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Sample records for cardiovascular fitness body

  1. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  2. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  3. Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Fitness in Adults with Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Ronald V.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of an aerobic fitness program and dietary intervention with external control components on three obese adults with severe mental retardation. Results indicated severely retarded adults respond to a program of progressive aerobic exercise and caloric restriction much the same way as nonretarded persons. (Author/DB)

  4. Prospective BMI category change associated with cardiovascular fitness change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of change in body mass index (BMI) percentile score group (from 6th to 8th grade) with change in cardiovascular fitness (CVF), baseline BMI z-score and CVF was tested. 3,998 (92%) children in the HEALTHY trial provided complete data at the beginning of 6th and end of 8th grades. Hei...

  5. Migratory traumatic cardiovascular foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Moncada, R; Matuga, T; Unger, E; Freeark, R; Pizarro, A

    1978-01-01

    Six cases of cardiovascular foreign bodies secondary to trauma are presented. The various modes of entry and travel within the vascular are reviewed. Routine radiographic examination and angiography are shown to be the most useful techniques in defining the location and subsequent course of the foreign body in the vascular system. PMID:336241

  6. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  7. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of

  8. Constructing Cardiovascular Fitness Knowledge in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on…

  9. Constructing Cardiovascular Fitness Knowledge in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on

  10. Constructing cardiovascular fitness knowledge in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on cardiorespiratory fitness and health. Fourth grade students (N = 616) from 15 randomly sampled urban elementary schools completed 34 cognitive assignments related to the cardiorespiratory physical activities they were engaged in across 10 lessons. Performance on the assignments were analyzed in relation to their knowledge gain measured using a standardized knowledge test. A multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that the cognitive assignments contributed to knowledge gain but the contribution varied assignment by assignment. A multiple regression analysis indicated that students assignment performance by lesson contributed positively to their knowledge growth scores. A content analysis based on the constructivist learning framework showed that observingreasoning assignments contributed the most to knowledge growth. Analytical and analyticalapplication assignments contributed less than the constructivist theories would predict. PMID:25995702

  11. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective

  12. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

  13. Cardiovascular fitness modulates brain activation associated with spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Holzschneider, Kathrin; Wolbers, Thomas; Röder, Brigitte; Hötting, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in aging humans, especially on executive functions associated with frontal brain regions. In rodents, exercise has been shown to induce structural and neurophysiological changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve spatial learning. The present study investigated the relationship between cardiovascular fitness, spatial learning and associated patterns of brain activation cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of middle-aged men and women (40-55 years) that took part in a six-month exercise intervention and an additional spatial training. Spatial learning capacities before and after the interventions were measured with a virtual maze task. During this task, participants were repeatedly moved through a virtual town and were instructed to infer the spatial layout of the environment. Brain activations during encoding of the virtual town were assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data revealed that brain activations during successful spatial learning were modulated by the individual fitness level in a neural network, comprising the hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex, cuneus, precuneus, parahippocampal gyrus, caudate nucleus, insula, putamen, and further frontal, temporal, occipital and cingulate regions. Moreover, physical exercising induced changes in cardiovascular fitness that correlated positively with changes in brain activations in the medial frontal gyrus and the cuneus. However, overall spatial learning performance did not vary with cardiovascular fitness. These data suggest that cardiovascular fitness has an impact on brain regions associated with spatial learning in humans and hence, could be a potent intervention to prevent age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22027496

  14. Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. PMID:25210697

  15. Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. PMID:25210697

  16. Cardiovascular fitness program: factors associated with participation and adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Mirotznik, J; Speedling, E; Stein, R; Bronz, C

    1985-01-01

    Despite the proliferation in the last 10 to 15 years of cardiovascular fitness programs, little is known about who uses them. Who joins such a program and who adheres after enrollment were examined in this study. The first issue was addressed by comparing clients who came to the Coronary Detection and Intervention Center of the 92nd Street YM-YWHA in New York City to obtain a CHD risk assessment with those who, after being evaluated for coronary heart disease, enrolled in the center's fitness program. Joiners were found to be in poorer physical condition than nonjoiners. In addition, they were more concerned about their health and more likely to see improved health as being beneficial to other areas of their lives. The issue of adherence was investigated by comparing the joiners who attended less than 50 percent of the exercise sessions with those who attended 50 percent or more of the sessions. Those who adhered to the program were found to be more fit than those who did not adhere. These results, in conjunction with those of other researchers, have several useful implications for the administration of cardiovascular fitness programs. PMID:3918317

  17. Correlation between waist and mid-thigh circumference and cardiovascular fitness in Korean college students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sung-Sik; Chung, Jae-Soon; So, Wi-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated whether waist and mid-thigh circumference correlated with cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in a selected sample of Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 41 college students (25 males, 16 females; age, > 19?years) who visited the sports medicine laboratory at the Korea National University of Transportation in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea, to undergo measurements of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and waist and mid-thigh circumference. [Results] VO2max did not correlate with waist circumference or mid-thigh circumference in males, whereas VO2max was negatively correlated with mid-thigh circumference, but not waist circumference, in females. [Conclusion] Mid-thigh circumference was not associated with cardiovascular fitness or waist in male college students. However, it was associated with cardiovascular fitness in female college students. Well-designed studies are needed to investigate this further. PMID:26504348

  18. Surface fitting three-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.

    1974-01-01

    The geometry of general three-dimensional bodies is generated from coordinates of points in several cross sections. Since these points may not be smooth, they are divided into segments and general conic sections are curve fit in a least-squares sense to each segment of a cross section. The conic sections are then blended in the longitudinal direction by fitting parametric cubic-spline curves through coordinate points which define the conic sections in the cross-sectional planes. Both the cross-sectional and longitudinal curves may be modified by specifying particular segments as straight lines and slopes at selected points. Slopes may be continuous or discontinuous and finite or infinite. After a satisfactory surface fit has been obtained, cards may be punched with the data necessary to form a geometry subroutine package for use in other computer programs. At any position on the body, coordinates, slopes and second partial derivatives are calculated. The method is applied to a blunted 70 deg delta wing, and it was found to generate the geometry very well.

  19. Cardiovascular program to improve physical fitness in those over 60 years old pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodrguez, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Minguet, Jos Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 50% of 60-year-olds are obese. Obesity is a disease with serious cardiovascular risks. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in Spain is 31.1%. Objectives To improve aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility and balance, and body composition (BC) in persons over 60 years old. Materials and methods A clinical intervention study of 24 participants was carried out over a period of 3 months. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test. Upper-body strength was evaluated with an ad hoc test. Flexibility and balance were evaluated using the Sit and Reach Test and the Stork Balance Stand Test, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken by bioelectrical impedance. Results After 3 months of training, aerobic fitness was improved, as demonstrated by improved test times (pretest 13.04 minutes, posttest 12.13 minutes; P<0.05). Body composition was also improved, but the results were not statistically significant (fat mass pretest 31.58%5.65%, posttest 30.65%6.31%; skeletal muscle mass pretest 43.999.53 kg, posttest 46.6310.90 kg). Conclusion Our data show that in subjects over 60 years old, aerobic fitness was improved due to program intervention. However, these results should be treated with caution, because of the limited sample size and the brief time period of this pilot study. A more rigorous study would include a sample of at least 100 participants. PMID:25143714

  20. Selected anthropometric variables and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in children

    PubMed Central

    Szmuchrowski, LA; Prado, LS; Couto, BP; Machado, JCQ; Damasceno, VO; Lamounier, JA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 290 school boys and girls from 6 to 10 years old, randomly selected. Blood was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), height and weight were evaluated according to international standards. Aerobic fitness (AF) was assessed by the 20-metre shuttle-run test. Clustering was considered when three of these factors were present: high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high plasma glucose, high insulin concentrations and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A ROC curve identified the cut-off points of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and AF as predictors of risk factor clustering. BMI, WC and WHR resulted in significant areas under the ROC curves, which was not observed for AF. The anthropometric variables were good predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in both sexes, whereas aerobic fitness should not be used to identify cardiovascular risk factor clustering in these children. PMID:26424930

  1. Fitness predicts long-term survival after a cardiovascular event: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Barons, Martine J; Turner, Sally; Parsons, Nicholas; Griffiths, Frances; Bethell, Hugh; Weich, Scott; Thorogood, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the role of fitness, fitness change, body mass index and other factors in predicting long-term (>5 years) survival in patients with coronary heart disease. Design Cohort study of patients with coronary heart disease recruited from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2002, followed up to March 2011 (1 day to 18 years 3 months, mean 10.7 years). Setting A community-based National Health Service (NHS) cardiac rehabilitation programme serving the Basingstoke and Alton area in Hampshire, UK. Participants An unselected cohort of NHS patients, 2167 men and 547 women aged 28–88 years, who attended the rehabilitation programme following acute myocardial infarction, an episode of angina or revascularisation, and had a baseline fitness test. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Results A high level of fitness (VO2≥22 mL/kg/min for men, VO2≥19 mL/kg/min for women) at completion of the programme was associated with decreased all-cause death, as was a prescription for statins or aspirin, and female gender. Increase in all-cause mortality was associated with higher age and ACE inhibitors prescription. Higher risk of cardiovascular mortality was associated with increasing age, prescriptions for ACE inhibitor, and diagnosis of myocardial infarction or angina as compared with the other diagnoses. Conclusions Prior fitness and fitness improvement are strong predictors of long-term survival in patients who have experienced a cardiac event or procedure. Some secondary prevention medications make a significant contribution to reducing all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in these patients. This study supports public health messages promoting fitness for life. PMID:26493455

  2. Cardiovascular Fitness and Cognitive Spatial Learning in Rodents and in Humans.

    PubMed

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa; Okun, Eitan

    2015-09-01

    The association between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive functions in both animals and humans is intensely studied. Research in rodents shows that a higher cardiovascular fitness has beneficial effects on hippocampus-dependent spatial abilities, and the underlying mechanisms were largely teased out. Research into the impact of cardiovascular fitness on spatial learning in humans, however, is more limited, and involves mostly behavioral and imaging studies. Herein, we point out the state of the art in the field of spatial learning and cardiovascular fitness. The differences between the methodologies utilized to study spatial learning in humans and rodents are emphasized along with the neuronal basis of these tasks. Critical gaps in the study of spatial learning in the context of cardiovascular fitness between the two species are discussed. PMID:25227128

  3. Cardiovascular Fitness and Cognitive Spatial Learning in Rodents and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The association between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive functions in both animals and humans is intensely studied. Research in rodents shows that a higher cardiovascular fitness has beneficial effects on hippocampus-dependent spatial abilities, and the underlying mechanisms were largely teased out. Research into the impact of cardiovascular fitness on spatial learning in humans, however, is more limited, and involves mostly behavioral and imaging studies. Herein, we point out the state of the art in the field of spatial learning and cardiovascular fitness. The differences between the methodologies utilized to study spatial learning in humans and rodents are emphasized along with the neuronal basis of these tasks. Critical gaps in the study of spatial learning in the context of cardiovascular fitness between the two species are discussed. PMID:25227128

  4. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Clare C.W.; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; McManus, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters in Hong Kong. Methods Male firefighters (n=387) were randomly selected from serving firefighters in Hong Kong (n=5,370) for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, known cardiovascular diseases). One-third (Target Group) were randomly selected for the assessment of off-duty leisure-time physical activity using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed, as well as cardiovascular workload using heart rate monitoring for each firefighter for four normal 24-hour working shifts and during real-situation simulated scenarios. Results Overall, 33.9% of the firefighters had at least two cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the Target Group, firefighters who had higher leisure-time physical activity had a lower resting heart rate and a lower average working heart rate, and spent a smaller proportion of time working at a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workload. Firefighters who had moderate aerobic fitness and high leisure-time physical activity had a lower peak working heart rate during the mountain rescue scenario compared with firefighters who had low leisure-time physical activities. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity conferred significant benefits during job tasks of moderate cardiovascular workload in firefighters in Hong Kong.

  5. Respiratory fitness, free living physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk in older individuals: a doubly labeled water study.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, R V; Tchernof, A; Starling, R D; Ades, P A; DiPietro, L; Poehlman, E T

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness vs. physical activity energy expenditure on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors in older individuals. One hundred and seventeen older individuals, 53 men (68 +/- 9 yr) and 63 women (67 +/- 7 yr), participated in the study. This cohort was divided into 4 groups: 1) high cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical activity, 2) high cardiorespiratory fitness and low physical activity, 3) low cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical activity, and 4) low cardiorespiratory fitness and low physical activity. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was determined from a graded exercise test, physical activity energy expenditure was measured by doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and dietary practices were determined by a 3-day recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness exerted greater effects on the cardiovascular disease risk profile than physical activity. That is, older individuals with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, regardless of their physical activity levels, showed lower levels of fasting insulin (P < 0.01), triglycerides (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05), total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05), low density lipoprotein (P < 0.05), and lower waist circumference (P < 0.01). Moreover, individuals with a high cardiorespiratory fitness but low physical activity energy expenditure displayed a more favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile than individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical activity energy expenditure. The results suggest that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness have greater cardioprotective effects than higher levels of free living physical activity in older individuals. Although these findings do not discount the health benefits of being physically active, it is possible that greater emphasis should be placed on aerobic exercise to increase cardiorespiratory fitness in the elderly. PMID:10720023

  6. Aerobic fitness, blood lipids, and body fat in children.

    PubMed Central

    Hager, R L; Tucker, L A; Seljaas, G T

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and serum cholesterol and the effects of controlling for gender, body composition, abdominal fat, and dietary saturated fat in 262 children. The 1-mile run was used to estimate fitness. Skinfolds were used in assessing body fat. Fit children had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than unfit children, except after adjustment for body fat and/or abdominal fat. Unfit children appear to be at an increased risk of unhealthy levels of serum cholesterol due primarily to increased levels of body fat. PMID:7503350

  7. Stress habituation, body shape and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Peters, Achim; McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    High cardiovascular mortality is well documented in lean phenotypes exhibiting visceral fat accumulation. In contrast, corpulent phenotypes with predominantly subcutaneous fat accumulation display a surprisingly low mortality. The term 'obesity paradox' reflects the difficulty in understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these clinical observations. The allostatic load model of chronic stress focuses on glucocorticoid dysregulation as part of a 'network of allostasis' involving autonomic, endocrine, metabolic, and immune mediators. Here, we expand upon the energetic demands of the brain and show that 'habituators' and 'non-habituators' develop divergent patterns of fat distribution. Central to this process is the recurrent rise in the cerebral energy need (arousal) that non-habituators experience during chronic stress. These neuroenergetic alterations promote visceral fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat loss, and atherogenesis with subsequent cardiovascular events. Habituators are more or less protected against such cardiovascular complications, but there is a metabolic trade-off that we shall discuss in the present paper. PMID:26148986

  8. Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting body/mind

  9. Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting body/mind…

  10. Impact of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity level on health outcomes in older persons.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Isabelle J; Ades, Philip A; Poehlman, Eric T

    2003-03-01

    It remains unclear whether health recommendations should focus on improving cardiovascular fitness or physical activity energy expenditure in older persons. Although the literature is not abundant in this area, we first examined the association between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity. It appears that cross-sectional studies support a positive association between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity energy expenditure, whereas intervention studies suggest that when aerobic exercise is implemented later in life, older individuals either do not change or decrease physical activity energy expenditure outside of the program. We also considered the impact of improvements in cardiovascular fitness and physical activity on some commonly measured health outcomes in older persons. Based on preliminary studies, it appears that improving cardiovascular fitness has a greater impact on various health outcomes, whereas increased physical activity is also associated with health benefits, although to a lesser extent. Further work should be devoted at elucidating the individual benefits of increasing cardiovascular fitness or physical activity on health outcomes in older persons. Such information will be useful in refining exercise prescription to improve health status, particularly in older persons. PMID:12663123

  11. [Body mass index and cardiovascular events: the "obesity paradox"].

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Felicita; Rio, Teresa; Lavorgna, Alberto; Coluzzi, Giulio; Santucci, Eleonora; Cecchetti, Silvia; Pennestrì, Faustino; Crea, Filippo

    2009-10-01

    Excessive body mass among healthy subjects carries an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. Excess weight implies the presence of white, viscero-abdominal fat, that promotes insulin-resistance, is infiltrated by macrophages, and is less differentiated compared to subcutaneous or brown fat. Conversely, among patients with cardiovascular disease, slim patients have a greater risk of recurrent atherothrombotic events than fatter patients ("obesity paradox"). Lean patients with cardiovascular disease, on average, have more comorbidities and haemorrhagic complications than their heavier counteparts, and probably they conceal predisposing factors that are still unknown and therefore difficult to treat. PMID:20030166

  12. Cardiovascular risk and fitness in veteran football players.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, M; Steffen, A; Pütz, K; Würtz, N; Such, U; Faude, O; Bohm, P; Meyer, T

    2016-03-01

    Veteran football players above 40 years have rarely been subject to scientific investigations. This is worrisome because their number is considerable and their cardiovascular risk probably increased. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 football players between 40 and 63 years of age. This included a medical history and physical examination, venous blood sampling, measurement of resting blood pressure, a resting electrocardiogram (ECG), an exhaustive cycle ergometry and a multistage field test. Also, measurements of heart rate and blood lactate concentration were carried out during one typical training session and one match. Participants trained 1.0 ± 0.6 sessions per week and played 27 ± 8 matches per season. Of them, 19% were smokers. Resting blood pressure was 138 ± 15/88 ± 8 mmHg. Hypertension prevalence (WHO definition) was 66%. Total cholesterol averaged 220 ± 41 mg . dl(-1), HDL 46 ± 13 mg . dl(-1) and LDL 134 ± 33 mg . dl(-1). The average 10-year risk for cardiovascular events (Framingham score) was 6%. Mean maximal power output on the cycle ergometer was 2.8 ± 0.6 W . kg(-1), mean VO2peak 40.0 ± 7.3 ml . min(-1) . kg(-1). Comparing training and competition, no significant differences in cardiovascular and metabolic load were found. In summary, their cardiovascular risk was similar to age-adjusted reference values. However, they showed slightly better ergometric performance. More frequent training stimuli might be necessary to reach more favourable risk factor profiles. Training and competition lead to similar cardiocirculatory and metabolic stress which is considerably high and might put players into danger who have pre-existing cardiac disease. PMID:26691390

  13. Cardiovascular Fitness of Young Canadian Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Mike

    2003-01-01

    This study compared cardiovascular fitness of 60 children (mean age 95 months) either with or without mental retardation (MR). Results indicated that nondisabled children exhibited significantly greater levels of aerobic fitness than those with MR and supported the need for a critical examination of physical activity programs for children with MR.

