion proteins should help elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the adult heart. Future Directions: Investigating the role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease should result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for treating patients with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability globally. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 400—414. PMID:22793879

Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

78

Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukins-1, -6, and -17, C-reactive protein, coagulation molecules, cellular adhesion molecules, and visfatin. Finally, a discussion of the limitations of current studies and future directions is provided. PMID:23901303

Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

2013-01-01

79

Proteinuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated morbidity pose a worldwide health problem. As well as risk of endstage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death among the CKD population. Proteinuria is a marker of renal injury that can often be detected earlier than any tangible decline in glomerular filtration rate. As well as being a risk marker for decline in renal function, proteinuria is now widely accepted as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review will address the prognostic implications of proteinuria in the general population as well as other specific disease states including diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. A variety of pathophysiological mechanisms that may underlie the relationship between renal and cardiovascular disease have been proposed, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. As proteinuria has evolved into a therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction in the clinical setting we will also review therapeutic strategies that should be considered for patients with persistent proteinuria. PMID:24379690

Currie, Gemma; Delles, Christian

2014-01-01

80

Primary care research and clinical practice: cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement in survival of patients with cardiovascular diseases and an ageing population mean that management of cardiovascular conditions remains an important challenge for primary care. Traditionally cardiovascular research has been based largely in secondary or tertiary care settings. The majority of care for people with cardiovascular diseases, however, takes place in the community and within primary care. In recent years,

N Mavaddat; J Mant

2010-01-01

81

Visceral Obesity- The Link Among Inflammation, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The worldwide epidemic of obesity, fostered by the modern lifestyle characterized by the lack of physical activity and an energy-dense diet, has contributed to create an unprecedented condition in human history where a majority of overfed individuals will soon surpass the number of malnourished.1 Obesity-associated disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, an atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, have undoubtedly contributed to create an atherosclerosis-prone environment and thereby the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality in Westernized societies. A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution is closely associated with metabolic perturbations and, thus, with CVD risk.2 In this regard, accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is strongly associated with insulin resistance and with a typical atherogenic dyslipidemic state.3

Patrick Mathieu (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Surgery); Paul Poirier (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Center Pharmacy); Philippe Pibarot (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Medicine); Isabelle Lemieux (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Kinesiology, Social and Preventive Medicine); Jean-Pierre Despres (Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute Kinesiology, Social and Preventive Medicine)

2009-02-23

82

Update: ebola virus disease epidemic - west Africa, january 2015.  

PubMed

CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to end the ongoing epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and the World Health Organization. PMID:25654613

2015-02-01

83

Metabolic biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiac and peripheral vascular biomarkers are increasingly becoming targets of both research and clinical practice. As of 2008, cardiovascular-related medical care accounts for greater than 20% of all the economic costs of illness in the United States. In the age of burgeoning financial pressures on the entire health care system, never has it been more important to try to understand who is at risk for cardiovascular disease in order to prevent new events. In this paper, we will discuss the cost of cardiovascular disease to society, clarify the definition of and need for biomarkers, offer an example of a current biomarker, namely high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and finally examine the approval process for utilizing these in clinical practice. PMID:23386789

Montgomery, Jana E; Brown, Jeremiah R

2013-01-01

84

Advanced Tracers in PET Imaging of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the noninvasive detection and characterization of biological changes at the molecular level, leading to earlier disease detection, objective monitoring of therapies, and better prognostication of cardiovascular diseases progression. Here we review, the current role of PET in cardiovascular disease, with emphasize on tracers developed for PET imaging of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25389529

Zhang, Wei; Wu, Hua; Liu, Gang

2014-01-01

85

Fluctuations in epidemic modeling - disease extinction and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of infectious disease fluctuations has recently seen an increasing rise in the use of new tools and models from stochastic dynamics and statistical physics. Examples arise in modeling fluctuations of multi-strain diseases, in modeling adaptive social behavior and its impact on disease fluctuations, and in the analysis of disease extinction in finite population models. Proper stochastic model reduction [1] allows one to predict unobserved fluctuations from observed data in multi-strain models [2]. Degree alteration and power law behavior is predicted in adaptive network epidemic models [3,4]. And extinction rates derived from large fluctuation theory exhibit scaling with respect to distance to the bifurcation point of disease onset with an unusual exponent [5]. In addition to outbreak prediction, another main goal of epidemic modeling is one of eliminating the disease to extinction through various control mechanisms, such as vaccine implementation or quarantine. In this talk, a description will be presented of the fluctuational behavior of several epidemic models and their extinction rates. A general framework and analysis of the effect of non-Gaussian control actuations which enhance the rate to disease extinction will be described. In particular, in it is shown that even in the presence of a small Poisson distributed vaccination program, there is an exponentially enhanced rate to disease extinction. These ideas may lead to improved methods of controlling disease where random vaccinations are prevalent. [4pt] Recent papers:[0pt] [1] E. Forgoston and I. B. Schwartz, ``Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales,'' arXiv:0809.1345 2008.[0pt] [2] L. B. Shaw, L. Billings, I. B. Schwartz, ``Using dimension reduction to improve outbreak predictability of multi-strain diseases,'' J. Math. Bio. 55, 1 2007.[0pt] [3] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Fluctuating epidemics on adaptive networks,'' Physical Review E 77, 066101 2008.[0pt] [4] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Noise induced dynamics in adaptivenetworks with applications to epidemiology,'' arXiv:0807.3455 2008.[0pt] [5] M. I. Dykman, I. B. Schwartz, A. S. Landsman, ``Disease Extinction in the Presence of Random Vaccination,'' Phys. Rev. Letts. 101, 078101 2008.

Schwartz, Ira

2009-03-01

86

Congenital Cardiovascular Disease in Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turner syndrome (TS), or monosomy X, occurs in ~1\\/2000 live born females. Intelligence is normal and short stature is the most obvious and consistent feature of the syndrome. Congenital cardiovascular disease affects ~50% of individuals and is the major cause of premature mortality in adults. Unfortunately, this most important aspect of the syndrome has received little attention outside of pediatric

Carolyn A. Bondy

87

Homocysteine and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pictorial introduction to homocysteine illustrates at a glance the nature of homocysteine and its role in cardiovascular disease by means of eight simple figures and an essential bibliography. Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing metabolite of methionine. Conversion back to methionine or transsulfuration to cysteine are the two major metabolic pathways that reduce total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in cells and blood.

Felicita Andreotti; Francesco Burzotta; Alessandro Manzoli; Killian Robinson

2000-01-01

88

[Research progress with renalase and cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Renalase, a novel amine oxidase, is secreted by kidney. It regulates heart function and blood pressure by degrading catecholamines. Hormones secreted by the kidney are associated with cardiovascular disease. Renalase, as a new biomarker of heart and kidney functional correlation, can lower blood pressure, protect ischemic heart muscle, improve heart function and degrade catecholamine. PMID:22659670

Guo, Yunzhong; Jiang, Weihong

2012-05-01

89

Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common

Altan Onat

2001-01-01

90

Noninvasive imaging of apoptosis in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molecular imaging have permitted the noninvasive imaging of apoptosis, a critical process underlying the\\u000a pathogenesis of many diseases of the cardiovascular system including atherosclerotic vascular disease, myocardial ischemia\\u000a and reperfusion injury, chronic heart failure, myocarditis, and cardiac allograft rejection. Multiple molecular targets including\\u000a phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and caspases have been targeted by a variety of imaging agents

Ethan Chauncey Korngold; Farouc Amin Jaffer; Ralph Weissleder; David Edwin Sosnovik

2008-01-01

91

Top Ten Things to Know: Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... reserved. Top Ten Things To Know Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease 1. Triglycerides (or blood fats) are an important ... validate triglycerides as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease Miller M, et al; on behalf of the ...

92

Urotensin-II and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urotensin-II (U-II) is a vasoactive factor with pleiotropic effects. U-II exerts its activity by binding to a G-protein-coupled\\u000a receptor termed UT. U-II and its receptor are highly expressed in the cardiovascular system. Increased U-II plasma levels\\u000a have been reported in patients with cardiovascular disease of varying etiologies. We and others have shown that U-II and UT\\u000a expression is elevated in

Nicolas Bousette; Adel Giaid

2006-01-01

93

The impact of past epidemics on future disease dynamics.  

PubMed

Many pathogens spread primarily via direct contact between infected and susceptible hosts. Thus, the patterns of contacts or contact network of a population fundamentally shape the course of epidemics. While there is a robust and growing theory for the dynamics of single epidemics in networks, we know little about the impacts of network structure on long-term epidemic or endemic transmission. For seasonal diseases like influenza, pathogens repeatedly return to populations with complex and changing patterns of susceptibility and immunity acquired through prior infection. Here, we develop two mathematical approaches for modeling consecutive seasonal outbreaks of a partially-immunizing infection in a population with contact heterogeneity. Using methods from percolation theory we consider both leaky immunity, where all previously infected individuals gain partial immunity, and polarized immunity, where a fraction of previously infected individuals are fully immune. By restructuring the epidemiologically active portion of their host population, such diseases limit the potential of future outbreaks. We speculate that these dynamics can result in evolutionary pressure to increase infectiousness. PMID:22721993

Bansal, Shweta; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2012-09-21

94

Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population  

PubMed Central

Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

Craft, Meggan E.; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2009-01-01

95

Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population.  

PubMed

Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas. PMID:19324800

Craft, Meggan E; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2009-05-22

96

Tetrahydrobiopterin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) functions as a cofactor for several important enzyme systems, and considerable evidence implicates BH4 as a key regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the setting of cardiovascular health and disease. BH4 bioavailability is determined by a balance of enzymatic de novo synthesis and recycling, versus degradation in the setting of oxidative stress. Augmenting vascular BH4 levels by pharmacological supplementation has been shown in experimental studies to enhance NO bioavailability. However, it has become more apparent that the role of BH4 in other enzymatic pathways, including other NOS isoforms and the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, may have a bearing on important aspects of vascular homeostasis, inflammation, and cardiac function. This article reviews the role of BH4 in cardiovascular development and homeostasis, as well as in pathophysiological processes such as endothelial and vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy. We discuss the therapeutic potential of BH4 in cardiovascular disease states and attempt to address how this modulator of intracellular NO-redox balance may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 3040–3077. PMID:24294830

Bendall, Jennifer K.; Douglas, Gillian; McNeill, Eileen; Channon, Keith M.

2014-01-01

97

The link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are common age-related conditions associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and disability. Traditionally, these two conditions were considered unrelated and their coexistence was attributed to independent age-related processes. However, an increasing body of biological and epidemiological evidence has provided support for a link between the two conditions that cannot be explained by age alone. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between osteoporosis and CVD including: 1) shared risk factors, 2) common pathophysiological mechanisms, 3) common genetic factors, or 4) a causal association. This review highlights the epidemiologic literature on the association of bone density with cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and subclinical measures of atherosclerosis. It also summarizes the different potential mechanisms involved in the link between osteoporosis and CVD. PMID:22460842

Farhat, Ghada N.; Cauley, Jane A.

2008-01-01

98

MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding to their targets and promoting RNA degradation and/or inhibiting protein translation. In recent years, miRNAs have revolutionized our understanding of gene regulatory networks, providing new prospective tools to manage disease. Atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of disability and death in the US and in other western populations and pose an enormous burden on our healthcare system. Altered lipid homeostasis in liver or in the artery wall, and disruption of endothelial and smooth muscle cell function have been shown to contribute to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of vascular biology- and lipid metabolism-related miRNomics. PMID:24563824

Baldán, Ángel

2013-01-01

99

Cardiovascular diseases in the eastern Mediterranean region.  

PubMed

Rapid socioeconomic development, urbanization and improved survival have given rise to a progressive increase in the occurrence of noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Cardiovascular diseases have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. The prevalence of hypertension is already high in many countries of the Region and the number of hypertensives is likely to increase further in the coming years. Although the influence of geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic factors has not been studied adequately, it seems that the epidemiological and clinical patterns of hypertension do not differ markedly from those in developed countries. The growing impact of cardiovascular disease is already understood in most countries. The human and economic costs are enormous, there is a growing demand for medical services, and the need to take action is increasingly acknowledged. Most countries have either initiated or indicated the need to establish programmes in collaboration with WHO on the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease during 1992 and 1993. In view of the scarcity of precise epidemiological information, data collection and the assessment of risk factors for coronary heart disease are expected to form the basis of preliminary activities. PMID:8303910

Alwan, A A

1993-01-01

100

Optimal Sampling Strategies for Detecting Zoonotic Disease Epidemics  

PubMed Central

The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests. PMID:24968100

Ferguson, Jake M.; Langebrake, Jessica B.; Cannataro, Vincent L.; Garcia, Andres J.; Hamman, Elizabeth A.; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W.

2014-01-01

101

Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Disease: Statistical Fact Sheet  

MedlinePLUS

... men and 30.7% of women have CVD. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD/10 codes I00-I99, Q20-Q28) ( ... 9 and 28.0 for females. A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00-I99, ...

102

Introduction Worldwide, cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the  

E-print Network

Articles Introduction Worldwide, cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause declined in several developed countries in past decades, rates of cardiovascular disease have risen greatly for cardiovascular disease in different geographic regions and among various ethnic groups. Current knowledge about

Meagher, Mary

103

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Anida Sarajlic1.  

E-print Network

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajlic´1. , Vuk Janjic´1. , Neda, United Kingdom, 2 Institute for Cardiovascular Disease ``Dedinje,'' University of Belgrade, Belgrade used as a source of new biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major

Przulj, Natasa

104

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease  

E-print Network

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease Allan H Smith professor cardiovascular disease with the findings of their prospective cohort study in Bangladesh.7 The first evidence of a link between cardiovascular disease and arsenic in drinking water came in 1980 from Antofagasta, Chile

California at Berkeley, University of

105

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajlic1,  

E-print Network

1 Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes Anida Sarajli´c1, , Vuk Janji´c1, SW72AZ, UK 2 Institute for Cardiovascular Disease "Dedinje," University of Belgrade, Serbia E biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major global cause of death, many

Przulj, Natasa

106

Postdoctoral Scholar position Area: Cardiovascular Disease, Faculty of Nursing  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Scholar position Area: Cardiovascular Disease, Faculty of Nursing Duration: 1 year-doctoral position Cardiovascular Disease. Dr. King-Shier has a multi-methods program of research, which is focused on the impact of ethnicity on cardiovascular disease management as well as determinants of heart health

de Leon, Alex R.

107

Notch Signaling in Cardiovascular Disease and Calcification  

PubMed Central

Recent increase in human lifespan has shifted the spectrum of aging-related disorders to an unprecedented upsurge in cardiovascular diseases, especially calcific aortic valve stenosis, which has an 80% risk of progression to heart failure and death. A current therapeutic option for calcified valves is surgical replacement, which provides only temporary relief. Recent progress in cardiovascular research has suggested that arterial and valve calcification are the result of an active process of osteogenic differentiation, induced by a pro-atherogenic inflammatory response. At molecular level, the calcification process is regulated by a network of signaling pathways, including Notch, Wnt and TGFbeta/BMP pathways, which control the master regulator of osteogenesis Cbfa1/Runx2. Genetic and in vitro studies have implicated Notch signaling in the regulation of macrophage activation and cardiovascular calcification. Individuals with inactivating Notch1 mutations have a high rate of cardiovascular disorders, including valve stenosis and calcification. This article reviews recent progress in the mechanism of cardiovascular calcification and discusses potential molecular mechanisms involved, focusing on Notch receptors. We propose a calcification model where extreme increases in vascular wall cell density due to inflammation-induced cell proliferation can trigger an osteogenic differentiation program mediated by Notch receptors. PMID:19936191

Rusanescu, Gabriel; Weissleder, Ralph; Aikawa, Elena

2008-01-01

108

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep, associated with intermittent oxygen desaturation, sleep fragmentation, and symptoms of disruptive snoring and daytime sleepiness. Increasing focus is being placed on the relationship between OSAS and all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related mortality, but it still largely unclear whether this association is causative or simply speculative and epidemiological. Basically, reliable clinical evidence supports the hypothesis that OSAS might be associated with essential and resistant hypertension, as well as with an incremental risk of developing stroke, cardiac rhythm perturbations (e.g., atrial fibrillation, bradyarrhythmias, supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias), coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Although it is still unclear whether OSAS might represent an independent risk factor for several acute or chronic conditions, or rather might trigger cardiovascular disease in the presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia), there is a plausible biological background underlying this association, in that most of the mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of OSAS (i.e., hypoxia, hypercapnia, negative intrathoracic pressure, micro-arousal, sympathetic hyperactivity, metabolic and hormonal changes, oxidative stress, phlogosis, endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and genetic predisposition) might also be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. In this article we discuss the different aspects of the relationship between OSAS and pathogenically different conditions such as systemic hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, metabolic abnormalities, arrhythmias, and heart failure, and we also discuss the kaleidoscope of phenomena implicated in the pathogenesis of this challenging disease. PMID:21455862

Fava, Cristiano; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe

2011-04-01

109

Understanding impacts of climatic extremes on diarrheal disease epidemics: Insights from mechanistic disease propagation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An epidemic outbreak of diarrheal diseases (primarily cholera) in Haiti in 2010 is a reminder that our understanding on disease triggers, transmission and spreading mechanisms is incomplete. Cholera can occur in two forms - epidemic (defined as sudden outbreak in a historically disease free region) and endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years). Examples of countries with epidemic cholera include Pakistan (2008), Congo (2008), and most recently Haiti (2010). A significant difference between endemic and epidemic regions is the mortality rate, i.e., 1% or lower in an endemic regions versus 3-7% during recent epidemic outbreaks. A fundamentally transformational approach - a warning system with several months prediction lead time - is needed to prevent disease outbreak and minimize its impact on population. Lack of information on spatial and temporal variability of disease incidence as well as transmission in human population continues to be significant challenge in the development of early-warning systems for cholera. Using satellite data on regional hydroclimatic processes, water and sanitation infrastructure indices, and biological pathogen growth information, here we present a Simple, Mechanistic, Adaptive, Remote sensing based Regional Transmission or SMART model to (i) identify regions of potential cholera outbreaks and (ii) quantify mechanism of spread of the disease in previously disease free region. Our results indicate that epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for the growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. We discuss the above findings in light of increased climatic variability, such as acceleration of hydrological cycle, hydroclimatic hazards, etc on diarrheal disease outbreaks.

Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

2013-12-01

110

The link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Context: It is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a strong risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the excess risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD is only partially explained by the presence of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: Chronic kidney disease even in its early stages can cause hypertension and potentiate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the practice of intensive blood pressure lowering was criticized in recent systematic reviews. Available evidence is inconclusive but does not prove that a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg as recommended in the guidelines improves clinical outcomes more than a target of less than 140/90 mmHg in adults with CKD. Conclusions: The association between CKD and CVD has been extensively documented in the literature. Both CKD and CVD share common traditional risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, cardiovascular disease remains often underdiagnosed und undertreated in patients with CKD. It is imperative that as clinicians, we recognize that patients with CKD are a group at high risk for developing CVD and cardiovascular events. Additional studies devoted to further understand the risk factors for CVD in patients with CKD are necessary to develop and institute preventative and treatment strategies to reduce the high morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. PMID:25093157

Said, Sarmad; Hernandez, German T.

2014-01-01

111

Dyslipidemia, Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the relationship between dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications in the cardiovascular and renal system, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Modification of the multifactorial risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, has been suggested to reduce the rates of diabetes-related complications. Dyslipidemia in diabetes is a condition that includes hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and increased small and dense low-density lipoprotein particles. This condition is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic patients. Current treatment guidelines focus on lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; multiple trials have confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of treatment with statins. Chronic kidney disease also contributes to dyslipidemia, and dyslipidemia in turn is related to the occurrence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Different patterns of dyslipidemia are associated with different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Some trials have shown that treatment with statins not only decreased the risk of cardiovascular events, but also delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, studies using statins as the sole treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients on dialysis have not shown benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk. Diabetic patients with nephropathy have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those without nephropathy. The degree of albuminuria and the reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate are also correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to reduce albuminuria in diabetic patients has been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24380085

Chen, Szu-chi; Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

2013-01-01

112

Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.  

PubMed

Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage. PMID:25581946

Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

2014-01-01

113

Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host. PMID:24877121

Cedzy?ski, Maciej

2014-01-01

114

Cardiovascular Disease and the Endothelium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Millions of Americans are counting cholesterol, spending more time on the stairmaster and less in front of TV, and trading their burgers for broiled fishÂ?all in an effort to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Doctors and scientists are doing their part, too. Their biomedical research is unraveling the complex causes of these deadly disorders, which kill almost half the people who die every year in the United States,Japan, and Europe.Some of the most important progress has been in research on a disease called atherosclerosis. Doctors know atherosclerosis all too well as the main cause of heart attacks and strokes. In the last decade, researchers investigating what causes the disease have discovered that the endothelium, an extremely thin lining of the walls of the bodyÂ?s arteries, plays a crucial role. Recent discoveries about how that lining operates are providing doctors new tools for preventing atherosclerosis, diagnosing it if it occurs,and treating it effectively.

Jeffrey Porro (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)

1997-12-01

115

Cardiovascular disease mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.  

PubMed

Is there a full-blown stroke epidemic and a growing ischemic heart disease (IHD) epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa? We aim to further understand the evolution of stroke and IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa with an analysis of the most recent Global Burden of Disease estimates of mortality for men of Sub-Saharan African descent in Africa and in the Caribbean and a review of recent studies found on PubMed and reference lists of published articles. Stroke is the most important cause of cardiovascular disease mortality in men aged 60-64 years in Africa and the Caribbean, but death rates and rank may vary by region. Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause in the Caribbean. PMID:25417435

Ayinde, Hakeem; Gillum, Richard F

2014-01-01

116

Polypill for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polypill for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is under development. It is proposed to contain a combination of antithrombotic agent (aspirin), low-dose blood pressure lowering agents, i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril), one among a ?-blocker (atenolol) or diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide), and a statin (simvastatin\\/atorvastatin\\/pravatsatin, etc.). Due to the presence of multiple drugs in the same formulation, there is a strong likelihood of

Vijay Kumar; Satish Malik; Saranjit Singh

2008-01-01

117

Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

2014-09-01

118

Correlation between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Several evidences have shown in the last years a possible correlation between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. Patients affected with osteoporosis, for example, have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than subjects with normal bone mass. However, the heterogeneous approaches and the different populations that have been studied so far have limited the strength of the findings. Studies conducted in animal models show that vascular calcification is a very complex mechanism that involves similar pathways described in the normal bone calcification. Proteins like BMP, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin play an important role at the bone level but are also highly expressed in the calcified vascular tissue. In particular, it seems that the OPG protect from vascular calcification and elevated levels have been found in patients with CVD. Other factors like oxidative stress, inflammation, free radicals, lipids metabolism are involved in this complex scenario. It is not a case that medications used for treating osteoporosis also inhibit the atherosclerotic process, acting on blood pressure and ventricular hypertrophy. Given the limited amount of available data, further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease which may be important in the future also for preventive and therapeutic approaches of both conditions. PMID:25285139

Sprini, Delia; Rini, Giovam Battista; Di Stefano, Laura; Cianferotti, Luisella; Napoli, Nicola

2014-01-01

119

The spectrum of cardiovascular disease in children with predialysis chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in adults and children on chronic dialysis and in adults after kidney transplantation. Cardiovascular disease burden and cardiovascular mortality are high in adults with chronic kidney disease. The early development of cardiovascular disease risk factors, some of which are modifiable, largely explain this phenomenon. Limited data are available on the prevalence of

Blanche M Chavers; Charles A Herzog

2004-01-01

120

HIV and Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... you can assess your risks and plan for health improvement. Why are HIV patients at higher risk for CVD? Having HIV places you at a ... clear that people living with HIV have higher risks for kidney disease. Your ... health, partly because they help stablize blood pressure. Kidneys ...

121

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2011-09-01

122

Emergence of the concept of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Historically, the concept of cardiovascular disease is a recent and evolving concept. Well into the eighteenth century, cardiac and vascular diseases were little known and considered a rarity. Description of the circulation by William Harvey (1578-1657) in 1628 marks the beginning of the changes that ensued. However, knowledge was slow to accrue and not until the nineteenth century was the heart taken as a specific object of study. The description of end-stage kidney disease by Richard Bright (1789-1858) in 1827 launched studies of the vasculature, which were to lead to the recognition of hypertension and subsequent identification of the lesions of arteriosclerosis (1833) and atherosclerosis (1904) as diseases of the vasculature. Only between the two world wars did the full impact of these lesions on mortality and morbidity come to be finally recognized. Their study and therapy has defined much of the profound changes that affected twentieth century medicine. PMID:15241744

Eknoyan, Garabed

2004-07-01

123

Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease  

PubMed Central

Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signaling modulates the protein function, the various sources of increased oxidative stress in CVD, and the labyrinth of redox-sensitive molecular mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and ischemia–reperfusion injury. Advances in redox biology and pharmacology for inhibiting ROS production in specific cell types and subcellular organelles combined with the development of nanotechnology-based new in vivo imaging systems and targeted drug delivery mechanisms may enable fine-tuning of redox signaling for the treatment and prevention of CVD. PMID:23583330

Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

2013-01-01

124

Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster

2009-01-01

125

Comorbidity between depression and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the population in all countries. Numerous epidemiological studies have confirmed that high comorbidity exists between these two conditions. Apparently healthy individuals with depression have at least a two-fold higher risk of developing CVD. Following myocardial infarction the emergence of clinical depression poses heightened risk of morbidity and mortality. To understand the complex mechanisms accountable for this comorbidity, several factors have been considered. They include pathophysiologic factors, such as sympathoadrenal activation, homeostatic imbalance between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems with diminished vagal tone and loss of heart rate variability in depression. Neuroendocrine factors consist mainly of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation resulting in hypercortisolemia with associated sequelae. Platelet activation and hypercoaguability have been demonstrated in depression and appear to normalize with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Inflammatory processes and release of proinflammatory cytokines have also been described whether or not depression is comorbid with another disease entity. Endothelial dysfunction has been detected in depression and may prove to be a trait marker for this illness. Central and peripheral serotonergic transmission may be one common link between the two disease entities. Comorbid depression must be treated vigorously and SSRIs exert beneficial action not only in ameliorating depression but also in reversing platelet activation and inflammation, thereby reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:19367238

Halaris, A

2009-04-01

126

Women, lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease risk.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis, lipoprotein structure, lipoprotein metabolism and role in atherogenesis, epidemiology of lipoproteins and coronary artery disease, and current public health guidelines for cholesterol control are described. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels rise with age in both men and women. High density lipoprotein (HDL) levels decline after menopause. Special aspects of coronary risk in women include the stronger role of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and HDL. In addition, the effects of exogenous hormone therapy, both in the form or oral contraceptives and post menopausal hormone replacement should be considered. Careful attention to these issues may reduce cardiovascular morbidity in adult women. PMID:2188715

LaRosa, J C

1990-05-01

127

Kidney Disease as a Risk Factor for Development of Cardiovascular Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a scientific statement on kidney disease as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention.

2008-06-25

128

Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, and the presence of CKD worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is associated with specific risk factors. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathology and manifestation of CVD differ in the presence of CKD. During a clinical update conference convened by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes

Charles A Herzog; Richard W Asinger; Alan K Berger; David M Charytan; Javier Díez; Robert G Hart; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Bertram L Kasiske; Peter A McCullough; Rod S Passman; Stephanie S DeLoach; Patrick H Pun; Eberhard Ritz

2011-01-01

129

Gene Therapy Ameliorates Cardiovascular Disease in Dogs With Mucopolysaccharidosis VII  

E-print Network

Gene Therapy Ameliorates Cardiovascular Disease in Dogs With Mucopolysaccharidosis VII M.M. Sleeper;110:815-820.) Key Words: cardiovascular diseases gene therapy lysosomes mucopolysaccharidosis--Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient -glucuronidase (GUSB) activity

Ponder, Katherine P.

130

Impact of kidney transplantation on the progression of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney transplantation, of all the treatment modalities for end-stage renal disease, affords the greatest potential for prolonged survival and improved quality of life. Great strides in immunosuppressant therapy have improved graft survival and forced clinicians to consider other health-care needs of kidney transplant recipients. Chief among these needs is the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is the

Sangeetha Satyan; Leslie L Rocher

2004-01-01

131

Depression and cardiovascular disease: a clinical review.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression are common. Patients with CVD have more depression than the general population. Persons with depression are more likely to eventually develop CVD and also have a higher mortality rate than the general population. Patients with CVD, who are also depressed, have a worse outcome than those patients who are not depressed. There is a graded relationship: the more severe the depression, the higher the subsequent risk of mortality and other cardiovascular events. It is possible that depression is only a marker for more severe CVD which so far cannot be detected using our currently available investigations. However, given the increased prevalence of depression in patients with CVD, a causal relationship with either CVD causing more depression or depression causing more CVD and a worse prognosis for CVD is probable. There are many possible pathogenetic mechanisms that have been described, which are plausible and that might well be important. However, whether or not there is a causal relationship, depression is the main driver of quality of life and requires prevention, detection, and management in its own right. Depression after an acute cardiac event is commonly an adjustment disorder than can improve spontaneously with comprehensive cardiac management. Additional management strategies for depressed cardiac patients include cardiac rehabilitation and exercise programmes, general support, cognitive behavioural therapy, antidepressant medication, combined approaches, and probably disease management programmes. PMID:24282187

Hare, David L; Toukhsati, Samia R; Johansson, Peter; Jaarsma, Tiny

2014-06-01

132

MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly with coronary artery calcifications. Hence an early detection of aortic calcified plaques helps to predict the risk of related coronary diseases. Also since two thirds of the adverse events have no prior symptoms, possibilities to screen for risk in low cost imaging are important. To this end the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index was developed. In the following several potential severity scores relating to the geometrical outline of the calcified deposits in the lumbar aortic region are introduced. Their individual as well as their combined predictive power is examined and a combined marker, MACD, is constructed. This is done using a Cox regression analysis, also known as survival analysis. Furthermore we show how a Cox regression yields MACD to be the most efficient marker. We also demonstrate that MACD has a larger individual predictive power than any of the other individual imaging markers described. Finally we present that the MACD index predicts cardiovascular death with a hazard ratio of approximately four.

Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

2010-03-01

133

Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. PMID:23910371

Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

2013-10-01

134

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with major neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. It is estimated that more than one quarter of the population is at risk for OSA, with increased prevalence noted in populations with hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. A number of epidemiologic and mechanistic studies have recently generated interest in the role of OSA in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, a link that continues to require extensive investigation. This chapter reviews these epidemiologic studies, the current understanding of the mechanisms by which OSA may contribute to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, and the effects of OSA treatment on cardiovascular disease outcomes. PMID:21253882

Balachandran, Jay S.; Malhotra, Atul

2015-01-01

135

Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ?-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

2013-01-01

136

Cardiovascular co-morbidity in rheumatic diseases  

PubMed Central

Patients with rheumatic disorders have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This excess co-morbidity is not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Disease severity is a major risk factor for CVD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Shared disease mechanisms in atherosclerosis and rheumatic disorders include immune dysregulation and inflammatory pathways, which are potential targets for therapy. Lessons from RA and SLE may have implications for future research on the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease in general. Recent data indicate that suppression of inflammation reduces the risk of CVD morbidity and mortality in patients with severe RA. The modest, but clinically relevant, efficacy of atorvastatin treatment in RA adds to the evidence for important anti-inflammatory properties for statins. There is increased recognition of the need for structured preventive strategies to reduce the risk of CVD in patients with rheumatic disease. Such strategies should be based on insights into the role of inflammation in CVD, as well as optimal management of life style related risk factors. In this review, the research agenda for understanding and preventing CVD co-morbidity in patients with rheumatic disorders is discussed. PMID:18827910

Turesson, Carl; Jacobsson, Lennart TH; Matteson, Eric L

2008-01-01

137

Apelin and its receptor APJ in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Apelin is an adipokine that has been identified as an endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ are expressed in a diverse range of tissues with particular preponderance for the heart and vasculature. Apelin has powerful positive inotropic actions and causes endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation. Growing evidence shows that apelin/APJ system functions as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Targeting apelin/APJ axis produces protection against cardiovascular diseases. In the current review we have summarized recent data concerning the role and therapeutic potential of apelin/APJ in several major cardiovascular diseases. An increased understanding of the cardiovascular actions of apelin/APJ system will help to develop novel therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24055369

Yu, Xiao-Hua; Tang, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Li-Jing; Qian, Hong; Tang, Shi-Lin; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tian, Guo-Ping; Tang, Chao-Ke

2014-01-20

138

Therapeutic potential of midkine in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Ischaemic heart disease, stroke and their pathological consequences are life-threatening conditions that account for about half of deaths in developed countries. Pathology of these diseases includes cell death due to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, vascular stenosis and cardiac remodelling. The growth factor midkine plays a pivotal role in these events. Midkine shows an acute cytoprotective effect in ischaemia/reperfusion injury at least in part via its anti-apoptotic effect. Moreover, while midkine promotes endothelial cell proliferation, it also recruits inflammatory cells to lesions. These activities eventually enhance angiogenesis, thereby preventing cardiac tissue remodelling. However, midkine's activity in recruiting inflammatory cells into the vascular wall also triggers neointima formation, and consequently, vascular stenosis. Moreover, midkine is induced in cancer tissues where it enhances angiogenesis. Therefore, midkine may promote tumour formation through its angiogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. This review focuses on the roles of midkine in ischaemic cardiovascular disease and their pathological consequences, that is angiogenesis, vascular stenosis, and cardiac remodelling, and discusses the possible therapeutic potential of modulation of midkine in these diseases. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24286213

Kadomatsu, Kenji; Bencsik, Péter; Görbe, Anikó; Csonka, Csaba; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Kishida, Satoshi; Ferdinandy, Péter

2014-01-01

139

Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications. PMID:22312218

Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

2010-01-01

140

Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the  

E-print Network

Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history, and approved June 22, 2010 (received for review December 7, 2009) Amphibian populations around the world.Despitetheseverityofthecrisis,quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable

Crawford, Andrew J.

141

Risk of cardiovascular diseases in seafarers.  

PubMed

Seafarers experience a lot of job-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the healthy-worker effect due to the biennial pre-employment examination and the periodical medical fitness tests, a (slightly) elevated risk for CVD among seafarers is assumed compared to the reference population ashore. In seafaring, the most important, influenceable risk factors for CVD refer to the ship-specific stress situation, the malnutrition and the lack of exercises on board. Furthermore, the prognosis of acute severe CVD often depends on the measures taken in the first few hours after occurrence of the symptoms. Owing to the lack of health professionals on board and the limited treatment options of events at sea, effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation is often delayed and the outcome of cardiac events is worse compared to that ashore. PMID:25231325

Oldenburg, Marcus

2014-01-01

142

Cardiovascular disease in Middle Eastern women.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) are rising among Middle Eastern women. Despite this threat, awareness and understanding of CVD are low and surveillance data are nonexistent for many populations in this region. In this review, the data available on CVD in Middle Eastern women will be generalized. Population-based studies in the Middle East have been sporadic and most have been cross-sectional with small samples. Many Middle Eastern countries lack reliable surveillance data regarding the prevalence and incidence of CVD and its risk factors in women. This information is crucial for monitoring the scope of the problem and for guiding intervention strategies. Because of the ethnic heterogeneity of this region and the rapidly changing lifestyles, well-designed, longitudinal, large-scale population-based studies that focus on CVD and its risk factors are needed in multiple areas of the Middle East. PMID:20554171

Shara, N M

2010-07-01

143

Molecular Basis of Obesity and the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the main causes of death in the Western world, for both men and women. The onset and development of diseases of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system are strongly dependent on multiple risk factors that promote pathologic conditions like atherosclerosis, hypertension and thrombosis. Besides genetic factors also environmental influences such as diet composition are known

Muhidien Soufi; Alexander M. Sattler; Matthias Herzum; Bernhard Maisch; Jürgen R. Schaefer

2006-01-01

144

Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

Zhang, Zhenmei

2006-01-01

145

Uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the dialysis population and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure. The conventional Framingham cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (ie, hypertension, smoking, age, hyper- cholesterolemia, and a family history of CV disease) have typically been the focus of risk stratification and subse- quent primary and\\/or secondary

Caroline E. Stigant

146

Vasectomy and subsequent cardiovascular disease in US physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to previous animal research suggesting accelerated atherosclerosis following vasectomy, we examined whether vasectomy increases the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), including myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris, coronary revascularization, and stroke, in the US Physicians’ Health Study. Of 22,071 US male physicians participating in the study, aged 40 to 84 years at entry and free from cardiovascular disease and

JoAnn E Manson; Paul M Ridker; Angela Spelsberg; Umed Ajani; Paulo A Lotufo; Charles H Hennekens

1999-01-01

147

Physician performance assessment: prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Given the rising burden of healthcare costs, both patients and healthcare purchasers are interested in discerning which physicians deliver quality care. We proposed a methodology to assess physician clinical performance in preventive cardiology care, and determined a benchmark for minimally acceptable performance. We used data on eight evidence-based clinical measures from 811 physicians that completed the American Board of Internal Medicine's Preventive Cardiology Practice Improvement Module(SM) to form an overall composite score for preventive cardiology care. An expert panel of nine internists/cardiologists skilled in preventive care for cardiovascular disease used an adaptation of the Angoff standard-setting method and the Dunn-Rankin method to create the composite and establish a standard. Physician characteristics were used to examine the validity of the inferences made from the composite scores. The mean composite score was 73.88 % (SD = 11.88 %). Reliability of the composite was high at 0.87. Specialized cardiologists had significantly lower composite scores (P = 0.04), while physicians who reported spending more time in primary, longitudinal, and preventive consultative care had significantly higher scores (P = 0.01), providing some evidence of score validity. The panel established a standard of 47.38 % on the composite measure with high classification accuracy (0.98). Only 2.7 % of the physicians performed below the standard for minimally acceptable preventive cardiovascular disease care. Of those, 64 % (N = 14) were not general cardiologists. Our study presents a psychometrically defensible methodology for assessing physician performance in preventive cardiology while also providing relative feedback with the hope of heightening physician awareness about deficits and improving patient care. PMID:23417594

Lipner, Rebecca S; Weng, Weifeng; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Hess, Brian J

2013-12-01

148

Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

149

Network Topology Reveals Key Cardiovascular Disease Genes  

PubMed Central

The structure of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has already been successfully used as a source of new biological information. Even though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major global cause of death, many CVD genes still await discovery. We explore ways to utilize the structure of the human PPI network to find important genes for CVDs that should be targeted by drugs. The hope is to use the properties of such important genes to predict new ones, which would in turn improve a choice of therapy. We propose a methodology that examines the PPI network wiring around genes involved in CVDs. We use the methodology to identify a subset of CVD-related genes that are statistically significantly enriched in drug targets and “driver genes.” We seek such genes, since driver genes have been proposed to drive onset and progression of a disease. Our identified subset of CVD genes has a large overlap with the Core Diseasome, which has been postulated to be the key to disease formation and hence should be the primary object of therapeutic intervention. This indicates that our methodology identifies “key” genes responsible for CVDs. Thus, we use it to predict new CVD genes and we validate over 70% of our predictions in the literature. Finally, we show that our predicted genes are functionally similar to currently known CVD drug targets, which confirms a potential utility of our methodology towards improving therapy for CVDs. PMID:23977067

Stojkovi?, Neda; Radak, Djordje; Pržulj, Nataša

2013-01-01

150

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment: Insights from Framingham  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Since its beginning, the Framingham study has been a leader in identifying CVD risk factors. Clinical trials have demonstrated that when the modifiable risk factors are treated and corrected, the chances of CVD occurring can be reduced. The Framingham study also recognized that CVD risk factors are multifactorial and interact over time to produce CVD. In response, Framingham investigators developed the Framingham Risk Functions (also called Framingham Risk Scores) to evaluate the chance or likelihood of developing CVD in individuals. These functions are multivariate functions (algorithms) that combine the information in CVD risk factors such as sex, age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking behavior, and diabetes status to produce an estimate (or risk) of developing CVD or a component of CVD (such as coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, or heart failure) over a fixed time, for example, the next 10 years. These estimates of CVD risk are often major inputs in recommending drug treatments such as cholesterol-lowering drugs. PMID:23750335

Pencina, Michael J.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Coady, Sean

2013-01-01

151

A speedy cardiovascular diseases classifier using multiple criteria decision analysis.  

PubMed

Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC) for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented. PMID:25587978

Lee, Wah Ching; Hung, Faan Hei; Tsang, Kim Fung; Tung, Hoi Ching; Lau, Wing Hong; Rakocevic, Veselin; Lai, Loi Lei

2014-01-01

152

75 FR 62487 - Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the Commissioner, Hearing...cardiovascular diseases and multiple organ transplants. We plan to address other medical conditions...cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants, as well as topics covered at the...

2010-10-12

153

Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Excess cardiovascular mortality has been documented in chronic haemodialysis patients. Oxidative stress is greater in haemodialysis patients with prevalent cardiovascular disease than in those without, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in excess cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis. We investigated the effect of high-dose vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular disease outcomes in haemodialysis patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Methods

M Boaz; S Smetana; T Weinstein; Z Matas; U Gafter; A Iaina; A Knecht; Y Weissgarten; D Brunner; M Fainaru

2000-01-01

154

Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations. PMID:16283930

Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

2005-01-01

155

Methods of assessing prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to describe the methods of assessing cardiovascular conditions among older adults recruited to the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort study of risk factors for coronary disease and stroke. Medicare eligibility lists from four US communities were used to obtain a representative sample of 5201 community-dwelling elderly, who answered standardized questionnaires and underwent an

Bruce M. Psaty; Lewis H. Kuller; Diane Bild; Gregory L. Burke; Steven J. Kittner; Maurice Mittelmark; Thomas R. Price; Pentti M. Rautaharju; John Robbins

1995-01-01

156

"The Mediterranean Diet, its Components, and Cardiovascular Disease"  

PubMed

One of the best studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based as well as experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet which are particularly beneficial for cardio-protection. PMID:25447615

Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

2014-10-15

157

Computational fluid dynamics in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mechanical engineering field for analyzing fluid flow, heat transfer, and associated phenomena, using computer-based simulation. CFD is a widely adopted methodology for solving complex problems in many modern engineering fields. The merit of CFD is developing new and improved devices and system designs, and optimization is conducted on existing equipment through computational simulations, resulting in enhanced efficiency and lower operating costs. However, in the biomedical field, CFD is still emerging. The main reason why CFD in the biomedical field has lagged behind is the tremendous complexity of human body fluid behavior. Recently, CFD biomedical research is more accessible, because high performance hardware and software are easily available with advances in computer science. All CFD processes contain three main components to provide useful information, such as pre-processing, solving mathematical equations, and post-processing. Initial accurate geometric modeling and boundary conditions are essential to achieve adequate results. Medical imaging, such as ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for modeling, and Doppler ultrasound, pressure wire, and non-invasive pressure measurements are used for flow velocity and pressure as a boundary condition. Many simulations and clinical results have been used to study congenital heart disease, heart failure, ventricle function, aortic disease, and carotid and intra-cranial cerebrovascular diseases. With decreasing hardware costs and rapid computing times, researchers and medical scientists may increasingly use this reliable CFD tool to deliver accurate results. A realistic, multidisciplinary approach is essential to accomplish these tasks. Indefinite collaborations between mechanical engineers and clinical and medical scientists are essential. CFD may be an important methodology to understand the pathophysiology of the development and progression of disease and for establishing and creating treatment modalities in the cardiovascular field. PMID:21949524

Lee, Byoung-Kwon

2011-08-01

158

Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

2014-01-01

159

Nuts, blood lipids and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to evaluate nut-related epidemiological and human feeding study findings and to discuss the important nutritional attributes of nuts and their link to cardiovascular health. Frequent nut consumption has been found to be protective against coronary heart disease in five large epidemiological studies across two continents. A qualitative summary of the data from four of these studies found an 8.3% reduction in risk of death from coronary heart disease for each weekly serving of nuts. Over 40 dietary intervention studies have been conducted evaluating the effect of nut containing diets on blood lipids. These studies have demonstrated that intake of different kinds of nuts lower total and LDL cholesterol and the LDL: HDL ratio in healthy subjects or patients with moderate hypercholesterolaemia, even in the context of healthy diets. Nuts have a unique fatty acid profile and feature a high unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio, an important contributing factor to the beneficial health effects of nut consumption. Additional cardioprotective nutrients found in nuts include vegetable protein, fiber, alpha-tocopherol, folic acid, magnesium, copper, phytosterols and other phytochemicals. PMID:20199998

Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

2010-01-01

160

Type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

The presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Type 1 diabetes largely impairs life expectancy. Hyperglycemia leading to an increase in oxidative stress is considered to be the key pathophysiological factor of both micro- and macrovascular complications. In Type 1 diabetes, the presence of coronary calcifications is also related to coronary artery disease. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy, which significantly impairs myocardial function and blood flow, also enhances cardiac abnormalities. Also hypoglycemic episodes are considered to adversely influence cardiac performance. Intensive insulin therapy has been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence and progression of both micro- and macrovascular complications. This has been evidenced by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. The concept of a metabolic memory emerged based on the results of the study, which established that intensified insulin therapy is the standard of treatment of Type 1 diabetes. Future therapies may also include glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-based treatment therapies. Pilot studies with GLP-1-analogues have been shown to reduce insulin requirements. PMID:24165454

2013-01-01

161

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Association with Cardiovascular Diseases in Korea  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to estimate nationwide prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and to identify its association with cardiovascular diseases. The data on a national representative sample of 6,147 adults from 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey were analyzed. The syndrome was determined according to two kinds of modified definition from ATP III, in which abdominal obesity was determined by waist circumference (WC) standard for Asians and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Based on the former, prevalence was 22.1% in men and 27.8% in women. However, based on the latter, prevalence was 28.6% and 27.8%, respectively. Although age-specific prevalence was higher in men than in women among the younger group, it became higher in women among the older group because of its steeper rise with age. In multiple logistic regression, the syndrome was found to be positively associated with cardiovascular diseases (adjusted odds ratios (ORs)1.97 by WC and 1.48 by WHR in men, and 1.54 and 1.31 in women). Moreover, its effect size exceeded that of total cholesterol (adjusted ORs 1.21 in men, and 1.08 in women) or LDL cholesterol (1.58 in men and 1.22 in women). It is obvious that the metabolic syndrome prevails in Korea, and its importance regarding cardiovascular diseases is considerable. Prevention strategies should be implemented immediately to avoid cardiovascular epidemic in the near future. PMID:15082890

Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Youl

2004-01-01

162

Angiotensin II receptors and drug discovery in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a syndrome beyond high blood pressure alone. Hypertension is one of the cardiovascular diseases that may cause cardiovascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) receptors are expressed in most organs and tissues and are implicated in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic and epigenetic manipulations of the renin angiotensin system play a critical role in programming of cardiovascular diseases, and certain variants of AT1R and AT2R are constitutively predisposed to higher cardiovascular risk and hypertension. The structure-function relationship of angiotensin receptors has been reviewed previously. So, in this review we focused on the structure, expression of angiotensin II receptors, their mode of action, role in cardiovascular pathobiology, and how cardiovascular diseases are programmed in utero. In addition, we described genetic variants of angiotensin receptors, and also discussed possible ways of therapeutic intervensions of Ang II stimulation. Collectively, this information may lead us to future new drug design against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21147255

Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

2010-01-01

163

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in a general Japanese population: The Hisayama Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in a general Japanese population: The Hisayama Study.BackgroundChronic kidney disease has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in high-risk populations. However, this relationship is inconclusive in community-based populations.MethodsTo clarify this issue, we followed 2634 community-dwelling individuals without cardiovascular disease, aged 40 years or older, for 12 years and examined

TOSHIHARU NINOMIYA; YUTAKA KIYOHARA; MICHIAKI KUBO; YUMIHIRO TANIZAKI; YASUFUMI DOI; KEN OKUBO; YOSHIYUKI WAKUGAWA; JUN HATA; YOSHINORI OISHI; KENTARO SHIKATA; KOJI YONEMOTO; HIDEKI HIRAKATA; MITSUO IIDA

2005-01-01

164

Cardiovascular diseases in modern maritime industry.  

PubMed

Acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main natural causes of death in industrialized countries - both at sea and on land. Seafarers face very specific job-related cardiac risk factors, such as time pressure, long working hours, or high stress factors onboard [1, 2]. Taking into consideration the healthy worker effect of seafarers, cardiac risk factors are shown to occur slightly more frequently in seafarers than in the general population. Owing to the lack of health professionals onboard and the limited treatment options of events at sea, effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation is often delayed and the outcome of cardiac events may be worse compared to that in other occupations ashore. Seafarers' medical surveillance examinations should be used more intensively as an opportunity for education of crews in CVD risks and the possibilities to reduce them. Further, enhancement of treatment options (e.g. by implementation of advanced therapy and diagnostics such as telemedicine or AED onboard) may contribute to improved CVD prognosis at sea. PMID:21154295

Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver; Schlaich, Clara

2010-01-01

165

[Social determinants and epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Recent approaches to studies of social determinants and social epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases are reviewed. This approach originating in some industrialized countries has so far been neglected in Croatia in spite of previous experiences and existence of sociomedical tradition. The possible explanations are considered. Obvious health problems related to the standard of living, poverty, high unemployment, work insecurity, unjustified inequality of income, and other forms of discrimination in health are not tackled. The social determinants important for health are defined and at least five categories identified, i. e. broad cultural and economic circumstances, structural determinants and social position, intermediate determinants reflected in lifestyles, available social network and social capital, and finally discrimination in health care are recommended to include in epidemiological research and design of health interventions. The following measures are proposed as necessary in the current situation: 1) changes in scope and orientation of epidemiological and clinical research; 2) intensification of information for the public, experts and politicians on the role of social determinants; and 3) amplification of health interventions avoiding patterns of the predominant neoliberal approaches (blaming the victim), as well as administrative egalitarian approaches (teaching people to become victims waiting for elderly brother to provide solutions). PMID:17629109

Jaksi?, Zelimir

2007-06-01

166

Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions  

PubMed Central

Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Yoon, Hye-Won; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

2013-01-01

167

Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches  

PubMed Central

Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices. PMID:25219908

Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny

2015-01-01

168

Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches.  

PubMed

Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices. PMID:25219908

Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny

2015-01-01

169

A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the combination of drugs and vitamins, and their doses, for use in a single daily pill to achieve a large effect in preventing cardiovascular disease with minimal adverse effects. The strategy was to simultaneously reduce four cardiovascular risk factors (low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, serum homocysteine, and platelet function) regardless of pretreatment levels. Design We quantified

N J Wald

2003-01-01

170

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Homeless Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Homeless people represent an extremely disadvantaged group in North America. Among older homeless men, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The objective of this study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors in a representative sample of homeless adults and identify opportunities for improved risk factor modification. Methods and Results—Homeless persons were randomly selected at shelters for single

Tony C. Lee; John G. Hanlon; Jessica Ben-David; Gillian L. Booth; Warren J. Cantor; Philip W. Connelly; Stephen W. Hwang

2010-01-01

171

Vascular calcification and cardiovascular function in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Vascular calcification and arterial stiff- ening are independent predictors of all causes and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Few data are currently available comparing vascular calcification and its attendant functional cardiovascular consequences between CKD stage 4 patients and both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) (CKD stage 5) patients. Method. We studied 134 subjects (60 HD, 28

Mhairi Sigrist; Peter Bungay; Maarter W. Taal; Christopher W. McIntyre

2005-01-01

172

Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft drink overconsumption is now considered to be a major public health concern with implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows a number of studies performed in animals suggesting that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation. In particular, the monosaccharide fructose has been attracting increasing attention as the more harmful sugar component in terms of

C M Brown; A G Dulloo; J-P Montani

2008-01-01

173

Simulation of cardiovascular diseases using electronic circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an electronic circuit to simulate the behavior of the cardiovascular system under normal or pathological conditions. The current, voltage, charge, resistance and capacitance of the circuit correspond to flow, blood pressure, volume, resistance and capacitance of the simulated cardiovascular system, respectively. We have implemented a circuit with two ventricles separated from the systemic and the pulmonary circulation

D. G. Tsalikakis; D. I. Fotiadis; D. Sideris

2003-01-01

174

Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

175

Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly. Facts and Gaps  

PubMed Central

Hypercholesterolemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor that increases the incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in adults, although the association is less well established in the elderly. The role of statins is well characterized for the reduction of myocardial infarction incidence or death in individuals with a history or high risk of cardiovascular diseases, regardless of age. Therapeutic measures recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce cholesterol levels in the elderly, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, are based on studies conducted in younger adults. This narrative review aims to summarize the main observational studies and randomized clinical trials that have studied the relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and the potential benefits and drawbacks of statins use in elderly patients. PMID:23730531

Félix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Grau, Maria; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

2013-01-01

176

Novel effects of macrolide antibiotics on cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Macrolide antibiotics are broadly used for the treatment of various microbial infections. However, they are also known to have multiple biologic effects, such as alteration of inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Because of controversial results in clinical trials, the effects of macrolides on cardiovascular diseases are still to be elucidated. It has been reported that MMP activity is upregulated in various cardiovascular diseases, such as myocarditis, cardiac transplant rejection and myocardial infarction. However, little is known about the effects of macrolides on cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that clarithromycin suppressed the development of myocarditis, cardiac rejection and myocardial ischemia using animal models. In this article, we reviewed the roles of MMPs in cardiovascular diseases and the effects of macrolides on the prevention of adverse tissue remodeling. PMID:22136572

Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Ogawa, Masahito; Hishikari, Keiichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Takayama, Kiyoshi; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Isobe, Mitsuaki

2012-12-01

177

Cardiovascular Disease And Global Health: Threat And Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The transition in global health from infectious to chronic disease, especially cardiovascular disease, poses a threat to the economies of the less developed world. As a more sophisticated workforce becomes,a highly valued and harder-to-replace economic,in- vestment, the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a threat to eco- nomic,development. The next two decades,offer a critical period for intervention to

Henry Greenberg; Susan U. Raymond; Stephen R. Leeder

2005-01-01

178

microRNAs, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders\\u000a remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Aberrant regulation of cholesterol and lipid homeostasis leads to metabolic\\u000a syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that control gene expression predominantly\\u000a through post-transcriptional repression. They are implicated in the control of multiple physiologic

Alberto Dávalos; Carlos Fernández-Hernando

2011-01-01

179

eNOS, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Large epidemiologic studies have established that diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity all increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the precise mechanisms by which these metabolic disorders increase the propensity to develop atherosclerosis are not known. Recently, the concept of the metabolic syndrome – a constellation of conditions including obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance – has received much attention. Studies on the metabolic syndrome might enable a better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on endothelial nitric oxide synthase and summarizes evidence that a reduction in the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide serves as a key link between metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk. PMID:19647446

Huang, Paul L.

2009-01-01

180

Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammatory State in Uremia and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the general population; traditional risk factors seem inadequate to explain completely the remarkable prevalence of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity observed in the uremic population. A role for chronic inflammation has been well established in the development of atherosclerotic disease, and, on the basis of these observations, atherosclerosis might be considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of coronary artery disease in the general population, and traditional inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been shown to predict cardiovascular events in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals as well as those in the uremic population. Later on, new nontraditional markers were related to the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in general and in uremic population. As a consequence of the expanding research base and availability of assays, the number of inflammatory marker tests ordered by clinicians for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction has grown rapidly and several commercial assays have become available. So, up to now we can consider that several new nontraditional markers as CD40-CD40 ligand system and pentraxin-3 seem to be significant features of cardiovascular disease in general and in ESRD population. PMID:22701810

Panichi, Vincenzo; Scatena, Alessia; Migliori, Massimiliano; Marchetti, Valentina; Paoletti, Sabrina; Beati, Sara

2012-01-01

181

Radiation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Abstract population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7-6.2?mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. PMID:21091078

Baker, John E; Moulder, John E; Hopewell, John W

2011-10-01

182

Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7–6.2?mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1945–1956. PMID:21091078

Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

2011-01-01

183

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in older adults with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70-74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus, diabetes mellitus in older adults deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age. PMID:25453299

Barzilay, Joshua I; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Kizer, Jorge R

2015-02-01

184

Site-specific gene therapy for cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and may provide novel therapeutic solutions for both genetic disorders and acquired pathophysiologies such as arteriosclerosis, heart failure and arrhythmias. Recombinant DNA technology and the sequencing of the human genome have made a plethora of candidate therapeutic genes available for cardiovascular diseases. However, progress in the field of gene therapy for cardiovascular disease has been modest; one of the key reasons for this limited progress is the lack of gene delivery systems for localizing gene therapy to specific sites to optimize transgene expression and efficacy. This review summarizes progress made toward the site-specific delivery of cardiovascular gene therapy and highlights selected promising novel approaches. PMID:20205054

Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert J

2010-01-01

185

Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems. PMID:21403882

Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

2011-01-01

186

The Western Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic Exhibits Both Global Exponential and Local Polynomial Growth Rates  

PubMed Central

Background: While many infectious disease epidemics are initially characterized by an exponential growth in time, we show that district-level Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in West Africa follow slower polynomial-based growth kinetics over several generations of the disease. Methods: We analyzed epidemic growth patterns at three different spatial scales (regional, national, and subnational) of the Ebola virus disease epidemic in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia by compiling publicly available weekly time series of reported EVD case numbers from the patient database available from the World Health Organization website for the period 05-Jan to 17-Dec 2014. Results: We found significant differences in the growth patterns of EVD cases at the scale of the country, district, and other subnational administrative divisions. The national cumulative curves of EVD cases in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia show periods of approximate exponential growth. In contrast, local epidemics are asynchronous and exhibit slow growth patterns during 3 or more EVD generations, which can be better approximated by a polynomial than an exponential function. Conclusions: The slower than expected growth pattern of local EVD outbreaks could result from a variety of factors, including behavior changes, success of control interventions, or intrinsic features of the disease such as a high level of clustering. Quantifying the contribution of each of these factors could help refine estimates of final epidemic size and the relative impact of different mitigation efforts in current and future EVD outbreaks.

Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Hyman, James M; Simonsen, Lone

2015-01-01

187

Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. PMID:21659815

Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

2011-01-01

188

Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. PMID:21762853

Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

2011-07-01

189

Timing of antimicrobial use influences the evolution of antimicrobial resistance during disease epidemics  

PubMed Central

Background: Although the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance have been well studied for endemic infections, comparably little is understood for epidemic infections such as influenza. The availability of antimicrobial treatments for epidemic diseases raises the urgent question of how to deploy treatments to achieve maximum benefit despite resistance evolution. Recent simulation studies have shown that the number of cases prevented by antimicrobials can be maximized by delaying the use of treatments during an epidemic. Those studies focus on indirect effects of antimicrobial use: preventing disease among untreated individuals. Here, we identify and examine direct effects of antimicrobial use: the number of successfully treated cases. Methodology: We develop mathematical models to study how the schedule of antiviral use influences the success or failure of subsequent use due to the spread of resistant strains. Results: Direct effects are maximized by postponing drug use, even with unlimited stockpiles of drugs. This occurs because the early use of antimicrobials disproportionately drives emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, leading to subsequent treatment failure. However, for antimicrobials with low effect on transmission, the relative benefit of delaying antimicrobial deployment is greatly reduced and can only be reaped if the trajectory of the epidemic can be accurately estimated early. Conclusions and implications: Health planners face uncertainties during epidemics, including the possibility of early containment. Hence, despite the optimal deployment time near the epidemic peak, it will often be preferable to initiate widespread antimicrobial use as early as possible, particularly if the drug is ineffective in reducing transmission. PMID:25376480

Tanaka, Mark M.; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.

2014-01-01

190

Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Virological and serological studies of an epidemic disease in Bulgaria, 1975, were carried out. Epidemiologically, clinically and pathomorphologically, the disease simulated almost all known forms of poliomyelitis, acute stem encephalitis, encephalomyocarditis and aseptic meningitis. The studies completely ruled out the participation of polioviruses and provided comprehensive evidence for the etiological role of a peculiar enterovirus subsequently identified as enterovirus

M. Chumakov; M. VOROSttILOVA; L. Shindarov; I. Lavrova; L. Gracheva; G. Koroleva; S. Vasilenko; I. Brodvarova; M. Nikolova; S. Gyurova; M. Gacheva; G. Mitov; N. Ninov; E. Tsylka; I. Robinson; M. Frolova; V. Bashkirtsev; L. Martiyanova; V. Rodin

1979-01-01

191

Lipidomics: quest for molecular lipid biomarkers in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Lipidomics is the comprehensive analysis of molecular lipid species, including their quantitation and metabolic pathways. The huge diversity of native lipids and their modifications make lipidomic analyses challenging. The method of choice for sensitive detection and quantitation of molecular lipid species is mass spectrometry, either by direct infusion (shotgun lipidomics) or coupled with liquid chromatography. Although shotgun lipidomics allows for high-throughput analysis, low-abundant lipid species are not detected. Previous separation of lipid species by liquid chromatography increases ionization efficiency and is better suited for quantifying low abundant and isomeric lipid species. In this review, we will discuss the potential of lipidomics for cardiovascular research. To date, cardiovascular research predominantly focuses on the role of lipid classes rather than molecular entities. An in-depth knowledge about the molecular lipid species that contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases may provide better biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25516624

Hinterwirth, Helmut; Stegemann, Christin; Mayr, Manuel

2014-12-01

192

The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

2014-01-01

193

Future Directions for Cardiovascular Disease Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide decision-makers the evidence needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of alternative clinical management strategies. CER has become a national priority, with considerable new research funding allocated. Cardiovascular disease is a priority area for CER. This workshop report provides an overview of CER methods, with an emphasis on practical clinical trials and observational treatment comparisons. The report also details recommendations to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for a new framework for evidence development to foster cardiovascular CER, and specific studies to address eight clinical issues identified by the Institute of Medicine as high priorities for cardiovascular CER. PMID:22796257

Hlatky, Mark A; Douglas, Pamela S; Cook, Nakela L; Wells, Barbara; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dickersin, Kay; Goff, David C; Hirsch, Alan T; Hylek, Elaine M; Peterson, Eric; Roger, Véronique L; Selby, Joseph V; Udelson, James E; Lauer, Michael S

2012-01-01

194

Role of RAAS Inhibition in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is a complex and dynamic process. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)\\u000a is a potent and powerful mediator in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular and renal systems. RAAS blockade via angiotensin-converting\\u000a enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been consistently proven to be an effective and safe\\u000a strategy for the primary and secondary prevention

Henry A. Tran; Arthur Schwartzbard; Howard S. Weintraub

195

The relationship between periodontal disease (pd) and cardiovascular disease (cvd).  

PubMed

The recent focus on the potential link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (PD and CVD) is part of the larger renewed interest on the role of infection and inflammation in the etiology of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Periodontal Disease is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth. The process usually starts with an inflammatory process of the gum (gingivitis) but it may progress with an extensive involvement of the gum, as well as the periodontal ligament and the bone surrounding the teeth resulting in substantial bone loss. Periodontal disease is a common oral pathological condition in the adult age and represents the leading cause of tooth loss. PD prevalence increases with age and there are estimates that up to 49,000,000 Americans may suffer from some form of gum disease. The gingival plaque associated with PD is colonized by a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to affect the initiation and development of PD and have been associated with the potential etiological role of PD in CVD and other chronic conditions. A potential etiological link between PD and CVD may have important public health implications as both the exposure (PD) and the outcomes (CVD) are highly prevalent in industrialized societies. In situations in which both the exposure and the outcome are highly prevalent even modest associations, like those observed in the studies reporting on the link between PD and CVD outcomes, may have relevance. There are not definite data on the effect of periodontal treatment on CVD clinical outcomes (either in primary or secondary prevention) however it should be pointed out that the limited (both in terms of numbers and study design) experimental evidence in humans suggests a possible beneficial effect of periodontal treatment of indices of functional and structural vascular health. PMID:21415980

Trevisan, Maurizio; Dorn, Joan

2010-01-01

196

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Communitywide Strategies for Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a rationale for the focus on working with youth in prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) targeting specific behavior patterns learned in childhood and youth that are implicated in the development of chronic diseases. Reviews promising community-wide strategies for youth and argues that they are efficacious and efficient for primary…

Perry, Cheryl L.; And Others

1988-01-01

197

Tristetraprolin family proteins may prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most deadly disease in the U. S., according to the American Heart Association statistics. CVD have been consistently ranked the No. 1 killer since 1900 (except 1918), accounted for 38.5% of all deaths in 2001, and was estimated to cost $368.4 billion in 2004 in t...

198

Leukotriene modifiers as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to their anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene modifiers have been the primary therapeutics in asthma management for several years. Although blocking the inflammatory component of human disease is a long-standing and established concept, the use of leukotriene modifiers in treating the inflammatory component of cardiovascular disease encompassing atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and aortic aneurysm has, surprisingly, only been seriously contemplated in

Colin D. Funk

2005-01-01

199

Genetic Profiling for Risk Reduction in Human Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern affecting over 80,000,000 people in the U.S. alone. Heart failure, cardiomyopathy, heart rhythm disorders, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation have significant heritable contribution. Supported by familial aggregation and twin studies, these cardiovascular diseases are influenced by genetic variation. Family-based linkage studies and population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have each identified genes and variants important for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The advent of next generation sequencing has ushered in a new era in the genetic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and this is especially evident when considering cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by morphologically abnormal heart with abnormal function. Genetic testing for cardiomyopathy employs gene panels, and these panels assess more than 50 genes simultaneously. Despite the large size of these panels, the sensitivity for detecting the primary genetic defect is still only approximately 50%. Recently, there has been a shift towards applying broader exome and/or genome sequencing to interrogate more of the genome to provide a genetic diagnosis for cardiomyopathy. Genetic mutations in cardiomyopathy offer the capacity to predict clinical outcome, including arrhythmia risk, and genetic diagnosis often provides an early window in which to institute therapy. This discussion is an overview as to how genomic data is shaping the current understanding and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24705294

Puckelwartz, Megan J.; McNally, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

200

Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

2003-01-01

201

Therapeutic manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic potential for manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease was revolutionized by the recognition that access of glucocorticoids to their receptors is regulated in a tissue-specific manner by the isozymes of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Selective inhibitors of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 have been shown recently to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. This article addresses the possibility that inhibition of 11?-hydroxsteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in cells of the cardiovascular system contributes to this beneficial action. The link between glucocorticoids and cardiovascular disease is complex as glucocorticoid excess is linked with increased cardiovascular events but glucocorticoid administration can reduce atherogenesis and restenosis in animal models. There is considerable evidence that glucocorticoids can interact directly with cells of the cardiovascular system to alter their function and structure and the inflammatory response to injury. These actions may be regulated by glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid receptors but are also dependent on the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases which may be expressed in cardiac, vascular (endothelial, smooth muscle) and inflammatory (macrophages, neutrophils) cells. The activity of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in these cells is dependent upon differentiation state, the action of pro-inflammaotory cytokines and the influence of endogenous inhibitors (oxysterols, bile acids). Further investigations are required to clarify the link between glucocorticoid excess and cardiovascular events and to determine the mechanism through which glucocorticoid treatment inhibits atherosclerosis/restenosis. This will provide greater insights into the potential benefit of selective 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19239478

Hadoke, Patrick WF; Iqbal, Javaid; Walker, Brian R

2009-01-01

202

Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis - an emerging association?  

PubMed Central

Microvascular disease is a prominent feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and leads to Raynaud's phenomenon, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and scleroderma renal crisis. The presence of macrovascular disease is less well established, and, in particular, it is not known whether the prevalence of coronary heart disease in SSc is increased. Furthermore, in terms of cardiac involvement in SSc, there remains conjecture about the relative contributions of atherosclerotic macrovascular disease and myocardial microvascular disease. In this review, we summarize the literature describing cardiovascular disease in SSc, discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms common to SSc and atherosclerosis, and review the surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease which have been examined in SSc. Proposed mediators of the vasculopathy of SSc which have also been implicated in atherosclerosis include endothelial dysfunction, a reduced number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and an increased number of microparticles. Excess cardiovascular risk in SSc is suggested by increased arterial stiffness and carotid intima thickening and reduced flow-mediated dilatation. Cohort studies of adequate size are required to resolve whether this translates into an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with SSc. PMID:21888685

2011-01-01

203

MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure (HF). PMID:25013816

Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

2014-01-01

204

Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease mediated by ultrasound and microbubbles  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy provides an efficient approach for treatment of cardiovascular disease. To realize the therapeutic effect, both efficient delivery to the target cells and sustained expression of transgenes are required. Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique has become a potential strategy for target-specific gene and drug delivery. When gene-loaded microbubble is injected, the ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction may spew the transported gene to the targeted cells or organ. Meanwhile, high amplitude oscillations of microbubbles increase the permeability of capillary and cell membrane, facilitating uptake of the released gene into tissue and cell. Therefore, efficiency of gene therapy can be significantly improved. To date, UTMD has been successfully investigated in many diseases, and it has achieved outstanding progress in the last two decades. Herein, we discuss the current status of gene therapy of cardiovascular diseases, and reviewed the progress of the delivery of genes to cardiovascular system by UTMD. PMID:23594865

2013-01-01

205

Predictive Utility of the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile for Cognitive Function: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study  

E-print Network

1 Predictive Utility of the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile for Cognitive of potentially relevant cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, angina, and peripheral artery disease. We used the recently developed Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. PMID:21556169

Fassett, Robert G.; Coombes, Jeff S.

2011-01-01

207

Emerging and reemerging epidemic-prone diseases among settling nomadic pastoralists in Uganda.  

PubMed

Epidemic-prone diseases have traditionally been uncommon among nomadic pastoralists as mobility allows already dispersed populations to migrate away from epidemic threats. In the Karamoja region of Uganda, nomadic pastoralists are transitioning to an increasingly settled lifestyle due to cattle raiding and associated civil insecurity. In attempts to reduce conflict in the region, the Ugandan government has instituted disarmament campaigns and encouraged sedentism in place of mobility. In Karamoja, this transition to sedentism has contributed to the emergence and reemergence of epidemic-prone diseases such as cholera, hepatitis E, yellow fever, and meningococcal meningitis. The incidence of these diseases remains difficult to measure and several challenges exist to their control. Challenges to communicable disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists are related to nomadic mobility, remote geography, vaccination and immunity, and poor sanitation and safe water access. In addition to improving gaps in infrastructure, attracting well-trained government health workers to Karamoja and similar areas with longstanding human resource limitations is critical to address the challenges to epidemic-prone disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists. In conjunction with government health workers, community health teams provide a sustainable method by which public health programs can be improved in the austere environments inhabited by mobile and settling pastoralists. PMID:24784434

Cummings, Matthew J; Wamala, Joseph F; Komakech, Innocent; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa

2014-09-01

208

Sleep Disturbances and their Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Sleep disturbances are a common problem with chronic insomnia occurring in 10% of the general adult population and obstructive sleep apnea present in 4% and 2% of middle-aged men and women respectively. In addition, Americans are sleeping fewer hours per night than they did 20 years ago. There is now increasing evidence that reductions and increases in sleep duration, and various sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia may be causal factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. Some of the evidence linking disturbances of sleep with cardiovascular disease is described in this review. PMID:20161354

Quan, Stuart F.

2009-01-01

209

Modern advances in cardiovascular imaging: cardiac computed tomography and cardiovascular MRI in pericardial disease.  

PubMed

The pericardium is characterized by a two-layer sac that surrounds the heart and provides an enclosed, lubricated space. Diseases of the pericardium may occur due to active inflammation, scar, calcification or effusion. While clinical, ECG and hemodynamic evaluation have been the established methods for the diagnosis of pericardial disease, advances in cardiac computed tomography and cardiovascular MRI provide complementary tools for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic assessment. PMID:25495818

McRee, Chad W; Mergo, Patricia; Parikh, Pragnesh; Pollak, Amy; Shapiro, Brian P

2014-11-01

210

Detecting and managing patients with type 2 diabetic kidney disease: Proteinuria and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting and managing patients with type 2 diabetic kidney disease: Proteinuria and cardiovascular disease.BackgroundThe increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) places more patients at risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) or cardiovascular (CV) events. Effective therapy for CKD or CV disease (CVD) requires a method of identifying affected patients and monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.MethodsWe tested the predictive

William E. Mitch; SHAHNAZ SHAHINFAR; Tania Z. Dickson; DICK DE ZEEUW; ZHONGXIN ZHANG

2004-01-01

211

Mendelian Forms of Structural Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Clinical and molecular genetics are inextricably linked. In the last two decades genetic studies have revealed the causes of several forms of structural heart disease. Recent work is extending the insights from inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies to other forms of heart disease. In this review we outline the current state of the art for the genetics of adult structural heart disease, in particular the cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease and aortic disease. The general approaches are described with a focus on clinical relevance, while potential areas for imminent innovation in diagnosis and therapeutics are highlighted. PMID:24046092

2013-01-01

212

Estimating the spatial distribution of a plant disease epidemic from a sample  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sampling is of central importance in plant pathology. It facilitates our understanding of how epidemics develop in space and time and can also be used to inform disease management decisions. Making inferences from a sample is necessary because we rarely have the resources to conduct a complete censu...

213

Bile acid receptors as targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. When dyslipidemia coincides with other metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, defined as the metabolic syndrome (MS), individuals present an elevated risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as CVD. Because the MS epidemic represents a growing public health problem worldwide, the development of therapies remains a major challenge. Alterations of bile acid pool regulation in T2D have revealed a link between bile acid and metabolic homeostasis. The bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5 both regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, rendering them potential pharmacological targets for MS therapy. This review discusses the mechanisms of metabolic regulation by FXR and TGR5 and the utility relevance of natural and synthetic modulators of FXR and TGR5 activity, including bile acid sequestrants, in the treatment of the MS. PMID:22550135

Porez, Geoffrey; Prawitt, Janne; Gross, Barbara; Staels, Bart

2012-01-01

214

Diabetes mellitus may induce cardiovascular disease by decreasing neuroplasticity  

PubMed Central

Summary Neuroplasticity has been defined “the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections”. The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function. Thus neuroplasticity may be associated with the pathogenesis of other diseases besides neuropsychiatric diseases. Decreased neuroplasticity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a disease related to decreased neuroplasticity may confer a greater CVD risk. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is related to CVD and DM induces decreased neuroplasticity, which is manifested as depression, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetic neuropathy. Therefore we conclude that DM may induce CVD by decreasing neuroplasticity. PMID:25014044

Zheng, Zhihua; Wu, Junyan; Wang, Ruolun; Zeng, Yingtong

2014-01-01

215

Angiotensin-converting enzymes and drug discovery in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a major target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In addition to ACE, ACE2 – which is a homolog of ACE and promotes the degradation of angiotensin II (AngII) to Ang (1–7) – has been recognized recently as a potential therapeutic target in the management of CVDs. This article reviews different metabolic pathways of ACE and ACE2 (AngI-AngII-AT1 receptors and AngI-Ang (1–7)-Mas receptors) in the regulation of cardiovascular function and their potential in new drug development in the therapy of CVDs. In addition, recent progress in the study of angiotensin and ACE in fetal origins of cardiovascular disease, which might present an interesting field in perinatal medicine and preventive medicine, is briefly summarized. PMID:20170743

Shi, Lijun; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

2010-01-01

216

Name: dhr. prof. dr. M.L. Bots Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease  

E-print Network

Name: dhr. prof. dr. M.L. Bots Profile Teaching commitment Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease. Atherosclerosis is the central theme, since the majority of cardiovascular disease arises from diseases stiffness and the risk of new vascular events in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease. The SMART

Utrecht, Universiteit

217

Ibn-Sina's concept of cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Ibn-Sina's description of cardiac diseases has been logically and scientifically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine through a classified description of cardiac diseases. The terminology employed by him is basically Greco-Arabic. Ibn-Sina with his logical mind, classified drugs according to their potency of overcoming malhumours. He is the first physician to correlate the diseases of the heart with the temperament and psychic make up of an individual. PMID:11618832

Said, M

1995-01-01

218

Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial  

PubMed Central

Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results. PMID:23857219

Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Joaquín

2013-01-01

219

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9: Many Shades of Function in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. MMP-9 directly degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and activates cytokines and chemokines to regulate tissue remodeling. MMP-9 deletion or inhibition has proven overall beneficial in multiple animal models of cardiovascular disease. As such, MMP-9 expression and activity is a common end point measured. MMP-9 cell-specific overexpression, however, has also proven beneficial and highlights the fact that little information is available on the underlying mechanisms of MMP-9 function. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of MMP-9 physiology, including structure, regulation, activation, and downstream effects of increased MMP-9. We discuss MMP-9 roles during inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. By concentrating on the substrates of MMP-9 and their roles in cardiovascular disease, we explore the overall function and discuss future directions on the translational potential of MMP-9 based therapies. PMID:24186934

Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Ma, Yonggang; Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; Hall, Michael E.

2013-01-01

220

Associations between Eating Competence and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Explore the relationship between eating competence (EC) and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Secondary analysis of data collected for a larger, 2-way crossover clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient clinical research center. Participants: Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [greater than or equal]…

Psota, Tricia L.; Lohse, Barbara; West, Sheila G.

2007-01-01

221

Dietary modulators of statin efficacy in cardiovascular disease and cognition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other developed countries, and is fast growing in developing countries, particularly as life expectancy in all parts of the world increases. Current recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascul...

222

Niacin and cholesterol: role in cardiovascular disease (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niacin has been widely used as a pharmacologic agent to regulate abnormalities in plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although the use of niacin in the treatment of dyslipidemia has been reported as early as 1955, only recent studies have yielded an understanding about the cellular and molecular mechanism of action of niacin

Shobha H. Ganji; Vaijinath S. Kamanna; Moti L. Kashyap

2003-01-01

223

Therapy Insight: adipocytokines in metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal fat accumulation has been shown to play crucial roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Visceral fat accumulation particularly is closely correlated to the development of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Given these clinical findings, the functions of adipocytes have been intensively investigated in the past 10 years, and have been revealed

Yuji Matsuzawa

2006-01-01

224

Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

erbs have been used as medical treatments since the beginning of civilization and some derivatives (eg, aspirin, reserpine, and digitalis) have become mainstays of hu- man pharmacotherapy. For cardiovascular diseases, herbal treatments have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, ath- erosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency, and arrhythmia. However, many herbal remedies used today have

Nick H. Mashour; George I. Lin; William H. Frishman

1998-01-01

225

YKL-40 - an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting chemotaxis, cell attachment and migration, reorganization and tissue remodelling as a response to endothelial damage. YKL-40 protein expression is seen in macrophages and

Camilla N Rathcke; Henrik Vestergaard

2009-01-01

226

Cardiovascular disease knowledge among culturally Deaf patients in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Deaf persons experience communication barriers that may impact on their knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, data measuring this deficit are limited. A comprehensive health survey of Deaf adults included questions on CVD knowledge. Methods. Between November 2002 and March 2003, 203 Deaf adults participated in the survey, which was conducted via face-to-face interviews in American Sign Language. Questions

Helen Margellos-Anast; Melanie Estarziau; Gary Kaufman

227

Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

Jeffery, Robert W.

1988-01-01

228

Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: is the evidence solid?  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency, prevalent in 30-50% of adults in developed countries, is largely due to inadequate cutaneous production that results from decreased exposure to sunlight, and to a lesser degree from low dietary intake of vitamin D. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) <20 ng/mL indicate vitamin D deficiency and levels >30 ng/mL are considered optimal. While the endocrine functions of vitamin D related to bone metabolism and mineral ion homoeostasis have been extensively studied, robust epidemiological evidence also suggests a close association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental studies have demonstrated novel actions of vitamin D metabolites on cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Low 25-OH D levels are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin system activation. Despite a large body of experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, a causal relationship remains to be established. Moreover, the cardiovascular benefits of normalizing 25-OH D levels in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism have not been established, and questions of an epiphenomenon where vitamin D status merely reflects a classic risk burden have been raised. Randomized trials of vitamin D replacement employing cardiovascular endpoints will provide much needed evidence for determining its role in cardiovascular protection. PMID:23751422

Al Mheid, Ibhar; Patel, Riyaz S; Tangpricha, Vin; Quyyumi, Arshed A

2013-12-01

229

An epidemic of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan.  

PubMed

A Newcastle disease epidemic in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in July and August 1995, during a 1994-96 study of a breeding colony of this species on Doré Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada). Clinical signs and mortality were observed from a tunnel-and-blind system, and moribund and freshly dead birds were examined virologically. Yolks from cormorant eggs and sera from cormorants and other birds were tested for hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Evidence of Newcastle disease was limited to juvenile double-crested cormorants, despite close contact with other birds, including American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and gulls (Larus spp.). Clinical signs included limb, head or neck paralysis, head or body tremors, ataxia, and blindness; pathogenic NDV was isolated from affected birds. The mortality rate of juvenile cormorants was 32 to 64%, which was high relative to overall first-year mortality in years without epidemics. Thirty-seven of 63 (59%) cormorant sera collected during the epidemic tested positive for antibodies to NDV. Antibody status of cormorant egg yolks depended on stage of incubation, likely due to changes in the amount of water in the yolks. The departure of juvenile cormorants from their nests at 4 wk of age, resulting in an increased contact rate among individuals, may have been important in triggering the epidemic. PMID:9706555

Kuiken, T; Leighton, F A; Wobeser, G; Danesik, K L; Riva, J; Heckert, R A

1998-07-01

230

Therapeutic potentials of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization functional class I). PDE5 inhibitors can induce vasodilation; in addition, through a complex pathway involving nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and protein kinase G, it can reduce apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation. The presence of PDE5 inhibitors in various tissues and systemic vasculature make them potential targets in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In many in vitro and in vivo studies, PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to have positive effects in systolic and diastolic congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. They also improved vasoconstriction in Raynaud phenomenon, peripheral artery disease, and hypoxic brain conditions. This article reviews the therapeutic potentials of PDE5 inhibitors in different cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25051133

Nguyen, Ha; Amanullah, Aman M

2014-01-01

231

Prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases: a common strategy?  

PubMed

Cancer and cardiovascular diseases are two pathological states involving uncontrolled proliferation of either tumor or vascular smooth muscle cells. Interestingly, both types of disease can be prevented by the same type of chemical agent, such as marine polyunsaturated fatty acids, sulfur-containing compounds present in garlic, and wine polyphenols, among others, which seem to be fairly effective in the prevention of certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This is supported by numerous epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments involving animal models. It is therefore suggested that the mode of action of these compounds interfering with the development of these pathological states share some common trends. This could be taken into consideration in future studies related to the molecular mechanisms leading to these diseases as well as with the chemopreventive potential of some dietary components. PMID:9578984

Argilés, J M; Carbó, N; Costelli, P; López-Soriano, F J

1998-05-01

232

Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the Doomsday scenario be averted?  

PubMed

There are at present approximately 110 million people with diabetes in the world but this number will reach over 220 million by the year 2010, the majority of them with type 2 diabetes. Thus there is an urgent need for strategies to prevent the emerging global epidemic of type 2 diabetes to be implemented. Tackling diabetes must be part of an integrated program that addresses lifestyle related disorders. The prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and the other major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) can be cost- and health-effective through an integrated (i.e. horizontal) approach to noncommunicable diseases disease prevention and control. With the re-emergence of devastating communicable diseases including AIDS, the Ebola virus and tuberculosis, the pressure is on international and regional agencies to see that the noncommunicable disease epidemic is addressed. The international diabetes and public health communities need to adopt a more pragmatic view of the epidemic of type 2 diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases. The current situation is a symptom of globalization with respect to its social, cultural, economic and political significance. Type 2 diabetes will not be prevented by traditional medical approaches; what is required are major and dramatic changes in the socio-economic and cultural status of people in developing countries and the disadvantaged, minority groups in developed nations. The international diabetes and public health communities must lobby and mobilize politicians, other international agencies such as UNDP, UNICEF, and the World Bank as well as other international nongovernmental agencies dealing with the noncommunicable diseases to address the socio-economic, behavioural, nutritional and public health issues that have led to the type 2 diabetes and noncommunicable diseases epidemic. A multidisciplinary Task Force representing all parties which can contribute to a reversal of the underlying socio-economic causes of the problem is an urgent priority. PMID:10762445

Zimmet, P

2000-03-01

233

Levodopa, bromocriptine and selegiline modify cardiovascular responses in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) involvement is frequently found in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its causal relationship to\\u000a the disease itself and its medication is unclear. We evaluated the effects of PD medications on cardiovascular ANS functions.\\u000a Heart rate (HR) responses to normal and deep breathing, the Valsalva manoeuvre and tilting, and blood pressure (BP) responses\\u000a to tilting and isometric work

Tarja H. Haapaniemi; Mika A. Kallio; Juha T. Korpelainen; Kalervo Suominen; Uolevi Tolonen; Kyösti A. Sotaniemi; Vilho V. Myllylä

2000-01-01

234

Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies have revealed\\u000a several important environmental (especially nutritional) factors associated with atherosclerosis. However, progress in defining\\u000a the cellular and molecular interactions involved has been hindered by the etiological complexity of the disease. Nevertheless,\\u000a our understanding of CVD has improved significantly over the past decade owing to the availability

Michel E. DE Lorgeril

235

Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

2006-01-01

236

Epidemiologic Studies of Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A physically more active life, while not being related to atherosclerosis, could enable some individuals to live longer with atherosclerosis before dying from or showing symptoms of coronary heart disease. (MJB)

Montoye, Henry J.