  14. Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166190 cm and aged 2042 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition super body category. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.66.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 23.77 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

  15. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  16. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-12-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  17. Serum Neuregulin-1? as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Moondra, Vaibhav; Sarma, Satyam; Buxton, Tracy; Safa, Radwan; Cote, Gregory; Storer, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Sawyer, Douglas B

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Neuregulins (NRG) are growth factors that bind to receptors of the erbB family, and are known to mediate a number of processes involved in diverse tissues. Neuregulin-1? is expressed in skeletal muscle and is activated by exercise. We hypothesized that NRG-1? might circulate in the bloodstream and increase as a consequence of physical activity. A study was conducted in healthy subjects to determine if NRG-1? is immunodetectable in human serum, and if so whether levels relate acutely or chronically to exercise. METHODS Nine healthy men underwent three bouts of exercise of varying degrees of intensity on a bicycle ergometer over a period of three weeks. Cardio-respiratory fitness was determined by measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum was sampled prior to and immediately after each session (up to 30 minutes post) and serum NRG-1? was quantified utilizing an indirect sandwich ELISA assay developed in our lab. RESULTS Across subjects, mean serum NRG-1? levels ranged from 32 ng/mL to 473 ng/mL. Individual subjects showed relatively stable levels during the study period that did not change acutely after exercise. Serum NRG-1? demonstrated a positive correlation with VO2max (r2=0.49, p =.044). CONCLUSIONS These preliminary observations suggest that at least in healthy men, serum NRG-1? is an indicator of cardio-respiratory fitness and does not change acutely with exercise. PMID:20634924

  18. Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

  19. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management. PMID:26907579

  20. Long-term outcome after exercising throughout pregnancy: fitness and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, James F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to test the null hypothesis that continuing vigorous weight-bearing exercise throughout pregnancy has no discernible long-term effect on indices of fitness and/or cardiovascular risk. STUDY DESIGN This was a follow-up observational study of the fitness and cardiovascular risk profile of 39 women conducted on the General Clinical Research Center at the University of Vermont. Data were analyzed using the paired Student t test, analysis of variance, and linear regression. RESULTS Women who voluntarily maintain their exercise regimen during pregnancy continue to exercise over time at a higher level than those who stop. Over time they also gain less weight (3.4 vs 9.9 kg), deposit less fat (2.2 vs 6.7 kg), have increased fitness, and have a lower cardiovascular risk profile than those who stop. CONCLUSION Women who continue weight-bearing exercise during pregnancy maintain their long-term fitness and have a low cardiovascular risk profile in the perimenopausal period. PMID:18667190

  1. The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

  2. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Claudiu; Bojinc?, Violeta; Opri?, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75?RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients. PMID:24808969

  3. Cardiovascular Fitness and Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Melissa Spezia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This descriptive study of adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes examined the relationships between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity (PA) with generic or health-related quality of life (QoL), glycemic control, and lipids. Design and Methods Graded ergometry testing for fitness, fasting assays for lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), and self-reported PA and QoL instruments were completed with 151 adolescents. Results Adolescents with type 2 diabetes had lower fitness. Fitness was associated with improved lipids, A1C, health perception, and athletic competence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Practice Implications Interventions to encourage active lifestyles are imperative for adolescents with diabetes. PMID:20880279

  4. Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (−6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (−0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  6. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  7. Cardiovascular dynamics associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sather, T. M.; Goldwater, D. J.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify cardiovascular responses associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Eighteen men, ages 29-51 years, were categorized as high (HT) or low (LT) LBNP-tolerant based on a graded presyncopal-limited LBNP exposure criterion of -60 mm Hg relative to ambient pressure. Groups were matched for physical characteristics and pre-LBNP cardiovascular measurements, with the exceptions of greater (p less than 0.05) end-diastolic volume and cardiac output in the HT group. During peak LBNP, cardiac output was similar in both groups, although the HT group displayed a greater heart rate (p less than 0.05). In both groups, venous return appeared to limit cardiac output resulting in decreased arterial pressure. Tolerance to LBNP did not appear solely dependent on the absolute amount of blood pooled in the legs since the HT group demonstrated a greater (p less than 0.05) peak LBNP-induced increase in midthigh-leg volume. Greater tolerance to LBNP was associated with a larger pre-LBNP cardiac output reserve and higher compensatory increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance.

  8. Cardiovascular fitness is associated with bias between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tomaz, S A; Lambert, E V; Karpul, D; Kolbe-Alexander, T L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research study was to determine whether the level of agreement between self-reported and objective measures of physical activity (PA) is influenced by cardiovascular fitness. Participants (n = 113) completed the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), a health risk assessment and a sub-maximal 12-minute step test. Age-predicted [Formula: see text] was used to classify participants as lower fit and higher fit (HF). ActiGraph (GT3X) accelerometers were worn for 7 consecutive days. Matthews cut points were used to calculate minutes of moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) per week. Bland-Altman plots were used to measure limits of agreement between GPAQ and ActiGraph MVPA. The participants' mean age was 37.9 12.7 years and more than 60% were categorised as HF (n = 71). Moderate PA was over-reported in 39% of all participants. Most of the over-reporters for moderate PA were in the HF group (64.1%). Vigorous PA was over-reported by 72.6% of all participants. The discrepancy between self-reported and objective measures of vigorous PA increased with increasing self-reported time spent in vigorous PA. Fitter individuals appear to over-report PA more than lesser fit participants, suggesting that fitness could influence the level of agreement between self-reported and objective measures of PA. PMID:25537282

  9. Fitness, Body Habitus, and the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Franklin, Barry A; Choo, Jina; Yoon, Eun Sun; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Park, Won Hah

    2016-02-15

    The relative contributions of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body habitus to predict incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain unclear. We prospectively investigated the relation of CRF and body habitus on the risk of developing T2DM in men. Participants included 3,770 apparently healthy men who initially presented without baseline evidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Participants were divided into 3 groups as normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), obese I (25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese II (≥30.0 kg/m(2)). CRF was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and categorized into unfit and fit cohorts based on the median value of age-specific VO2peak. Diabetes was defined as a glycated hemoglobin >6.5% and/or a fasting glucose >126 mg/dl at baseline and follow-up examinations. During a median follow-up of 5 years, 170 men (4.5%) developed diabetes. After adjusting for age and fasting glucose, the relative risk and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident T2DM were 1.52 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.07) for obese I and 3.11 (95% CI 1.35 to 7.16) for obese II versus normal weight and 0.69 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.95) for fit versus unfit. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders with VO2peak (1.32; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.83 for obese I and 1.61, 95% CI 0.64 to 4.06 for obese II vs normal weight) or body mass index (0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05 for fit vs unfit). In the joint analysis, obese-unfit men had 1.81 times (95% CI 1.22 to 2.69) greater risk of incident T2DM, but obese-fit men were not at increased risk of incident T2DM (0.95, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.58) compared with fit-normal weight men. In conclusion, these results suggest that both CRF and obesity predict the incidence of T2DM independent of potential confounders; however, CRF appears to attenuate the risk of developing diabetes in obese men. PMID:26721657

  10. Vitamin D status, body composition, and fitness measures in college-aged students.

    PubMed

    Forney, Laura A; Earnest, Conrad P; Henagan, Tara M; Johnson, Loren E; Castleberry, Todd J; Stewart, Laura K

    2014-03-01

    Low vitamin D, commonly assessed as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), is associated with the development of many age-related chronic diseases. A positive relationship exists between elevated 25OHD and muscle synthesis, strength, power, and decreased body fat in elderly individuals. However, these findings have not been consistently reported in younger healthy populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25OHD and measures of body size, composition, metabolism, and physical fitness in a young physically active population. Thirty-nine subjects (20 men, 19 women; aged 23 ± 0.7 years) reported 6 times for testing. Blood was collected to determine 25OHD. Primary outcomes included the following: body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (dual x-ray absorptiometry); resting metabolic rate; maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); power output (Wingate); and muscular strength (8 repetition maximum for bench press, upright row, and leg extension and flexion exercises). Our analysis included all participants, and subgroup analyses for individuals with suboptimal 25OHD concentration below 35 ng·mL ("low"; n = 20, 25.97 ± 1.97 ng·mL) or equal to and above 35 ng·mL ("high"; n = 19, 44.15 ± 2.17 ng·mL). Twenty subjects in this study had serum levels of 25OHD below 35 ng·mL. There was a significant positive relationship between V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and serum 25OHD and a negative relationship between BMI and serum 25OHD. These data suggest that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent even in a young physically active population in the southern United States and that there was a positive relationship between a measure of cardiovascular fitness and serum 25OHD, and a negative relationship between serum 25OHD and BMI. PMID:23897020

  11. Matrix Rigidity-Modulated Cardiovascular Organoid Formation from Embryoid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Shkumatov, Artem; Baek, Kwanghyun; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell clusters, such as embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells, are extensively studied for creation of multicellular clusters and complex functional tissues. It is common to control phenotypes of ES cells with varying molecular compounds; however, there is still a need to improve the controllability of cell differentiation, and thus, the quality of created tissue. This study demonstrates a simple but effective strategy to promote formation of vascularized cardiac muscle - like tissue in EBs and form contracting cardiovascular organoids by modulating the stiffness of a cell adherent hydrogel. Using collagen-conjugated polyacrylamide hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli, we discovered that cellular organization in a form of vascularized cardiac muscle sheet was maximal on the gel with the stiffness similar to cardiac muscle. We envisage that the results of this study will greatly contribute to better understanding of emergent behavior of stem cells in developmental and regeneration process and will also expedite translation of EB studies to drug-screening device assembly and clinical treatments. PMID:24732893

  12. Dancers' Body Esteem, Fitness Esteem, and Self-Esteem in Three Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zelst, Laura; Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two college-aged, ballet and modern dancers evaluated their bodies and themselves in different dance and non-dance settings. In a self-report survey design, dancers' body esteem, fitness esteem, and self-esteem (an overall self-evaluation) were measured in three different contexts. Dancers rated their body esteem, fitness esteem, and…

  13. Impact of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness on total homocysteine concentrations in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Benser, Jasmin; Valtuea, Jara; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Breidenassel, Christina; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjstrm, Michael; Molnar, Denes; Gmez-Martnez, Sonia; Kafatos, Antony; Palacios, Gonzalo; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Stehle, Peter; Gonzlez-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8 1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.102) and positively with body mass index (r=0.100). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.05). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents. PMID:25994139

  14. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  15. Physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

    2014-07-01

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children. PMID:25032742

  16. A Fitness Intervention Program within a Physical Education Class on Cardiovascular Endurance among Malaysia Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengasamy, Shabeshan; Raju, Subramaniam; Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Roa, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a physical fitness intervention program within a physical education class on cardiovascular endurance of Malaysian secondary school boys and girls. A quasi experimental design was adopted for the study. Two schools in a district were randomly selected. In each school, two classes were randomly…

  17. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for

  18. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  19. Short-term Effects of a Physical Activity Intervention on Obesity and Cardiovascular Fitness of 12-14-year-old Boy Students

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Minasian, Vazgen; Kelishadi, Roya; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Borojeni, Marjan Momeni; Borghi, Sayed Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some local governments have implemented strategies to increase physical activity as a way to control obesity in children, but in Iranian students few studies have evaluated the effects of such interventions on overweight and obese children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term school-based physical activity on obesity and cardiovascular fitness in 12-14-year-old boy students. Methods: This study showed an intervention effect on some health-related fitness factors in students. A number of 127 boy students aged 1214 years, in the city of Isfahan, based on preventive plan of inactivity in children at the provincial Health office selected randomly as subjects. Measurement variables include; weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), body-fat percent and aerobic power of subjects measured by valid tests. Results: This study revealed that body-fat percentage of this students changed near to 17.84% (42.25% pretest vs. 34.71% posttest), WHR 0.44%, (0.915 pretest vs. 0.911 posttest), VO2 max changed 8.54% (27.84 pretest vs. 30.22 posttest) whereas BMI was changed 2.61% (26.81 pretest vs. 26.03 posttest). Results also revealed that there were significant differences between fat percent, (P = 0.001) and VO2 max (P = 0.001), but there was no difference between BMI of subjects in pre and posttests (P = 0.452). Conclusions: Findings of this study signify that an implementation of short-term intervention components in the school system may have a beneficial effect on body-fat percentage and cardiovascular fitness of overweight/obese children. PMID:26157560

  20. Long-Term Effects of the RealFit Intervention on Body Composition, Aerobic Fitness, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Maria W.J.; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Mulkens, Sandra; Mujakovic, Suhreta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: RealFit is a 13-week weight reduction program for youth that focuses on nutrition, physical activity (PA), psychology, and parental participation. The short-term effectiveness of the RealFit intervention, in terms of body composition, aerobic fitness, and dietary and PA behavior, having been proven, the present study evaluated the long-term effects of the intervention. Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design. Height, weight, waist circumference, aerobic fitness, and self-reported dietary and PA behavior were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the 13-week RealFit intervention (T1), after 5 months (T2), and 1 year (T3) of follow-up. A total of 86 adolescents participated in the intervention group. The control group (n=32) comprised overweight adolescents who did not receive any treatment. Results: One year after the RealFit intervention, significant decreases in BMI z-score (mean difference [MD]: ?0.39) and waist circumference (MD, ?3.24) were found. The comparison between the intervention and control groups, controlling for confounders, resulted in a significant difference (BMI z-score: ?0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.67 to ?0.15; waist circumference: ?8.07; 95% CI: ?11.58 to ?4.56). The results for dietary and PA behavior consistently showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: The RealFit intervention appears to have significant favorable long-term effects on BMI z-score and waist circumference. These changes in body composition obviously represent changes in adolescents' energy balance-related behavior. Taking all results and limitations into account, it may cautiously be concluded that RealFit is an effective weight loss intervention. PMID:25302441

  1. Effects of Training and Detraining on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity Patterns, Cardiovascular Variables, and HRQoL after 3 Health-Promotion Interventions in Institutionalized Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Alexandrina; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of different strategies of health on the levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and quality of life (QoL) of the institutionalized elderly. Concurrently studies were made of the effect of detraining on these same variables. In this investigation we carried out a prospective longitudinal study with an experimental design, with 1 year plus 3 months of a detraining period. Methodology. (a) A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics and a QoL scale (MOS SF-36); (b) Functional Fitness Test to assess PF; (c) An MTI Actigraph to evaluate the PA; (d) Biochemical analysis of blood, blood pressure and bio-impedance. The Main Results Indicated That: (i) ST significantly improved strength and body flexibility and AT the aerobic endurance, agility/dynamic balance and lower strength and flexibility; (ii) Implications of detraining were more evident on the PA groups in the lower body flexibility, which is associated with agility/dynamic balance and lower strength in the AT group; (iii) Cardiovascular variables improved significantly especially blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose in the ST and HDL in the AT group; not having undergone significant changes with the detraining. The results of this thesis contribute positively to highlight the importance of PA in the promotion of health, prevention and reduction of CVD risk factors and the improvement of the PF and QoL. PMID:22332008

  2. A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

  3. Cardiovascular model for the simulation of exercise, lower body negative pressure, and tilt experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.; Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical model and digital computer simulation of the human cardiovascular system and its controls have been developed to simulate pulsatile dynamic responses to the cardiovascular experiments of the Skylab missions and to selected physiological stresses of manned space flight. Specific model simulations of the bicycle ergometry, lower body negative pressure, and tilt experiments have been developed and verified for 1-g response by comparison with available experimental data. The zero-g simulations of two Skylab experiments are discussed.

  4. Effects of body image on college students' attitudes toward diet/fitness apps on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, H Erin; Kim, Sun Jin; Park, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Considering the increasing use of diet/fitness apps, this study aimed to investigate how four factors related to body image--evaluations of and orientations toward both appearance and fitness--impact college students' perception of the usefulness of such apps. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study tested a path model examining the relationships among the four body-image-oriented factors, perceived usefulness (PU) of diet/fitness apps, and behavioral intention to use such apps. Results from a path analysis revealed that while college students' evaluation of appearance and fitness decreased the PU of diet/fitness apps, their orientation toward fitness increased the same outcome variable. PMID:25584729

  5. The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.

    PubMed

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother. PMID:21751481

  6. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  7. Application of the IAP cardiovascular fitness test protocol for Austromars candidate screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasser, E. K.; Goswami, N.; Jantscher, A.; Roessler, A.; Vrecko, K.; Groemer, G.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    2007-10-01

    Rationale: The purpose of our research was to test for cardiovascular stability within 16 Austromars candidates, and to determine hemodynamic variables and hormones in a presyncopal state as evoked by a specific test protocol. Procedures and methods: We used a graded orthostatic stress (GOS) paradigm consisting of head-up tilt (HUT) combined with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to a presyncopal end-point on 15 males and one healthy female. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored and venous blood samples taken. Results: From supine control to presyncope, mean standing time was 12.3 ± 1.2 min, heart rate (HR) increased by 68 ± 12% (p < 0.0001) and thoracic impedance (TI) rose by 12 ± 1% (p < 0.0001), whereas following parameters decreased: stroke volume index (SI) 44 ± 4% (p < 0.0001), systolic pressure (SBP) 26 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), diastolic pressure (DBP) 16 ± 5% (p = 0.004), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 19 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), pulse pressure 41 ± 8% (p = 0.0003) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) 11 ± 5% (p = 0.03). Heart rate and blood pressure variabilities decreased together with pulse pressure. Plasma volume decreased by 11 ± 2% (p = 0.0004). Plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased by 86 ± 16% (p = 0.0001), epinephrine (E) by 460 ± 266% (p = 0.06), cortisol by 10 ± 6% (p = 0.02), plasma renin activity by 147 ± 26% (p = 0.002) and aldosterone by 24 ± 21% (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Our combined HUT- graded LBNP paradigm is useful to study CV regulation and hormonal responses under severe stress conditions.