1977-01-01

237

Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... t recommend widespread use of folic acid and B vitamin supplements to reduce the risk of heart disease ... been established. How do folic acid and other B vitamins affect homocysteine levels? Folic acid and other B ...

238

Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging with ultrasound contrast agents relies on the detection of microbubbles within diseased tissue. Microbubbles\\u000a produce an acoustic signal owing to their resonant properties in an ultrasound field. Microbubble targeting is accomplished\\u000a by either manipulating the microbubble shell for attachment of microbubbles to activated leukocytes, or by conjugation of\\u000a disease-specific ligands to the microbubble surface. Inflammation, angiogenesis, and thrombus

Beat A. Kaufmann

2010-01-01

239

Links between Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: A Bidirectional Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A strong relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and accelerated cardiovascular disease, defined as the cardiorenal\\u000a syndrome, is well documented, whether the initial event is in the kidney or in the heart. In the kidney context, mechanisms\\u000a that link CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) involve both conventional and CKD (uremia)-related CVD risk factors. Several\\u000a pathophysiologic processes responsible for the accelerated

Adel E. Berbari

240

Summary, conclusions and future perspectives Cardiovascular disease, together with cancer, remains the most important cause of death in  

E-print Network

Summary, conclusions and future perspectives Cardiovascular disease, together with cancer, remains chemokine markers in atherosclerosis related cardiovascular disease. In addition, leukocyte CETP expression on available clinical data on chemokine expression in patient cohorts with cardiovascular disease. Various

van den Brink, Jeroen

241

competency Course Objective 1 1a Describe the pathophysiology of common and major diseases of the cardiovascular organ system.  

E-print Network

of common and major diseases of the cardiovascular organ system. 2 1a,1b Recognize abnormalities of these mechanisms produce important cardiovascular diseases. 3 1c Describe of the common cardiovascular disease, including behavioral, pharmacological, and interventional

Myers, Lawrence C.

242

Metabolic Risk: Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... The number of people at risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has ... years (or sooner). Metabolic Risk: Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes What treatment is recommended ...

243

Gender, smoking and blood pressure and the initial presentation of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................................................20 2.1. Onset of cardiovascular disease1 Gender, smoking and blood pressure and the initial presentation of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Prospective cohort study in 1.5 million patients using linked electronic health records Julia

Jones, Peter JS

244

High-Oleic Ground Beef and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Postmenopausal Women  

E-print Network

About half of all deaths in developed countries are caused by cardiovascular disease. It is well known that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk can be influenced by diet, but optimal dietary content of fatty acids continues to be debated. The effect...

Ghahramany, Ghazal

2012-07-16

245

A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOOGICAL STUDIES ON DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Major risk factors do not entirely explain the worldwide variability of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Several environmental factors, including the hardness of drinking water may affect cardiovascular disease risks. We conducted a qualitative...

246

Development of potato late blight epidemics: disease foci, disease gradients, and infection sources.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Natural potato late blight epidemics were studied to assess the relative impact of various inoculum sources of Phytophthora infestans in Southern Flevoland (the Netherlands) from 1994 through 1996. Disease surveys were combined with characterization of isolates for mating type and DNA fingerprint pattern using probe RG57. Seventy-four percent of the commercial potato fields with early foci were clearly associated with nearby infested refuse piles. Characterization of isolates from refuse piles and fields confirmed the association. Infected seed tubers, volunteer plants, and infested allotment gardens appeared to be of minor importance for late blight development in potato fields. Several foci in refuse piles, potato fields, and allotment gardens contained more than one genotype. Due to favorable weather in August 1994, infested organic potato fields became major inoculum sources, resulting in the spread of P. infestans to adjacent conventional potato fields. Analyses of disease gradients, both at the field and regional levels, confirmed the role of the organic fields as mid-season infection sources. The mean slope of field gradients downwind of refuse piles (point sources) was significantly steeper (100-fold difference) than the mean slope of field gradients downwind of organic fields (area sources). The genotypic composition of the P. infestans populations along the gradient and of the source populations in the organic potato crops did not differ significantly. Analysis of the region gradient revealed genotype-specific disease gradients. Control measures are recommended. PMID:18944880

Zwankhuizen, M J; Govers, F; Zadoks, J C

1998-08-01

247

Inside epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generated from arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases have many biological functions. Importantly, CYP epoxygenase-derived EETs are involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. In fact, in addition to their potent vasodilating effect, EETs have potent anti-inflammatory properties, inhibit platelet aggregation, promote fibrinolysis, and reduce vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. All EETs are metabolized to the less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Numerous evidences support the role of altered EET biosynthesis in the pathophysiology of hypertension and suggest the utility of antihypertensive strategies that increase CYP-derived EET or EET analogs. Indeed, a number of studies have demonstrated that EET analogs and sEH inhibitors induce vasodilation, lower blood pressure and decrease inflammation. Some of these agents are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. However, the role of CYP epoxygenases and of the metabolites generated in cancer progression may limit the use of these drugs in humans. PMID:25426071

Tacconelli, Stefania; Patrignani, Paola

2014-01-01

248

Impact of diabetes on cardiovascular disease: an update.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23533715

Matheus, Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos; Tannus, Lucianne Righeti Monteiro; Cobas, Roberta Arnoldi; Palma, Catia C Sousa; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Gomes, Marilia de Brito

2013-01-01

249

Impact of Diabetes on Cardiovascular Disease: An Update  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23533715

Matheus, Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos; Tannus, Lucianne Righeti Monteiro; Cobas, Roberta Arnoldi; Palma, Catia C. Sousa; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Gomes, Marilia de Brito

2013-01-01

250

Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model  

PubMed Central

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

2013-01-01

251

Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: Getting to the heart of the matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with kidney disease is well described. This Canadian, multicenter, observational cohort study reports the prevalence and risk factors of CVD associated with kidney disease, in a cohort of patients with established chronic kidney disease (CKD), who are followed-up by nephrologists. This analysis sought to answer 2 questions: (1) in patients with

Adeera Levin; Ognjenka Djurdjev; Brendan Barrett; Ellen Burgess; Euan Carlisle; Jean Ethier; Kailash Jindal; David Mendelssohn; Sheldon Tobe; Joel Singer; Christopher Thompson

2001-01-01

252

The Relationship Between HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Over 30 million people are currently living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and over 2 million new infections occur per year. HIV has been found to directly affect vascular biology resulting in an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to uninfected persons. Although HIV infection can now be treated effectively with combination antiretroviral medications, significant toxicities such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and excess cardiovascular co-morbidity; as well as the potential for significant drug-drug interactions between HIV and cardiovascular medications, present new challenges for the management of persons infected with HIV. We first review basic principles of HIV pathogenesis and treatment and then discuss relevant clinical management strategies that will be useful for cardiologists who might be involved in the care of HIV infected patients. PMID:19936197

Dau, Birgitt; Holodniy, Mark

2008-01-01

253

PPAR? Activity in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Potential Pharmacological Target  

PubMed Central

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and particularly of PPAR? and PPAR?, using selective agonists, is currently used in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as hypertriglyceridemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PPAR? and PPAR? anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in cardiovascular cells were extensively clarified in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models. In contrast, the role of PPAR? in cardiovascular system is poorly understood. Prostacyclin, the predominant prostanoid released by vascular cells, is a putative endogenous agonist for PPAR?, but only recently PPAR? selective synthetic agonists were found, improving studies about the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PPAR? activation. Recent reports suggest that the PPAR? activation may play a pivotal role to regulate inflammation, apoptosis, and cell proliferation, suggesting that this transcriptional factor could become an interesting pharmacological target to regulate cardiovascular cell apoptosis, proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism. PMID:19325917

Tesse, Angela; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Ragot, Thierry

2009-01-01

254

Thromboxane and the thromboxane receptor in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2), the primary product of COX-1-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid, mediates its biological actions through the TXA2 receptor, termed the TP. Irreversible inhibition of platelet COX-1-derived TXA2 with low-dose aspirin affords protection against primary and secondary vascular thrombotic events, underscoring the central role of TXA2 as a platelet agonist in cardiovascular disease. The limitations associated with aspirin use include significant gastrointestinal toxicity, bleeding complications, potential interindividual response variability and poor efficacy in some disease states. This, together with the broad role of TXA2 in cardiovascular disease beyond the platelet, has refocused interest towards additional TXA2-associated drug targets, in particular TXA2 synthase and the TP. The superiority of these agents over low-dose aspirin, in terms of clinical efficacy, tolerability and commercial viability, remain open questions that are the focus of ongoing research. PMID:20543887

Smyth, Emer M

2010-01-01

255

Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction", "cardiovascular diseases", "coronary artery disease", "myocardial infarct" and "prevalence" was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity. PMID:24270960

Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastão; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

2013-11-01

256

Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity. PMID:24270960

Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastão; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

2013-01-01

257

Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease.

Wang, Qiongying; Yang, Mina; Xu, Han; Yu, Jing

2014-01-01

258

C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. METHODS We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. RESULTS The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P<0.001), and yielded a net reclassification improvement of 1.52% and 0.83%, respectively, for the predicted 10-year risk categories of “low” (<10%), “intermediate” (10% to <20%), and “high” (?20%) (P<0.02 for both comparisons). We estimated that among 100,000 adults 40 years of age or older, 15,025 persons would initially be classified as being at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event if conventional risk factors alone were used to calculate risk. Assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of ?20% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), additional targeted assessment of CRP or fibrinogen levels in the 13,199 remaining participants at intermediate risk could help prevent approximately 30 additional cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. CONCLUSIONS In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.) PMID:23034020

2013-01-01

259

Development of a diagnostic kit for homocysteine, a biomarker for Cardiovascular Diseases  

E-print Network

1 Development of a diagnostic kit for homocysteine, a biomarker for Cardiovascular Diseases #12 #12;6 Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease A positive correlation has been established between elevated homocysteine levels and Cardiovascular disease Nygard et al, N. Eng. J. 337: 230-6, 1997 Snyder et

Appanna, Vasu

260

A Tool for Telediagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases in a Collaborative and Adaptive Approach  

E-print Network

A Tool for Telediagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases in a Collaborative and Adaptive Approach the medical aspect and pathol- ogy of the cardiovascular diseases. Then, in the third section, we present algo Context Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death worldwide. Al- though

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

A Case Study on Medical Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using a Genetic Algorithm  

E-print Network

A Case Study on Medical Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using a Genetic Algorithm for Tuning cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, we use a methodology in which the linguistic labels of the classifier, Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets, Tuning, Ignorance Functions, Genetic Fuzzy Systems, Cardiovascular Disease. I

Granada, Universidad de

262

Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Decline in Women with Cardiovascular1 Disease or Risk Factors2  

E-print Network

1 Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Decline in Women with Cardiovascular1 Disease or Risk Factors2 3 INTRODUCTION7 Substantial evidence supports the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary risk8 factors gave a written informed consent. None of the supplements were46 found to reduce cardiovascular disease

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Vitamin E and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review of Epidemiologic and Clinical Trial Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of worldwide mortality. There is strong epidemiologic evidence for a beneficial effect of vitamin E on cardiovascular disease risk. However, conflicting results have been reported by intervention studies. To assess the potential benefit of vitamin E intake on the risk of cardiovascular diseases, fifty-nine published reports from observational studies, retrospective and prospective, randomised clinical

Zorabel Cordero; Dagmar Drogan; Cornelia Weikert; Heiner Boeing

2010-01-01

264

Social distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors: change among men in England 1984–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate change in the social distribution of some of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease in men in England during a period when inequality in cardiovascular disease mortality widenedDESIGNAge standardised comparison of the social distribution of seven known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (body mass index, waist to hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, consumption of fresh

M Bartley; R Fitzpatrick; D Firth; M Marmot

2000-01-01

265

Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease—A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 ?g/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure. PMID:17431501

Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

266

Extracellular vesicles as therapeutic tools in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes, are small vesicles secreted from a wide variety of cells. Whereas MVs are particles released by the outward budding of the plasma membrane, exosomes are derived from endocytic compartments. Secretion of EVs can be enhanced by specific stimuli, and increased plasma circulating levels of EVs have been correlated with pathophysiological situations. MVs, already present in the blood of healthy individuals, are considerably elevated in several cardiovascular diseases associated with inflammation, suggesting that they can mediate deleterious effects such as endothelial dysfunction or thrombosis. Nonetheless, very recent studies also demonstrate that MVs may act as biological information vectors transferring proteins or genetic material to maintain cell homeostasis, favor cell repair, or even promote angiogenesis. Additionally, exosomes have also been shown to have pro-angiogenic and cardio-protective properties. These beneficial effects, therefore, reveal the potential therapeutical use of EVs in the field of cardiovascular medicine and regenerative therapy. In this review, we will provide an update of cellular processes modulated by EVs of specific interest in the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. A special focus will be made on the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) associated with EVs (EVs(Shh+)), which have been shown to mediate many pro-angiogenic effects. In addition to offer a potential source of cardiovascular markers, therapeutical potential of EVs reveal exciting opportunities to deliver specific agents by non-immunogenic means to cardiovascular system. PMID:25136343

Fleury, Audrey; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Le Lay, Soazig

2014-01-01

267

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids are endogenous bioactive lipid mediators present both in the brain and various peripheral tissues, which exert their biological effects via interaction with specific G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 and CB2. Pathological overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in various forms of shock and heart failure may contribute to the underlying pathology and cardiodepressive state by the activation of the cardiovascular CB1 receptors. Furthermore, tonic activation of CB1 receptors by endocannabinoids has also been implicated in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes, such as plasma lipid alterations, abdominal obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and insulin and leptin resistance. In contrast, activation of CB2 receptors in immune cells exerts various immunomodulatory effects, and the CB2 receptors in endothelial and inflammatory cells appear to limit the endothelial inflammatory response, chemotaxis, and inflammatory cell adhesion and activation in atherosclerosis and reperfusion injury. Here, we will overview the cardiovascular actions of endocannabinoids and the growing body of evidence implicating the dysregulation of the ECS in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the therapeutic potential of the modulation of the ECS by selective agonists/antagonists in various cardiovascular disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, ranging from myocardial infarction and heart failure to atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:19357846

2009-01-01

268

Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease  

SciTech Connect

This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices utilizes an open-loop configuration involving a team consisting of neurosurgeon, neurologist and neurophysiologist all present and participating in the decision process of delivery. We propose the development of an integrated system which provides for distributed decision making and tele-manipulation of the instrument delivery system.

Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

2008-02-29

269

Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammation: mechanisms underlying premature cardiovascular events in rheumatologic conditions.  

PubMed

A variety of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases associate with an increased risk of atherosclerotic events and premature cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although this recognition has stimulated intense basic science and clinical research, the precise nature of the relationship between local and systemic inflammation, their interactions with traditional CV risk factors, and their role in accelerating atherogenesis remains unresolved. The individual rheumatic diseases have both shared and unique attributes that might impact CV events. Understanding of the positive and negative influences of individual anti-inflammatory therapies remains rudimentary. Clinicians need to adopt an evidence-based approach to develop diagnostic techniques to identify those rheumatologic patients most at risk of CV disease and to develop effective treatment protocols. Development of optimal preventative and disease-modifying approaches for atherosclerosis in these patients will require close collaboration between basic scientists, CV specialists, and rheumatologists. This interface presents a complex, important, and exciting challenge. PMID:25433021

Mason, Justin C; Libby, Peter

2014-11-27

270

CD147 in cardiovascular disease and thrombosis.  

PubMed

Thrombotic and inflammatory pathways play a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (aka CD147) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed on many cell types including hematopoietic, endothelial cells, leukocytes, keratinocytes, platelets, and others. The binding partners of CD147 are numerous and diverse, and give some indication to the various roles that CD147 can play; these include homophilic interactions, integrins, cyclophilins, glycoprotein VI (GPVI), caveolin 1, and monocarboxylate transporters. Recent evidence suggests a role for CD147 in both thrombosis and inflammation, as well as involvement in CAD and cancer. In this review, we summarize the role of CD147 and its binding partners in platelets, thrombosis, and arterial disease and assess mechanistic aspects of CD147 biology. PMID:25280014

Pennings, Gabrielle J; Kritharides, Leonard

2014-10-01

271

Oxidative mechanisms and atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Oxidant stress has been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, resulting from increased production and/or decreased antioxidant capacity, modulate the vessel wall phenotype to create an environment that facilitates the progression of atherosclerosis. Herein, we review a number of biochemical mechanisms by which oxidant stress mediates atherosclerotic lesion formation and progression. PMID:21048889

Leopold, Jane A.; Loscalzo, Joseph

2010-01-01

272

New Perspectives of Infections in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Infections have been recognized as significant causes of cardiac diseases for many decades. Various microorganisms have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases involving all classes of microbial agents. All components of the heart structure can be affected by infectious agents, i.e. pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, valves, autonomic nervous system, and some evidence of coronary arteries. A new breed of infections have evolved over the past three decades involving cardiac implants and this group of cardiac infectious complications will likely continue to increase in the future, as more mechanical devices are implanted in the growing ageing population. This article will review the progress made in the past decade on understanding the pathobiology of these infectious complications of the heart, through advances in genomics and proteomics, as well as potential novel approach for therapy. An up-to-date, state-of-the-art review and controversies will be outlined for the following conditions: (i) perimyocarditis; (ii) infective endocarditis; (iii) cardiac device infections; (iv) coronary artery disease and potential role of infections. PMID:20436849

Fong, Ignatius W

2009-01-01

273

Early detection and response to meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: appraisal of the WHO strategy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold strategy for detecting meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and to estimate the impact of the strategy on an epidemic at district level. METHODS: Data on meningitis cases at the district level were collected weekly from health ministries, WHO country and regional offices, and nongovernmental organizations in countries where there were epidemics of meningococcal disease in 1997. An epidemic was defined as a cumulative district attack rate of at least 100 cases per 100,000 population from January to May, the period of epidemic risk. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold rate were calculated, and curves of sensitivity against (1 - specificity) were compared with alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemic sizes. The impact of the WHO strategy on a district epidemic was estimated by comparing the numbers of epidemic cases with cases estimated to have been prevented by vaccination. FINDINGS: An analysis was made of 48 198 cases reported in 174 districts in Benin, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. These cases were 80.3% of those reported from Africa to WHO during the 1997 epidemic period. District populations ranged from 10,298 to 573,908. The threshold rate was crossed during two consecutive weeks in 69 districts (39.7%) and there were epidemics in 66 districts (37.9%). Overall, the sensitivity of the threshold rate for predicting epidemics was 97%, the specificity was 95%, and the predictive value positive was 93%. Taken together, these values were equivalent or better than the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemics, and remained high regardless of district size. The estimated number of potential epidemic cases decreased by nearly 60% in the age group targeted for vaccination in one district where the guidelines were followed in a timely manner. CONCLUSION: The use of the WHO strategy was sensitive and specific for the early detection of meningococcal disease epidemics in countries of sub-Saharan Africa during 1997 and had a substantial impact on a district epidemic. Nevertheless, the burden of meningococcal disease in these countries remains formidable and additional control measures are needed. PMID:12077608

Leake, J. A. D.; Kone, M. L.; Yada, A. A.; Barry, L. F.; Traore, G.; Ware, A.; Coulibaly, T.; Berthe, A.; Mambu Ma Disu, H.; Rosenstein, N. E.; Plikaytis, B. D.; Esteves, K.; Kawamata, J.; Wenger, J. D.; Heymann, D. L.; Perkins, B. A.

2002-01-01

274

Integrative Treatments to Reduce Risk for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Recognizing the contribution and interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors is critical to prioritizing treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Lipoprotein factors still dominate risk for developing cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. Some emerging risk factors such as C-reactive protein are gaining acceptance due to recent prospective clinical trials demonstrating clinical benefit in reducing these markers. Other emerging risk factors, including lipoprotein particle size, remain to be validated. In this second article of a 2-part series, we will begin with a review of formal risk assessment, discussing the contribution of multiple “risky” and “healthy” components that play a part in overall cardiovascular health. Following risk assessment, we will discuss evidence-based integrative therapies that can be used to modify any risky lipoprotein and inflammatory patient profiles, including medications, functional foods, supplements, and lifestyle approaches. The focus is on low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. Understanding the interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors, and finding efficient methods of treating multiple risk factors simultaneously, will not only improve the long-term health of patients but will also save on the expenditure of healthcare dollars for unnecessary testing and ineffective treatments. Integrative practitioners who understand the contribution of lifestyle factors, and who have numerous effective treatment options at their disposal, are well positioned to counsel patients on cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21461347

Bradley, Ryan; Oberg, Erica

2010-01-01

275

Cardiovascular disease and the role of oral bacteria  

PubMed Central

In terms of the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) the focus has traditionally been on dyslipidemia. Over the decades our understanding of the pathogenesis of CVD has increased, and infections, including those caused by oral bacteria, are more likely involved in CVD progression than previously thought. While many studies have now shown an association between periodontal disease and CVD, the mechanisms underpinning this relationship remain unclear. This review gives a brief overview of the host-bacterial interactions in periodontal disease and virulence factors of oral bacteria before discussing the proposed mechanisms by which oral bacterial may facilitate the progression of CVD. PMID:21523220

Leishman, Shaneen J.; Do, Hong Lien; Ford, Pauline J.

2010-01-01

276

The epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1951-1952.  

PubMed Central

The epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan in 1951 and 1952 was studied in order to determine origins of outbreaks and methods of spread. The epidemic was initially considered to be vesicular stomatitis and foot-and-mouth disease was not recognized until February 1952, three months after the initial infection. The reports prepared at that time were reviewed in order to obtain details of the numbers of animals infected and the source and date of infection for the outbreaks. Methods of spread were rated according to their likelihood. The introduction of infection by an immigrant through his clothes as well as by sausage was possible. The sequence of events from the first outbreak to the spread from a feedlot/packing plant and from a dairy farm, which failed to report the disease, were clarified. Methods of spread included movement of animals, animal products and people and the airborne route. Milk delivery and artificial insemination did not result in spread of infection. The quarantine of affected farms reduced spread by animals and deterred visits by people. The original diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis was due to misinterpretation of a lesion in an inoculated horse. Laboratory tests established the presence of foot-and-mouth disease. The limited extent of the epidemic, despite the delay in diagnosis, is attributed to (i) the low density of cattle, (ii) few infected pigs and hence less airborne virus and (iii) absence of waste food feeding and milk collection in addition to the limited quarantine imposed. PMID:2249179

Sellers, R F; Daggupaty, S M

1990-01-01

277

Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

2014-09-01

278

Hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease: factors, mechanism and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Reduced function of the thyroid gland causes Hypothyroidism which is further attributed to defects in the secretion of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and tetra-iodothyronine or thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 hormones are not only known to regulate the rate of metabolism but also affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body such as neuromuscular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism patient usually show higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, and other lipid molecules associated with heart disease. The question still remained to be addressed though is whether hypothyroidism affects heart and result in cardiovascular disease. The current review updates us with the recent progress in the hypothyroidism area especially in relation to its connecting link with the heart disease. The present study will further enhance our understanding of the intricacies involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) subsequently affecting serum lipid levels. The study may help to dice-out cardiovascular risk factors associated with hypothyroidism so that effective measures could be taken prior to occurrence of coronary heart disease. PMID:24152286

Sharma, Anil K; Arya, R; Mehta, R; Sharma, R; Sharma, A K

2013-01-01

279

Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

2014-01-01

280

Adipokines at the crossroad between obesity and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Obesity, and especially excessive visceral adipose tissue accumulation, is considered as a low-grade inflammatory state that is responsible for adipocyte dysfunction and associated metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue displays endocrine functions by releasing pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactive molecules named adipokines. An altered expression of these molecules, provoked by obesity or adipocyte dysregulation, contributes to major metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus that are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, obesity is also characterised by the expansion of perivascular adipose tissue that acts locally via diffusion of adipokines into the vascular wall. Local inflammation within blood vessels induced by adipokines contributes to the onset of endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, but also to vascular remodelling and hypertension. A fast expansion of obesity is expected in the near future, which will rapidly increase the incidence of these cardiovascular diseases. The focus of this review is to summarise the link between metabolic and cardiovascular disease and discuss current treatment approaches, limitations and future perspectives for more targeted therapies. PMID:25338625

Molica, F; Morel, S; Kwak, B R; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Steffens, S

2014-10-23

281

[Sleep-related breathing disorders and (resulting) cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Sleep-related breathing disorders occur in cardiology patients mostly as obstructive or central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. The prevalence and incidence are clearly increased in comparison to the general population. Depending on the underlying cardiac disease up to 75% of patients can have obstructive or central sleep apnea and up to 50% have indications for therapy according to the current guidelines. Obstructive sleep apnea is considered to be an independent and well treatable risk factor for the development and deterioration of many cardiovascular diseases. This review briefly describes examples of prevalence, pathophysiology and current study situation with respect to the association between sleep-related breathing disorders and arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, arteriosclerosis with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Although the role of obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for the development of these diseases is well documented, central sleep apnea is less of a risk factor per se but is considered to mirror an underlying cardiac disease with then further negative consequences for this disease. It is not the sleep apnea per se but the subsequent cardiovascular diseases which limit the prognosis of these patients and therefore bring them into the focus of cardiology. Obstructive and central sleep apnea can be successfully and sustainably treated by various forms of nocturnal positive airway pressure therapy. Furthermore, there are several therapeutic procedures which are currently being tested and the significance will be investigated in the coming years. PMID:24477634

Oldenburg, O; Bitter, T; Fox, H; Horstkotte, D

2014-02-01

282

The “Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy” of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease  

PubMed Central

During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a “multifactorial” etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

2014-01-01

283

Preventing cardiovascular disease in women: an update.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to be the leading cause of death among women in the United States. Evidence-based guidelines of the American Heart Association (AHA) offer clinicians recommendations for preventing CHD in women delineating particular lifestyle, risk factor, and pharmacologic interventions. Cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, inappropriate diet, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome contribute to the risk of CHD in women, as in men. Lifestyle interventions substantially reduce that risk. Many women, however, require pharmacotherapy to control hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes to levels required for decreasing risk. New findings from clinical trials featuring women may enhance their CHD risk prediction and treatment. However, high coronary risk in many women continues to be underrecognized, and women remain undertreated with statins and other therapeutic agents. PMID:17803222

Wenger, Nanette K

2008-03-01

284

Optimization Methods for Disease Prevention and Epidemic Control ...  

E-print Network

We justify this dynamic model by applications of annual disease control, ..... Table 4 reports the objective values of DPEC-B and DPEC-E, while Column B-in-E .... is thankful to Sandia National Laboratories as a multi-program laboratory ...

2013-09-29

285

Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of

Martín R. Bustamante; Jamie A. Consuegra; Michael P. L. Fogden; Pru N. Foster; Enrique La Marca; Karen L. Masters; Andrés Merino-Viteri; Robert Puschendorf; Santiago R. Ron; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Christopher J. Still; Bruce E. Young; J. Alan Pounds

2006-01-01

286

Aldosterone and angiotensin: Role in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

The present review shall familiarize the readers with the role of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure, electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. The local RAAS operates in an autocrine, paracrine and/or intracrine manner and exhibits multiple physiological effects at the cellular level. In addition to local RAAS, there exists a complete pancreatic RAAS which has multi-facet role in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Aldosterone is known to mediate hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, cardiac failure and myocardial fibrosis while angiotensin II mediates diabetes, endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, hypertrophy and remodeling. As the understanding of this biology of RAAS increases, it serves to exploit this for the pharmacotherapy of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23041273

Patel, Bhoomika M; Mehta, Anita A

2012-12-15

287

Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. PMID:23681093

Hervás, Ramón; Fontecha, Jesús; Ausín, David; Castanedo, Federico; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

2013-01-01

288

Mobile monitoring and reasoning methods to prevent cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. PMID:23681093

Hervás, Ramón; Fontecha, Jesús; Ausín, David; Castanedo, Federico; Bravo, José; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

2013-01-01

289

Early growth and death from cardiovascular disease in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the link suggested between growth in utero and during infancy and death from cardiovascular disease in men is also present in women. DESIGN--Follow up study of women and men whose birth weight and weight at 1 year of age had been recorded. SETTING--Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS--5585 women and 10,141 men born during 1911-30. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Standardised mortality ratios

C Osmond; D J Barker; P D Winter; C H Fall; S J Simmonds

1993-01-01

290

The Implications of Mental Stress for Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence points to a significant role for psychological factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mental\\u000a stress, including psychological, psychosocial, or emotional stress, is recognized as a risk factor for the development of\\u000a CVD. It also seems to contribute to the onset of—and can directly precipitate acute—coronary syndromes (ACS), fatal arrhythmias,\\u000a and acute heart failure.