  8. Effects of Body Image on College Students' Attitudes Toward Diet/Fitness Apps on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Sun Jin; Park, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Considering the increasing use of diet/fitness apps, this study aimed to investigate how four factors related to body image—evaluations of and orientations toward both appearance and fitness—impact college students' perception of the usefulness of such apps. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study tested a path model examining the relationships among the four body-image-oriented factors, perceived usefulness (PU) of diet/fitness apps, and behavioral intention to use such apps. Results from a path analysis revealed that while college students' evaluation of appearance and fitness decreased the PU of diet/fitness apps, their orientation toward fitness increased the same outcome variable. PMID:25584729

  9. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and fainting. Various pre-reentry hyperhydration procedures have been utilized to counteract the GRS. Thus, the somewhat decreased central venous pressure and lack of diuresis early in spaceflight suggests mechanisms other than the Gauer-Henry reflex are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts. Inflight hypohydration and hypovolemia are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts.

  10. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  11. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  12. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination

  13. Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

  14. Influence of aerobic fitness and body fatness on tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, G A; McLellan, T M

    2001-11-01

    This study examined the independent and combined importance of aerobic fitness and body fatness on physiological tolerance and exercise time during weight-bearing exercise while wearing a semipermeable protective ensemble. Twenty-four men and women were matched for aerobic fitness and body fatness in one of four groups (4 men and 2 women in each group). Aerobic fitness was expressed per kilogram of lean body mass (LBM) to eliminate the influence of body fatness on the expression of fitness. Subjects were defined as trained (T; regularly active with a peak aerobic power of 65 ml x kg LBM(-1) x min(-1)) or untrained (UT; sedentary with a peak aerobic power of 53 ml x kg LBM(-1) x min(-1)) with high (High; 20%) or low (Low; 11%) body fatness. Subjects exercised until exhaustion or until rectal temperature reached 39.5 degrees C or heart rate reached 95% of maximum. Exercise times were significantly greater in T(Low) (116 +/- 6.5 min) compared with their matched sedentary (UT(Low); 70 +/- 3.6 min) or fatness (T(High); 82 +/- 3.9 min) counterparts, indicating an advantage for both a high aerobic fitness and low body fatness. However, similar effects were not evident between T(High) and UT(High) (74 +/- 4.1 min) or between the UT groups (UT(Low) and UT(High)). The major advantage attributed to a higher aerobic fitness was the ability to tolerate a higher core temperature at exhaustion (the difference being as great as 0.9 degrees C), whereas both body fatness and rate of heat storage affected the exercise time as independent factors. PMID:11641344

  15. A novel approach for fit analysis of thermal protective clothing using three-dimensional body scanning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden. PMID:24793820

  16. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  17. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  18. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  19. Differences in health behavior, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk in early, average, and late mature children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Wartha, Olivia; Klenk, Jochen; Brandstetter, Susanne; Wabitsch, Martin; Steinacker, Jrgen

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the association between biological maturity, CVD risk, fitness and health behavior in 709 (359 male, 350 female) 8-year-old children (range: 6.3-8.9 years). Sports participation and sedentary behavior was assessed via parent questionnaire. Height and weight was measured and maturity status was predicted based on % of adult-height reached. Fitness was assessed via a test battery and CVD risk was determined using mean arterial pressure, cholesterol and intra-abdominal fat. BMIpercentiles (BMIPCT) differed significantly among early, average and late maturing children. Early maturing children displayed a higher CVD risk profile (0.5 vs. -0.2), lower fitness scores (-0.4 vs. 0.2), and spent more time watching TV (51 vs. 43 min/day) compared with their peers. After controlling for BMIPCT differences remained only for fitness in boys and TV time in girls. PMID:23406708

  20. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  1. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school

  2. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated

  3. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI) centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT) was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:25839035

  4. Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

  5. Integrative role of the lamina terminalis in the regulation of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A K; Cunningham, J T; Thunhorst, R L

    1996-02-01

    1. Cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis depends upon the activation and co-ordination of reflexes and behavioural responses. In order to accomplish this, the brain receives and processes both neural and chemical input. Once in the brain, information from sources signalling the status of the cardiovascular system and body fluid balance travels, and is integrated, throughout a widely distributed neural network. Recent studies using neuroanatomical and functional techniques have identified several key areas within this neural network. One major processing node is comprised of structures located along the lamina terminalis. 2. Structures associated with the lamina terminalis include the median preoptic nucleus (MePO) and two sensory circumventricular organs (SCVO), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Current evidence indicates that blood-borne signals, such as angiotensin II (AngII), reach SCVO (e.g. SFO) where they are transduced. This information is then carried via neural pathways to brain nuclei (e.g. MePO) where it is integrated with other inputs, such as those derived from systemic arterial blood pressure and volume receptors. 3. Because of their receptive and integrative functions, lamina terminalis structures are essential for the normal control of hormone release (e.g. vasopressin), sympathetic activation and behaviours (thirst and salt appetite), which collectively contribute to maintenance of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis. PMID:8819650

  6. Assessment of cardiovascular function from multi-Gaussian fitting of a finger photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Ricardo; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P; Henriques, J; Quintal, I; Antunes, M; Muehlsteff, J; Eickholt, C; Brinkmeyer, C; Kelm, M; Meyer, C

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring of cardiovascular function on a beat-to-beat basis is fundamental for protecting patients in different settings including emergency medicine and interventional cardiology, but still faces technical challenges and several limitations. In the present study, we propose a new method for the extraction of cardiovascular performance surrogates from analysis of the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal alone.We propose using a multi-Gaussian (MG) model consisting of five Gaussian functions to decompose the PPG pulses into its main physiological components. From the analysis of these components, we aim to extract estimators of the left ventricular ejection time, blood pressure and vascular tone changes. Using a multi-derivative analysis of the components related with the systolic ejection, we investigate which are the characteristic points that best define the left ventricular ejection time (LVET). Six LVET estimates were compared with the echocardiographic LVET in a database comprising 68 healthy and cardiovascular diseased volunteers. The best LVET estimate achieved a low absolute error (15.41??????13.66?ms), and a high correlation (? = 0.78) with the echocardiographic reference.To assess the potential use of the temporal and morphological characteristics of the proposed MG model components as surrogates for blood pressure and vascular tone, six parameters have been investigated: the stiffness index (SI), the T1_d and T1_2 (defined as the time span between the MG model forward and reflected waves), the reflection index (RI), the R1_d and the R1_2 (defined as their amplitude ratio). Their association to reference values of blood pressure and total peripheral resistance was investigated in 43 volunteers exhibiting hemodynamic instability. A good correlation was found between the majority of the extracted and reference parameters, with an exception to R1_2 (amplitude ratio between the main forward wave and the first reflection wave), which correlated low with all the reference parameters. The highest correlation ([Formula: see text] = 0.45) was found between T1_2 and the total peripheral resistance index (TPRI); while in the patients that experienced syncope, the highest agreement ([Formula: see text] = 0.57) was found between SI and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean blood pressure (MBP).In conclusion, the presented method for the extraction of surrogates of cardiovascular performance might improve patient monitoring and warrants further investigation. PMID:26235798

  7. Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments.

    PubMed

    Brdsen, Brd-Jrgen; Nss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

    2014-04-01

    For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

  8. On the Trail to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The University of Hartford planned fitness trail will allow students to develop their bodies by providing a jogging route to improve cardiovascular fitness and exercise stations designed to provide warm-up exercises and improve strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance. (Author/MLF)

  9. Anthropometrics, body composition, and aerobic fitness in Norwegian home guard personnel.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2014-11-01

    The Norwegian Home Guard (HG) consists of soldiers and officers who primarily live a civilian life but are typically called in for military training a few days per year. Although full-time soldiers and officers are monitored annually on physical fitness, no such assessments are performed on regular HG personnel. Data on physical fitness of similar forces from other nations are also scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study was to collect reference data on physical fitness in HG personnel. A total of 799 male soldiers and officers from the regular and the rapid reaction HG force participated in this study. Between 13 and 19% of the subjects were obese, according to measured body mass index, waist circumference and estimations of body fat. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated peak oxygen uptake from the 20-m shuttle run test was 50.1 (49.7-50.6) mLkgminute. Personnel from the rapid reaction force had a more favorable body composition compared with the regular HG personnel, whereas no differences were found for peak oxygen uptake. The physical demands on HG personnel are not well defined, but we believe that the majority of Norwegian HG soldiers and officers have a sufficient aerobic fitness level to fulfill their planned HG tasks. The gathered data can be used by military leaders to review the ability of the HG to perform expected military tasks, to serve as a future reference material for secular changes in HG fitness level, and for comparison purposes among similar international reserve forces. PMID:24832972

  10. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American

  11. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or sedentary individuals. The measurement of energy expenditure across yoga sessions is highly reliable. PMID:18053143

  12. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscositya Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gatan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

  13. Entering a New Era of Body Indices: The Feasibility of a Body Shape Index and Body Roundness Index to Identify Cardiovascular Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J. H. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Verbeek, Andr L. M.; de Vegt, Femmie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. Objective This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC. Design and Methods 4627 Participants (5412 years) of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors) and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index. Results 1332 participants (27.7%) reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.47.2), BMI 2.4 (1.93.1), and WC 3.0 (1.65.6). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.03.3), BMI 3.3 (1.66.8), and WC 2.0 (1.62.5). No association was observed for ABSI in both groups. Conclusions BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC. PMID:25229394

  14. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

  15. Relationship between body composition and both cardiovascular risk factors and lung function in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Biasi, Domenico; Caimmi, Cristian; Barausse, Giovanni; Gatti, Davide; Ferrari, Marcello; Pieropan, Sara; Sabbagh, Dania; Adami, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate body composition in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to assess its association with the traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis and parameters of lung function. Eighty-six patients affected by SSc (13 men and 73 women, mean age 58.5years, mean disease duration 10.7years, 31 with diffuse form and 55 with limited pattern) underwent evaluation of body composition using a dual-energy X-ray (DXA) fan beam densitometer (GE Lunar iDXA) in order to assess total and regional body fat mass and fat-free mass. Clinical features, pulmonary function parameters, and the concomitant presence of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Android fat resulted to be higher in SSc patients with coexistence of hypercholesterolemia (P?=?0.021), hypertension (P?=?0.028), and overweight/obesity (P?body mass index (P?cardiovascular risk factors and lung volumes in SSc patients. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate if decrease of abdominal fat would improve lung function. PMID:24052413

  16. Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  17. Rat cardiovascular responses to whole body suspension - Head-down and non-head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments aimed at examining the versatility of the whole body suspension (WBS) system as a ground-based model for cardiovascular effects of microgravity are described. The first experiment studied heart rate and arterial pressure responses in rats during a 7-day period of head-down tilt (HDT) or nonhead-down tilt (NHDT) and after removal from whole body suspension (WBS). Mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures increased about 20 percent in HDT rats on the fist day, heart rates were elevated about 10 percent. During postsuspension most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. The second experiment evaluated responses to rapid head-up tilt in HDT and NHDT rats. It was observed that, while pulse pressures remained unchanged, MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated in HDT and NHDT rats during head-up tilt after one day of suspension. The WBS rats are considered to be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  18. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  19. Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

  20. Acrolein inhalation alters arterial blood gases and triggers carotid body-mediated cardiovascular responses in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Christina M.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Winsett, Darrell W.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Air pollution exposure affects autonomic function, heart rate, blood pressure and left ventricular function. While the mechanism for these effects is uncertain, several studies have reported that air pollution exposure modifies activity of the carotid body, the major organ that senses changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and elicits downstream changes in autonomic control and cardiac function. Objective We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde and mucosal irritant found in cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust, would activate the carotid body chemoreceptor response and lead to secondary cardiovascular responses in rats. Materials and methods Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed once for 3 h to 3 ppm acrolein gas or filtered air in whole body plethysmograph chambers. To determine if the carotid body mediated acrolein-induced cardiovascular responses, rats were pretreated with an inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme essential for carotid body signal transduction. Results Acrolein exposure induced several cardiovascular effects. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure increased during exposure, while cardiac contractility decreased 1 day after exposure. The cardiovascular effects were associated with decreases in pO2, breathing frequency and expiratory time, and increases in sympathetic tone during exposure followed by parasympathetic dominance after exposure. The CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein exposure. Discussion and conclusion Pretreatment with the CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein, suggesting that the cardiovascular responses with acrolein may be mediated by carotid body-triggered changes in autonomic tone. (This abstract does not reflect EPA policy.) PMID:25600140

  1. Sex Difference in the Effect of Whole Body Heating on Cardiovascular Functions.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Biswajit; Dubey, D K

    2015-01-01

    Cold pressor test (CPT) is a well-known method for evaluating non-baroreflex mediated autonomic cardiovascular functions in humans. It has been reported that autonomic cardiovascular response to CPT differs in males and females and that heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during CPT. Study has also indicated that heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during CPT. The present study assessed the autonomic cardiovascular reactivity in males and females during cold pressor test before and after whole body heating for 40 min. 20 healthy Indian males and 18 females participated in the study. The participants were exposed to 40C dry bulb temperature and 40% relative humidity in a simulated thermal chamber. They performed CPT before and after heat stress and their beat to beat heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. It was observed that baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was significantly lower in females during CPT before heat stress (p < 0.01) as well as after heat stress (p < 0.01). Moreover, following whole body heating, the BRS during CPT increased slightly in females but not in males. Stroke Volume (SV) increased significantly during CPT before heat stress in females from pre-heat baseline (82 ml/beat vs. 101 ml/beat) (p < 0.001) as well as during CPT after heat stress from post-heat baseline (75 ml/beat vs. 95 ml/ beat) (p < 0.01). SV increased significantly in males during CPT after heat stress only (p < 0.01) as compared to post-heat baseline (82.5 ml/beat vs. 94.5 ml/beat). Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability indicated that during CPT, low frequency power in males was higher than females (p < 0.05) and high frequency power was higher in females than males (p < 0.05). This suggests that autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function during CPT in males is mediated mainly via sympathetic neural system and in females it is mediated via vagal system. LF/HF ratio during CPT was found to be significantly higher in males (2.54) than females (1.27) before heat stress (p < 0.01). PMID:26685500

  2. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. PMID:25269064

  3. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  4. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Conclusions Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. PMID:25159728

  5. The Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Fitness from Physical Education in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Phillips, Jennie; Young, Deborah R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) can improve physical fitness; however, little research has evaluated PE's long-term influence. The purpose is to determine PE's longitudinal effects on fitness in a group of adolescent girls and to determine whether body mass index (BMI) status influenced any potential effects. Methods: Participants were

  6. Cardiovascular manifestations of anabolic steroids in association with demographic variables in body building athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Piri-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Masoumi, Gholam Reza; Behjati, Mohaddaseh; Paydar, Parva

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common drug abuse among athletes is anabolic steroids which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes of anabolic consumption in body building athletes. Materials and Methods: Totally, 267 male athletes at the range of 20-45 years old with the regular consumption of anabolic steroids for >2 months with at least once weekly. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), and hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured after 10 h of fasting. Data analysis was performed using K2, t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient through SPSS 17. Results: There was a nonsignificant difference between groups regarding HDL, TG, and total cholesterol. There was a significant decrease in the total and categorized LDL and Hct levels in consumers of anabolic steroid versus nonusers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.041, respectively). Results showed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in anabolic steroid users which associates with duration of abuse (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). No significant electrocardiography changes were found within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Increase in SBP or DBP is a common complication of these drugs which can lead serious vascular disorders. The lower LDL cholesterol level might be due to the higher amounts of lipid consumption in these athletes. PMID:25983770

  7. Obesity as Assessed by Body Adiposity Index and Multivariable Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Welborn, Timothy A.; Goh, Louise G. H.; Howat, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the role of body adiposity index (BAI) in predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, in comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist circumference to hip circumference ratio (WHR). This study was a prospective 15 year mortality follow-up of 4175 Australian males, free of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. The Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) for CHD and CVD death were calculated at baseline for all subjects. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the effects of the measures of obesity on CVD and CHD mortality, before adjustment and after adjustment for FRS. The predictive ability of BAI, though present in the unadjusted analyses, was generally not significant after adjustment for age and FRS for both CVD and CHD mortality. BMI behaved similarly to BAI in that its predictive ability was generally not significant after adjustments. Both WC and WHR were significant predictors of CVD and CHD mortality and remained significant after adjustment for covariates. BAI appeared to be of potential interest as a measure of % body fat and of obesity, but was ineffective in predicting CVD and CHD. PMID:24714547

  8. Body fat and racial genetic admixture are associated with aerobic fitness levels in a multiethnic pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Willig, Amanda L.; Hunter, Gary R.; Casazza, Krista; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate 1) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to body mass index (BMI) as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and 2) the congruence of BMI categories with high and low body fat categories of objectively measured percent body fat. Participants were 232 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American children aged 7-12 years (Tanner stage ≤ 3). Aerobic fitness was measured via a submaximal indirect calorimetry treadmill test (VO2-170), and physical activity levels with accelerometry. Genetic admixture estimates were obtained using 140 genetic ancestry informative markers to estimate European, African, and Amerindian admixture. Fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Children were classified into a low body fat group (< 25% in males, < 30% in females) or a high body fat group based on their percent body fat; children were also categorized according to BMI percentile. Children in the low body fat group had significantly higher aerobic fitness (P < 0.05) regardless of BMI percentile classification. Higher African genetic admixture was associated with lower aerobic fitness (P < 0.05), while physical activity was positively associated with fitness (P < 0.01). In conclusion, aerobic fitness levels differ by percent body fat and genetic admixture irrespective of BMI classification, and such differences should be taken into account when evaluating outcomes of health interventions. PMID:21546928

  9. Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

  10. Validity of Self-Reported Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index in a Military Population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Martin, RC, Grier, T, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, DeGroot, DW, and Jones, BH. Validity of self-reported physical fitness and body mass index in a military population. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 26-32, 2016-Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 13.1 and 66.3 14.0 for men and 37.7 12.8 and 40.2 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 11.4 and 68.1 12.1 for men and 64.2 13.6 and 66.5 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 1.8 and 14.9 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 2.9 and 17.4 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 3.4 and 26.3 3.6 for men and 24.6 2.8 and 24.2 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population. PMID:26683633

  11. High intensity interval running enhances measures of physical fitness but not metabolic measures of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, the purpose of this study was to examine whether a high intensity training (HIT) intervention could enhance the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents in a time efficient manner. Methods Participants in the study were adolescent school children (64 boys, 25 girls, 16.7 0.6 years). The intervention group (30 boys, 12 girls) performed three weekly exercise sessions over 7 weeks with each session consisting of either four to six repeats of maximal sprint running within a 20 m area with 30 s recovery. The control group were instructed to continue their normal behaviour. All participants had indices of obesity, blood pressure and nine biochemical risk markers for cardiovascular disease recorded as well as four physical performance measures at baseline and post-intervention. Feedback was provided through informal discussion throughout the intervention period as well as post-intervention focus groups. Statistical differences between and within groups were determined by use of paired samples t-tests and ANCOVA. Results Significant enhancements (P ? 0.05) in vertical jump performance, 10?m sprint speed and cardiorespiratory fitness was evident in the intervention group whereas a significant decrease in both agility and vertical jump performance was evident in the control group. Participants in the intervention group also experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure post-intervention. Limited changes occurred with respect to the biochemical markers although both groups did experience a significant increase in LDL post-intervention whilst the control group experienced a significant decrease in total cholesterol. No apparent differences were evident between groups post intervention for any of the biochemical markers. Feedback indicated that participants endorsed the use of the intervention as an effective means of exercise. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that high intensity exercise interventions may be used in the school setting for adolescents as a means of improving measures of physical fitness. Further investigations involving a larger cohort of participants, taken from different schools, is recommended. Trial registration NCT01027156 PMID:23705968

  12. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  13. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Eling D.; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A.; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. Results: All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg−1 · min−1 (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular stress. Video abstract available for more insights from the authors (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A107). PMID:26050073

  14. A computer code for three-dimensional incompressible flows using nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. S.

    1986-01-01

    In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.

  15. Aerobic fitness in women and responses to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Mathes, Karen L.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1987-01-01

    The role of tolerance to orthostatic stress in the maintenance of high aerobic fitness in women was investigated by examining the responses of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, Heather index of contractility, arterial pressure, peripheral resistance, change in calf circumference, and thoracic impedance of healthy female subjects to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) applied for 5 min at -50 mm Hg or until a subject became presyncopal. The testing protocol involved a stepwise reduction in pressure and consisted of two parts: an LBNP test in supine position followed by a treadmill test to peak aerobic capacity. Women were found to exhibit the same response pattern to LBNP as was previously reported by Convertino et al. (1984) for men. The results do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance in women is inversely related to aerobic fitness, as demonstrated by a finding that the peak aerobic capacity of subjects who became presyncopal did not differ from the peak of the tolerant subjects, and that hemodynamic responses to LBNPL were not a function of aerobic capacity.

  16. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:23762051

  17. The phytoestrogen prunetin affects body composition and improves fitness and lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Piegholdt, Stefanie; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-01

    Dietary isoflavones, a group of secondary plant compounds that exhibit phytoestrogenic properties, are primarily found in soy. Prunetin, a representative isoflavone, was recently found to affect cell signaling in cultured cells; however, in vivo effects remain elusive. In this study, the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used to investigate the effects of prunetin in vivo with respect to lifespan, locomotion, body composition, metabolism, and gut health. Adult flies were chronically administered a prunetin-supplemented diet. Prunetin improved median survival by 3 d, and climbing activity increased by 54% in males. In comparison with the females, male flies exhibited lower climbing activity, which was reversed by prunetin intake. Furthermore, prunetin-fed males exhibited increased expression of the longevity gene Sirtuin 1 (Sir2) (22%), as well as elevated AMPK activation (51%) and triglyceride levels (29%), whereas glucose levels decreased (36%). As females are long-lived compared with their male counterparts and exhibit higher triglyceride levels, prunetin apparently "feminizes" male flies via its estrogenicity. We conclude that the lifespan-prolonging effects of prunetin in the male fruit fly depend on changes in AMPK-regulated energy homeostasis via male "feminization." Collectively, we identified prunetin as a plant bioactive compound capable of improving health status and survival in male D. melanogaster.-Piegholdt, S., Rimbach, G., Wagner, A. E. The phytoestrogen prunetin affects body composition and improves fitness and lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26538555

  18. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Benda, Nathalie M. M.; Seeger, Joost P. H.; Stevens, Guus G. C. F.; Hijmans-Kersten, Bregina T. P.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Bellersen, Louise; Lamfers, Evert J. P.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Thijssen, Dick H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT. Methods Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6%) were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload—alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload) or CT (30 minutes at 60–75% of maximal workload). Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test), cardiac function and structure (echocardiography), vascular function and structure (ultrasound) and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ)). Results Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05), whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.). We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05), whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S.). Conclusion Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671 PMID:26517867

  19. The Effect of a Virtual Reality Exercise Program on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Fatigue in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyeyoung; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program (VREP) on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal failure. [Subjects and Methods] A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Forty-six HD patients were divided into exercise (n=23) and control groups (n=23); while waiting for their dialyses, the exercise group followed a VREP, and the control group received only their usual care. The VREP was accomplished using Nintendos Wii Fit Plus for 40 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks during the period of May 27 to July 19, 2013. Physical fitness (muscle strength, balance, flexibility), body composition (skeletal muscle mass, body fat rate, arm and leg muscle mass), and fatigue were measured at baseline and after the intervention. [Results] After the VREP, physical fitness and body composition significantly increased, and the level of fatigue significantly decreased in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a VREP improves physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in HD patients. Based on the findings, VREPs should be used as a health promotion programs for HD patients. PMID:25364137

  20. Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  2. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),

  3. Effect of an accelerometer on body weight and fitness in overweight and obese active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Merica; Combest, Travis; Fonda, Stephanie J; Alfonso, Abel; Guerrero, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether using a web-linked accelerometer, plus mandatory physical training, is associated with various weight- and fitness-related outcomes in overweight/obese active duty soldiers. Soldiers who failed the height/weight standards of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) were randomized to use a Polar FA20 accelerometer device (polar accelerometer group [PA], n = 15) or usual care (UC, n = 13) for 6 months. Both groups received 1.5 hours of lifestyle instruction. We collected data at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months, and evaluated group differences in temporal changes in study outcomes. At 6 months, 1/28 subjects (UC) passed the APFT height/weight standards. There were no group differences in changes in weight (PA: -0.1 kg vs. UC: +0.3 kg; p = 0.9), body fat (PA: -0.9% vs. UC: -1.1%; p = 0.9), systolic blood pressure (PA: +1.3 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.1 mm Hg; p = 0.2), diastolic blood pressure (PA: +3.8 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.4 mm Hg; p = 0.3), or resting heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) (PA: +7.8 bpm vs. UC: +0.1 bpm; p = 0.2). These results suggest that using an accelerometer with web-based feedback capabilities plus mandatory physical training does not assist in significant weight loss or ability to pass the APFT height/weight standards among overweight/obese soldiers. PMID:23356124

  4. Interactive Effects of Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index on the Risk of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE High body mass index (BMI) and low physical fitness are risk factors for hypertension, but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions between these modifiable risk factors may help inform more effective interventions in susceptible subgroups. OBJECTIVE To determine the interactive effects of BMI and physical fitness on the risk of hypertension in a large national cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cohort study included all 1 547 189 military conscripts in Sweden from January 1, 1969, through December 31, 1997 (97%–98% of all 18-year-old men nationwide each year), who were followed up through December 31, 2012 (maximum age, 62 years). Data analysis was conducted August 1 through August 15, 2015. EXPOSURES Standardized aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and BMI measurements obtained at a military conscription examination. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hypertension identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses. RESULTS A total of 93 035 men (6.0%) were diagnosed with hypertension in 39.7 million person-years of follow-up. High BMI and low aerobic capacity (but not muscular strength) were associated with increased risk of hypertension, independent of family history and socioeconomic factors (BMI, overweight or obese vs normal: incidence rate ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.46–2.55; P < .001; aerobic capacity, lowest vs highest tertile: incidence rate ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.47–1.54; P < .001). Aerobic capacity was inversely associated with hypertension across its full distribution (incidence rate ratio per 100 W, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.69–0.71; P < .001). A combination of high BMI (overweight or obese vs normal) and low aerobic capacity (lowest vs highest tertile) was associated with the highest risk of hypertension (incidence rate ratio, 3.53; 95% CI, 3.41–3.66; P < .001) and had a negative additive and multiplicative interaction (P < .001). Although high BMI was a significant risk factor for hypertension, low aerobic capacity also was a significant risk factor among those with normal BMI. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this large national cohort study, high BMI and low aerobic capacity in late adolescence were associated with higher risk of hypertension in adulthood. If confirmed, our findings suggest that interventions to prevent hypertension should begin early in life and include not only weight control but aerobic fitness, even among persons with normal BMI. PMID:26784837

  5. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

  6. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulas-Gonzlez, Roberto; Snchez-Lpez, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, ngel; Solera-Martnez, Montserrat; Martnez-Vizcano, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish

  7. Effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness during summer break

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Man-Gyoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Evidence suggests that adolescents gain more weight during the summer break than they do during the school year, and that participation in the summer school program is beneficial in maintaining their healthy lifestyle. It is known that obesity and physical fitness in adolescents can be affected by their socio-economic and psychological status, especially during a long school break. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness in underprivileged adolescents during the summer break. [Methods] Body composition and physical fitness in 138 underprivileged adolescents were measured at the beginning and end of the summer break. A survey on socio-economic and psychological status was conducted at the beginning of the summer break. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to establish a relation between psychological outcomes and changes in body composition and physical fitness during the summer break. [Results] Significant increases in body weight (p = .003) and % body fat (p = .014) as well as a decrease in VO2max (p = .018) were found in summer school non-attendants during the summer whereas no significant changes were found in summer school attendants. Summer school non-attendants with lower psychosocial outcomes had a greater decline in physical fitness and weight gain; however, summer school attendants were not affected by psychosocial outcomes. The summer school program effectively prevented summer weight gain among underprivileged adolescents due to the structured environment, restricted food access, and scheduled time for exercise in addition to minimizing the effects of their psychosocial outcomes. [Conclusion] Results indicated that summer school non-attendants may require comprehensive intervention for psychosocial outcomes and nutritional education to maintain body weight and physical fitness levels during the summer break. PMID:26244126

  8. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation. PMID:25520668

  9. Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

  10. Cardiovascular responses to head-down-body-up postural exercise (Sarvangasana).

    PubMed

    Konar, D; Latha, R; Bhuvaneswaran, J S

    2000-10-01

    Sarvangasana (SVGN) is a head-down-body-up postural exercise in a 'negative g' condition. Though highly recommended as one of the three best of all the asanas it has not yet been studied for its very obvious effects on the cardiovascular (CV) functions. This paper reports the results of the first systematic investigation on SVGN employing echocardiographic analysis in eight healthy male subjects before and after a practice of this asana twice daily for two weeks. The resting heart rate (HR) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were significantly reduced (P < 0.02, P < 0.01 respectively) after practising this asana. A tendency toward a mild regression of the left ventricular mass was noticed, though it was not statistically significant. The CV responses to acute 45 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) in a tilt table was not altered after practising this asana. Also there was no orthostatic intolerance during the 3-5 min period of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT). These results strongly indicate that further studies of this asana performed for a longer period is most likely to yield very significant observations of applied value. PMID:11214493

  11. The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)

  12. Performance comparison among children fitted with myoelectric and body-powered hands.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, J E; Berger, N

    1993-04-01

    Seventy-six children with unilateral below-elbow amputation were fitted in random sequence with a myoelectric (MYO) and a body-powered (BP) prosthetic hand of identical size, shape, and glove color. Subjects ranged from six to 17 years, nine months and included 67 children with congenital limb deficiency and nine who sustained traumatic amputation. After training, each child wore each hand for three months. On the form board test requiring only prosthetic use, subjects took 13.7% longer with the MYO and committed more errors with the MYO, specifically in dropping objects and delaying their grasp and release. Object displacement, the most common error, occurred nearly as often with BP as MYO. MYO was minimally faster on a test of ten practical activities designed for bimanual prehension. Card playing was 39.8% faster with BP, whereas donning socks, cutting paper, and bandage application were 27.8%, 12.5%, and 10.9% faster with MYO. Performance with both hands was rated as decidedly poorer than normal quality. No major clinically important differences were found in the comparison of performance. PMID:8466418

  13. Aerobic Fitness and Body Mass Index in Individuals with Schizophrenia: Implications for Neurocognition and Daily Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N.; Armstrong, Hilary F.; Ballon, Jacob S.; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W.; Hansen, Marie C.; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Smith, Edward E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that among healthy individuals low Aerobic Fitness (AF) and high Body-Mass Index (BMI) predict poor neurocognition and daily-functioning. It is unknown whether these associations extend to disorders characterized by poor neurocognition, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, we compared AF and BMI in individuals with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls, and then within the schizophrenia group we examined the links between AF, BMI, neurocognition and daily-functioning. Thirty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 64 gender- and age-matched controls completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2max) and BMI. The former also completed measures of neurocognition, daily-functioning and physical activity. The schizophrenia group displayed significantly lower AF and higher BMI. In the schizophrenia group, AF was significantly correlated with overall neurocognition (r=0.57), along with executive functioning, working memory, social cognition, and processing speed. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that AF accounted for 22% of the neurocognition variance. Furthermore, AF was significantly correlated with overall daily-functioning (r=0.46). In contrast, BMI displayed significant inverse correlations with neurocognition, but no associations to daily-functioning. AF was significantly correlated physical activity. The authors discuss the potential use of AF-enhancing interventions to improve neurocognitive and daily-functioning in schizophrenia, along with putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying these links, including Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. PMID:25219618

  14. Body mass index and cardiovascular mortality at different levels of blood pressure: a prospective study of Norwegian men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Selmer, R; Tverdal, A

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study investigated the joint effect of body mass index and systolic blood pressure on cardiovascular and total mortality. DESIGN--This was a prospective cohort study. The main outcome measures were age adjusted mortality and relative risks estimated from survival models. SETTING--The population of the city of Bergen, Norway. PARTICIPANTS--Subjects were 21,145 men and 30,330 women aged 30-79 years at the time of examination in 1963. MAIN RESULTS--Both cause specific and all cause mortality increased with systolic blood pressure within each category of body mass index. Stroke mortality was not significantly associated with body mass index when adjusted for systolic blood pressure in either age group of men or women. Coronary heart disease mortality increased on average 30% per 5 kg/m2 increase in body mass index in men and women aged 30-59 years at baseline. Adjusted for systolic blood pressure, the relative risks were reduced to 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12, 1.29) in men and 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.18) in women. They were similar at each level of systolic blood pressure. For coronary heart disease mortality in men and women aged 60-79 years at measurement a negative interaction between body mass index and systolic blood pressure was suggested in the first five years. Excluding the first five years, adjusted relative risks per 5 kg/m2, were 1.05 (95% CI 0.96, 1.15) in men and 1.11 (95% CI 1.04, 1.17) in women in the older age group. There was an upturn in cardiovascular mortality at low levels of body mass index in both age groups of women, but not in men. CONCLUSIONS--Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and all cause mortality even in the obese. Body mass index is generally a weak predictor of cardiovascular mortality in this population. It is a stronger risk factor of coronary death in men when measured at a younger age. Thin people with hypertension are not at particularly high risk of death from coronary heart disease compared with their obese counterparts, except possibly in the first few years after measurement in the elderly. Being underweight is associated with increased risk of death from all cardiovascular causes in women, but not in men. PMID:7629461

  15. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Olivier; Gauthier, Claudine J.; Fraser, Sarah A.; Desjardins-Crèpeau, Laurence; Desjardins, Michèle; Mekary, Said; Lesage, Frederic; Hoge, Rick D.; Pouliot, Philippe; Bherer, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., V˙O2max) in order to classify them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit). All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions) in which the change in prefrontal cortex oxygenation was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness × Condition interaction (p < 0.05) such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the Executive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed in the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2), we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion: Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by V˙O2max) show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good cardiorespiratory functions can have a positive impact on cognition, regardless of age. PMID:25741267

  16. The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not

  17. Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

  18. The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

  19. Whole body plethysmography reveals differential ventilatory responses to ozone in rat models of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Dye, Janice A; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Costa, Daniel L; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate key factors of host susceptibility to air pollution, healthy and cardiovascular (CV)-compromised rats were exposed to air or ozone (O3) at 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0?ppm for 4?h. We hypothesized that rat strains with the least cardiac reserve would be most prone to develop significant health effects. Using flow whole body plethysmography (FWBP), ventilatory responses in healthy 3-month-old male rats [i.e. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), Wistar (WIS), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) strains] were compared with hypertensive [i.e. spontaneously hypertensive (SH), fawn-hooded-hypertensive (FHH), and SH-stroke-prone (SHSP)] strains and obese [i.e. SH-heart failure-prone (SHHF) and JCR:LA-cp, atherosclerosis-prone (JCR)] strains. SH were slower to acclimate to the FWBP chambers. At 0-h post-air-exposure, SHSP and SHHF exhibited hyperpnea, indicative of cardiopulmonary insufficiency. At 0-h-post-O3, all but one strain showed significant concentration-dependent decreases in minute volume [MV?=?tidal volume (TV)??breathing frequency]. Comparing air with 1.0?ppm responses, MV declined 20-27% in healthy, 21-42% in hypertensive, and 33% in JCR rats, but was unchanged in SHHF rats. Penh increased significantly in all strains, with disproportionate increases in "responder" WKY and FHH strains. By 20?h, most changes had resolved, although Penh remained elevated in WKY, SH, and SHSP. Based on the effective dose estimates (O3?ppm??h??MV), the most CV-compromised (SHSP and SHHF) strains received significantly greater O3 lung deposition (25% and 40%, respectively). Data support epidemiologic associations that individuals with cardiopulmonary insufficiency are at greater risk for urban pollutant exposure due, in part, to enhanced lung deposition and exacerbation of hypoxia and pathophysiologic processes of heart failure. PMID:26667328

  20. Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

  1. Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT < 30%; n=19, 10 female/9 male, age = 43 +/- 10 y); and (3) an inactive control group (C, n=17, 5 female/12 male, age 43 +/- 11 y). RC+BD resulted in more favorable changes (P < 0.01) in percent body fat (-15.8% vs. -6.9%) and abdominal fat (-15.6% vs. -7.5%) compared to C+TD and C. Total cholesterol (-13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (-5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals. PMID:17136940

  2. A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age = 4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (−1.2%, p < 0.0001), fat mass (−0.55 kg, p <0.0001), and body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: −0.74 seconds, p < 0.0001; BJ: 8.09 cm, p < 0.0001; TBT: 0.52 meters, p < 0.006; SR: 0.88 cm, p < 0.03; BBW: −2.02 seconds, p <0.0001; 30M-S: −0.45 seconds, p < 0.02; 20M-C: −3.36 seconds, p < 0.0001). Process evaluation data showed that the intervention protocol was implemented with high fidelity. Conclusions The study demonstrated that a policy-driven multi-faceted intervention can improve preschool children’s body composition and physical fitness. Program efficacy should be tested in a randomized trial. Trial registration ChiCTR-ONRC-14004143. PMID:24886119

  3. Whole Body Plethysmography Reveals Differential Ventilatory Responses to Ozone in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, urban air pollution is recognized as an important determinant of cardiovascular disease. Host susceptibility to air pollution can vary due to genetic predisposition and underlying disease. To elucidate key factors of host ...