Brendon L. Graeber; Aaron Soufer; Matthew M. Burg; Robert S. Soufer

291

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is overrepresented in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We determined the prevalence of traditional and nontraditional risk factors for CVD in SLE patients with and without CVD compared with controls. Methods and Results—Twenty-six women (aged 528.2 years) with SLE and a history of CVD (SLE cases) were compared with 26 age-matched women with SLE but without

Elisabet Svenungsson; Kerstin Jensen-Urstad; Mikael Heimbürger; Angela Silveira; Anders Hamsten; Joseph L. Witztum; Johan Frostegård

2010-01-01

292

Microalbuminuria and Chronic Kidney Disease as Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective analyses of data from outcome trial and large databases demonstrate that presence of either microalbuminuria\\u000a (MA) or a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 60 ml per min is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV)\\u000a events such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Presence of microalbuminuria does not imply presence of kidney disease although\\u000a a GFR below 60 ml

Pantelis A. Sarafidis; George L. Bakris

293

Omega3 Fatty Acids for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Major dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids are fish containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),\\u000a as well as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils containing ?-linolenic acid (ALA). Omega-3 fatty acids, especially those derived\\u000a from marine sources, may be a useful tool for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3s exert\\u000a their cardioprotective effects through multiple

Andrew Paul DeFilippis; Michael J. Blaha; Terry A. Jacobson

2010-01-01

294

Dietary polyphenols regulate endothelial function and prevent cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction strongly induces development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated a preventative effect of dietary polyphenols toward cardiovascular disease. In studies using cultured vascular ECs, polyphenols were recognized to regulate nitric oxide and endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. Furthermore, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules by a signaling pathway that is similar to that of high-density lipoprotein and involves induction of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, liver kinase B, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression. The effects of polyphenols on ECs include antioxidant activity and enhancement of the expression of several protective proteins, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase and paraoxonase 1. However, the observed effects of dietary polyphenols in vitro do not always translate to an in vivo setting. As such, there are many questions concerning their physiological mode of action. In this review, we discuss research on the effect of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and their protective effect on EC dysfunction. PMID:25466651

Yamagata, Kazuo; Tagami, Motoki; Yamori, Yukio

2015-01-01

295

Design of nanovectors for therapy and imaging of cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are widely prevalent in western societies, and their associated costs number in the billions of dollars and affect millions of patients each year. Nanovectors targeted to tissues involved in cardiovascular diseases offer great opportunities to improve cardiovascular treatment through their imaging and drug delivery capabilities. Vascular-targeted imaging particles may permit the early identification of atherosclerosis, discriminate between stable and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, or guide surgeons as they work on fragile vasculature. Tailored therapeutic nanoparticles may provide safer, more efficient and effective intervention through localization and release of encapsulated therapeutics. Nanovector design involves numerous considerations such as fabrication material, particle size, and surface-modification with ligands for targeting and increasing blood circulation times. Complex blood rheology may affect the efficiency with which dissimilarsized particles target ligand receptors associated with disease. Additionally, the intended use of a nanovector is a critical factor in its design as some materials with poor drug-loading qualities or release kinetics may be suitable for imaging purposes only. Overall, vectors targeted to the vasculature will need to be efficient in avoiding blood clearance, honing to the target location, and binding at the desired site. PMID:22891105

Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola; Heslinga, Michael J; Porter, Tyrone M

2012-01-01

296

Cardiovascular and oral disease interactions: what is the evidence?  

PubMed

This paper reviews the evidence for the interaction of oral disease (more specifically, periodontal infections) with cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, with atherosclerosis as the underlying aetiology in the vast majority of cases. The importance of the role of infection and inflammation in atherosclerosis is now widely accepted, and there has been increasing awareness that immune responses are central to atherogenesis. Chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases are among the most common chronic infections, and a number of studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and an increased risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Although it is recognised that large-scale intervention studies are required, pathogenic mechanism studies are nevertheless required so as to establish the biological rationale. In this context, a number of hypotheses have been put forward; these include common susceptibility, inflammation via increased circulating cytokines and inflammatory mediators, direct infection of the blood vessels, and the possibility of cross-reactivity or molecular mimicry between bacterial and self-antigens. In this latter hypothesis, the progression of atherosclerosis can be explained in terms of the immune response to bacterial heat shock proteins (HSPs). Because the immune system may not be able to differentiate between self-HSP and bacterial HSP, an immune response generated by the host directed at pathogenic HSP may result in an autoimmune response to similar sequences in the host. Furthermore, endothelial cells express HSPs in atherosclerosis, and cross-reactive T cells exist in the arteries and peripheral blood of patients with atherosclerosis. Each of these hypotheses is reviewed in light of current research. It is concluded that although atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is almost certainly a multifactorial disease, there is now strong evidence that infection and inflammation are important risk factors. As the oral cavity is one potential source of infection, it is wise to try to ensure that any oral disease is minimised. This may be of significant benefit to cardiovascular health and enables members of the oral health team to contribute to their patients' general health. PMID:17462139

Ford, Pauline J; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa; Seymour, Gregory J

2007-04-01

297

Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference: peripheral arterial disease - executive summary.  

PubMed

This Consensus Conference has been supported by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society. The process is dynamic, with intentional structure that requires peer review and feedback from cardiovascular specialists across Canada. The writing and review panel encompassed a broad range of specialists caring for the patient with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PAD is an often asymptomatic, underdiagnosed, under-recognized and undertreated condition. It is associated with significant morbidity and cardiac mortality. Until recently, little attention has focused on the evaluation and treatment of the disease process itself. The goal of the present paper is to ensure better treatment, to reduce both morbidity and mortality in the patient with vascular disease and, importantly, to serve as a guide to the busy clinician. Although the focus is PAD, there are chapters on thoracic and abdominal aortic disease, renal arterial disease and the evidence supporting management. Screening and diagnostic techniques including history and physical examination as well as noninvasive imaging techniques are reviewed. Medical management for patients with vascular disease including prevention and risk reduction is graded based on evidence, including both pharmacological and nonpharmacological management strategies, followed by an introduction to newer percutaneous techniques. Finally, surgical treatment for claudication including new concepts on the perioperative risk assessment for patients undergoing major vascular surgery is discussed. PMID:16234879

Abramson, Beth L; Huckell, Vic; Anand, Sonia; Forbes, Tom; Gupta, Anil; Harris, Ken; Junaid, Asad; Lindsay, Tom; McAlister, Finlay; Roussin, Andre; Saw, Jacqueline; Teo, Koon Kang; Turpie, Alexander G; Verma, Subodh

2005-10-01

298

Alcohol, cardiovascular diseases and public health policy.  

PubMed

Public health policy should aim to reduce the harm done by alcohol use, whilst recognizing its real and perceived benefits. The reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) with the consequent reduction of mortality for some people in older age is one such benefit. The increased risk of sudden coronary death from acute alcohol intoxication is one such harm. A number of policies have been demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of the harm done by alcohol use, at least in industrialized countries. These are: enforcement of a minimum drinking age; drink-drive deterrence; enforced prevention of intoxication in public drinking places; controls on access to alcohol, including restrictions on numbers of licensed premises and hours and days of sale; and taxation policy to regulate the affordability of alcohol. Many of these strategies seem unlikely to have a direct effect on drinking relevant for reduced risk of CHD, but are likely to have a direct beneficial effect on drinking relevant for sudden coronary death. The level of alcohol consumption associated with the lowest mortality rate for a population will vary depending on patterns of ill health and causes of death. In countries with high rates of CHD the per capita level may be in the order of about three litres of absolute alcohol per year among drinking adults. In countries with low rates of CHD, the level is likely to be substantially lower. Many countries in which alcohol is readily available are consuming at a level substantially above three litres per capita of drinking adults per year and in these countries public health policy should continue to advise action to reduce per capita consumption. PMID:9949797

Anderson, P

1998-01-01

299

P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease David Erlinge & Geoffrey Burnstock  

E-print Network

REVIEW P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease David Erlinge & Geoffrey Burnstock in cardiovascular regulation and disease. The research field has grown rapidly since the term P2 recepto roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysi- ology, acting via P2X (ion channel) and P2Y (G

Burnstock, Geoffrey

300

The Use of Self-Instructional Units on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in a University Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to promote prevention of cardiovascular disease among college students, a study was conducted to determine whether an educational program originally designed to increase high school students' knowledge of cardiovascular disease would be effective with college students. The specific objectives of the study were to determine college students' baseline knowledge regarding primary and secondary risk factors of cardiovascular

J. David Holcomb; Larry Laufman; Robert E. Roush; Cynthia A. Spiker; Armin D. Weinberg; Nicholas K. Iammarino

1980-01-01

301

Medical management of the patient with cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and periodontal disease have been established as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Dentists and physicians should work aggressively to educate periodontitis patients about this relationship in an effort to improve the quality of health and contribute to their long-term survival. Blood pressure should be checked at the initial dental visit and at each subsequent visit in patients whose blood pressure is found to be high and/or has a history of hypertension. Dental and medical assistants should receive in-service training to assure competency in measuring blood pressures. All staff should be certified in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Emergency protocol procedures should be in writing and rehearsed regularly. Patients should take their blood pressure medication as usual on the day of the dental procedure. It is helpful for the patients to bring all medications to the office for review at the time of the dental procedure. Good communication should be established between the dentist and physician to maximize good dental and physical health. Because the patient with periodontal disease is at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, a standardized form should be developed for the convenient exchange of vital information, including but not limited to: blood pressure, medications, allergies, medical conditions and pertinent highlights of dental procedures. Minimize stress in patients with coronary artery disease. This includes providing solid local anesthesia, avoidance of intravascular medication injections, and encouraging relaxation techniques. Antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated in patients with valvular heart disease but does not guarantee the prevention of endocarditis. These patients should be alerted to monitor any symptoms such as fever, chills or shortness of breath. It has also been documented that toothbrushing, flossing and home plaque removers can cause transient bacteremia in periodontal patients. Epinephrine use should be avoided or utilized cautiously in patients with pacemakers or automatic defibrillator devices because of the possibility of refractory arrhythmia. Consultation with patient's cardiologist is advised. Anticoagulation with coumadin is not a contraindication to dental procedures. The prothrombin time or international normalized ratio laboratory values should be checked on the day of the procedure to assure that it is in an acceptable range. Aspirin therapy is not a problem unless the patient is on very high doses for severe arthritis. Continuing medical and dental education credits should emphasize cross-training in both areas to insure comprehensive treatment of the patient with periodontal disease. Smoking cessation, regular exercise, a low-fat diet and good dental hygiene contribute to a healthy cardiovascular system. Patients should understand as best we know the relationship between periodontal and cardiovascular disease to afford them an opportunity to improve their overall dental and physical health. PMID:11276761

Mask, A G

2000-06-01

302

Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming.  

PubMed

As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of the 110 or so species of Atelopus, which are endemic to the American tropics, have met the same fate, and a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is implicated. Analysing the timing of losses in relation to changes in sea surface and air temperatures, we conclude with 'very high confidence' (> 99%, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) that large-scale warming is a key factor in the disappearances. We propose that temperatures at many highland localities are shifting towards the growth optimum of Batrachochytrium, thus encouraging outbreaks. With climate change promoting infectious disease and eroding biodiversity, the urgency of reducing greenhouse-gas concentrations is now undeniable. PMID:16407945

Pounds, J Alan; Bustamante, Martín R; Coloma, Luis A; Consuegra, Jamie A; Fogden, Michael P L; Foster, Pru N; La Marca, Enrique; Masters, Karen L; Merino-Viteri, Andrés; Puschendorf, Robert; Ron, Santiago R; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Still, Christopher J; Young, Bruce E

2006-01-12

303

Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes  

PubMed Central

Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

2014-01-01

304

Effects of epidemic diseases on the distribution of bonobos.  

PubMed

This study examined how outbreaks and the occurrence of Anthrax, Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis may differentially affect the distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Using a combination of mapping, Jaccard overlapping coefficients and binary regressions, the study determined how each disease correlated with the extent of occurrence of, and the areas occupied by, bonobos. Anthrax has only been reported to occur outside the range of bonobos and so was not considered further. Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis were each reported within the area of occupancy of bonobos. Their respective overlap coefficients were: J = 0.10; Q(? = 0.05)?= 2.00 (odds ratios = 0.0001, 95% CI = 0.0057; Z =?-19.41, significant) for Ebola; J = 1.00; Q(? = 0.05)?= 24.0 (odds ratios = 1.504, 95% CI = 0.5066-2.6122) for Monkeypox; and, J = 0.33; Q(? = 0.05)?= 11.5 (Z = 1.14, significant) for Trypanosomiasis. There were significant relationships for the presence and absence of Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis and the known extent of occurrence of bonobos, based on the equations y = 0.2368Ln(x)+0.8006 (R(2)?= 0.9772) and y =?-0.2942Ln(x)+0.7155 (R(2)?= 0.698), respectively. The positive relationship suggested that bonobos tolerated the presence of Monkeypox. In contrast, the significant negative coefficient suggested that bonobos were absent in areas where Trypanosomiasis is endemic. Our results suggest that large rivers may have prevented Ebola from spreading into the range of bonobos. Meanwhile, Trypanosomiasis has been recorded among humans within the area of occurrence of bonobos, and appears the most important disease in shaping the area of occupancy of bonobos within their overall extent of occupancy. PMID:23251431

Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Leader-Williams, Nigel

2012-01-01

305

Disease Prevention versus Data Privacy: Using Landcover Maps to Inform Spatial Epidemic Models  

PubMed Central

The availability of epidemiological data in the early stages of an outbreak of an infectious disease is vital for modelers to make accurate predictions regarding the likely spread of disease and preferred intervention strategies. However, in some countries, the necessary demographic data are only available at an aggregate scale. We investigated the ability of models of livestock infectious diseases to predict epidemic spread and obtain optimal control policies in the event of imperfect, aggregated data. Taking a geographic information approach, we used land cover data to predict UK farm locations and investigated the influence of using these synthetic location data sets upon epidemiological predictions in the event of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. When broadly classified land cover data were used to create synthetic farm locations, model predictions deviated significantly from those simulated on true data. However, when more resolved subclass land use data were used, moderate to highly accurate predictions of epidemic size, duration and optimal vaccination and ring culling strategies were obtained. This suggests that a geographic information approach may be useful where individual farm-level data are not available, to allow predictive analyses to be carried out regarding the likely spread of disease. This method can also be used for contingency planning in collaboration with policy makers to determine preferred control strategies in the event of a future outbreak of infectious disease in livestock. PMID:23133352

Tildesley, Michael J.; Ryan, Sadie J.

2012-01-01

306

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

NIH researchers find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found in nuts, grapes, and wine, may protect against certain cardiovascular problems, according to ...

307

Rheumatoid arthritis: genetic variants as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with premature mortality, severe morbidity, and functional impairment leading to considerable financial burden for both patients and society. Since disease progression and complications can differ from one patient to another, genetic markers are of potential relevance for identifying those individuals at a higher risk of more severe disease. RA is a complex polygenic disease. Cardiovascular (CV) disease due to accelerated atherogenesis is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with RA. Several studies support the implication of genetic factors in the development of CV disease in RA. In addition to the strong association between alleles of the HLA-DRB1*04 shared epitope and both subclinical and clinically evident CV disease, genes implicated in inflammation and metabolism, such as TNFA, MTHFR, and CCR5, seem to be associated with a higher risk of CV disease in patients with RA. We propose the use of these genetic variants as molecular biomarkers that could help to predict disease outcome at diagnosis of RA and, therefore, to optimize the treatment and management of other risk factors from an early stage of the disease. PMID:25163740

Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; López-Mejias, Raquel; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; González-Gay, Miguel A; Martín, Javier

2015-01-01

308

Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA): a promising biomarker for cardiovascular disease?  

PubMed

Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production. ADMA is generated from methylation of arginine residues by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and subsequent proteolysis, while its elimination is achieved mainly by degradation with dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Oxidative stress, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibition, eNOS uncoupling, inflammation and shear stress play a pivotal role in ADMA pathophysiology by managing PRMT/DDAH expression and NO synthesis and leading to a common result - endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction seems to be the common finding in studies investigating the role of ADMA in cardiovascular disease (CVD). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the existing methods for ADMA quantification. However, none of them fulfils all the criteria to be characterized as "gold standard". ADMA is significantly associated with risk factors for CVD and almost with every disease of the cardiovascular system; showing an independent, strong prognostic value for mortality and future cardiovascular events. This article aims to review the current knowledge about ADMA biology and metabolism, pathophysiological mechanisms implicating ADMA in CVD, methods for the determination of ADMA and its association with CVD risk factors and established CVDs. PMID:23470077

Bouras, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Chatzis, Georgios; Tsounis, Dimitrios; Cleman, Michael W; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2013-01-01

309

Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

2012-01-01

310

Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed. PMID:24049653

Ahmed, M. S.; Jadhav, A. B.; Hassan, A.; Meng, Qing H.

2012-01-01

311

Cardiovascular disease in adult survivors of childhood cancer.  

PubMed

Treatment advances have increased survival in children with cancer, but subclinical, progressive, irreversible, and sometimes fatal treatment-related cardiovascular effects may appear years later. Cardio-oncologists have identified promising preventive and treatment strategies. Dexrazoxane provides long-term cardioprotection from doxorubicin-associated cardiotoxicity without compromising the efficacy of anticancer treatment. Continuous infusion of doxorubicin is as effective as bolus administration in leukemia treatment, but no evidence has indicated that it provides long-term cardioprotection; continuous infusions should be eliminated from pediatric cancer treatment. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can delay the progression of subclinical and clinical cardiotoxicity. All survivors, regardless of whether they were treated with anthracyclines or radiation, should be monitored for systemic inflammation and the risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Echocardiographic screening must be supplemented with screening for biomarkers of cardiotoxicity and perhaps by identification of genetic susceptibilities to cardiovascular diseases; optimal strategies need to be identified. The health burden related to cancer treatment will increase as this population expands and ages. PMID:25587648

Lipshultz, Steven E; Franco, Vivian I; Miller, Tracie L; Colan, Steven D; Sallan, Stephen E

2015-01-14

312

Soluble urokinase receptor is a biomarker of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In various non-CKD populations, suPAR has been proposed as a prognostic marker for mortality and cardiovascular disease. However, it is not known whether suPAR holds prognostic information in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD. In a prospective observational study of 476 patients with mild-to-moderate kidney disease, we examined multivariate associations between suPAR, overall mortality, and cardiovascular events. After a mean follow-up of 57 months, 52 patients died and 76 patients had at least one fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Higher suPAR was directly and significantly associated with both overall mortality (univariate hazard ratio 5.35) and cardiovascular events (univariate hazard ratio 5.06). In multivariate analysis, suPAR remained significantly associated with cardiovascular events (full model, hazard ratio 3.05). Thus, in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD, suPAR concentrations show a clear, direct, and graded association with a higher risk for new-onset cardiovascular disease. PMID:24897037

Meijers, Björn; Poesen, Ruben; Claes, Kathleen; Dietrich, Ruth; Bammens, Bert; Sprangers, Ben; Naesens, Maarten; Storr, Markus; Kuypers, Dirk; Evenepoel, Pieter

2015-01-01

313

Prediction models for risk classification in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Risk stratification is an increasingly important tool for the management of patients with different diseases and also for decision making in subjects not yet with overt disease but who are at risk of disease in the short or long term or during their lifetime. Careful risk assessment in the individual patient, based on clinical, laboratory and imaging data, can be helpful for making decisions about treatment or other prevention strategies. As regards cardiovascular disease, many models have been suggested and are available for the prediction of diagnosis and prognosis and there are several algorithms for risk prediction. However, current risk screening methods are not perfect. This review evaluates relative strengths and limitations of traditional and more recent methods for assessing the performance of prediction models. PMID:23053326

Petretta, Mario; Cuocolo, Alberto

2012-12-01

314

Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With or at Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association Kidney and Cardiovascular Disease Council; the Councils on High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and Epidemiology and Prevention; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group: Developed in Collaboration With the National Kidney Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs commonly in patients with cardiovascular disease. In addition, CKD is a risk factor for the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. In this advisory, we present recommen- dations for the detection of CKD in patients with cardiovascular disease. CKD can be reliably detected with the combined use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease

Frank C. Brosius III; Thomas H. Hostetter; Ellie Kelepouris; Mark M. Mitsnefes; Sharon M. Moe; Michael A. Moore; Subramaniam Pennathur; Grace L. Smith; Peter W. F. Wilson

2006-01-01

315

Disparities in heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases among women  

PubMed Central

This article reviews literature pertinent to cardiovascular disparities in women, focusing primarily on heart failure (HF). It provides an in-depth look at causes, biological influences, self-management and lack of adherence to HF-treatment guidelines in women. Disparities in treatment of causative factors of HF, such as myocardial infarction and hypertension, contribute to women having poorer HF outcomes than men. This article discusses major contributing reasons for nonadherence to medication regimes for HF in women, including advanced age at time of diagnosis, likelihood of multiple comorbidities, lack of social support and low socioeconomic status. Limited inclusion of women in clinical trials and the scarcity of gender analyses for HF and other cardiovascular diseases continues to limit the applicability of research findings to women. PMID:22757737

McSweeney, Jean; Pettey, Christina; Lefler, Leanne L; Heo, Seongkum

2012-01-01

316

Testosterone deficiency: a risk factor for cardiovascular disease?  

PubMed

Male gender is a major risk factor for premature cardiovascular death, a relationship not yet explained. Low testosterone in men is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and is associated independently with individual components of the metabolic syndrome--visceral obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Epidemiological studies report increased mortality in men with low testosterone. Testosterone replacement in the short-term reduces waist circumference, cholesterol and circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and improves insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in diabetics. Testosterone also has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemia, angina and chronic heart failure. This manuscript reviews the current evidence supporting a link between low testosterone and cardiovascular disease, highlighting the need for larger, longer-term studies. PMID:20381374

Jones, T H

2010-08-01

317

Pathophysiologic and Treatment Strategies for Cardiovascular Disease in End Stage Renal Disease and Kidney Transplantation.  

PubMed

The inextricable link between the heart and the kidneys predestines that significant cardiovascular disease ensues in the face of end stage renal disease (ESRD). As a point of fact, the leading cause of mortality of patients on dialysis is still from cardiovascular etiologies, albeit differing in particular types of disease from the general population. For example, sudden cardiac death outnumbers coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD, which is the reverse for the general population. In this review, we will focus on the pathophysiology and treatment options of important traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients such as hypertension, anemia, vascular calcification, hyperparathyroidism, uremia, and oxidative stress. The evidence of erythropoietin-stimulating agents, phosphate binders, calcimimetics, and dialysis modalities will be presented. We will then discuss how these risk factors may be changed and perhaps exacerbated after renal transplantation. This is largely due to the immunosuppressive agents that are both crucial yet potentially detrimental in the post-transplant state. Calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, and mTOR inhibitors, the mainstay of transplant immunosuppresion, are all known to increase the risks of developing new onset diabetes as well as the metabolic syndrome. Thus, we need to carefully negotiate between patients' cardiovascular profile and their risks of rejection. Finally, we end by considering strategies by which we may minimize cardiovascular disease in the transplant population, as this modality still confers the highest chance of survival in patients with ESRD. PMID:25420053

Ghanta, Mythili; Kozicky, Mark; Jim, Belinda

2014-10-10

318

Overnutrition, mTOR signaling, and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity and associated medical disorders has increased dramatically in the United States and throughout much of the world in the past decade. Obesity, induced by excess intake of carbohydrates and fats, is a major cause of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. There is emerging evidence that excessive nutrient intake promotes signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which, in turn, may lead to alterations of cellular metabolic signaling leading to insulin resistance and obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disease, as well as cancer. While the pivotal role of mTOR signaling in regulating metabolic stress, autophagy, and adaptive immune responses has received increasing attention, there remain many gaps in our knowledge regarding this important nutrient sensor. For example, the precise cellular signaling mechanisms linking excessive nutrient intake and enhanced mTOR signaling with increased cardiovascular and kidney disease, as well as cancer, are not well understood. In this review, we focus on the effects that the interaction between excess intake of nutrients and enhanced mTOR signaling have on the promotion of obesity-associated diseases and potential therapeutic strategies involving targeting mTOR signaling. PMID:25253086

Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Sowers, James R

2014-11-15

319

Strategic Approaches to Unraveling Genetic Causes of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

DNA sequence variants (DSVs) are major components of the “causal field” for virtually all-medical phenotypes, whether single-gene familial disorders or complex traits without a clear familial aggregation. The causal variants in single gene disorders are necessary and sufficient to impart large effects. In contrast, complex traits are due to a much more complicated network of contributory components that in aggregate increase the probability of disease. The conventional approach to identification of the causal variants for single gene disorders is genetic linkage. However, it does not offer sufficient resolution to map the causal genes in small size families or sporadic cases. The approach to genetic studies of complex traits entails candidate gene or Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). GWAS provides an unbiased survey of the effects of common genetic variants (common disease - common variant hypothesis). GWAS have led to identification of a large number of alleles for various cardiovascular diseases. However, common alleles account for a relatively small fraction of the total heritability of the traits. Accordingly, the focus has shifted toward identification of rare variants that might impart larger effect sizes (rare variant-common disease hypothesis). This shift is made feasible by recent advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms, which afford the opportunity to identify virtually all common as well as rare alleles in individuals. In this review, we discuss various strategies that are used to delineate the genetic contribution to medically important cardiovascular phenotypes, emphasizing the utility of the new deep sequencing approaches. PMID:21566222

Marian, A.J.; Belmont, John

2011-01-01

320

Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Objective This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ? 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Conclusion Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients. PMID:25029472

Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto; Santos, Raul D.

2014-01-01

321

Relationships Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Events in Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) account for much of the variability in CVD outcomes and are also related to psychosocial variables. There is evidence that depression can undermine the treatment and advance the progression of CVD risk factors, suggesting that CVD risk factor relationships with CVD events may differ among those with depression. Methods This study tracked CVD events and mortality over a median of 5.9 years among a prospective cohort of 620 women (mean age 59.6 years [11.6]) completing a diagnostic protocol including coronary angiography and CVD risk factor assessment. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The study outcome was combined cardiovascular mortality and events. Results Over the follow-up interval, 16.1% of the sample experienced one or more of the cardiovascular outcomes. In separate Cox regression models adjusting for age, education history, ethnicity, and coronary angiogram scores, we observed statistically significant CVD risk factor?×?BDI score interactions for diabetes, smoking, and waist–hip ratio factors. Simple effect analyses indicated that diabetes and smoking status were more strongly associated with cardiovascular outcomes among participants with lower BDI scores, whereas waist–hip ratio values predicted outcomes only among those with higher BDI scores. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between modifiable CVD risk factors and CVD outcomes may vary with depression status in clinical samples of women. This evidence augments prior research by demonstrating that depression may influence CVD risk jointly with or independent of CVD risk factors. It also provides further support for the inclusion of depression assessment in cardiovascular clinic settings. PMID:21988550

Linke, Sarah E.; Johnson, B. Delia; Bittner, Vera; Krantz, David S.; Cornell, Carol E.; Vaccarino, Viola; Pepine, Carl J.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Eteiba, Wafia; Shaw, Leslee J.; Parashar, Susmita; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Vido, Diane A.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

2012-01-01

322

Inflammation, a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Obesity, the most common nutritional disorder in industrialized countries, is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is primarily considered to be a disorder of energy balance, and it has recently been suggested that some forms of obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. The present paper focuses on the current status of our knowledge regarding chronic inflammation, a link between obesity and CVDs, including heart diseases, vascular disease and atherosclerosis. The paper discusses the methods of body fat evaluation in humans, the endocrinology and distribution of adipose tissue in the genders, the pathophysiology of obesity, the relationship among obesity, inflammation, and CVD, and the adipose tissue-derived cytokines known to affect inflammation. Due to space limitations, this paper focuses on C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, apelin, and retinol binding protein 4 as adipokines. PMID:20847813

Wang, Zhaoxia; Nakayama, Tomohiro

2010-01-01

323

Cardiovascular disease. Physician attitudes toward prevention and treatment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Survey of physician attitudes toward practising cardiovascular disease prevention. DESIGN: Questionnaire administered via telecommunication from 1992 through 1994. SETTING: The FAMUS (Family Medicine, University of Sherbrooke) project, between 1992 and 1996, used weekly telecommunication to collect data from 200 general practitioners throughout the province of Quebec on cardiovascular disease risk factors and their treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Of 200 physicians contributing to the FAMUS project, 156 completed questionnaires (response rate 78%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variations in attitudes to prevention policy and risk factor interventions. RESULTS: Survey results revealed physicians knew important risk factors for cardiovascular disease but differed in attitudes toward efficacy of treatment. Intervention to control cholesterol was thought to be very effective by 21.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2 +/- 6.4) and without effect by 10.3% (95% CI 10.3 +/- 4.8). Intervention to improve dietary habits was considered ineffective by 48.1% (95% CI 48.1 +/- 7.8). Confidence in managing risk factors varied; most respondents described themselves as only moderately skilled. A few practitioners (30.1%; 95% CI 30.1 +/- 7.2) acknowledged practice guidelines as an important source of information on which to base preventive interventions. Only 14.7% (95% CI 14.7 +/- 5.6) of those surveyed included remuneration as contributing to their implementation of prevention activities in practice. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in physician attitudes could influence risk factor intervention. Interventions to change lifestyle are associated with uncertainty about patient compliance, efficacy of treatment, and ability to effect lifestyle changes. PMID:9585851

Grant, A. M.; Niyonsenga, T.; Dion, I.; Delisle, E.; Xhignesse, M.; Bernier, R.