  4. Acrolein Inhalation Alters Arterial Blood Gases and Triggers Carotid Body Mediated Cardiovascular Responses in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. While the mechanisms accounting for these effects are unclear, several epidemiological studies have reported decreases in oxygen ...

  5. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  6. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this

  7. Changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profile, and body composition at high altitude in two different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Vats, Praveen; Ray, Koushik; Majumadar, Dhurjati; Amitabh; Joseph, Duraisamy Arul; Bayen, Susovon; Akunov, Almaz; Sarbaev, Akpav; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-03-01

    High altitude (HA) presents inhospitable environmental conditions that adversely affects human physiology and metabolism. Changes in physiological functions are reported during high altitude exposure, but the changes vary with physical state, culture habits, geographical locations, and genetic variation of individual. The present study was carried out to explore the variation in acclimatization pattern of two different ethnic groups in relation to cardiovascular functions, lipid profile and body composition. The study was carried out on 30 human volunteers (20 Indian and 10 Kyrgyz) initially at Bishkek for basal recording and on day 3, 7, 14, and 21 of high altitude (3200 m) induction and again on day 3 of de-induction. On altitude exposure significant decrease in body weight was observed both in Indian (day 14, p<0.001) and Kyrgyz (day 3, p<0.01) subjects. Decreased levels of total body water, extra cellular and intra cellular body water were also observed in both the groups. Significant reduction in body mass index (p<0.01), fat free mass (p<0.01), body cell mass (p<0.01) and body volume (p<0.01) was also observed in Kyrgyz subjects, whereas in Indian subjects the changes were not significant in these variables on high altitude exposure. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly on day 3 (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) of induction in Indian subjects; whereas in Kyrgyz significant increase was observed on day 14 (p<0.05) in both the cases. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly on day 7 of HA exposure in both the groups. Results indicate that the Indian and Kyrgyz groups report differently, in relation to changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profiles, and body composition, when exposed to HA. The difference observed in acclimatization pattern in the two groups may be due to ethnic/genetic variation of two populations. PMID:23537260

  8. ROC Generated Thresholds for Field-Assessed Aerobic Fitness Related to Body Size and Cardiometabolic Risk in Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, Lynne M.; Thomas, Non E.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Brophy, Sinead; Rees, Anwen; Knox, Gareth; Baker, Julien S.; Stratton, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. to investigate whether 20 m multi-stage shuttle run performance (20mSRT), an indirect measure of aerobic fitness, could discriminate between healthy and overweight status in 9–10.9 yr old schoolchildren using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis; 2. Investigate if cardiometabolic risk differed by aerobic fitness group by applying the ROC cut point to a second, cross-sectional cohort. Design Analysis of cross-sectional data. Participants 16,619 9–10.9 year old participants from SportsLinx project and 300 11–13.9 year old participants from the Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study. Outcome Measures SportsLinx; 20mSRT, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, subscapular and superilliac skinfold thicknesses. Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study; 20mSRT performance, waist circumference, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. Analyses Three ROC curve analyses were completed, each using 20mSRT performance with ROC curve 1 related to BMI, curve 2 was related to waist circumference and 3 was related to skinfolds (estimated % body fat). These were repeated for both girls and boys. The mean of the three aerobic fitness thresholds was retained for analysis. The thresholds were subsequently applied to clustered cardiometabolic risk data from the Welsh Schools study to assess whether risk differed by aerobic fitness group. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the ROC generated thresholds was higher than would be expected by chance (all models AUC >0.7). The mean thresholds were 33 and 25 shuttles for boys and girls respectively. Participants classified as ‘fit’ had significantly lower cardiometabolic risk scores in comparison to those classed as unfit (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of the ROC generated cut points by health professionals, teachers and coaches may provide the opportunity to apply population level ‘risk identification and stratification’ processes and plan for “at-risk” children to be referred onto intervention services. PMID:23029224

  9. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugnio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Nogueira, EC, Porto, LGG, Nogueira, RM, Martins, WR, Fonseca, RMC, Lunardi, CC, and de Oliveira, RJ. Body composition is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in a large Brazilian military firefighter cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 33-38, 2016-Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (?12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ? 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 mlkgmin; p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 mlkgmin; p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance. PMID:26691405

  10. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to

  11. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

  12. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the

  13. Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

  14. Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate

  15. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:25566425

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Skeletal Muscle Function, and Body Composition in Adults with Primary Malignant Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lee W.; Friedman, Allan H.; West, Miranda J.; Mabe, Stephanie K.; Fraser, Jennifer; Kraus, William E.; Friedman, Henry S.; Tresch, Maura I.; Major, Nancy; Reardon, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness, skeletal muscle function, and body composition of patients with newly diagnosed and untreated, postsurgical primary malignant glioma. Experimental Design Using a cross-sectional design, patients with clinically stable (10 7 days post surgery) high-grade glioma (HGG; n=25) or low-grade glioma (LGG; n=10) were studied. Participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with expired gas analysis to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). Other physiological outcomes included skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; magnetic resonance imaging), isokinetic muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer), and body composition (air displacement plethysmography). Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain scale. Results CPET was a feasible and safe procedure to assess VO2peak with no serious adverse events. VO2peak indexed to total body weight and lean body mass for both groups was 13.0 mL.weight.min?1 and 19 mL.lean.min?1; the equivalent to 59% and 38% below age and sex-predicted normative values, respectively. Skeletal muscle strength and mid-thigh CSA was lower in HGG relative to LGG patients (83 vs. 125 Nm, p=.025; 94 vs. 119 cm2, p=.171, respectively). Skeletal muscle isokinetic strength, CSA, and body composition outcomes predicted VO2peak (r = ?0.59 to 0.68, p<0.05). Conclusions Postsurgical glioma patients have markedly reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, isokinetic strength and CSA. Prospective studies are now required to determine whether such abnormalities influence treatment toxicity and clinical outcome as well as test the effect of appropriately selected interventions to prevent and/or mitigate dysfunction. PMID:20029975

  17. Physical Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schott, Nadja; Alof, Verena; Hultsch, Daniela; Meermann, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    The protective effects of physical activity and fitness on cardiovascular health have clearly been shown among normally developed children. However, data are currently lacking pertaining to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fitness measures, body composition, and

  18. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  19. Predicting metabolic rate across walking speed: One fit for all body sizes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We formulated a "one-size-fits-all" model that predicts the energy requirements of level human walking from height, weight, and walking speed. Our three-component model theorizes that the energy expended per kilogram per stride is independent of stature at mechanically equivalent walking speeds. We ...

  20. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  1. A Healthy Brain in a Healthy Body: Brain Network Correlates of Physical and Mental Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Douw, Linda; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dijk, Bob W.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.

    2014-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely understood. By applying mathematical concepts from network theory, insights in the organization and dynamics of brain functioning can be obtained. We test the hypothesis that neural network organization mediates the association between cardio respiratory fitness (i.e. VO2 max) and cognitive functioning. A healthy cohort was studied (n?=?219, 113 women, age range 4144 years). Subjects underwent resting-state eyes-closed magneto-encephalography (MEG). Five artifact-free epochs were analyzed and averaged in six frequency bands (delta-gamma). The phase lag index (PLI) was used as a measure of functional connectivity between all sensors. Modularity analysis was performed, and both within and between-module connectivity of each sensor was calculated. Subjects underwent a maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) measurement as an indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. All subjects were tested with a commonly used Dutch intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was related to VO2 max. In addition, VO2 max was negatively associated with upper alpha and beta band modularity. Particularly increased intermodular connectivity in the beta band was associated with higher VO2 max and IQ, further indicating a benefit of more global network integration as opposed to local connections. Within-module connectivity showed a spatially varied pattern of correlation, while average connectivity did not show significant results. Mediation analysis was not significant. The occurrence of less modularity in the resting-state is associated with better cardio respiratory fitness, while having increased intermodular connectivity, as opposed to within-module connections, is related to better physical and mental fitness. PMID:24498438

  2. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. PMID:26176993

  3. The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO{sub 2} max in white, black and Mexican Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Egwuogu, Heartley; Shendell, Derek G. Okosun, Ike S.; Goodfellow, Lynda

    2009-04-15

    Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO{sub 2} max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO{sub 2} max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO{sub 2} max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation.

  4. Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The Martial Fitness Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael R.; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.372.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. PMID:20798764

  5. Physical Fitness of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A 13-Year Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low…

  6. Physical Fitness of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A 13-Year Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low

  7. The effects of physical fitness and body composition on oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery after high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Campos, E Z; Bastos, F N; Papoti, M; Freitas Junior, I F; Gobatto, C A; Balikian Junior, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), heart rate recovery (HRR) and their respective time constants (tvo2 and t HR) and body composition and aerobic fitness (VO2max) variables after an anaerobic effort. 14 professional cyclists (age=28.44.8 years, height=176.06.7 cm, body mass=74.48.1 kg, VO2max=66.87.6 mLkg - 1min - 1) were recruited. Each athlete made 3 visits to the laboratory with 24 h between each visit. During the first visit, a total and segmental body composition assessment was carried out. During the second, the athletes undertook an incremental test to determine VO2max. In the final visit, EPOC (15-min) and HRR were measured after an all-out 30 s Wingate test. The results showed that EPOC is positively associated with % body fat (r=0.64), total body fat (r=0.73), fat-free mass (r=0.61) and lower limb fat-free mass (r=0.55) and negatively associated with HRR (r= - 0.53, p<0.05 for all). HRR had a significant negative correlation with total body fat and % body fat (r= - 0.62, r= - 0.56 respectively, p<0.05 for all). These findings indicate that VO2max does not influence HRR or EPOC after high-intensity exercise. Even in short-term exercise, the major metabolic disturbance due to higher muscle mass and total muscle mass may increase EPOC. However, body fat impedes HRR and delays recovery of oxygen consumption after effort in highly trained athletes. PMID:22706939

  8. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180/sec. PMID:25830145

  9. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180/sec. PMID:25830145

  10. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  11. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore Cydia pomonella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J.

    2012-06-01

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.). In our first set of experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (1) body size is heritable and (2) parental body size mediates egg production and offspring survival. Midparent-offspring regression analyses revealed that body mass is highly heritable for females and moderately heritable for males. The contribution of fathers to estimates of additive genetic variance was slightly greater than for mothers. Egg production increased with mean parental size, but offspring survival rates were equivalent. Based on this result, we tested two additional hypotheses in a second set of experiments: (3) male size moderates female egg production and egg fertility and (4) egg production, egg fertility, and offspring survival rate are influenced by female mating opportunities. Females paired with large males produced more eggs and a higher proportion of fertile eggs than females paired with small males. Females with multiple mating opportunities produced more fertile eggs than females paired with a single male. However, egg production and offspring survival rates were unaffected by the number of mating opportunities. Our experiments demonstrate that body mass is heritable in C. pomonella and that size phenotypes may mediate fecundity but not fitness. We conclude that male size can influence egg production and fertility, but female mate choice also plays a role in determining egg fertility.

  12. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  13. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  14. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set

  15. Generation of three-dimensional body-fitted coordinates using hyperbolic partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steger, J. L.; Rizk, Y. M.

    1985-01-01

    An efficient numerical mesh generation scheme capable of creating orthogonal or nearly orthogonal grids about moderately complex three dimensional configurations is described. The mesh is obtained by marching outward from a user specified grid on the body surface. Using spherical grid topology, grids have been generated about full span rectangular wings and a simplified space shuttle orbiter.

  16. Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  17. A tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk of individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH): design of the PRO-FIT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of a high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH), early prevention of cardiovascular disease is important for health gain and cost reduction. This project focuses on the development and evaluation of an innovative intervention aiming to reduce CVD risk by promoting a healthy lifestyle among people with FH. Methods This project is designed as a randomised controlled trial in which individuals with FH will be assigned randomly to a control or intervention group. In the intervention group (n = 200), participants will receive a personalized intervention which is a combination of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling by a lifestyle coach. The control group (n = 200) will receive care as usual. Primary outcomes are biological indicators of CVD risk: systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, waist circumference and lipids (triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol). Secondary outcomes are: healthy lifestyle behaviour (with regard to smoking, physical activity, dietary pattern and compliance to statin therapy) and psychological correlates and determinants of healthy lifestyle behaviour (knowledge, attitude, risk perception, social influence, self-efficacy, cues to action, intention and autonomy). Measurement will take place at baseline, and at 3 and 12 months after randomisation. Additionally, a throughout process-evaluation will be conducted to assess and monitor intervention implementation during the trial. Discussion Results of the PRO-FIT project will provide information about the effects and implementation of a healthy lifestyle intervention for individuals with FH. Our experiences with this intervention will be indicative about the suitability, feasibility and benefits of this approach for future interventions in other high-risk groups, such as Familial Combined Hypercholesterolemia (FCH) and diabetes. Trial registration number NTR1899 PMID:20156339

  18. One size fits all? Race, gender and body mass index among U.S. adults.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.; Sims, Mario; Miller, Stephania; Elliott, Vanessa; Ladipo, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which factors presumed to be correlated with body mass index (BMI) vary across four race- and gender-specific groups. Data were drawn from the American Changing Lives Survey to estimate separate multivariate regression models for the total study sample that included African-American males, Caucasian males, African-American females and Caucasian females. The dependant variable of interest was BMI. Independent variables included age, human capital variables, relationship and support measures, health status and behavior measures, and stress and outlook measures. Results from the pooled model indicated that BMI was associated with a number of factors such as employment status, chronic illness, financial strain and religiosity. However, race- and gender-specific regression models revealed that predictors of BMI varied considerably for African-American men, Caucasian men, African-American women and Caucasian women. In other words, these models disentangled important correlations not observed in the pooled model. These findings suggest that addressing racial disparities in body weight-related outcomes requires health practitioners to modify obesity prevention and treatment efforts to incorporate a broader array of factors inherent to specific racial and gender populations. PMID:17987919

  19. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  20. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health. PMID:22236166

  1. Determination of Cutoff Values for DEXA-Based Body Composition Measurements for Determining Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier; Trivalle, Christophe; Vogel, Thomas; Proust, Jacques; Papazyan, Jean-Pierre; Dram, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The two components of the body weight (i.e., fat mass and muscle mass) appeared to be of high interest to consider in predicting metabolic health related risks. We aimed to determine cutoff values for fat mass index (FMI) and muscle mass index (MMI), FM/MM, and BMI for metabolic and cardiovascular health. This study was a cross-sectional analysis study conducted in a center of preventive medicine. It included 616 consecutive outpatients: mean age was 56.010.0 years (74.6% aged ?50), and 61.4% were female. Fat and muscle mass were obtained with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan analyses. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as people with biological features of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, and/or hepatitis steatosis. Documented hypertension and/or atherosclerosis of at least one major artery defined individuals with cardiovascular complications. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cutoff values for MMI, FMI, and FM/MM were respectively 18.8kg/m2 (sensitivity [Se]=58%; specificity [Sp]=59%), 5.5kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%), and 0.31 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 14.1kg/m2 (Se=52%; Sp=54%), 5.5kg/m2 (Se=65%; Sp=67%), 0.39 (Se=73%; Sp=73%) in women for predicting metabolic health. Values were 19.3kg/m2 (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 7.0kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.49 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 15.7kg/m2 (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 6.4kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.35 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in women for cardiovascular complications. Whatever the outcomes considered, the Youden indexes for BMI values were systematically below 25?kg/m2, except for cardiovascular complications in men, where the threshold for the best Se/Sp was 25.7?kg/m2. These cutoff values for FMI, MMI, and FM/MM could be of practical value for the clinical evaluation of a deficit in MM with or without excess of FM. They complement the classical concept of BMI in a more qualitative manner and extend the analysis of its impact on health outcomes to all BMI categories. PMID:26309779

  2. Determination of Cutoff Values for DEXA-Based Body Composition Measurements for Determining Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier; Trivalle, Christophe; Vogel, Thomas; Proust, Jacques; Papazyan, Jean-Pierre; Dram, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    The two components of the body weight (i.e., fat mass and muscle mass) appeared to be of high interest to consider in predicting metabolic health related risks. We aimed to determine cutoff values for fat mass index (FMI) and muscle mass index (MMI), FM/MM, and BMI for metabolic and cardiovascular health. This study was a cross-sectional analysis study conducted in a center of preventive medicine. It included 616 consecutive outpatients: mean age was 56.010.0 years (74.6% aged ?50), and 61.4% were female. Fat and muscle mass were obtained with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan analyses. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as people with biological features of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, and/or hepatitis steatosis. Documented hypertension and/or atherosclerosis of at least one major artery defined individuals with cardiovascular complications. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cutoff values for MMI, FMI, and FM/MM were respectively 18.8kg/m(2) (sensitivity [Se]=58%; specificity [Sp]=59%), 5.5kg/m(2) (Se=61%; Sp=62%), and 0.31 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 14.1kg/m(2) (Se=52%; Sp=54%), 5.5kg/m(2) (Se=65%; Sp=67%), 0.39 (Se=73%; Sp=73%) in women for predicting metabolic health. Values were 19.3kg/m(2) (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 7.0kg/m(2) (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.49 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 15.7kg/m(2) (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 6.4kg/m(2) (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.35 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in women for cardiovascular complications. Whatever the outcomes considered, the Youden indexes for BMI values were systematically below 25?kg/m(2), except for cardiovascular complications in men, where the threshold for the best Se/Sp was 25.7?kg/m(2). These cutoff values for FMI, MMI, and FM/MM could be of practical value for the clinical evaluation of a deficit in MM with or without excess of FM. They complement the classical concept of BMI in a more qualitative manner and extend the analysis of its impact on health outcomes to all BMI categories. PMID:26309779