1998-01-01

324

Vasectomy and subsequent cardiovascular disease in US physicians.  

PubMed

Due to previous animal research suggesting accelerated atherosclerosis following vasectomy, we examined whether vasectomy increases the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), including myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris, coronary revascularization, and stroke, in the US Physicians' Health Study. Of 22,071 US male physicians participating in the study, aged 40 to 84 years at entry and free from cardiovascular disease and cancer, 21,028 reported on the 60-month questionnaire whether they had undergone vasectomy prior to randomization. Of the 4546 physicians with vasectomy, 1159 had undergone the procedure at least 15 years before entry. During 258,892 person-years of follow-up, we documented 773 cases of MI (719 nonfatal and 54 fatal), 1907 cases of angina pectoris or coronary revascularization, and 604 confirmed cases of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (566 nonfatal and 38 fatal). When compared to men without prior vasectomy, the multivariate relative risk (RR) of total MI adjusted for age and other coronary risk factors was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.14) among men with vasectomy. Risk estimates for fatal and nonfatal events did not appreciably differ from each other. For angina or coronary revascularization or both, the multivariate relative risk was 0.99 (0.88-1.12) and for total stroke the RR was 0.95 (0.75-1.21). For men who had undergone vasectomy 15 or more years previously, the multivariate relative risks were 0.98 (0.73-1.32) for total MI, 1.17 (0.87-1.57) for total stroke, and 1.12 (0.94-1.35) for angina/revascularization. These results provide reassuring evidence that vasectomy does not materially increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease, even 15 or more years following the procedure. PMID:10382081

Manson, J E; Ridker, P M; Spelsberg, A; Ajani, U; Lotufo, P A; Hennekens, C H

1999-03-01

325

Pharmacogenetics and Cardiovascular Disease—Implications for Personalized Medicine  

PubMed Central

The past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the genetic factors influencing response to a variety of drugs, including those targeted at treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the case of clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins, the literature has become sufficiently strong that guidelines are now available describing the use of genetic information to guide treatment with these therapies, and some health centers are using this information in the care of their patients. There are many challenges in moving from research data to translation to practice; we discuss some of these barriers and the approaches some health systems are taking to overcome them. The body of literature that has led to the clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotyping for clopidogrel, VKORC1, CYP2C9; and CYP4F2 for warfarin; and SLCO1B1 for statins is comprehensively described. We also provide clarity for other genes that have been extensively studied relative to these drugs, but for which the data are conflicting. Finally, we comment briefly on pharmacogenetics of other cardiovascular drugs and highlight ?-blockers as the drug class with strong data that has not yet seen clinical implementation. It is anticipated that genetic information will increasingly be available on patients, and it is important to identify those examples where the evidence is sufficiently robust and predictive to use genetic information to guide clinical decisions. The review herein provides several examples of the accumulation of evidence and eventual clinical translation in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics. PMID:23686351

Cavallari, Larisa H.

2013-01-01

326

The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among high-income countries and is projected to be the leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. Much of the current research efforts have been aimed toward the identification, modification and treatment of individual-level risk factors. Despite significant advancements, gross inequalities continue to persist over space and time. Although increasing at different rates worldwide, the magnitude of increase in the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors has shifted research efforts to study the causes of the risk factors (ie, the ‘causes of the causes’), which include the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health reflect the impact of the social environment on health among people sharing a particular community. Imbalances in the social determinants of health have been attributed to the inequities in health observed between and within countries. The present article reviews the role of the social determinants of health on a global level, describing the epidemiological transition and the persistent trend known as the ‘inverse social gradient’. The impact of social determinants in Canada will also be examined, including data from ethnic and Aboriginal communities. Possible solutions and future directions to reduce the impact of social factors on cardiovascular health are proposed. PMID:20847985

Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S

2010-01-01

327

One theoretical framework for cardiovascular disease prevention in women.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women in the United States. Vulnerable and underserved women are even less likely to participate in healthy lifestyle behaviors to prevent CVD than the general US population. Many women are not aware that they are at risk for CVD and do not modify unhealthy lifestyle behaviors to reduce their risks for CVD. Healthcare providers may not promote awareness of CVD or consistently counsel female patients concerning lifestyle behavior modifications to reduce their risks for CVD. "The Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women 2011 Update: A Guideline From the American Heart Association" provides a guide for healthcare providers to help women lower their risk for heart disease. By using a theoretical approach, nurses can facilitate implementation of these evidence-based guidelines to help women reduce their risks for CVD. Commonly used intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational- and community-level health behavior change theories that can be used to effectively promote CVD risk reduction in women will be discussed. The theoretical basis for changing CVD risk behaviors in women can be applied by using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to guide planning, implementing, and evaluating health behavior programs. The purpose of this article was to help nurses improve healthcare delivery by using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model as a theoretical framework to guide CVD risk reduction efforts for women. PMID:21912271

Peterson, Jane Anthony

2012-01-01

328

Alcohol and Cardiovascular Disease—Modulation of Vascular Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a commonly used drug worldwide. Epidemiological studies have identified alcohol consumption as a factor that may either positively or negatively influence many diseases including cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and dementia. Often there seems to be a differential effect of various drinking patterns, with frequent moderate consumption of alcohol being salutary and binge drinking or chronic abuse being deleterious to one’s health. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the many effects of alcohol consumption is beginning to emerge, as well as a clearer picture as to whether these effects are due to the direct actions of alcohol itself, or caused in part by its metabolites, e.g., acetaldehyde, or by incidental components present in the alcoholic beverage (e.g., polyphenols in red wine). This review will discuss evidence to date as to how alcohol (ethanol) might affect atherosclerosis that underlies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and the putative mechanisms involved, focusing on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell effects. PMID:22606372

Cahill, Paul A.; Redmond, Eileen M.

2012-01-01

329

Assessing Neighborhood-Level Effects on Disparities in Cardiovascular Diseases.  

PubMed

Despite declines in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and many CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death in the US and racial and ethnic disparities persist. In 2010, rates of CVD mortality per 100,000 were: 192.2 for White women; 260.5 for Black women; 278.4 for White men; and 369.2 for Black men(1). In 2009-2010, metrics of ideal cardiovascular health factors (i.e., blood pressure, physical activity, healthy diet, healthy weight, smoking status, and glucose) were noted to be lower for Blacks and Mexican Americans than for Whites or other racial groups(1). In 2012, the following age-adjusted prevalence estimates among non-White adult populations were noted in comparison to the White population(2): (1) the prevalence of heart disease and coronary heart disease (CHD) was similar in Black, lower in Hispanic and Asian, and higher in American Indians/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander populations; (2) the prevalence of hypertension was higher in Black, similar or lower in Hispanic and Asian, and higher in American Indians/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander populations; and (3) the prevalence of having had a stroke was higher in Black, lower in Hispanic, and lower in Asian populations. PMID:25447043

Correa, Adolfo; Greer, Sophia; Sims, Mario

2014-12-01

330

Gab Docking Proteins in Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The docking proteins of the Grb2-associated binder (Gab) family have emerged as crucial signaling compartments in metazoans. In mammals, the Gab proteins, consisting of Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3, are involved in the amplification and integration of signal transduction evoked by a variety of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, antigens, and other molecules. Gab proteins lack the enzymatic activity themselves; however, when phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, they provide binding sites for multiple Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins, such as SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85, phospholipase C?, Crk, and GC-GAP. Through these interactions, the Gab proteins transduce signals from activated receptors into pathways with distinct biological functions, thereby contributing to signal diversification. They are known to play crucial roles in numerous physiological processes through their associations with SHP2 and p85. In addition, abnormal Gab protein signaling has been linked to human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. In this paper, we provide an overview of the structure, effector functions, and regulation of the Gab docking proteins, with a special focus on their associations with cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammation. PMID:23431498

Nakaoka, Yoshikazu; Komuro, Issei

2013-01-01

331

Experimental Models of Renal Disease and the Cardiovascular System  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among patients with end stage renal failure. Animal models have played a crucial role in teasing apart the complex pathological processes involved. This review discusses the principles of using animal models, the history of their use in the study of renal hypertension, the controversies arising from experimental models of non-hypertensive uraemic cardiomyopathy and the lessons learned from these models, and highlights important areas of future research in this field, including de novo cardiomyopathy secondary to renal transplantation. PMID:21258578

Grossman, Rebecca C.

2010-01-01

332

Lysophosphatidic acid metabolism and elimination in cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioactive lipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are present in human and mouse plasma at a concentration of ~0.1-1 microM and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system including atherothrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and immune function, edema formation, and permeability. PPAP2B, the gene encoding LPP3, a broad activity integral membrane enzyme that terminates LPA actions in the vasculature, has a single nucleotide polymorphism that been recently associated with coronary artery disease risk. The synthesis and signaling of LPA and S1P in the cardiovascular system have been extensively studied but the mechanisms responsible for their elimination are less well understood. The broad goal of this research was to examine the role of LPP3 in the termination of LPA signaling in models of cardiovascular disease involving vascular wall cells, investigate the role of LPP3 in the elimination of plasma LPA, and further characterize the elimination of plasma LPA. The central hypothesis is that LPP3 plays an important role in attenuating the pathological responses to LPA signaling and that it mediates the elimination of exogenously applied bioactive lipids from the plasma. These hypotheses were tested using molecular biological approaches, in vitro studies, synthetic lysophospholipid mimetics, modified surgical procedures, and mass spectrometry assays. My results indicated that LPP3 played a critical role in attenuating LPA signaling mediating the pathological processes of intimal hyperplasia and vascular leak in mouse models of disease. Additionally, enzymatic inactivation of lysophospholipids by LPP and PLA enzymes in the plasma was not a primary mechanism for the rapid elimination of plasma LPA and S1P. Instead, evidence strongly suggested a transcellular uptake mechanism by hepatic non-parenchymal cells as the predominant mechanism for elimination of these molecules. These results support a model in which LPP3 is critical to regulating localized rather than systemic LPA signaling and elimination and provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the association of LPP3 polymorphism with cardiovascular disease as well as implications for lysophospholipid therapeutic drug design. KEYWORDS: Lysophosphatidic acid, Lipid Phosphate Phosphatas; Lipid Signaling, Transcellular Uptake, Hepatic Extraction

Salous, Abdelghaffar Kamal

333

Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Researchers have long speculated that exposure to discrimination may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but compared to other psychosocial risk factors, large-scale epidemiologic and community based studies examining associations between reports of discrimination and CVD risk have only emerged fairly recently. This review summarizes findings from studies of self-reported experiences of discrimination and CVD risk published between 2011–2013. We document the innovative advances in recent work, the notable heterogeneity in these studies, and the considerable need for additional work with objective clinical endpoints other than blood pressure. Implications for the study of racial disparities in CVD and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24729825

Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.; Tamene, Mahader; Clark, Cheryl R.

2014-01-01

334

Disease Control Implications of India's Changing Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a major health challenge in India that is gaining increasing public attention, but the implications of India's evolving MDR TB epidemic are poorly understood. As India's MDR TB epidemic is transitioning from a treatment-generated to transmission-generated epidemic, we sought to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the following two disease control strategies on reducing the prevalence of MDR TB: a) improving treatment of non-MDR TB; b) shortening the infectious period between the activation of MDR TB and initiation of effective MDR treatment. Methods and Findings We developed a dynamic transmission microsimulation model of TB in India. The model followed individuals by age, sex, TB status, drug resistance status, and treatment status and was calibrated to Indian demographic and epidemiologic TB time trends. The main effectiveness measure was reduction in the average prevalence reduction of MDR TB over the ten years after control strategy implementation. We find that improving non-MDR cure rates to avoid generating new MDR cases will provide substantial non-MDR TB benefits but will become less effective in reducing MDR TB prevalence over time because more cases will occur from direct transmission – by 2015, the model estimates 42% of new MDR cases are transmission-generated and this proportion continues to rise over time, assuming equal transmissibility of MDR and drug-susceptible TB. Strategies that disrupt MDR transmission by shortening the time between MDR activation and treatment are projected to provide greater reductions in MDR prevalence compared with improving non-MDR treatment quality: implementing MDR diagnostic improvements in 2017 is expected to reduce MDR prevalence by 39%, compared with 11% reduction from improving non-MDR treatment quality. Conclusions As transmission-generated MDR TB becomes a larger driver of the MDR TB epidemic in India, rapid and accurate MDR TB diagnosis and treatment will become increasingly effective in reducing MDR TB cases compared to non-MDR TB treatment improvements. PMID:24608234

Suen, Sze-chuan; Bendavid, Eran; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

2014-01-01

335

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Purpose The purpose of the current review is to evaluate the evidence suggesting that PTSD increases cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and to identify possible biomarkers and psychosocial characteristics and behavioral variables that are associated with these outcomes. Methods A systematic literature search in the period of 2002–2009 for PTSD, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disease was conducted. Results The literature search yielded 78 studies on PTSD and cardiovascular/metabolic disease and biomarkers. Conclusions Although the available literature suggests an association of PTSD with cardiovascular disease and biomarkers, further research must consider potential confounds, incorporate longitudinal designs, and conduct careful PTSD assessments in diverse samples to address gaps in the research literature. Research on metabolic disease and biomarkers suggests an association with PTSD, but has not progressed as far as the cardiovascular research. PMID:20174903

Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Watkins, Lana L.; Sherwood, Andrew; Beckham, Jean C.

2011-01-01

336

Risk Factors in the Initial Presentation of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina; Chronic Stable Angina; Ischemic Stroke; Cerebrovascular Accident; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Sudden Coronary Death; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Sudden Death; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Failure

2013-03-03

337

Review of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of mortality in the United States. Nearly 2,400 Americans die of cardiovascular\\u000a disease each day, an average of 1 every 37 s [1]. One in three Americans has been diagnosed with one or more forms of cardiovascular disease. Most recent estimates show\\u000a that, in the United States alone, 16 million people have coronary artery

Cindy M. Martin

2008-01-01

338

Cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease: so near, so far.  

PubMed

In the spectrum of cognitive impairment, ranging from "pure" vascular dementia to Alzheimer's disease (AD), clinical interest has recently expanded from the brain to also include the vessels, shifting the pathophysiological focus from the leaves of synaptic dysfunction to the sap of cerebral microcirculation and the roots of cardiovascular function. From a diagnostic viewpoint, a thorough clinical evaluation of individuals presenting cognitive impairment might systematically include the assessment of the major cardiovascular rings of the chain linking regional perfusion to brain function: 1) lung (with assessment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome); 2) heart function (with clinical examination and echocardiography) and cardiovascular risk factors; 3) orthostatic hypotension (with medical history and measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in supine and upright positions); 4) aorta and large artery stiffness (with assessment of pulse wave velocity); 5) large cerebro-vascular vessel status (with neuroimaging techniques); 6) assessment of microcirculation (with cerebrovascular reactivity testing with transcranial Doppler sonography or MRI perfusion imaging); and 7) assessment of venous cerebral circulation. The apparent difference in approaches to "brain" and "vascular" environmental enrichment with physical, cognitive and sensorial training is conceptually identical to that of a constant gardener caring for an unhealthy tree, watering the leaves ("train the brain") or simply the roots ("mind the vessel"). The therapeutic difference probably consists in the amount and quality of water added to the tree, rather than by where one pours it, with either a top-down (leaves to roots) or bottom-up (roots to leaves) approach. PMID:24856805

Picano, Eugenio; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ferrari, Gian Franco; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

2014-07-15

339

Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort  

E-print Network

exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to assess whether cigarette smoking influences.3- 114.0 µg/L, mean 63.5 µg/L) and cigarette smoking on mortality from heart disease was greater thanRESEARCH Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease

van Geen, Alexander

340

Treatment Options for Cardiovascular Disease Balaj Rai, Shaul Kushinsky, Eric Schott, Daniel Lee  

E-print Network

Treatment Options for Cardiovascular Disease Balaj Rai, Shaul Kushinsky, Eric Schott, Daniel Lee. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in America, causing approximately 33% of all deaths. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent type of CVD, accounting for approximately 66% of heart

Auerbach, Scott M.

341

Cost effectiveness of screening for cardiovascular disease with measures of coronary calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality with annual costs of care exceeding $300 billion dollars. Although screening tools are advocated for many cancers, the use of subclinical disease tests for cardiovascular disease are considered controversial. Health care payers and many governmental agencies apply cost-effectiveness analysis for the evaluation of new technology being considered for routine application

Leslee J. Shaw; Paolo Raggi; Daniel S. Berman; Tracy Q. Callister

2003-01-01

342

Microvesicles at the crossroads between infection and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Observational and experimental studies continue to support the association of infection and infection-stimulated inflammation with development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Microvesicles (MV) are heterogeneous populations of sealed membrane-derived vesicles shed into circulation by activated mammalian cells and/or pathogenic microbes that may represent an interface between bacterial/microbial infection and increased risk of CVD. This review evaluates how MV act to modulate and intersect immunological and inflammatory responses to infection with particular attention to progression of CVD. While infection-related stimuli provoke release of MV from blood and vascular cells, MV express phosphatidylserine (PS) and other procoagulant factors on their surface which initiate and amplify blood coagulation. In addition, MV mediate cell-cell adhesion which may stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vascular cells, which in turn aggravate progression of CVD and propagate atherothrombosis. MV transfer membrane receptors, RNA and proteins among cells, and present auto-antigens from their cells of origin to proximal or remote target cells. Because MV harbor cell surface proteins and contain cytoplasmic components of the parent cell, they mediate biological messages and play a pivotal role in the crossroad between infection-stimulated inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21242813

Xiong, Jing; Miller, Virginia M.; Li, Yunman; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

2011-01-01

343

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers research into the various mechanisms of action proposed for Crataegus preparations, clinical trials involving Crataegus preparations, and the herb's safety profile. Clinical trials reviewed have been inconsistent in terms of criteria used (sample size, preparation, dosage, etc) but have been largely consistent with regard to positive outcomes. An investigation into data available to date regarding hawthorn preparations and herb/drug interactions reveals that theoretical adverse interactions have not been experienced in practice. Further, adverse reactions relating to the use of hawthorn preparations are infrequent and mild, even at higher dosage ranges. A recent retrospective study by Zick et al. has suggested a negative outcome for the long-term use of hawthorn in the prognosis of heart failure. These findings are examined in this paper. Although further research is needed in certain areas, current research to date suggests that hawthorn may potentially represent a safe, effective, nontoxic agent in the treatment of CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD). PMID:22228939

Tassell, Mary C.; Kingston, Rosari; Gilroy, Deirdre; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose

2010-01-01

344

Dietary modulators of statin efficacy in cardiovascular disease and cognition.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other developed countries, and is fast growing in developing countries, particularly as life expectancy in all parts of the world increases. Current recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease issued jointly from the American Academy of Cardiology and American Heart Association emphasize that lifestyle modification should be incorporated into any treatment plan, including those on statin drugs. However, there is a dearth of data on the interaction between diet and statins with respect to additive, complementary or antagonistic effects. This review collates the available data on the interaction of statins and dietary patterns, cognition, genetics and individual nutrients, including vitamin D, niacin, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, phytochemicals (polyphenols and stanols) and alcohol. Of note, although the available data is summarized, the scope is limited, conflicting and disparate. In some cases it is likely there is unrecognized synergism. Virtually no data are available describing the interactions of statins with dietary components or dietary pattern in subgroups of the population, particularly those who may benefit most were positive effects identified. Hence, it is virtually impossible to draw any firm conclusions at this time. Nevertheless, this area is important because were the effects of statins and diet additive or synergistic harnessing the effect could potentially lead to the use of a lower intensity statin or dose. PMID:24813475

Wang, Huifen; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Choi, Sang-Woon; Corcoran, Michael P; Harris, Susan S; Jacques, Paul F; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R; McKay, Diane L; Meydani, Mohsen; Parnell, Laurence D; Prokopy, Max P; Scott, Tammy M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

2014-08-01

345

Adiposopathy and thyroid disease: tracing the pathway to cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Adiposopathy, defined as functionally disturbed adipose tissue mainly composed of large adipocytes and induced by chronic excess of food intake, has been associated with immune, metabolic and endocrine derangements promoting inflammation and, eventually, cardiovascular disease. Adiposopathy may positively influence thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, by raising leptin levels, and triggering autoimmunity. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the increased thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is independent of the negative regulation of the thyroid hormone, thereby constituting a secondary phenomenon and not a causal effect. Replacement therapy with thyroid hormones should therefore be applied following strict individualized consideration. Leptin is involved in the immune response and neuroendocrine appetite regulation, while leptin resistance may further promote autoimmune disease. The lipid derangement in adiposopathy may be aggravated in the presence of hypothyroidism and thus considerably augment cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle-modification counselling, including low-fat dietary intake and regular physical exercise, is today the cornerstone of adiposopathy treatment. Meanwhile, new drug formulations, such as leptin and leptin analogs, 5-HT2C-receptor agonist, and potent thyromimetics, currently comprise a promising armamentarium against adiposity and adiposopathy. PMID:22894634

Duntas, Leonidas; Micic, Dragan

2012-06-01

346

Role of advanced glycation end products in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced through the non enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Enhanced formation of AGEs occurs particularly in conditions associated with hyperglycaemia such as diabetes mellitus (DM). AGEs are believed to have a key role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with DM through the modification of the structure, function and mechanical properties of tissues through crosslinking intracellular as well as extracellular matrix proteins and through modulating cellular processes through binding to cell surface receptors [receptor for AGEs (RAGE)]. A number of studies have shown a correlation between serum AGE levels and the development and severity of heart failure (HF). Moreover, some studies have suggested that therapies targeted against AGEs may have therapeutic potential in patients with HF. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of AGEs in cardiovascular disease and in particular in heart failure, focussing on both cellular mechanisms of action as well as highlighting how targeting AGEs may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of HF. PMID:22558488

Hegab, Zeinab; Gibbons, Stephen; Neyses, Ludwig; Mamas, Mamas A

2012-04-26

347

Telomeres and cardiovascular disease risk: an update 2013.  

PubMed

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been regarded as a potential marker of biologic aging because it usually shortens in a predictable way with age. Recently, a growing interest in cardiovascular aging has led to a number of new epidemiologic studies investigating LTL in various disease conditions. Some methodological problems exist because there are different methods available to determine LTL, and standardization is much needed. For example, in the majority of studies, patients with early-onset coronary heart disease have been shown to have shorter LTL. In addition, patients with diabetes mellitus complications tend to have shorter LTL than control subjects. On the other hand, increased left ventricular hypertrophy or mass is associated with longer LTL, and studies investigating hypertension have reported both shorter and longer LTL than found in normotensive control subjects. There is, therefore, a need for longitudinal studies to elucidate these complicated relationships further, to provide estimations of telomere attrition rates, and to overcome analytical problems when only cross-sectional studies are used. The understanding of cardiovascular aging and telomere biology may open up new avenues for interventions, such as stem cell therapy or agents that could retard this aging process over and beyond conventional risk factor control. PMID:23748031

Nilsson, Peter M; Tufvesson, Hanna; Leosdottir, Margrét; Melander, Olle

2013-12-01

348

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers research into the various mechanisms of action proposed for Crataegus preparations, clinical trials involving Crataegus preparations, and the herb's safety profile.Clinical trials reviewed have been inconsistent in terms of criteria used (sample size, preparation, dosage, etc) but have been largely consistent with regard to positive outcomes. An investigation into data available to date regarding hawthorn preparations and herb/drug interactions reveals that theoretical adverse interactions have not been experienced in practice. Further, adverse reactions relating to the use of hawthorn preparations are infrequent and mild, even at higher dosage ranges. A recent retrospective study by Zick et al. has suggested a negative outcome for the long-term use of hawthorn in the prognosis of heart failure. These findings are examined in this paper.Although further research is needed in certain areas, current research to date suggests that hawthorn may potentially represent a safe, effective, nontoxic agent in the treatment of CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD). PMID:22228939

Tassell, Mary C; Kingston, Rosari; Gilroy, Deirdre; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose

2010-01-01

349

Lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease among premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Objective Examine the association between lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD). Study Design The Women and Infants Study of Healthy Hearts enrolled 607 mothers who delivered a singleton between 1997 and 2002. In 2007, participating mothers underwent measurements of carotid intima-media thickness, lumen diameter (LD), adventitial diameter (AD), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to estimate the associations between lactation and sCVD. Results Compared with mothers who breastfed for ?3 months after every birth, mothers who never breastfed exhibited a 0.13mm larger LD (95%CI 0.04,0.22) and a 0.12mm larger AD (95%CI 0.02,0.22) in models adjusting for age, parity, birth outcome, sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, family history, gestational weight gain, early adult BMI, current BMI, CRP, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, glucose and insulin levels. Conclusions Mothers who do not breastfeed have vascular characteristics associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22727348

MCCLURE, Candace K.; CATOV, Janet M.; NESS, Roberta B.; SCHWARZ, Eleanor Bimla

2012-01-01

350

Comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk reduction in a cardiac rehabilitation setting.  

PubMed

Cardiac rehabilitation combines prescriptive exercise training with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor modification in patients with established CAD. As such, cardiac rehabilitation programs are ideally positioned to assume a pivotal role in the rendering of many components of comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk reduction in a secondary prevention setting. However, the extent to which traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs can successfully accomplish this goal is limited by low participation rates, inadequate emphasis on many of the essential aspects of secondary prevention, and lack of long-term follow-up of patients. To overcome these deficiencies, cardiac rehabilitation programs should evolve into cardiovascular risk reduction programs by implementing approaches that have been shown to be effective in randomized clinical trials. In this manuscript we describe one such approach, based on the Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project, which has been implemented in > 1,000 patients. Key components of this physician-supervised, nurse case-manager model include: (1) initial evaluation and risk assessment; (2) identification of specific goals for each CAD risk factor; (3) formulation and implementation of an individualized treatment plan that includes lifestyle modification and pharmacologic interventions for accomplishing specific risk reduction goals; (4) long-term follow-up to enhance compliance and revise the treatment plan as indicated; and (5) a mechanism for outcomes based long-term assessment of each patient. PMID:9373003

Gordon, N F; Haskell, W L

1997-10-30

351

Exercise, vascular wall and cardiovascular diseases: an update (part 2).  