  3. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  4. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by

  5. Three City Feasibility Study of a Body Empowerment and HIV Prevention Intervention Among Women with Drug Use Histories: Women FIT

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Peterside, Pamela Brown; Husnik, Marla J.; Metzger, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background New intervention models are needed for HIV prevention among drug-using women. Methods The Women Fighting Infection Together (Women FIT) feasibility study enrolled 189 women in three U.S. cities (Providence, New York, Philadelphia) with drug-using histories, who also reported risky sexual behavior. Eligible women had participated previously in a yearlong study of HIV Counseling and Testing (HIV-CT) and limited case management. Two thirds of the sample were black, most were unemployed, and about two thirds reported prior or current crack use. Women were randomized into two groups. In one group, women participated in a manualized, four-session, peer-led, interactive group intervention that stressed body knowledge, woman-initiated HIV/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) prevention, including a focus on women's health (reproductive health screening, sexual violence, self-breast examination, STI signs, symptoms), which aimed to increase comfort with and pride in their bodies. Control group women received HIV-CT enriched by female condom counseling. Outcomes included study retention, session attendance and ratings, changes in knowledge, and use of protection methods. Results The study successfully retained 95% of the participants for a 2-month follow-up. Positive assessments from participants and peer leaders exceeded preset thresholds for success. Pre-post changes in body knowledge (p?body empowerment model deserves further elaboration in interventions focusing on women at high risk of HIV/STI acquisition. PMID:20662629

  6. Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

  7. Protein Intake during Energy Restriction: Effects on Body Composition and Markers of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Anne K.; Flynn, Michael G.; Stewart, Laura K.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Mattes, Richard D.; Lyle, Roseann M.; Considine, Robert V.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of dietary protein intake on energy restriction (ER)-induced changes in body mass and body composition. Clinical markers of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases were also measured. Design 54 postmenopausal women, age 58 2 y, body mass index 29.6 0.8 kg/m2, were assigned to one of four groups. For 9 weeks, three ER groups ate a 1000 kcal/d lacto-ovo vegetarian basal diet plus 250 kcal/d of either beef (BEEF, n = 14), chicken (CHICKEN, n = 15), or carbohydrate/fat foods (CARB (lacto-ovo), n = 14), while a control group (CON, n = 11) consumed their habitual diets. Results Energy intake was lower in the ER groups compared to CON (BEEF, 1114 155 kcal/d, CHO: PRO: FAT, 46:24:30 % of energy intake; CHICKEN, 1098 203 kcal/d, 51:25:24; CARB 1158 341 kcal/d, 59:17:24; CON, 1570 633 kcal/d, 47:20:33), but did not differ among ER groups. For all ER subjects combined, body mass (?6.7 2.4 kg, 9 %), fat mass (?4.6 1.9 kg, 13 %), and fat-free mass (?2.1 1.1 kg, 5 %) decreased. These responses did not differ among the ER groups, except for body mass (CHICKEN ?7.9 2.6 kga; BEEF ?6.6 2.7 kga,b; CARB ?5.6 1.8 kgb; CON ?1.2 1.2 kgc; values with a difference superscript differ, p < 0.05). From PRE (week 0) to POST (week 9), total and LDL cholesterol decreased ?12%, with no differences among groups. Triacylglycerol, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were not changed over time or differentially affected by diet. Conclusions Overweight postmenopausal women can achieve significant weight loss and comparable short-term improvements in body composition and lipid-lipoprotein profile by consuming either a moderate-protein (25% of energy intake) poultry- or beef-containing diet or a lacto-ovo vegetarian protein (17% of energy intake) diet. PMID:17536130

  8. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 – 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 – 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument “Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool” or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Results Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p < 0.0001). Similarly, decreases were observed in BMI-for-Age Z scores for this cohort (and others) across grades and gender, with the most significant decreases for students overweight or obese at baseline (p < 0.0005). Students also showed significant increases in performance on the PACER test across grades and cohorts (p < 0.0001). Lastly, schools tended to improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. Conclusions The present report demonstrates the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in producing positive change in school policies and practices, student knowledge and behaviors, and student fitness and BMI, supporting the use of holistic interventions to address childhood obesity. PMID:24969618

  9. Ability of Preseason Body Composition and Physical Fitness to Predict the Risk of Injury in Male Collegiate Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Grant, John A.; Bedi, Asheesh; Kurz, Jennifer; Bancroft, Richard; Gagnier, Joel J.; Miller, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injuries in collegiate ice hockey can result in significant time lost from play. The identification of modifiable risk factors relating to a players physical fitness allows the development of focused training and injury prevention programs targeted at reducing these risks. Purpose: To determine the ability of preseason fitness outcomes to predict in-season on-ice injury in male collegiate ice hockey players. Study Design: Prognostic cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Athlete demographics, percentage body fat, aerobic capacity (300-m shuttle run; 1-, 1.5-, 5-mile run), and strength assessment (sit-ups, push-ups, grip strength, bench press, Olympic cleans, squats) data were collected at the beginning of 8 successive seasons for 1 male collegiate ice hockey team. Hockey-related injury data and player-level practice/game athlete exposure (AE) data were also prospectively collected. Seventy-nine players participated (203 player-years). Injury was defined as any event that resulted in the athlete being unable to participate in 1 or more practices or games following the event. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the ability of the independent variables to predict the occurrence of on-ice injury. Results: There were 132 injuries (mean, 16.5 per year) in 55 athletes. The overall injury rate was 4.4 injuries per 1000 AEs. Forwards suffered 68% of the injuries. Seventy percent of injuries occurred during games with equal distribution between the 3 periods. The mean number of days lost due to injury was 7.8 13.8 (range, 1-127 days). The most common mechanism of injury was contact with another player (54%). The odds of injury in a forward was 1.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-3.4) that of a defenseman and 3 times (95% CI, 1.2-7.7) that of a goalie. The odds of injury if the players body mass index (BMI) was ?25 kg/m2 was 2.1 times (95% CI, 1.1-3.8) that of a player with a BMI <25 kg/m2. The odds ratios for bench press, maximum sit-ups, and Olympic cleans were statistically significant but close to 1.0, and therefore the clinical relevance is unknown. Conclusion: Forwards have higher odds of injury relative to other player positions. BMI was predictive of on-ice injury. Aerobic fitness and maximum strength outcomes were not strongly predictive of on-ice injury. PMID:25553212

  10. The relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14 year old adolescents residing within the Tlokwe local municipality, South Africa: The PAHL study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14?year-old high school adolescents of South Africa. Baseline data from a longitudinal study on physical activity and health (PAHLS) may provide valuable information for future studies, hence to inform public health policy makers. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight among adolescents aged 14?years in the Tlokwe Local Municipality of the North West Province of South Africa, and to assess the association between physical fitness and body composition separately for boys and girls, adjusted for race and locality. Methods Body weight, height and triceps, and subscapular skinfolds of 256 adolescents (100 boys and 156 girls) aged 14?years were measured, and percentage body fat and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. BMI was used to determine underweight, normal weight and overweight based on the standard criterion. Physical fitness was assessed by standing broad jump, bent arm hang and sit-ups according to the EUROFIT fitness standard procedures. Multinomial logistic regression analyses stratified for gender and adjusted for race (black or white), and the locality (urban or township) of the schools were used to analyze the data. Results In the total group 35.9% were underweight and 13.7% overweight. Boys were more underweight (44%) than girls (30.7%). The prevalence of overweight was 8% in boys and 17.3% in girls. BMI was strongly (p?=?0.01) related with percentage body fat. Strong and significant positive associations between physical fitness and BMI for the underweight girls with high physical fitness scores (OR, 10.69 [95%CI: 2.81-40.73], and overweight girls with high physical fitness scores (OR, 0.11 [95%CI: 0.03-0.50]) were found. Non-significant weaker positive relationship between physical fitness and BMI for the underweight boys with high physical fitness scores (OR, 1.80 [95%CI: 0.63-5.09]), and the overweight boys with high physical fitness scores (OR, 0.18 [95%CI: 0.02-1.78]) were found. Conclusion Both underweight and overweight among boys and girls in Tlokwe Local Municipality exist, and their effects on physical fitness performances were also noticed. As such, strategic physical activity, interventions or follow-up studies recognizing this relationship particularly in the overweight adolescents are needed. In addition, authorities in health and education departments dealing with adolescents should make use of this evidence base information in policies development. PMID:22626033

  11. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 3.2 years; 167.6 6.4 cm; 65.0 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise. PMID:25486302

  12. Hearing Sensitivity in Older Adults: Associations with cardiovascular risk factors in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Helzner, Elizabeth P.; Patel, Ami S.; Pratt, Sheila; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Cauley, Jane A; Talbott, Evelyn; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara B.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ding, Jingzhong; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors with age-associated hearing loss, in a cohort of older black and white adults. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study Setting The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study; A community-based cohort study of older adults from Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis TN. Participants 2,049 well-functioning adults (mean age: 77.5 years; 37% black) Measurements Pure-tone audiometry and history of clinical CVD were obtained at the 4th annual follow-up visit. Pure-tone averages in decibels reflecting low frequencies (250, 500, and 1000 Hz) middle frequencies (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (2000, 4000, and 8000Hz) were calculated for each ear. CVD risk factors, aortic pulse-wave velocity, and ankle-arm index were obtained at the study baseline. Results In gender-stratified models, after adjustment for age, race, study site and occupational noise exposure, risk factors associated with poorer hearing sensitivity among men included higher triglyceride levels, higher resting heart rate and history of smoking. Among women, poorer hearing sensitivity was associated with higher BMI, higher resting heart rate, faster pulse-wave velocity, and low ankle-arm index. Conclusion Modifiable risk factors for CVD may play a role in the development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:21649629

  13. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  14. Understanding the Independent and Joint Associations of the Home and Workplace Built Environments on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Schootman, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). The study included 8,857 adults aged 2088 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 20002007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block grouplevel demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

  15. Understanding the independent and joint associations of the home and workplace built environments on cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Schootman, Mario

    2013-10-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20-88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000-2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group-level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

  16. Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

    2004-01-01

    In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

  17. Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

    2004-01-01

    In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies

  18. Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sharon

    Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart

  19. Predicting Cardiovascular Risk Factors by dIfferent Body Fat Patterns in 3850 German Children: the PEP Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn; Schwandt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Increased central adiposity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in youths. Since simple and inex-pensive but accurate diagnostic tools are required for general use in clinical practice, we examined body mass index (BMI), waist circumfe-rence (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and skin-fold thickness (SFT) for their utility in predicting CVD risk factors in children. Methods: A representative sample of 3850 children (1981 males) aged, 3-11years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The association of CVD risk factors with BMI > 85th, WC > 90th, WHtR > 90th and SFT > 90th percentile was examined by multivariate logistic regression models. SPSS17was used for statistical analyses; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In studied children the prevalence of increased general adi-posity (BMI 4.1%) was considerably lower than the prevalence of high central adiposity (WC 11.8%, WHtR 9.5% and SFT sum 9.8%). Girls had more adverse lipid profiles and CVD risk factors than boys. Age-and gender- adjusted hypertension was significantly associated with adiposity (OR: 2.8) and increased skin-fold thickness (OR: 1.7). Among the four fat patterning variables WHtR > 90th percentile had the strongest association with increased LDL-C (OR: 2.0), Non HDL-C (OR: 2.1), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (OR: 3.3), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR: 2.0) and risk factor clustering (OR: 1.7). Conclusions: Among the children studied, increased (WtHR) was the strongest predictor of traditional CDV risk factors, followed by in-creased skin-fold thickness and BMI. PMID:21448399

  20. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an

  1. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  2. Limited effects of a 2-year school-based physical activity intervention on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an intervention (n = 151) or control school (n = 170). None of the effect sizes of body composition were statistically significant. Children in the intervention group increased their fitness by an average of 0.37 z score units more than the controls (95% CI:-0.27 to 1.01, P = 0.18), representing an improvement of 0.286 W/kg. Boys had higher fitness (mean(diff) = 0.35 z scores, 95% CI: 0.13-0.58, P = 0.001) than girls, independent of study group, fitness z score at baseline and body mass index. Post hoc analysis showed that the intervention school with the highest fitness z score change was significantly different from two of the lowest control schools (mean(diff) = 0.83 z scores, 95% CI: 0.44-1.21, P < 0.0001 and mean(diff) = 0.70 z scores, 95% CI: 0.29-1.10, P = 0.01), but it was also significantly different from the lowest intervention school (mean(diff) = 0.59 z scores, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99, P = 0.05). The results of this intervention are inconclusive as regards to the effects on fitness, but the intervention did not have any statistically significant effect on body composition. PMID:22456632

  3. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60/sec and 180/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  4. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60/sec and 180/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  5. A comparison of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations and BMI in predicting body fatness and cardiovascular disease risk factor levels in children1234

    PubMed Central

    Horlick, Mary; Berenson, Gerald S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although estimation of percentage body fat with the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations (PBFSlaughter) is widely used, the accuracy of this method has not been well studied. Objective: The objective was to determine the accuracy of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations. Design: We compared agreement between PBFSlaughter and estimations derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (PBFDXA) in 1169 children in the Pediatric Rosetta Body Composition Project and the relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors, as compared with body mass index (BMI), in 6725 children in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Results: PBFSlaughter was highly correlated (r = 0.90) with PBFDXA, but it markedly overestimated levels of PBFDXA in children with large skinfold thicknesses. In the 65 boys with a sum of skinfold thicknesses (subscapular- plus triceps-skinfold thicknesses) ?50 mm, PBFSlaughter overestimated PBFDXA by 12 percentage points. The comparable overestimation in girls with a high skinfold sum was 6 percentage points. We also found that, after adjustment for sex and age, BMI showed slightly stronger associations with lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values than did PBFSlaughter. Conclusions: These results indicate that PBFSlaughter, which was developed among a group of much thinner children and adolescents, is fairly accurate among nonobese children, but markedly overestimates the body fatness of children who have thick skinfold thicknesses. Furthermore, PBFSlaughter has no advantage over sex- and age-adjusted BMIs at identifying children who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease based on lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values. PMID:24153344

  6. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  7. A new curriculum for fitness education.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J L

    1983-01-01

    Regular exercise is important in a preventive approach to health care because it exerts a beneficial effect on many risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. However, many Americans lack the skills required to devise and carry out a safe and effective exercise program appropriate for a life-time of fitness. This inability is partly due to the lack of fitness education during their school years. School programs in physical education tend to neglect training in the health-related aspects of fitness. Therefore, a new curriculum for fitness education is proposed that would provide seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students with (a) a basic knowledge of their physiological response to exercise, (b) the means to develop their own safe and effective physical fitness program, and (c) the motivation to incorporate regular exercise into their lifestyle. This special 4-week segment of primarily academic study is designed to be inserted into the physical education curriculum. Daily lessons cover health-related fitness, cardiovascular fitness, body fitness, and care of the back. A final written examination covering major areas of information is given to emphasize this academic approach to exercise. Competition in athletic ability is deemphasized, and motivational awards are given based on health-related achievements. The public's present lack of knowledge about physical fitness, coupled with the numerous anatomical and physiological benefits derived from regular, vigorous exercise, mandate an intensified curriculum of fitness education for school children. PMID:6414039

  8. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Perz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.

  9. Association between Body Mass Index, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Norwegian Patients with Suspected Stable Angina Pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Borgeraas, Heidi; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Seifert, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and mortality through inhibition of nitrogen oxide (NO) synthesis. As positive correlations between serum concentrations of NO and body mass index (BMI) have been observed, we aimed to explore whether the potential associations between plasma ADMA levels and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and mortality were modified by BMI. Methods Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for AMI, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality according to baseline plasma ADMA levels in 4122 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. Analyses were subsequently repeated in patients with BMI below (low BMI) or above (high BMI) median. Results A total of 2982 patients (72%) were men. Median (range) age, plasma ADMA level and BMI were 62 (21–88) years, 0.54 (0.10–1.25) μmol/L and 26.3 (18.5–54.3) kg/m2, respectively. During a mean (standard deviation) follow-up time of 4.7 (1.4) years, 337 (8%) patients suffered from an AMI, 300 (7%) died, whereof 165 (55%) due to cardiovascular disease. Each 0.1 μmol/L increment in plasma ADMA level was associated with an increased risk of AMI (HR (95% CI) 1.21 (1.08, 1.35) and cardiovascular death 1.30 (1.13, 1.49) in participants with low BMI only. Interactions were significant for AMI (p = 0.04) and CV death (p = 0.03). BMI did not modify the association between plasma ADMA levels and all-cause mortality. Conclusion Plasma ADMA levels were associated with risk of AMI and cardiovascular death among patients with low BMI only. PMID:27003294

  10. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W.; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ? 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED. PMID:22470294

  11. Changes in physical fitness, bone mineral density and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight females with longstanding eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ? 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED. PMID:22470294

  12. Dietary Sodium Content, Mortality, and Risk for Cardiovascular Events in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V.; Murphy, Rachel A.; Newman, Anne B.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Additional information is needed on the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. Objective To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2,642 older adults (age 71-80) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception 1997-98). Exposure Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We examined sodium intake both as a continuous and as a categorical variable (<1500mg/d [N=291; 11.0%]; 1500–2300mg/d [N=779; 29.5%]; and >2300mg/d [N=1572; 59.5%]. Main Outcomes Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF over 10-years of follow-up. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to those without prevalent CVD (N=1981) at baseline. Results Average age of participants was 73.6±2.9 years; 51.2% were women; 61.7% white; and 38.3% black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 developed CVD and 398 developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.98–1.09; P=0.27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the 1500–2300-mg group (30.7%) compared to the <1500-mg (33.8%) and >2300-mg (35.2%) groups; P=0.074. Sodium intake >2300mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs. 1500–2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95%CI 0.99–1.35; P=0.072). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HR for mortality was 1.20 (95%CI 0.93–1.54; P=0.16) per mg/kcal sodium and 1.11 (95%CI 0.96–1.28; P=0.17) per 100mg/kg/m2 sodium. In adjusted models accounting for the competing risk of death, sodium intake was not associated with risk for CVD (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.95–1.11; P=0.47) or HF (HR per 1g, 1.00; 95%CI 0.92–1.08; P=0.92). There were no consistent interactions with gender, race, or hypertensive status for any outcome. Conclusions In older adults, FFQ-assessed sodium intake was not associated with 10-year mortality, incident CVD, or incident HF, albeit there was a trend towards higher mortality among those consuming >2300 mg/d sodium. PMID:25599120

  13. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  14. Anthropometric Correlates of Total Body Fat, Abdominal Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in a Biracial Sample of Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Barreira, Tiago V.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Smith, Steven R.; Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between anthropometric measurements and total body fat, abdominal adipose tissue, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large biracial sample. Patients and Methods This study is limited to cross-sectional analyses of data from participants attending a baseline visit between January 26, 1996, and February 1, 2011. The sample included 2037 individuals aged 18 to 69 years: 488 African American women (24%), 686 white women (34%), 196 African American men (9%), and 667 white men (33%). Anthropometry included weight; hip circumference; waist circumference; waist-hip, waist-height, and weight-height ratios; body adiposity index; and body mass index. Body fat and percentage of fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by computed tomography. Bivariate correlations, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used, and analyses were stratified by sex and race. Results In each sex-by-race group, all anthropometric measures were highly correlated with percentage of fat, fat mass, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and moderately correlated with visceral adipose tissue, with the exception of the waist-hip ratio. The odds of having an elevated cardiometabolic risk were increased more than 2-fold per SD increase for most anthropometric variables, and the areas under the curve for each anthropometric measure were significantly greater than 0.5. Conclusion Several common anthropometric measures were moderately to highly correlated with total body fat, abdominal fat, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of women and men. This comprehensive analysis provides evidence of the linkage between simple anthropometric measurements and the purported pathways between adiposity and health. PMID:22560524

  15. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    PubMed Central

    Toriola, Oluwatoyi O.; Toriola, Abel L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Setting A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls) of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS) participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used. Results Body mass index (BMI) classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal body weight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF) and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH), boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of ?0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ), bent arm hang (BAH) and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders. Conclusion Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating children. The relative increase in overweight, especially in girls, negatively affected their endurance running and static strength performances. The health implications of the observed findings are discussed and recommendations offered for physical activity intervention in school physical education (PE) programmes. PMID:26842513

  16. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.)....