PubMed

There is much evidence extolling the virtues of physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD). The evidence derives from different population groups where leisure time physical activity reduced the risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women. Recent meta-analyses have shown that large risk reductions for both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke can be achieved by moderate or intense physical activity. There are many data from human and animal studies confirming a beneficial role for exercise in the prevention and treatment of CVD. Physical inactivity and obesity/overweight are not only associated with a number of health-related risk factors, but are considered to be independent risk factors for CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Clinical trials confirm that lifestyle interventions (dietary modification and increased physical activity) reduce the risk of progressing from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. Moreover, epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of hypertension increases by being overweight. Modest increases in exercise intensity and frequency have hypotensive effects in sedentary hypertensive patients. Long-term training improves endothelium-dependent dilatation in the aorta and resistance arteries of the heart, whereas short-term training increases endothelial function in coronary conduit arteries. Overall, more scientific evidence will undoubtedly encourage the widespread advocacy of the clinical benefits of exercise therapy in the prevention and treatment of CVD. PMID:19093695

Yung, Lai Ming; Laher, Ismail; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen Yu; Huang, Yu; Leung, Fung Ping

2009-01-01

352

Migraine and the risk for stroke and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Numerous data have pointed to an association between migraine and cardiovascular diseases. The majority of the available data have indicated that migraine with aura can be considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke, whereas migraine without aura cannot be reliably considered as such. High frequency of attacks and a recent onset of migraine have been related to an increased ischemic stroke risk. In addition, in young subjects with ischemic stroke migraine with aura represents an independent risk factor of overall recurrent vascular events and of recurrent ischemic stroke. Also the risk of transient ischemic attack seems to be increased in migraineurs, although this issue has not been extensively investigated. Several studies have also addressed the possible association between migraine and hemorrhagic stroke. Although the results of these individual studies were conflicting, their meta-analysis showed that migraine is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (including intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage). Some studies have identified migraine also as a possible risk factor for cardiac vascular events while others have yielded negative results. A meta-analysis did not show an increased risk of myocardial infarction in subjects with any migraine vs no migraine but subsequently, data has pointed to an association between any migraine with cardiac ischemic disease. Migraine has also been associated by some studies with vascular mortality and with vascular diseases in regions other than the brain and the heart. Several studies have also indicated that compared with nonmigraineurs, migraineurs have a higher burden of asymptomatic white matter brain lesions and, according to some studies, also infarct-like lesions at brain magnetic resonance. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between migraine and cardiovascular disease are still unclear. The possible explanation may rely on a peculiar vascular vulnerability of migraineurs that may contribute to the pathogenesis of migraine and, in the presence of some other unknown factors may also contribute, over time, to the development of cardiovascular disease. At the moment, there are no reliable features that may indicate which subjects, across the overall migraine population, will develop vascular events and so far, no drugs are recommended for the vascular prevention in migraineurs unless other clear indications are present. In general, the acute treatment and the secondary prevention measures of a patient with stroke who has a history of migraine do not differ from that of other stroke patients. There is currently no direct evidence to support that a migraine prophylactic treatment will reduce future stroke risk in secondary prevention. PMID:25059466

Sacco, Simona; Kurth, Tobias

2014-09-01

353

The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Our group recently discovered that certain dietary nutrients possessing a trimethylamine (TMA) moiety, namely choline/phosphatidylcholine and L-carnitine, participate in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease. A meta-organismal pathway was elucidated involving gut microbiota–dependent formation of TMA and host hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3–dependent (FMO3-dependent) formation of TMA–N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite shown to be both mechanistically linked to atherosclerosis and whose levels are strongly linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Collectively, these studies reveal that nutrient precursors, gut microbiota, and host participants along the meta-organismal pathway elucidated may serve as new targets for the prevention and treatment of CVD. PMID:25271725

Tang, W.H. Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L.

2014-01-01

354

The Interface between Inflammation and Coagulation in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The intimate connection between coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular disease has moved more and more into focus of clinical research. This paper focuses on the essential components of this interplay in the settings of cardiovascular disease and acute coronary syndrome. Tissue factor, the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, plays a central role via causing a proinflammatory response through activation of coagulation factors and thereby initiating coagulation and downstream cellular signalling pathways. Regarding activated clotting factors II, X, and VII, protease-activated receptors provide the molecular link between coagulation and inflammation. Hereby, PAR-1 displays deleterious as well as beneficial properties. Unravelling these interrelations may help developing new strategies to ameliorate the detrimental reciprocal aggravation of inflammation and coagulation. PMID:22518344

Demetz, Gabriele; Ott, Ilka

2012-01-01

355

The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Our group recently discovered that certain dietary nutrients possessing a trimethylamine (TMA) moiety, namely choline/phosphatidylcholine and L-carnitine, participate in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease. A meta-organismal pathway was elucidated involving gut microbiota-dependent formation of TMA and host hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3-dependent (FMO3-dependent) formation of TMA-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite shown to be both mechanistically linked to atherosclerosis and whose levels are strongly linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Collectively, these studies reveal that nutrient precursors, gut microbiota, and host participants along the meta-organismal pathway elucidated may serve as new targets for the prevention and treatment of CVD. PMID:25271725

Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L

2014-10-01

356

Role of cardiovascular imaging in systemic autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by an excess of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality compared to the general population, mainly due to chronic inflammation that promotes the development of endothelial dysfunction and enhanced atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of silent CV involvement is mandatory to improve the long term prognosis of these patients and CV imaging provides valuable information as a reliable diagnostic tool. Transthoracic echocardiography, with several applications (e.g. coronary flow reserve evaluation, tissue Doppler imaging, speckle tracking and the transesophageal approach), represents a first line evaluation, in association with biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, such as asymmetric dimethylarginine. Nuclear medicine provides useful information on myocardial perfusion. The aim of this editorial is to provide a brief but complete review of the diagnostic tools available for screening and follow up of CV involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:21160590

Sitia, Simona; Gianturco, Luigi; Tomasoni, Livio; Turiel, Maurizio

2010-01-01

357

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010: implications for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) provides science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk of major chronic diseases by diet and physical activity. The primary emphasis is on food-based recommendations that meet energy and nutrient needs. The DGA is made in the context of a total diet designed to reduce the incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity. In addition, the DGA also targets cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. DGA recommends nutrient-dense foods including fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, lean protein foods including seafood, and vegetable oils. This dietary pattern beneficially affects blood lipids and other CVD risk factors. Foods and nutrients to limit include solid fats (saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids), dietary cholesterol, added sugars, refined grains, and sodium. Healthy dietary patterns that emphasize nutrient-dense foods will significantly benefit public health, in part, by reducing CVD risk. PMID:21874316

Flock, Michael R; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

2011-12-01

358

The Hispanic paradox in cardiovascular disease and total mortality.  

PubMed

Health statistics and epidemiologic studies have shown that Hispanics live longer than Non Hispanic Whites, despite a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and an average low socioeconomic status, both strong predictors of CVD and mortality. This phenomenon has been dubbed "The Hispanic paradox" and has been demonstrated in old and contemporary cohorts. To date, no factor has been identified that could explain this phenomenon, but socio demographic factors, dietary intake and genetic predisposition have been proposed as possible explanations for the Hispanic paradox. As with the French paradox, where French were found to have a lower rate of coronary heart disease (CHD), helped to identify the role of the Mediterranean diet and wine consumption in the prevention of CHD, the Hispanic paradox could help identify protective factors against CHD. This article describes the current evidence supporting the existence of the Hispanic paradox and provides a brief review on the possible explanations. PMID:25246267

Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Jean, Nathalie; Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

2014-01-01

359

Psoriasis is a systemic disease with multiple cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities.  

PubMed

There is evidence that patients with moderate to severe psoriasis have an increased risk of conditions such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. The precise mechanisms underlying the observed increase in cardiovascular disease in psoriasis remain to be defined but inflammatory pathways mutual to both conditions are probably involved. Suppression of systemic inflammation in psoriasis could help reduce cardiovascular inflammation but robust evidence is still lacking evidence is lacking. This article summarizes the current literature on cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities in psoriasis, identifies research gaps, and suggests management strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. PMID:25412782

Ryan, Caitriona; Kirby, Brian

2015-01-01

360

Olfactory dysfunction and cardiovascular dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported that olfactory dysfunction is an early neuropathological manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduced cardiac meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) uptake may be one of the earliest signs of PD. We studied the relation of olfactory dysfunction to cardiovascular dysautonomia in patients with PD. The study group comprised 66 patients with PD (70.5 years) and 26 controls (70.3 years) for olfactory assessment, 21 controls (72.1 years) for cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and heart rate variability (HRV), assessed using the coefficient of variation for RR intervals (HRV), and 23 controls (69.2 years) for orthostatic blood pressure response. Olfactory function was assessed by the odor stick identification test Japan (OSIT-J), and cardiovascular autonomic function was evaluated by (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy of the heart, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV. Patients with PD had a significantly lower OSIT-J score than did the controls (4.1 +/- 3.0 vs. 9.9 +/- 1.7, p = 0.001). The OSIT-J score was unrelated to variables other than gender, including age, disease duration, motor score on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, score on the mini-mental state examination, motor phenotype, visual hallucinations, and dopaminergic medication on multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. The OSIT-J score was related to the heart/mediastinum ratio of cardiac (123)I-MIBG uptake, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV, after adjustment for other clinical variables. Olfactory dysfunction in PD was, thus, significantly related to both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction, as well as vascular sympathetic dysfunction. As non-motor symptoms of PD, olfactory dysfunction and autonomic network failure appear to be closely related in PD. PMID:20119648

Oka, Hisayoshi; Toyoda, Chizuko; Yogo, Makiko; Mochio, Soichiro

2010-06-01

361

The Role of Alcohol Consumption in the Aetiology of Different Cardiovascular Disease Phenotypes: a CALIBER Study  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Stable Angina; Unstable Angina; Coronary Heart Disease Not Otherwise Specified; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Heart Failure; Ventricular Arrhythmias; Cardiac Arrest; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Ischaemic Stroke; Subarachnoid Haemorrhagic Stroke; Intracerebral Haemorrhagic Stroke; Stroke Not Otherwise Specified; Sudden Cardiac Death; Unheralded Coronary Death; Mortality; Coronary Heart Disease (CHD); Cardiovascular Disease (CVD); Fatal Cardiovascular Disease (Fatal CVD); ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI); Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (nSTEMI); Myocardial Infarction Not Otherwise Specified (MI NOS)

2013-05-28

362

Develop Anti-Inflammatory Nanotherapies to Treat Cardiovascular Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease-related death in the world, accounting for 30 % global mortality. The majority of CVD is caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of major arteries featured by the deposition of lipids and cholesterol. Inflammation of atherosclerosis is mainly promoted by the pathological macrophages and monocytes, and modulating their functions has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target. This dissertation first presents the development of a novel simvastatin-loaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) based nanoparticle ([S]-rHDL), which was able to deliver anti-inflammatory simvastatin preferentially to inflammatory monocytes in the blood and to macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the reduced inflammation in the tissue. Second, extensive in vivo characterization of [S]-rHDL in a mouse atherosclerosis model revealed that the anti-inflammatory capability of [S]-rHDL derived from its effects on blood monocytes, endothelial layer, monocyte recruitment, and plaque macrophage function. Third, a translational study that integrated the use of [S]-rHDL into oral statin treatment demonstrated a great potential for this nanomedicine as an attractive addition to the current high-dose oral statin standard-of-care for acute coronary syndrome. Finally, preliminary results suggested potential applications of the rHDL platform to other macrophage-implicated diseases.

Tang, Jun

363

Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment in autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), which constitutes the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among such patients. Although such effects are partly explained by a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, many studies indicate that such factors do not fully explain the enhanced CV risk in these patients. In addition, risk stratification algorithms based upon traditional CV risk factors are not as predictive in autoimmune diseases as in the general population. For these reasons, the timely and accurate assessment of CV risk in these high-risk populations still remains an unmet clinical need. An enhanced contribution of different inflammatory components of the immune response, as well as autoimmune elements (e.g. autoantibodies, autoantigens, and cellular response), has been proposed to underlie the incremental CV risk observed in these populations. Recent advances in proteomic tools have contributed to the discovery of proteins involved in CVDs, including some that may be suitable to be used as biological markers. In this review we summarize the main markers in the field of CVDs associated with autoimmunity, as well as the recent advances in proteomic technology and their application for biomarker discovery in autoimmune disease. PMID:25523513

Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Ferber, Philippe; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Cutler, Paul

2015-02-01

364

Depressive Symptoms and Subclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid artery intima thickening (IMT), in a sample of healthy adolescents, and to explore adolescent hostility as a potential moderator of depression on subclinical markers of CVD. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven (n = 157) black and white adolescents between the ages of 16-21 completed a follow-up study of psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk factors that included measures of PWV and carotid IMT. Psychosocial measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; divided into tertiles), and the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory subscales. Linear regression models controlled for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, blood pressure, body mass index, and heart rate. Results Results show that more severe depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of PWV (B = 0.17, R2 = 0.30, ?R2 = 0.03, CI = 2.2 – 47.0, p = .03) but not with higher IMT. Adolescent depression remained a significant predictor of PWV when controlling for adolescent hostility; hostility did not moderate the relationship between adolescent depression and PWV. Conclusions Depression may be important in the development of arterial stiffness in adolescence. Further research is needed to delineate the relationship in adolescence and young adulthood between depressive symptoms and the pathogenesis of CVD. PMID:21575817

Dietz, Laura J.; Matthews, Karen A.

2010-01-01

365

Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

2015-01-01

366

Exploiting Cellular Data for Disease Containment and Information Campaigns Strategies in Country-Wide Epidemics  

E-print Network

Human mobility is one of the key factors at the basis of the spreading of diseases in a population. Containment strategies are usually devised on movement scenarios based on coarse-grained assumptions. Mobility phone data provide a unique opportunity for building models and defining strategies based on very precise information about the movement of people in a region or in a country. Another very important aspect is the underlying social structure of a population, which might play a fundamental role in devising information campaigns to promote vaccination and preventive measures, especially in countries with a strong family (or tribal) structure. In this paper we analyze a large-scale dataset describing the mobility and the call patterns of a large number of individuals in Ivory Coast. We present a model that describes how diseases spread across the country by exploiting mobility patterns of people extracted from the available data. Then, we simulate several epidemics scenarios and we evaluate mechanisms to c...

Lima, Antonio; Pejovic, Veljko; Musolesi, Mirco

2013-01-01

367

An experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan.  

PubMed

In this study, we carried out an experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan to analyze the clinical manifestation, antibody response and virus shedding patterns in pigs. We found that the virus was virulent in pigs, producing a synchronous disease in the inoculated pigs and efficient spread to direct contact pigs. These results are useful for epidemiologically investigating the 2010 epidemic in Japan and improving the measures for controlling possible future FMD outbreaks in Japan or elsewhere. PMID:21532260

Fukai, Katsuhiko; Morioka, Kazuki; Yoshida, Kazuo

2011-09-01

368

Relationship of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 with cardiovascular disease in older community-dwelling women  

PubMed Central

Objective Although fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, the relationship between FGF23 and cardiovascular disease has not been well characterized in the general population. The aim of the study was to determine whether serum FGF23 is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in older community-dwelling women. Design and methods A cross-sectional design was used to examine the relationship between serum FGF23 and cardiovascular disease. The subjects consisted of a population-based sample of 659 women, aged 70–79 years, who participated in the Women’s Health and Aging Studies in Baltimore, Maryland. Prevalent cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease) was assessed through diagnostic algorithms and physician adjudication. Results Of the 659 women, 185 (28.1%) had cardiovascular disease. Median (25th, 75th percentile) intact serum FGF23 was 34.6 (25.2, 46.2) pg/mL. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the lowest, middle, and highest tertile of serum FGF23 was 22.6%, 24.9%, and 36.7%, respectively (P = 0.002). Serum log FGF23 was associated with cardiovascular disease (Odds Ratio per 1 SD increase = 1.23, 95% Confidence Interval 1.17, 1.30; P <0.0001) in a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for age, race, smoking, education, body mass index, cognition, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and renal function. Conclusion Elevated serum FGF23 concentrations are independently associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease in older community-dwelling women. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential biological mechanisms by which FGF23 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21873490

Dalal, Mansi; Sun, Kai; Cappola, Anne R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crasto, Candace; Fried, Linda P.; Semba, Richard D.

2012-01-01

369

The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and in End-Stage Renal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who reach the end-stage phase of renal disease (ESRD) display an exceedingly high risk for cardiovascular (CV) complications. However it is still unclear whether in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) a critical glomerular filtration rate (GFR) threshold exists below which CV risk starts to rise. Analyses based on a medical database indicate that starting from the lower limit

C. Zoccali

2008-01-01

370

Adherence behavior in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Adherence is critical to the overall management of individuals at risk for and with cardiovascular disease. It forms an interplay between the patient, provider, and health care system and includes barriers that have been encountered within all 3 domains. Improving adherence to exercise, diet, and medication as well as focusing on addictive disorders such as smoking cessation requires patient, provider, and health care system approaches. The use of the cognitive/behavioral elements of health behavior change and communication strategies such as motivational interviewing and coaching serve to enhance overall adherence. Continuous quality improvement initiatives at the system level of change also increase the likelihood that teams will succeed in helping individuals change their behavior. Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a unique opportunity for health care professionals to play a key role in supporting individuals through the health behavior change process. PMID:22193934

Miller, Nancy Houston

2012-01-01

371

Sarcopenic-obesity and cardiovascular disease risk in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To determine: 1) whether sarcopenic-obesity is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than either sarcopenia\\u000a or obesity alone in the elderly, and 2) whether muscle mass or muscular strength is a stronger marker of CVD risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Participants included 3366 community-dwelling older (65 years) men and women who were free of CVD at baseline.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Waist circumference (WC),

W. C. Stephen; I. Janssen

2009-01-01

372

Hyperlipidemia as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Elevated levels of blood lipids are well documented risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Current classification schemes and treatment levels for hyperlipidemia are based on the National Cholesterol Education Panel’s (NCEP) Adult Treatment Program-3 (ATP-III) guidelines. Statins are the preferred class of drugs to lower elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). There are other classes to augment or substitute for statins, such as ezetimibe, fibrates, niacin and dietary supplements. Extensive research over the last decade has raised the question whether or not ATP-III guidelines are sufficiently aggressive. New guidelines from ATP-IV are expected to be released in the near future, but in the meantime physicians are faced with uncertainty about how low to target LDL-C, whether to pharmacologically treat high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels and how best to achieve target goals. PMID:23402469

Nelson, Robert H.

2012-01-01

373

Omentin: a novel link between inflammation, diabesity, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Obesity has reached pandemic proportions and is associated with serious cardiometabolic sequelae including insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, where adipose tissue-secreted cytokines, that is, adipokines, have been implicated in these processes. Omentin is a novel adipokine preferentially produced by visceral adipose tissue with insulin-sensitizing effects, where circulating levels are decreased in insulin-resistant states, for example, obesity and diabetes. With respect to vascular biology, omentin causes vasodilatation of blood vessels and attenuates C-reactive protein-induced angiogenesis potentially via the nuclear factor B signaling pathway, a potent proinflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, omentin may have beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and could potentially be used as a biologic marker and/or pharmacologic agent in this respect. PMID:21742269

Tan, Bee K; Adya, Raghu; Randeva, Harpal S

2010-07-01

374

Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations  

PubMed Central

Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk. PMID:24163770

Hussain, S. Monira; Oldenburg, Brian; Zoungas, Sophia; Tonkin, Andrew M.

2013-01-01

375

Update on cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), and in particular coronary artery heart disease (CAHD), is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Until recently, most of our knowledge about the pathophysiology of CVD in women - and, subsequently, management guidelines - were based on studies conducted mostly in men. While similar mechanisms operate to induce CVD in women and men, gender-related differences exist in the anatomy and physiology of the myocardium, and sex hormones modify the course of disease in women. Women, more than men, have their initial manifestation of CAHD as angina pectoris; are likely to be referred for diagnostic tests at a more advanced stage of disease, and are less likely than men to have corrective invasive procedures. The overall morbidity and mortality following the initial ischaemic heart event is worse in women, and the case fatality rate is greater in women than in men. Also, the relative impact of impaired vasoreactivity of the coronary artery, increased viscosity of the blood and dysregulation of automaticity and arrhythmia, is greater in women than in men. The most effective means of decreasing the impact of CVD on women's health is by an active approach from childhood to proper principles of healthcare in order to modify the contribution of specific risk factors. The latter include obesity, abnormal plasma lipid profile, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, sedentary lifestyle, increased blood viscosity, augmented platelet aggregability, stress and autonomic imbalance. The use of lipid-lowering drugs has not been adequately studied in women but reports from studies conducted mostly in men do predict an advantage also to women. Oestrogen deficiency after spontaneous or medically induced menopause is an important risk factor for CVD and CAHD. Observational and mechanistic data suggest a role for oestrogen replacement after menopause for primary, and possibly secondary, prevention of CVD. However, two recent prospective trials suggest that treatment de novo with hormone replacement of older post-menopausal women after an acute coronary event may not confer cardiovascular protection and may increase the risk of thromboembolic disease. Results of ongoing long-term studies may determine the beneficial role of hormone replacement versus potential risks involved with this treatment. PMID:12099666

Gorodeski, George I

2002-06-01

376

AptaCDSS-E: A classifier ensemble-based clinical decision support system for cardiovascular disease level prediction  

E-print Network

AptaCDSS-E: A classifier ensemble-based clinical decision support system for cardiovascular disease); Cardiovascular disease; Classifier ensemble; Support vector machines; Neural networks; Decision trees; Bayesian that cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes heart disease and stroke, is one of the lead- ing causes of death

377

Abstract--Stents are medical devices used in cardiovascular intervention for unblocking the diseased arteries and  

E-print Network

of the most common cardiovascular diseases, that affects more than 26% of the human population. It is observed Abstract-- Stents are medical devices used in cardiovascular intervention for unblocking the diseased arteries and restoring blood flow. During stent implantation the deformation of the arterial wall

Petrakis, Euripides G.M.

378

A review of health utilities using the EQ-5D in studies of cardiovascular disease  

E-print Network

, and to summarise utility scores based on the use of the EQ-5D in clinical trials and in studies of patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods A structured literature search was conducted using keywords related to cardiovascular disease and EQ-5D. Original...

Dyer, Matthew T; Goldsmith, Kimberley A; Sharples, Linda D; Buxton, Martin J

2010-01-28

379

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients  

E-print Network

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients to CVD, and so achieving normoglycaemia would be expected to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation

Cai, Long

380

Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Resistance, Early Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Still, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, common cardiovascular risk factors, are not extensively investigated in children with CKD. We hypothesize that insulin abnormalities are present also in pediatric mild to moderate CKD, and associated with inflammation and malnutrition. Methods: We enrolled 26 children with CKD, and 34

Ylva Tranæus Lindblad; Jonas Axelsson; Peter Bárány; Gianni Celsi; Bengt Lindholm; Abdul Rashid Qureshi; Alba Carrea; Alberto Canepa

2008-01-01

381

Considerations for the use of antidepressants in patients with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is convincing evidence that depression can significantly and adversely affect cardiovascular health and increase mortality rates in patients with documented ischemic heart disease. It is unknown whether treatment of depression can reduce the risk of IHD or if treatment can decrease mortality rates after myocardial infarction. Nonetheless, the available evidence strongly suggests that depression in patients with cardiovascular disease

Steven P. Roose

2000-01-01

382

Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLimited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults.

Mi-Sun Lee; Sung Kyun Park; Howard Hu; Sundong Lee

2011-01-01

383

ALTERATIONS OF FE HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MODELS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO CARDIOPULMONARY TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Fe homeostasis can be disrupted in human cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We addressed how dysregulation of Fe homeostasis affected the pulmonary inflammation/oxidative stress response and disease progression after exposure to Libby amphibole (LA), an asbestifonn mine...

384

Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa: lessons learned and issues arising from West African countries.  

PubMed

The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak ravaging three nations in West Africa has affected more than 14,000 persons and killed over 5,000. It is the longest and most widely spread Ebola epidemic ever seen. At the time of this overview (written November 2014), having affected eight different nations, Nigeria and Senegal were able to control and eliminate the virus within a record time. Ghana has successfully, to date, kept the virus away from the country, despite economic and social relationships with affected nations. What lessons can we learn from Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana in the current epidemic? How can the world improve the health systems in low- and middle-income countries to effectively manage future outbreaks? Recently, the Royal College of Physicians launched a new partnership with the West African College of Physicians to curtail the effects of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in the region. We believe that strengthened health systems, skilled human resources for health and national ownership of problems are key to effective management of outbreaks such as EVD. PMID:25650199

Oleribe, Obinna O; Salako, Babatunde L; Ka, M Mourtalla; Akpalu, Albert; McConnochie, Mairi; Foster, Matthew; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

2015-02-01

385

Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Metabolomics studies hold promise for discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. A metabolomics approach was used to generate unbiased small molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine, namely choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and betaine, were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. Dietary supplementation of mice with choline, TMAO or betaine promoted up-regulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or TMAO promoted atherosclerosis. Studies using germ-free mice confirmed a critical role for dietary choline and gut flora in TMAO production, augmented macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Suppression of intestinal microflora in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibited dietary choline-enhanced atherosclerosis. Genetic variations controlling expression of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), an enzymatic source of TMAO, segregated with atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Discovery of a relationship between gut flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for development of both novel diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:21475195

Wang, Zeneng; Klipfell, Elizabeth; Bennett, Brian J.; Koeth, Robert; Levison, Bruce S.; DuGar, Brandon; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Chung, Yoon-Mi; Wu, Yuping; Schauer, Phil; Smith, Jonathan D.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

2011-01-01

386

Redesigning primary care to tackle the global epidemic of noncommunicable disease.  

PubMed

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the major contributors to death and disability worldwide. Nearly 80% of the deaths in 2010 occurred in low- and middle-income countries, which have experienced rapid population aging, urbanization, rise in smoking, and changes in diet and activity. Yet the health systems of low- and middle-income countries, historically oriented to infectious disease and often severely underfunded, are poorly prepared for the challenge of caring for people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease. We have discussed how primary care can be redesigned to tackle the challenge of NCDs in resource-constrained countries. We suggest that four changes will be required: integration of services, innovative service delivery, a focus on patients and communities, and adoption of new technologies for communication. PMID:25602898

Kruk, Margaret E; Nigenda, Gustavo; Knaul, Felicia M

2015-03-01

387

The effect of testosterone on cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Testosterone is the principal male sex hormone and plays an important role in men's health and well-being. Historically, testosterone was believed to adversely affect cardiovascular function. However, contemporary literature has refuted this traditional thinking; testosterone has been suggested to have a protective effect on cardiovascular function through its effects on the vascular system. Data from modern research indicate that hypogonadism is closely related to the development of various cardiovascular risk factors, including hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Several studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of testosterone supplementation therapy on reversing symptoms of hypogonadism and improving cardiovascular disease risk profiles. In this review, we perform a critical analysis on the association between testosterone and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24563500

Su, Jeannie J; Park, Samuel K; Hsieh, T Mike

2014-11-01

388

Plasma Phospholipid Trans?Fatty Acids Levels, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Total Mortality: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background While self?reported trans–fatty acid (TFA) consumption is linked to coronary heart disease (CHD), relationships between objective biomarkers of TFA subtypes (t?16:1n9, total t?18:1, and cis/trans?(c/t?), t/c? and t/t?18:2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or total mortality are not well established. Methods and Results We evaluated 2742 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged 74±5 years and free of prevalent CVD, with plasma phospholipid TFA measures in 1992. Incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events, CVD and non?CVD mortality, and total mortality were centrally adjudicated through 2010. Risks were assessed using Cox proportional hazards. During 31 494 person?years, 1735 total deaths and 639 total CHD events occurred. In the multivariate model including mutual adjustment for the 5 TFA subtypes, circulating t/t?18:2 was associated with higher total mortality (extreme quintile hazard ratio (HR)=1.23, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.44, P?trend=0.01), CVD mortality (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.86, P?trend=0.02), and total CHD (HR=1.39, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.83, P?trend=0.01). t/c?18:2 was positively related to total mortality (HR=1.19, P?trend=0.05), total CHD (HR=1.67, P?trend=0.002), and nonfatal CHD (HR=2.06, P?trend=0.002) after mutual adjustment; these associations were insignificant without mutual adjustment. Neither t?16:1n9 nor t?18:1 was significantly associated with total mortality or CVD, nor was c/t?18:2 if we excluded early cases. Conclusions Among circulating TFAs, t/t?18:2 was most adversely associated with total mortality, mainly due to the increased risk of CVD. t/c?18:2 was also positively associated with total mortality and CHD, but only after adjustment for other TFAs. These results highlight the need for further investigation of dietary sources, nondietary determinants, and health effects of specific TFA subtypes, especially t?18:2 isomers. PMID:25164946

Wang, Qianyi; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Rimm, Eric B.; Wang, Molin; King, Irena B.; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David; Mozaffarian, Dariush

2014-01-01

389

Simulation Modelling of Population Dynamics of Mosquito Vectors for Rift Valley Fever Virus in a Disease Epidemic Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics. Methods/Findings Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD) and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML) files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district. Conclusion/Significance Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings. PMID:25259792

Mweya, Clement N.; Holst, Niels; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.