  17. The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Knechtle, Beat; Fenzl, Matthias; Schlegel, Christian; Konrad, Manuela; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2) whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls) attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subjects weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Body mass decreased by 11.4% 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001). Fat mass decreased by 23.8% 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001). The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017) but not in girls (P > 0.05). The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05). Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001). Conclusions Adjustments of the chronically positive imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure of obese children and adolescents living in obesogenic environments should be addressed in a multisectoral approach. Future research in multicomponent childhood and adolescent weight loss programs should be directed towards a better understanding of the underlying complex dynamics in energy homeostasis which promote weight loss and changes in body composition due to high intensity exercise interventions. PMID:23525602

  18. Mild Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia in Wistar Rats Evokes Significant Cardiovascular Pathophysiology but No Overt Changes in Carotid Body-Mediated Respiratory Responses.

    PubMed

    Ray, Clare J; Dow, Ben; Kumar, Prem; Coney, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Models of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main feature of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), have demonstrated dysregulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems resulting in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) due to changes in sympathetic and respiratory control by the carotid body. In the UK, treatment of OSA is only offered to patients with an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >15, we investigated whether mild CIH produced significant pathophysiological changes, which might inform treatment guidelines.Rats were exposed to CIH (6 h(-1), 8 h day(-1), 5 % O(2) nadir) for 2 weeks and then arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR) and ventilation were recorded in these and normoxic control rats (N) under Alfaxan anaesthesia, at baseline and in response to Dejours test, graded hypoxia and hypercapnia. Hearts were analysed post-mortem.CIH induced significant increases in baseline ABP (142??5 vs 122??2 mmHg), HR (448??9 vs 412??5 bpm) and cardiac mass (3.5??0.1 vs 2.7??0.1 g kg body mass(-1)) as a result of a selective left ventricular hypertrophy (1.6??0.1 vs 1.3??0.08 g kg body mass(-1); FCSA 464??32 ?m(2) vs 314??9 ?m(2)). There was no significant difference between N and CIH in baseline respiration or the response to Dejours test, graded hypoxia and hypercapnia.These results demonstrate that mild CIH can induce the significant cardiovascular changes associated with OSA without overt changes in respiratory function. Given evidence that CIH changes carotid body sensory activity, a possible explanation for these results is that there is differential integration of chemoreceptor input with respiratory and cardiac sympathetic outputs. PMID:26303488

  19. Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Bernard; Harris, Ryan A.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2011-01-01

    There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n = 242) and (ii) that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths. PMID:22007244

  20. Low level of physical activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors but not with body fat mass - a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased fat mass (FM) and increased frequency of cardiovascular diseases we evaluated if total physical activity (MET-hours) had impact on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in women with RA. Methods Sixty-one out-ward RA women, 60.8 (57.3-64.4) years, answered a self-administered questionnaire, to estimate total daily physical activity during the previous year. Physical activity level was given as metabolic equivalents (MET) h/day. Diet content was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and body composition by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood lipids and antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) were determined. Results Forty-one percent of the women had BMI > 25, 6% were centrally obese and 80% had FM% > 30%. The median (IQR) total physical activity was 40.0 (37.4-47.7), i.e. the same activity level as healthy Swedish women in the same age. Total physical activity did not significantly correlate with disease activity, BMI or FM%. Disease activity, BMI and FM% did not differ between those in the lowest quartile of total physical activity and those in the highest quartile. However, the women in the lowest quartile of physical activity had lower HDL (p = 0.05), Apo A1 (p = 0.005) and atheroprotective natural anti-PC (p = 0.016) and higher levels of insulin (p = 0.05) and higher frequency of insulin resistance than those in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile consumed larger quantities of saturated fatty acids than those in the highest quartile (p = 0.042), which was associated with high oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Conclusion This cross sectional study demonstrated that RA women with fairly low disease activity, good functional capacity, high FM and high frequency of central obesity had the same total physical activity level as healthy Swedish women in the same age. The amount of total physical activity was not associated with functional capacity or body composition. However, low total physical activity was associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, low levels of atheroprotective anti-PC and consumption of saturated fatty acids, which is of interest in the context of increased frequency of cardiovascular disease in RA. PMID:21235741

  1. TOMCAT - A code for numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    A method for automatic generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems, where the transformed coordinates are solutions of an elliptic differential system in the physical plane, and where the coordinate lines are coincident with all boundaries of a general multiply-connected, two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies, and is described along with a suitable computer code for implementing the method. Any partial differential system can be solved on the boundary-fitted coordinate system by appropriate transformations. The transformed equations are approximated by finite differences and solved numerically in the transformed plane. All computations, whether for generating coordinate system or then solving the transformed equations, can be done on a rectangular field with square mesh with no interpolation required on the boundaries. The physical boundaries may even be time-dependent.

  2. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fbio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Cludia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

  3. Male reproductive competition and components of female fitness in relation to body size in Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In insects, larger males generally have a reproductive advantage over smaller males when competing for mating partners. We examined male reproductive competition together with pre-copulation and copulation durations, female longevity, and fecundity in northern corn rootworm in relation to the body s...

  4. One Size Doesn't Fit All: New Continua of Figure Drawings and Their Relation to Ideal Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novella, Jocelyn; Gosselin, Jennifer T.; Danowski, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study introduces a new figure drawing measure, the Presentation of Images on a Continuum Scale (PICS), which includes continua of bodies from thin to obese and thin to muscular for both men and women. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from a private, Catholic university in Connecticut. The data were collected

  5. One Size Doesn't Fit All: New Continua of Figure Drawings and Their Relation to Ideal Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novella, Jocelyn; Gosselin, Jennifer T.; Danowski, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study introduces a new figure drawing measure, the Presentation of Images on a Continuum Scale (PICS), which includes continua of bodies from thin to obese and thin to muscular for both men and women. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from a private, Catholic university in Connecticut. The data were collected…

  6. Numerical Simulation of Shock-Induced Combustion Past Blunt Bodies Using Shock-Fitting Technique. Appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  7. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability–based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26–40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. Results PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. Conclusions PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed. PMID:24742265

  8. Comparison of cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters of supine lower body negative pressure and upright lower body positive pressure to simulate activity in 1/6 G and 3/8 G

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Stahn, Alexander C.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    For future space exploration missions, it is important to determine the best method of simulating on Earth cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions for lunar and Martian gravities. For this purpose, we compared exercise performed within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber. Twelve subjects underwent a protocol of resting and walking (0.25 Froude) within supine LBNP and upright LBPP simulation. Each protocol was performed in simulated 1/6 G and 3/8 G. We assessed heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V̇o2), normalized stride length, normalized vertical peak ground reaction force, duty factor, cadence, perceived exertion (Borg), and comfort of the subject. A mixed linear model was employed to determine effects of the simulation on the respective parameters. Furthermore, parameters were compared with predicted values for lunar and Martian gravities to determine the method that showed the best agreement. During walking, all cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters were unaffected by the simulation used for lunar and Martian gravities. During rest, HR and V̇o2 were lower in supine LBNP compared with upright LBPP. HR, V̇o2, and normalized vertical peak ground reaction force obtained with supine LBNP and upright LBPP showed good agreement with predicted values. Since supine LBNP and upright LBPP are lacking significant differences, we conclude that both simulations are suited to simulate the cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions during activity in lunar and Martian gravities. Operational characteristics and the intended application should be considered when choosing either supine LBNP or upright LBPP to simulate partial gravities on Earth. PMID:23640597

  9. Comparison of cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters of supine lower body negative pressure and upright lower body positive pressure to simulate activity in 1/6 G and 3/8 G.

    PubMed

    Schlabs, Thomas; Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Stahn, Alexander C; Hargens, Alan R

    2013-07-15

    For future space exploration missions, it is important to determine the best method of simulating on Earth cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions for lunar and Martian gravities. For this purpose, we compared exercise performed within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber. Twelve subjects underwent a protocol of resting and walking (0.25 Froude) within supine LBNP and upright LBPP simulation. Each protocol was performed in simulated 1/6 G and 3/8 G. We assessed heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption (Vo2), normalized stride length, normalized vertical peak ground reaction force, duty factor, cadence, perceived exertion (Borg), and comfort of the subject. A mixed linear model was employed to determine effects of the simulation on the respective parameters. Furthermore, parameters were compared with predicted values for lunar and Martian gravities to determine the method that showed the best agreement. During walking, all cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters were unaffected by the simulation used for lunar and Martian gravities. During rest, HR and Vo2 were lower in supine LBNP compared with upright LBPP. HR, Vo2, and normalized vertical peak ground reaction force obtained with supine LBNP and upright LBPP showed good agreement with predicted values. Since supine LBNP and upright LBPP are lacking significant differences, we conclude that both simulations are suited to simulate the cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions during activity in lunar and Martian gravities. Operational characteristics and the intended application should be considered when choosing either supine LBNP or upright LBPP to simulate partial gravities on Earth. PMID:23640597

  10. One size does not fit all: using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women's body image.

    PubMed

    Capodilupo, Christina M

    2015-04-01

    Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women's feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women's body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants' body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. PMID:25150817

  11. The Effects of Free-Living Interval-Walking Training on Glycemic Control, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H.; Nielsen, Jens S.; Thomsen, Carsten; Pedersen, Bente K.; Solomon, Thomas P.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a control (n = 8), continuous-walking (n = 12), or interval-walking group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed five sessions per week (60 min/session) and were controlled with an accelerometer and a heart-rate monitor. Continuous walkers performed all training at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO2max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]). RESULTS Training adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO2max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P < 0.05), whereas no changes were observed in the continuous-walking or control group. Body mass and adiposity (fat mass and visceral fat) decreased in the interval-walking group only (P < 0.05). Glycemic control (elevated mean CGM glucose levels and increased fasting insulin) worsened in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas mean (P = 0.05) and maximum (P < 0.05) CGM glucose levels decreased in the interval-walking group. The continuous walkers showed no changes in glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS Free-living walking training is feasible in type 2 diabetic patients. Continuous walking offsets the deterioration in glycemia seen in the control group, and interval walking is superior to energy expenditure–matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. PMID:23002086

  12. Gender differences and age-specific associations between body mass index and other cardiovascular risk factors in CMV infected and uninfected people

    PubMed Central

    Terrazzini, Nadia; Bajwa, Martha; Thomas, David; Smith, Helen; Kern, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer. It is also related to white blood count (WBC) and inflammation. The effects of age and gender on these associations have not been explored. Here we have examined the relationships between BMI and inflammatory parameters/cardiovascular risk factors including WBC/neutrophil count (NC), CRP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), in young (2035 years) and older (6085 years) healthy donors with respect to gender and CMV IgG serology. In young but not older people significant associations between BMI and WBC were observed, however, with opposite directions in the two genders. Only in CMV+ older women a positive trend was preserved. Across the population, there was no significant association between NC and MAP; however, among older men we saw a positive correlation between the two parameters. Linear regression confirmed that across the whole population, age group (young versus older) and also the interaction between gender and age group but not gender alone had significant effects on this association. When analysing CMV+ older people separately we established that both NC and its interaction with gender had a significant effect on MAP. This study reveals that the correlations between common inflammatory markers/cardiovascular risk factors depend on age, gender, and CMV status in a complex fashion. Our findings support the need to evaluate risk factors independently in men and women and to take into account CMV infection status. More focused studies will be required to shed light on these novel findings. PMID:25251663

  13. Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramrez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martnez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Roco Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offsprings weight and cardiovascular performance at ?7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whittens medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (p<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (p<0.05) and diet (p<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (p=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

  14. Differences in body composition and cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors between migrant and British-born British Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Tessa M; Unwin, Nigel; Fischbacher, Colin; Chamley, Jagdip K

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes in people of South Asian origin living in affluent western countries. We do not know whether or how risk factors for these diseases change in subsequent generations born in the west. Findings that birth-weight is inversely associated with abdominal obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes in later life suggest that those born in the west may have lower levels of risk than migrants. We assessed 30 migrants from Pakistan to the UK, 30 British-born British Pakistani women, and 25 British-born women of European origin. British-born British Pakistani women were taller (P = 0.05), had a lower waist to hip ratio (P = 0.04), lower mean fasting glucose levels (P = 0.03), lower mean triglyceride levels (P = 0.03), and higher mean HDL levels (P < 0.001) than migrant British Pakistani women. Levels of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood pressure were not significantly different in the two British Pakistani groups. Thus, we found healthier levels of several cardiovascular and Type 2 diabetes risk factors in British-born British Pakistani women than in migrant British Pakistani women. These findings might be related to the effects of early environment or to other factors, such as differences in health behaviors. British-born British Pakistani women also differed from British-born European women, having a more adverse body composition, but healthier levels of HDL cholesterol and blood pressure. PMID:18433003

  15. Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Schenewerk, Angela L; Ramrez, Francisco ; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martnez-Lemus, Luis A; Rivera, Roco Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring's weight and cardiovascular performance at ~7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high-fructose (HF) corn syrup or maintenance chow (5% fat; low-fat, no-fructose (LF)). Dams were subdivided into no ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at killing (550.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by killing. Males had greater MAP than females (P=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (P<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (P<0.05) and diet (P<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (P=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

  16. Gender differences and age-specific associations between body mass index and other cardiovascular risk factors in CMV infected and uninfected people.

    PubMed

    Terrazzini, Nadia; Bajwa, Martha; Thomas, David; Smith, Helen; Kern, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer. It is also related to white blood count (WBC) and inflammation. The effects of age and gender on these associations have not been explored. Here we have examined the relationships between BMI and inflammatory parameters/cardiovascular risk factors including WBC/neutrophil count (NC), CRP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), in young (20-35 years) and older (60-85 years) healthy donors with respect to gender and CMV IgG serology. In young but not older people significant associations between BMI and WBC were observed, however, with opposite directions in the two genders. Only in CMV+ older women a positive trend was preserved. Across the population, there was no significant association between NC and MAP; however, among older men we saw a positive correlation between the two parameters. Linear regression confirmed that across the whole population, age group (young versus older) and also the interaction between gender and age group but not gender alone had significant effects on this association. When analysing CMV+ older people separately we established that both NC and its interaction with gender had a significant effect on MAP. This study reveals that the correlations between common inflammatory markers/cardiovascular risk factors depend on age, gender, and CMV status in a complex fashion. Our findings support the need to evaluate risk factors independently in men and women and to take into account CMV infection status. More focused studies will be required to shed light on these novel findings. PMID:25251663

  17. Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

    2009-01-01

    A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in…

  18. Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

    2009-01-01

    A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in

  19. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

  20. Chronic Pain, Body Mass Index and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Tests of Moderation, Unique and Shared Relationships in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W.; Quartana, Phillip J.; Bruehl, Stephen; Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Appelhans, Bradley; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The current study examined whether persistent bodily pain was related to cardiovascular disease risk factors, whether these effects were moderated by body mass index (BMI), and, if not, whether chronic pain accounted for unique variance in CVD risk factors. Participants were women (N=2135) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. A High Pain Frequency variable (high pain in 0 through 4 assessments) was coded to reflect the frequency of high levels of bodily pain across the first 3 years of the study. Six CVD risk factors and BMI were measured at follow-up year 3. High Pain Frequency and BMI were correlated significantly with risk factors, although effects for the former were small. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed High Pain Frequency × BMI interactions for 5 of 6 CVD risk factors. Dissecting the interactions revealed a similar pattern across 4 risk factors: for women with normal BMI, there was a “dose-response” in which increasing frequency of high pain revealed increasingly worse CVD risk factor levels, whereas for women with obese BMI, high pain frequency was unrelated to risk factors. For obese women, increasing frequency of high pain was associated with higher blood glucose. Although BMI is a well-established CVD risk factor, evaluation of CVD risk level may be improved by considering the incidence of persistent pain, particularly in normal weight women (BMI<25kg/m2) lower BMI. PMID:25427423

  1. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-?. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

  2. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-?. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

  3. [Cardiovascular risk among firefighters].