2014-01-01

390

Overview of saxagliptin efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Most individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have or will develop multiple independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and treating these patients is challenging. The risk of hypoglycemia, weight gain, or fluid retention with some diabetes medications should be considered when developing a treatment plan for individuals with a history of CAD or at risk for CAD. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are oral antihyperglycemic agents that inhibit the breakdown of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, resulting in increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon secretion. Saxagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that improves glycemic control and is generally well tolerated when used as monotherapy and as add-on therapy to other antihyperglycemic medications. This review summarizes findings from recently published post hoc analyses of saxagliptin clinical trials that have been conducted in patients with and without a history of cardiovascular disease and in patients with and without various risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results show that saxagliptin was generally well tolerated and consistently improved glycemic control, as assessed by reductions from baseline in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose concentration, and postprandial glucose concentration, regardless of the presence or absence of baseline cardiovascular disease, hypertension, statin use, number of cardiovascular risk factors, or high Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk score.

Toth, Peter P

2015-01-01

391

The Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care for Adolescents with Kidney Disease: A Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of increased mortality for adolescents with advanced kidney disease. The quality of preventive cardiovascular care may impact long-term outcomes for these patients. Methods We reviewed records of 196 consecutive adolescents from 8 centers with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease, on dialysis, or with a kidney transplant who transferred to adult-focused providers. We compared cardiovascular risk assessment and therapy within and across centers. Predictors of care were assessed using multilevel models. Results Overall, 58% (range: 44%–86%, p=0.08 for variance) of five recommended cardiovascular risk assessments were documented. Recommended therapy for six modifiable cardiovascular risk-factors was documented 57% (26%–76%, p=0.09) of the time. Thirty-percent of patients (n=59) were reported to go through formal transition which was independently associated with a 21% increase in composite cardiovascular risk assessment (p<0.001). Transfer after 2006 and kidney transplant status were also associated with increased cardiovascular risk assessment (p<0.01 and p=0.045, respectively). Conclusions Adolescents with kidney disease receive sub-optimal preventive cardiovascular care, which may contribute to their high risk of future cardiovascular mortality. Great opportunity exists to improve outcomes for children with kidney disease by improving reliability of preventive care that may include formal transition programs. PMID:23417277

Hooper, David K.; Williams, Jason C.; Carle, Adam C.; Amaral, Sandra; Chand, Deepa H.; Ferris, Maria E.; Patel, Hiren P.; Licht, Christoph; Barletta, Gina-Marie; Zitterman, Veronica; Mitsnefes, Mark; Patel, Uptal D.

2013-01-01

392

Adipokines, vascular wall, and cardiovascular disease: a focused overview of the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence has shown that abdominal obesity is closely associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV) disease, suggesting that it might be considered as an independent CV risk factor. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the association between these 2 clinical entities remain largely unknown. Adipocytes are considered able to produce and secrete chemical mediators known as "adipokines" that may exert several biological actions, including those on heart and vessels. Of interest, a different adipokine profile can be observed in the plasma of patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome compared with healthy controls. We consider the main adipokines, focusing on their effects on the vascular wall and analyzing their role in CV pathophysiology. PMID:24535638

Maresca, Fabio; Palma, Vito Di; Bevilacqua, Michele; Uccello, Giuseppe; Taglialatela, Vittorio; Giaquinto, Alessandro; Esposito, Giovanni; Trimarco, Bruno; Cirillo, Plinio

2015-01-01

393

Oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors.  

PubMed

Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and its associated risk factors. A simple random sampling was carried out in 200 inhabitants of Western Utter Pradesh, India. An oral health visit and examination was made for an equal number of males and females of different age groups with cardiovascular diseases. Evaluation of the oral status was made by means of an oral hygiene index, community periodontal index of treatment needs and loss of attachment. Evaluation of oral status in patients with cardiovascular diseases and in the control group has shown a statistically significant low level of oral health in patients with cardiovascular diseases as compared to control. Prevalence of systemic diseases in different age groups significantly correlated with the prevalence of severe periodontal diseases. Treating gum disease may reduce the risk of heart disease and improve health outcomes for patients with periodontal disease and vascular heart problems. PMID:24765485

Shetty, Divya; Dua, Mahima; Kumar, Kiran; Dhanapal, Raghu; Astekar, Madhusudan; Shetty, Devi Charan

2012-10-12

394

Dietary fibre intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate dietary fibre intake and any potential dose-response association with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review of available literature and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies using random effects models. Data sources The Cochrane Library, Medline, Medline in-process, Embase, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, BIOSIS, and hand searching. Eligibility criteria for studies Prospective studies reporting associations between fibre intake and coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease, with a minimum follow-up of three years and published in English between 1 January 1990 and 6 August 2013. Results 22 cohort study publications met inclusion criteria and reported total dietary fibre intake, fibre subtypes, or fibre from food sources and primary events of cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease. Total dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (risk ratio 0.91 per 7 g/day (95% confidence intervals 0.88 to 0.94)) and coronary heart disease (0.91 (0.87 to 0.94)). There was evidence of some heterogeneity between pooled studies for cardiovascular disease (I2=45% (0% to 74%)) and coronary heart disease (I2=33% (0% to 66%)). Insoluble fibre and fibre from cereal and vegetable sources were inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Fruit fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Greater dietary fibre intake is associated with a lower risk of both cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Findings are aligned with general recommendations to increase fibre intake. The differing strengths of association by fibre type or source highlight the need for a better understanding of the mode of action of fibre components. PMID:24355537

2013-01-01

395

A Survey of Needs of Texas Biology Teachers Relative to Teaching Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risk Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data show that biology teachers spend relatively little time on diseases of the cardiovascular system. Approximately one period per year is spent on each of eight given cardiovascular disease risk factors. (MP)

White, Robert C.; And Others

1978-01-01

396

Modeling sheep pox disease from the 1994-1998 epidemic in Evros Prefecture, Greece.  

PubMed

Sheep pox is a highly transmissible disease which can cause serious loss of livestock and can therefore have major economic impact. We present data from sheep pox epidemics which occurred between 1994 and 1998. The data include weekly records of infected farms as well as a number of covariates. We implement Bayesian stochastic regression models which, in addition to various explanatory variables like seasonal and environmental/meteorological factors, also contain serial correlation structure based on variants of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We take a predictive view in model selection by utilizing deviance-based measures. The results indicate that seasonality and the number of infected farms are important predictors for sheep pox incidence. PMID:25457592

Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Abas, Z; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T

2014-10-01

397

Breast-feeding influences on later life--cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Current evidence, almost exclusively from observational studies, provides a rather mixed picture. From the few studies that have been able to look at fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events, there is little indication that breast-feeding is associated with either an increased or decreased risk. With respect to blood pressure, the meta-analyses suggest a small but statistically significant lowering of around 1 mmHg SBP associated with having been breast-fed in infancy. However, there is a strong indication from the meta-analyses that even this small effect may partly be accounted for by publication bias. The strongest evidence for an effect of breast-feeding reviewed in this chapter is for serum lipids, where there is good evidence that being breast-fed is associated with an increase in serum total cholesterol in infancy. In childhood there appears to be no association, while in adults there is some indication of breast-feeding being associated with a small decline in total cholesterol levels. As already outlined at the start of the chapter, this whole area of research is made particularly difficult by the fact that breast-feeding can be defined in many different ways. Some studies use definitions that are equivalent to exclusive breast-feeding prior to weaning, while others define it as having ever been breast-fed. This problem of classification is likely to dilute any real associations that may exist. The other major problem is one of interpretation. A result implying that breast-feeding is a "good thing" for cardiovascular health could equally be construed as evidence for a "bad" effect of bottle-feeding. From these data alone, we cannot convincingly determine which conclusion is correct. This is not simply a philosophical debating point. As discussed above in relation to the interpretation of results from the randomised trial of infant feeding, the issue has implications for all research on this topic. Some progress in this area will be made if studies are conducted which define breast-feeding in a more precise and comparable way, and take account of the composition of alternative infant feeds. This will be most easily done by following up more recent study populations that were originally recruited to look at shorter-term effects of infant feeding on outcomes such as growth. With respect to randomised trial evidence, looking at the cardiovascular disease risk profiles of children (and later adults) who were part of the PROBIT trial in Belarus (see Chapters 5 and 10) is likely to prove fruitful. PMID:19227542

Leon, D A; Ronalds, G

2009-01-01

398

Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is causal. A recent phase III clinical trial of an sPLA2 inhibitor (varespladib) was stopped prematurely for lack of efficacy. Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis of 19 general population studies (8,021 incident, 7,513 prevalent major vascular events [MVE] in 74,683 individuals) and 10 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohorts (2,520 recurrent MVE in 18,355 individuals) using rs11573156, a variant in PLA2G2A encoding the sPLA2-IIA isoenzyme, as an instrumental variable. Results PLA2G2A rs11573156 C allele associated with lower circulating sPLA2-IIA mass (38% to 44%) and sPLA2 enzyme activity (3% to 23%) per C allele. The odds ratio (OR) for MVE per rs11573156 C allele was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98 to 1.06) in general populations and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.03) in ACS cohorts. In the general population studies, the OR derived from the genetic instrumental variable analysis for MVE for a 1-log unit lower sPLA2-IIA mass was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.13), and differed from the non-genetic observational estimate (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.79). In the ACS cohorts, both the genetic instrumental variable and observational ORs showed a null association with MVE. Instrumental variable analysis failed to show associations between sPLA2 enzyme activity and MVE. Conclusions Reducing sPLA2-IIA mass is unlikely to be a useful therapeutic goal for preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:23916927

Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J.W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N.M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C.M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A.A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Paré, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

2013-01-01

399

Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.  

PubMed Central

Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227

Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

2007-01-01

400

Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items. Literature sources: Google and US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health were the sources of papers cited in this review article. PMID:24639860

Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

2014-01-01

401

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPAR?, PPAR?/? and PPAR? are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPAR? (fibrates) and PPAR? (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

Azhar, Salman

2011-01-01

402

Polypills: essential medicines for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention?  

PubMed

In 1977, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed its first Model List of Essential Medicines to guide countries in the creation of national formularies and policies for access, quality, and use of essential medicines as part of achieving the right to health. In 2012, the WHO announced its goal of reducing the number of premature deaths (<70 years) due to noncommunicable chronic diseases by 25% by the year 2025, including the indicator that 50% of eligible people receive drugs to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke. Despite the large body of evidence supporting the use of pharmacological treatment for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), substantial gaps in coverage of secondary interventions for prevention of CVD are widespread globally. Fixed dose combination, or polypill, therapy has been shown to improve adherence by 33% compared with usual care in CVD secondary prevention and has been recommended as a "best buy" by the WHO. In November 2012, along with 5 other scientists, we submitted an application to the Model List of Essential Medicines to include polypill therapy for secondary CVD prevention. In July 2013, the updated 18th Model List of Essential Medicines was released without inclusion of polypill therapy for secondary CVD prevention. In this article, we argue that polypill therapy meets the criteria for essential medicines and that inclusion in the Model List of Essential Medicines will facilitate its access and has the potential to avoid a few million premature deaths and related morbidity from CVD at low cost. PMID:24561141

Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim

2014-04-15

403

Tuberculosis infection and disease among schoolchildren: the influence of the HIV epidemic and of other factors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has caused an excess of tuberculosis cases in Spain and in other countries, but its impact on tuberculosis infection is less well understood. This study presents a massive screening undertaken to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection in a cohort of primary school entrants. The evolution of the risk of infection is studied by comparison with previous data in the same population. METHODS: Tuberculin skin test screening with 2TU of PPD RT 23 of first grade students in the primary schools of Barcelona, in the 1994-95 school year (cohort born in 1988). Information was also sought from families of unscreened children. Contacts of PPD+ children were traced to locate index cases. The results were also linked to the case registry of the tuberculosis control programme. RESULTS: The prevalence of tuberculin reactors free of BCG vaccination among the 11,080 schoolchildren screened belonging to the 1988 cohort was 0.76%. A 3% annual decline in the annual risk of infection is estimated by comparison with previous data. The identification of 24 cases with a previous history of tuberculosis disease and of 13 cases with active disease diagnosed after the screening was possible by the follow up of these tuberculin positive children and of the information provided by families of unscreened pupils. The screening detected 1.5 new cases of tuberculosis per 1000 tuberculin tests performed. Tuberculosis infection could be traced to HIV infected tuberculosis cases for at least 6% of the positive schoolchildren. CONCLUSIONS: The decline of the annual risk of infection continues in Barcelona, although at a slower pace than before the HIV/AIDS epidemic, probably attributable to the influence of injecting drug users with smear positive tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.   PMID:10396472

Villalbi, J. R.; Galdos-Tanguis, H.; Cayla, J. A.; Casanas, P.; Ferrer, A.; Nebot, M.

1999-01-01

404

MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Cancer to Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The great discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has revolutionized current cell biology and medical science. miRNAs are small conserved non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting the 3' untranslated region of specific messenger RNAs for degradation or translational repression. New members of the miRNA family are being discovered on a daily basis and emerging evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs play a major role in a wide range of developmental process including cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell differentiation, metabolism, apoptosis, developmental timing, neuronal cell fate, neuronal gene expression, brain morphogenesis, muscle differentiation and stem cell division. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as cancer, psychiatric and neurological diseases, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disease. Interestingly, in addition, miRNA deficiencies or excesses have been correlated with a number of clinically important diseases ranging from cancer to myocardial infarction. miRNAs can repress the gene translation of hundreds of their targets and are therefore well-positioned to target a multitude of cellular mechanisms. As a consequence of extensive participation in normal functions, it is quite logical to ask the question if abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Great discoveries and rapid progress in the past few years on miRNAs provide the hope that miRNAs will in the near future have a great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Currently, an explosive literature has focussed on the role of miRNA in human cancer and cardiovascular disease. In this review, I briefly summarize the explosive current studies about involvement of miRNA in various human cancers and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21860607

2011-01-01

405

Initial genetic analysis reveals tzi predisposed to cardiovascular disease Scientific magazine "Nature Communications" publishes new findings about physiognomy,  

E-print Network

Initial genetic analysis reveals Ã?tzi predisposed to cardiovascular disease Scientific magazine was genetically predisposed to cardiovascular diseases, according to recent studies carried out by the team of cardiovascular disease. He was not overweight and no stranger to exercise. "The evidence that such a genetic

Tübingen, Universität

406

Lost work days in the 6 years leading to premature death from cardiovascular disease in men and women  

E-print Network

Lost work days in the 6 years leading to premature death from cardiovascular disease in men of Turku & Turku University Hospital, Finland Word count: 2619 Keywords: cardiovascular disease, stroke individuals experience specific patterns of morbidity prior to premature death from cardiovascular disease

Boyer, Edmond

407

Mouse Models To Study Angiogenesis, Vasculogenesis And Arteriogenesis In The Context Of Cardiovascular Diseases Thierry Couffinhal1,2  

E-print Network

Of Cardiovascular Diseases Thierry Couffinhal1,2 ; Pascale Dufourcq1 , Laurent Barandon1,2 , Lionel Leroux1 in cardiovascular diseases 3. Assessment of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis or vasculogenesis 3.1. Is there an ideal, vasculogenesis and arteriogenesis in the context of cardiovascular diseases. Several quantitative angiogenesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Part I: General Considerations, the Epidemiologic Transition, Risk Factors, and Impact of Urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part article provides an overview of the global burden of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Part I initially discusses the epidemiologic transition which has resulted in a decrease in deaths in childhood due to infections, with a concomitant increase in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases; and then provides estimates of the burden of cardiovascular (CV) diseases with specific focus on the

Salim Yusuf; Srinath Reddy; Stephanie Ôunpuu; Sonia Anand

2010-01-01

409

Cardiovascular Disease in CKD in Children: Update on Risk Factors, Risk Assessment, and Management  

PubMed Central

In young adults with onset of chronic kidney disease in childhood, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. The likely reason for increased cardiovascular disease in these patients is high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors during childhood chronic kidney disease. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness and coronary artery calcification are frequently found in this patient population. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent advances in the understanding and management of cardiovascular disease risks in this population. PMID:19619845

Wilson, Amy C; Mitsnefes, Mark M

2009-01-01

410

A Study of Cardiovascular miRNA Biomarkers for Kawasaki Disease.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that cardiovascular miRNAs might be diagnostic biomarkers for Kawasaki disease (KD). We identified dysregulated miRNAs in KD coronary arteries, and tested sera from KD patients and febrile controls for cardiovascular miRNAs using 2 methods. We did not identify cardiovascular miRNAs diagnostic for KD; our results may help guide future studies of potential miRNA biomarkers for KD. PMID:25037038

Rowley, Anne H; Pink, Adam J; Reindel, Rebecca; Innocentini, Nancy; Baker, Susan C; Shulman, Stanford T; Kim, Kwang-Youn A

2014-12-01

411

The roles of mediator complex in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Despite recent treatment advances, an increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality is expected for the next years. Mediator (MED) complex plays key roles in eukaryotic gene transcription. Currently, while numerous studies have correlated MED alterations with several diseases, like cancer or neurological disorders, fewer studies have investigated MED role in CVD initiation and progression. The first finding of MED involvement in these pathologies was the correlation of missense mutations in MED13L gene with transposition of the great arteries. Nowadays, also MED13 and MED15 have been associated with human congenital heart diseases and others could be added, like MED12 that is involved in early mouse development and heart formation. Interestingly, a missense mutation in MED30 gene causes a progressive cardiomyopathy in homozygous mice suggesting a potential role for this subunit also in human CVDs. Moreover, several subunits like MED1, MED13, MED14, MED15, MED23, MED25 and CDK8 exert important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. Although these evidences derive from in vitro and animal model studies, they indicate that their deregulation may have a significant role in human CVD-related metabolic disorders. Finally, alternative transcripts of MED12, MED19 and MED30 are differently expressed in circulating endothelial progenitor cells thus suggesting they can play a role in the field of regenerative medicine. Overall, further functional studies exploring MED role in human CVD are warranted. The results could allow identifying novel biomarkers to use in combination with imaging techniques for early diagnosis; otherwise, they could be useful to develop targets for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24751643

Schiano, Concetta; Casamassimi, Amelia; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Rienzo, Monica; Napoli, Claudio

2014-06-01

412

Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)'s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers' costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30-41 to US$52-71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO's absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers' costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: 'what is', that is the current practice, and 'what if', reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in the regression analysis; further research on the influence of other provider characteristics on these costs is important. PMID:25113027

Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

2014-08-11

413

The Role of Redox Signaling in Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The term epigenetics refers to the changes in the phenotype and gene expression that occur without alterations in the DNA sequence. There is a rapidly growing body of evidence that epigenetic modifications are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which intersect with many of the pathways involved in oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Most studies relating epigenetics and human pathologies have focused on cancer. There has been a limited study of epigenetic mechanisms in CVDs. Although CVDs have multiple established genetic and environmental risk factors, these explain only a portion of the total CVD risk. The epigenetic perspective is beginning to shed new light on how the environment influences gene expression and disease susceptibility in CVDs. Known epigenetic changes contributing to CVD include hypomethylation in proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis, changes in estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) and ER-? methylation in vascular disease, decreased superoxide dismutase 2 expression in pulmonary hypertension (PH), as well as trimethylation of histones H3K4 and H3K9 in congestive heart failure. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss the epigenetic modifications in CVDs, including atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and PH, with a focus on altered redox signaling. Future Directions: As advances in both the methodology and technology accelerate the study of epigenetic modifications, the critical role they play in CVD is beginning to emerge. A fundamental question in the field of epigenetics is to understand the biochemical mechanisms underlying reactive oxygen species-dependent regulation of epigenetic modification. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1920–1936. PMID:23480168

Ryan, John J.; Archer, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

414

Vitamin E in cardiovascular disease: has the die been cast?  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease, in particular coronary artery disease (CAD), remains the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and, in the near future, more so in the developing world. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is the underlying basis for CAD. Growth of the plaque leads to coronary stenosis, causing a progressive decrease in blood flow that results in angina pectoris. Acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina were recently recognised as related to plaque rupture, not progressive coronary stenosis. Acute thrombus formation causes an abrupt coronary occlusion. The characteristics of the fibrin cap, contents of the plaque, rheological factors and active inflammation within the plaque contribute to plaque rupture. Oxidative processes are important in plaque formation. Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) but not unoxidized LDL is engulfed by resident intimal macrophages, transforming them into foam cells which develop into fatty streaks, the precursors of the atherosclerotic plaque. Inflammation is important both in plaque formation and rupture. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants reduce plaque formation and lead to plaque stabilisation. In humans, high intakes of antioxidants are associated with lower incidence of CAD, despite high serum cholesterol levels. This observation suggests a role for inflammation in CAD and that reducing inflammation using antioxidants may ameliorate these processes. Men and women with high intakes of vitamin E were found to have less CAD. Vitamin E supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events in the incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction. In the hierarchy of evidence in evidence-based medicine, data from large placebo-controlled clinical trials is considered necessary. Results from various mega-trials have not shown benefits (nor adverse effects) conferred by vitamin E supplementation, suggesting that vitamin E has no role in the treatment of CAD. These results do not seem to confirm, at the clinical level, the effect of antioxidants against active inflammation during plaque rupture. However, a closer examination of these studies showed a number of limitations, rendering them inconclusive in addressing the role of vitamin E in CAD prevention and treatment. Further studies that specifically address the issue of vitamin E in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and in the treatment of CAD need be performed. These studies should use the more potent antioxidant property of alpha-tocotrienol vitamin E. PMID:12492632

Yusoff, Khalid

2002-01-01

415

Plasma Lipid Composition and Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Aims We tested whether characteristic changes of the plasma lipidome in individuals with comparable total lipids level associate with future cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome and whether 23 validated gene variants associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) affect CVD associated lipid species. Methods and Results Screening of the fasted plasma lipidome was performed by top-down shotgun analysis and lipidome compositions compared between incident CVD cases (n?=?211) and controls (n?=?216) from the prospective population-based MDC study using logistic regression adjusting for Framingham risk factors. Associations with incident CVD were seen for eight lipid species (0.21?q?0.23). Each standard deviation unit higher baseline levels of two lysophosphatidylcholine species (LPC), LPC16?0 and LPC20?4, was associated with a decreased risk for CVD (P?=?0.024–0.028). Sphingomyelin (SM) 38?2 was associated with increased odds of CVD (P?=?0.057). Five triglyceride (TAG) species were associated with protection (P?=?0.031–0.049). LPC16?0 was negatively correlated with the carotid intima-media thickness (P?=?0.010) and with HbA1c (P?=?0.012) whereas SM38?2 was positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol (P?=?0.0*10?6) and the q-values were good (q?0.03). The risk allele of 8 CAD-associated gene variants showed significant association with the plasma level of several lipid species. However, the q-values were high for many of the associations (0.015?q?0.75). Risk allele carriers of 3 CAD-loci had reduced level of LPC16?0 and/or LPC 20?4 (P?0.056). Conclusion Our study suggests that CVD development is preceded by reduced levels of LPC16?0, LPC20?4 and some specific TAG species and by increased levels of SM38?2. It also indicates that certain lipid species are intermediate phenotypes between genetic susceptibility and overt CVD. But it is a preliminary study that awaits replication in a larger population because statistical significance was lost for the associations between lipid species and future cardiovascular events when correcting for multiple testing. PMID:23967253

Fernandez, Celine; Sandin, Marianne; Sampaio, Julio L.; Almgren, Peter; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Michal; Hedner, Thomas; Wahlstrand, Björn; Simons, Kai; Shevchenko, Andrej; James, Peter; Melander, Olle

2013-01-01

416

Cardiovascular calcification in Hispanic Americans (HA) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular calcification in Hispanic Americans (HA) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to type 2 diabetes.BackgroundCardiovascular calcification (CVC) is common and severe in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. However, the prevalence and severity of CVC is less well documented in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis.MethodsFifty-eight nondialyzed HA with type 2 diabetes and CKD

WAJEH Y QUNIBI; FADI ABOUZAHR; MOHAMMAD R MIZANI; CHARLES R NOLAN; RECTOR ARYA; KELLY J HUNT

2005-01-01

417

Chronic Kidney Disease in the Primary Care Setting: Importance for Estimating Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Use of Appropriate Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides a clinical perspective on how the kidney can be used as a sentinel for cardiovascular disease (CVD)\\u000a burden and, perhaps, as a means of measuring therapeutic success for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. To accomplish\\u000a these goals, we will first provide some background about the relationship between chronic kidney disease and CVD. Next, we\\u000a will discuss the

Matthew R. Weir; Miguel Portocarrero

418

Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study  

PubMed Central

Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: Mediterranean Diets supplemented with nuts or extra-virgin olive oil, or a control low-fat diet. The present analysis was conducted as an observational prospective cohort study. The median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death) and mortality were ascertained by medical records and National Death Index. Olive oil consumption was evaluated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline and yearly repeated measurements of olive oil intake, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Results During follow-up, 277 cardiovascular events and 323 deaths occurred. Participants in the highest energy-adjusted tertile of baseline total olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil consumption had 35% (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.89) and 39% (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85) cardiovascular disease risk reduction, respectively, compared to the reference. Higher baseline total olive oil consumption was associated with 48% (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.93) reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. For each 10 g/d increase in extra-virgin olive oil consumption, cardiovascular disease and mortality risk decreased by 10% and 7%, respectively. No significant associations were found for cancer and all-cause mortality. The associations between cardiovascular events and extra virgin olive oil intake were significant in the Mediterranean diet intervention groups and not in the control group. Conclusions Olive oil consumption, specifically the extra-virgin variety, is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration This study was registered at controlled-trials.com (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639). International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005. PMID:24886626

2014-01-01

419

Optimization methods for decision making in disease prevention and epidemic control.  

PubMed

This paper investigates problems of disease prevention and epidemic control (DPEC), in which we optimize two sets of decisions: (i) vaccinating individuals and (ii) closing locations, given respective budgets with the goal of minimizing the expected number of infected individuals after intervention. The spread of diseases is inherently stochastic due to the uncertainty about disease transmission and human interaction. We use a bipartite graph to represent individuals' propensities of visiting a set of location, and formulate two integer nonlinear programming models to optimize choices of individuals to vaccinate and locations to close. Our first model assumes that if a location is closed, its visitors stay in a safe location and will not visit other locations. Our second model incorporates compensatory behavior by assuming multiple behavioral groups, always visiting the most preferred locations that remain open. The paper develops algorithms based on a greedy strategy, dynamic programming, and integer programming, and compares the computational efficacy and solution quality. We test problem instances derived from daily behavior patterns of 100 randomly chosen individuals (corresponding to 195 locations) in Portland, Oregon, and provide policy insights regarding the use of the two DPEC models. PMID:24121040

Deng, Yan; Shen, Siqian; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

2013-11-01

420

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

2014-01-01

421

Antioxidant-based therapies for angiotensin II-associated cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and heart failure, are associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and increased circulating and tissue levels of ANG II, a primary effector peptide of the RAS. Through its actions on various cell types and organ systems, ANG II contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases by inducing cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, vasoconstriction, sodium and water reabsorption in kidneys, sympathoexcitation, and activation of the immune system. Cardiovascular research over the past 15–20 years has clearly implicated an important role for elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating these pathophysiological actions of ANG II. As such, the use of antioxidants, to reduce the elevated levels of ROS, as potential therapies for various ANG II-associated cardiovascular diseases has been intensely investigated. Although some antioxidant-based therapies have shown therapeutic impact in animal models of cardiovascular disease and in human patients, others have failed. In this review, we discuss the benefits and limitations of recent strategies, including gene therapy, dietary sources, low-molecular-weight free radical scavengers, polyethylene glycol conjugation, and nanomedicine-based technologies, which are designed to deliver antioxidants for the improved treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Although much work has been completed, additional research focusing on developing specific antioxidant molecules or proteins and identifying the ideal in vivo delivery system for such antioxidants is necessary before the use of antioxidant-based therapies for cardiovascular diseases become a clinical reality. PMID:23552499

Rosenbaugh, Erin G.; Savalia, Krupa K.; Manickam, Devika S.

2013-01-01

422

Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of MicroRNAs for Cardiovascular Disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of death in humans and are responsible for billions of dollars in health care expenditures. As the molecular basis of cardiac diseases continues to be explored, there remains the hope for identification of more effective therapeutics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as important regulators of numerous biological pathways and stress responses, including those found in cardiovascular diseases. MicroRNA signatures of cardiovascular diseases can provide targets for miRNA adjustment and offer the possibility of changing gene and protein expression to treat certain pathologies. These adjustments can be conferred using advances in oligonucleotide delivery methods, which can target single miRNAs, families of miRNAs, and certain tissue types. In this review, we will discuss the use of miRNAs in vivo and recent advances in their use for cardiovascular disease in mammalian models. PMID:25261390

Calway, Tyler; Kim, Gene H

2015-03-01

423

Cardiovascular Disorders in the Context of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the United States and other industrialized countries, and the reported prevalence in the developing countries is also rather high. This disease is associated