    PubMed

    Serra, A

    2012-01-01

    Firefighting is a high-hazard job for hearth disease, smoke exposure, physical exertion, psychological stressors and noise increase cardiovascular risk among fire fighters. In U.S.A. during the period 1984-2011 45% of on-duty fire fighter fatalities were due to sudden cardiac death. However numerous mortality studies have not shown consistent evidence of an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In Italy fire fighters, burdened with elevated cardiovascular risk and psycho-physical demand, have entry-level and periodic medical evaluations. For these workers wellness/fitness programs, strategies aimed to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and fitness evaluations to ensure that are physically capable of performing the essential job tasks of their profession should be encouraged. PMID:23405620

  4. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  5. Environment factors associated with adolescents' body mass index, physical activity and physical fitness in Kuching South City, Sarawak: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye L; Chang, Ching T; Saimon, Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived built environment attributes and physical activity, physical fitness and body weight among adolescents aged 14-16 years in Sarawak. This was a cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling. A set of questionnaires consisting of socio-demographic information, a self-administered physical activity checklist and a Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Youth (NEWS-Y) was used. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and physical fitness was tested using a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 316 respondents participated. The mean BMI for boys was almost equal to the mean BMI for girls. Only 7.9% of the sampled population was found to be overweight or obese. The overall mean duration spent per day on physical activity was 128.4 min (SD 118.43), with mean of 56.1 min (SD 73.94) after school time. Girls reported to spend longer each day taking physical activity before and during school. Boys were found to have significantly higher VO2max of 27.795.91 mL/kg/min as compared to girls (t=11.22, p<0.000). Based on comparison with other countries, the NEWS-Y scores indicated a mixture of low and high walkability neighborhoods. Respondents who had lower BMIs reported living in lower residential density areas and less risk of crime, and respondents who had better physical fitness reported less suitable infrastructure for walking. Promotion of exercise at all levels should be continuously encouraged as it would lead to improvement in the well-being of an individual. PMID:23183734

  6. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierd, Marit B; Retterstl, Kjetil

    2016-02-01

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of <20 % of total energy intake; twenty subjects or more per group; the subjects were previously healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -217 kg; 95 % CI -336, -099) and TAG (WMD -026 mmol/l; 95 % CI -037, -015), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 014 mmol/l; 95 % CI 009, 019) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 016 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0003, 033). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets - greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol. PMID:26768850

  7. Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50 ± 8.8 years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.8 ± 3.7 and 25.5 ± 4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm) 94.1 ± 9.7 and 84.3 ± 10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5 hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r = −0.280 and r = −0.377, respectively, p > 0.05 for both) and in women (r = −0.514 and r = −0.491, respectively, p > 0.05 for both). In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:23317009

  8. Effects of muscular strength on cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of muscular strength in the development of cardiovascular disease, with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. Muscular strength has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of hypertension, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk, and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also, interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival. PMID:22885613

  9. Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.; Espaa-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MusS) has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of MusS in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. MusS has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension (HTN) and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of HTN, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training (RT) are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival. PMID:22885613

  10. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  11. Firefighters' cardiovascular risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Banes, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac events are strongly associated with line-of-duty deaths among firefighters. The frequency with which firefighters succumb to cardiovascular events while on duty is well documented. Many firefighters have undiagnosed or undertreated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, as well as poor dietary habits and marginal physical fitness. Extremely high heart rates while engaged in fire suppression increase the risk for cardiovascular risk within the fire service. Cultural factors such as shift work and crew cohesion create multiple levels of influence on firefighters' decisions about engaging in positive health behaviors. This review highlights the significance of primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases that is culturally congruent with the fire service. PMID:24571052

  12. Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ashley A; Smith, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Stout, Jeffrey R; Cramer, Joel T

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cycle ergometry high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with and without beta-alanine supplementation on maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2 peak), cycle ergometer workload at the ventilatory threshold (VT W), and body composition. Forty-four women (mean +/- SD age = 21.8 +/- 3.7 years; height = 166.5 +/- 6.6 cm; body mass (BM) = 65.9 +/- 10.8 kg; VO2 peak = 31.5 +/- 6.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: beta-alanine (BA, n = 14) 1.5 g + 15 g dextrose powder; placebo (PL, n = 19) 16.5 g dextrose powder; or control (CON, n = 11). Testing was conducted at baseline (week 0), after 3 weeks (week 4), and after 6 weeks (week 8). VO2 peak (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and VT W were measured with a metabolic cart during graded exercise tests on a corival cycle ergometer, and body composition (percent fat = % fat and fat-free mass = FFM) were determined by air displacement plethysmography. High-intensity interval training was performed on a corival cycle ergometer 3 times per week with 5 2-minute work intervals and 1-minute passive recovery with undulating intensities (90-110% of the workload recorded at VO2 peak) during each training session. VO2 peak increased (p 0.05) for the CON group. VT W increased (p Body mass increased (p

  13. Body heating induced by sub-resonant (350 MHz) microwave irradiation: cardiovascular and respiratory responses in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, J R; Frei, M R

    1997-01-01

    These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of sub-resonant microwave (MW) exposure (350 MHz, E orientation, average power density 38 mW/cm2, average whole-body specific absorption rate 13.2 W/kg) on selected physiological parameters. The increase in peripheral body temperature during 350 MHz exposure was greater than that in earlier experiments performed at 700 MHz (resonance). Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated during a 1 degree C increase in colonic temperature due to 350 MHz exposure; respiratory rate showed no significant change. The results are consistent with other investigators' reports comparing sub-resonance exposures with those at resonance and above. PMID:9140664

  14. Certain peculiarities of the functioning of the cardiovascular system in bedrest conditions during horizontal and antiorthostatic body positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The adequate modeling of physiological reactions inherent to the state of weightlessness has become a matter of particular urgency in space medicine. This modeling is necessary for studying the phenomenology and degree of disorders, prognostication of the crew's health, and developing the various preventive measures employed in space flights. A comparison is made of the physiological effects brought about by bed rest in a horizontal and antiorthostatic body position. A study is done of the influence of brief antiorthostatic hypokinesia, simulating the acute period of adaptation to weightlessness, on circulation and on a number of involved analytical systems. The basic model accepted is antiorthostatic hypokinesia with a body position declination angle of 4 deg (head lower than feet). The experiment's duration is dictated by the objectives of the research.

  15. The median preoptic nucleus: front and centre for the regulation of body fluid, sodium, temperature, sleep and cardiovascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    McKinley, M J; Yao, S T; Uschakov, A; McAllen, R M; Rundgren, M; Martelli, D

    2015-05-01

    Located in the midline anterior wall of the third cerebral ventricle (i.e. the lamina terminalis), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) receives a unique set of afferent neural inputs from fore-, mid- and hindbrain. These afferent connections enable it to receive neural signals related to several important aspects of homeostasis. Included in these afferent projections are (i) neural inputs from two adjacent circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, that respond to hypertonicity, circulating angiotensin II or other humoural factors, (ii) signals from cutaneous warm and cold receptors that are relayed to MnPO, respectively, via different subnuclei in the lateral parabrachial nucleus and (iii) input from the medulla associated with baroreceptor and vagal afferents. These afferent signals reach appropriate neurones within the MnPO that enable relevant neural outputs, both excitatory and inhibitory, to be activated or inhibited. The efferent neural pathways that proceed from the MnPO terminate on (i) neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to regulate vasopressin release, while polysynaptic pathways from MnPO to cortical sites may drive thirst and water intake, (ii) thermoregulatory pathways to the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and medullary raphé to regulate shivering, brown adipose tissue and skin vasoconstriction, (iii) parvocellular neurones in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that drive autonomic pathways influencing cardiovascular function. As well, (iv) other efferent pathways from the MnPO to sites in the ventrolateral pre-optic nucleus, perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamic area and midbrain influence sleep mechanisms. PMID:25753944

  16. Documentation of program COORDC to generate and coordinate system for 3D corners with or without fillet using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program COORDC generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for corner geometry with or without corner fillets. It is assumed that at any given xi, x remains constant; consequently the only variation is in y and z. It is also assumed that for all xi's in the physical plane the coordinate system in y-z plane is similar. This enables solution of coordinate system for one particular xi = 1 (x for xi = 1 is arbitrarily chosen to be 0.0) and the solution for all other xi plane can be easily specified once the coordinates in the physical plane on the line 1 or = to xi or = to IMAX, eta = 1, zeta = 1 are specified.

  17. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System

    PubMed Central

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

  18. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.

    PubMed

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

  19. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat) were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON) a no diet + exercise control (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP]) in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass) and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat) changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength) occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise groups. Conclusions Overall and over the entire test period, all diet groups which restricted their caloric intake and exercised experienced similar responses to each other. Regular exercise and modest caloric restriction successfully promoted anthropometric and body composition improvements along with various markers of muscular fitness. Significant increases in relative energy expenditure and reductions in circulating leptin were found in response to all exercise and diet groups. Macronutrient distribution may impact circulating levels of insulin and overall ability to improve strength levels in obese women who follow regular exercise. PMID:21092228

  20. Correlation between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Luminal Diameter with Body Mass Index and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Sameeah A.; Mahmud, Sarbast A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and luminal diameter (LD) with body mass index (BMI) and other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study took place between June 2013 and March 2014 in the Radiology Department of Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil, Iraq. Non-randomly selected subjects ?20 years old (n = 140) were divided into BMI groups and evaluated for the following cardiovascular risk factors: gender, age, hypertension (HTN), diabetes (DM), smoking, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels. IMT and LD of the extracranial carotid arteries were measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Results: The mean IMT was 0.8 0.3 mm, ranging from a total mean of 0.7 mm in the normal BMI group to 1.0 mm in the extremely obese group. A significant correlation was found between IMT and BMI (P = 0.04), but not between BMI and LD (P = 0.3). No significant difference in mean IMT or LD was seen between genders. Significant correlations were found between IMT and age, HTN, DM, high serum cholesterol and TG levels (P <0.001). An increase of one BMI unit caused a 0.009 mm increase in IMT and an increase of one year in age caused a 0.011 mm increase in IMT. Conclusion: Age, obesity, HTN, DM, high serum cholesterol and TG levels were found to have an impact on carotid IMT, which is a strong marker for the early development of atherosclerosis. PMID:26357554

  1. Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance. PMID:21992535

  2. Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies. PMID:24761982

  3. [Effect of 2 types of diet changes on dietary habits, body weight and cholesterol levels in high risk cardiovascular patients].

    PubMed

    Massari, A; Point, C; Truffe, P; Chatellier, G; Simon, A; Mnard, J

    1995-08-01

    Several non-pharmacological interventions such as weight reduction in obese subjects or diet alteration in subjects having hypercholesterolemia have been shown to be effective in therapeutic trials. Our aim was to test the value of two different ways of teaching patients about their diet. From March 1, 1993, to May 30, 1994, 300 consecutive patients seen in a one-day care hospital were randomised into two groups. The 2 inclusion criteria were: 1) body mass index > 27 kg/m2 in men and > to 25 kg/m2 in women and/or 2) presence of a hypercholesterolemia defined by a total cholesterol > 6.5 mmol/l. Patients in the first group (C) were educated in a 20 to 50 minutes consultation tailored to their needs. Patients in the second group (CC) were given in addition a one-hour course about diet. The goal of the diet was to loss at least 3 kg of body weight and/or to have a cholesterol value below 6.5 mmol/l without treatment. All Patients were followed-up by the same 3 dietician nurses. An out-patient visit was planned at 3 months, and a recall letter was sent to the patients who missed their appointments. Among the 300 patients, 169 (55%) were seen at the 3-month outpatient visit. This proportion did not differ between the 2 groups. Knowledge on diet was assessed by the same 33-item self-administered questionnaire. At baseline scores were comparable between groups (16 vs 17). Scores improved more in the CC than in the C group both at the end of the teaching question (27 vs 23 in the CC and C group respectively, p < 0.001), and at 3 months (25 vs 23 in the CC and C group respectively; p < 0.001). Total cholesterol decreased below 6.5 mmol/l in 28% of the patients with dyslipidemia and a weight loss > 3 kg was observed in 32% of the obese subjects, but improvement did not differ between the 2 groups. We conclude that a specific one-hour course on diet is able to improve knowledge of patients more than a consultation alone, but that better knowledge did not result in improved alteration of risk factors at 3 months. PMID:8572853

  4. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John C; Clifton, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ) for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF) (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%), High Unsaturated Fat (HUF) = (50:30:20; 6%), VLCARB (4:61:35; 20%) Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg). Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21%) (P < 0.05). LDL-C increased significantly only on VLCARB by 7% (p < 0.001 compared with the other diets) but apoB was unchanged on this diet and HDL-C increased relative to the other 2 diets. Triacylglycerol was lowered by 0.73 ± 0.12 mmol/L on VLCARB compared to -0.15 ± 0.07 mmol/L on HUF and -0.06 ± 0.13 mmol/L on VLF (P < 0.001). Plasma homocysteine increased 6.6% only on VLCARB (P = 0.026). VLCARB lowered fasting insulin 33% compared to a 19% fall on HUF and no change on VLF (P < 0.001). The VLCARB meal also provoked significantly lower post prandial glucose and insulin responses than the VLF and HUF meals. All diets decreased fasting glucose, blood pressure and CRP (P < 0.05). Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia. PMID:16403234

  5. Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2011-02-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diet quality in adults 19 years and older (n = 15,023) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Covariate-adjusted means ± SE and prevalence rates were determined for candy consumption groups. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. A total of 21.8%, 12.9%, and 10.9% of adults consumed total, chocolate, and sugar candy, respectively. Mean daily per capita intake of total, chocolate, and sugar candy was 9.0 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 g, respectively; intake in consumers was 38.3 ± 1.0, 39.9 ± 1.1, and 28.9 ± 1.3 g, respectively. Energy (9973 ± 92 vs 9027 ± 50 kJ; P < .0001), saturated fatty acid (27.9 ± 0.26 vs 26.9 ± 0.18 g; P = .0058), and added sugar (25.7 ± 0.42 vs 21.1 ± 0.41 g; P < .0001) intake were higher in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Body mass index (27.7 ± 0.15 vs 28.2 ± 0.12 kg/m(2); P = .0092), waist circumference (92.3 ± 0.34 vs 96.5 ± 0.29 cm; P = .0051), and C-reactive protein (0.40 ± 0.01 vs 0.43 ± 0.01 mg/dL; P = .0487) levels were lower in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Candy consumers had a 14% decreased risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = .0466); chocolate consumers had a 19% decreased risk of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0364) and a 15% reduced risk of MetS (P = .0453). Results suggest that the current level of candy consumption was not associated with health risks. PMID:21419316

  6. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Kitowski, Vincent J.

    1978-01-01

    Cardiovascular related diseases are the major cause of death in the United States. The primary goal of the physician should be prevention of these diseases; however, once problems occur, a definitive rehabilitation program must be instituted in addition to the medical and surgical treatment. Although risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease are numerous, statistical reports suggest that control of these factors might delay or prevent such development. This presentation describes the recommended Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Program for high-risk patients or those with existing cardiovascular disease. The basis of the physical fitness and rehabilitation program is controlled progression-of-energy-expenditure physical activity and exercise in metabolic equivalents (METS). Education plays a key role in decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular disease, and should start at an early age. Adults at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease should be offered medically supervised physical fitness exercise programs, with monitoring where necessary. PMID:15216046

  7. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  8. Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity has increased in societies of all socio-cultural backgrounds. To date, guidelines set forward to prevent obesity have universally emphasized optimal levels of physical activity. However there are few empirical data to support the assertion that low levels of energy expenditure in activity is a causal factor in the current obesity epidemic are very limited. Methods/Design The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) is a cohort study designed to assess the association between physical activity levels and relative weight, weight gain and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five population-based samples at different stages of economic development. Twenty-five hundred young adults, ages 25-45, were enrolled in the study; 500 from sites in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. At baseline, physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometry and a questionnaire in all participants and by doubly labeled water in a subsample of 75 per site. We assessed dietary intake using two separate 24-hour recalls, body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and health history, social and economic indicators by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples collected for measurement of lipids, glucose, insulin and adipokines. Full examination including physical activity using accelerometry, anthropometric data and fasting glucose will take place at 12 and 24 months. The distribution of the main variables and the associations between physical activity, independent of energy intake, glucose metabolism and anthropometric measures will be assessed using cross-section and longitudinal analysis within and between sites. Discussion METS will provide insight on the relative contribution of physical activity and diet to excess weight, age-related weight gain and incident glucose impairment in five populations' samples of young adults at different stages of economic development. These data should be useful for the development of empirically-based public health policy aimed at the prevention of obesity and associated chronic diseases. PMID:22168992

  9. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  10. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and

  11. Design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a diabetes prevention program within African-American churches: The Fit Body and Soul study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lovoria B; Sattin, Richard W; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M Kaye; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Freeman, Arin; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster-randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25kg/m(2)) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination. PMID:23354313

  12. Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Diabetes Prevention Program within African-American Churches: The Fit Body and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lovoria B.; Sattin, Richard W.; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T.; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M. Kaye; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Freeman, Arin; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster- randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12-weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination. PMID:23354313

  13. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  14. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%38%; P<0.05) and the LC-AC groups (11%9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%4%; P<0.05) and the LC-AC groups (5%5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%4%) only in the LC-AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  15. Exercise and the cardiovascular system: clinical science and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-07-01

    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure. These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and heart failure, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs. PMID:26139859

  16. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  17. North York Fall Norms for Boys and Girls Age 12-14 for: CAHPER Tests; Measures of Aerobic Fitness; Peak Flow; Muscle Strength; Percent Body Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia

    Tests are described that were given to 1,000 students randomly selected at grade 7-9 levels with an equal representation from both sexes. Participants were selected from two junior high schools in North York for a study comparing students in a regular physical education program to those in a program to develop cardiovascular endurance. The first

  18. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24303918

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p?fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  20. Potential energy surface fitting by a statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares method for the many-body potential: Method and application to N{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Jason D.; Doraiswamy, Sriram; Candler, Graham V. E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu; Truhlar, Donald G. E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu

    2014-02-07

    Fitting potential energy surfaces to analytic forms is an important first step for efficient molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we present an improved version of the local interpolating moving least squares method (L-IMLS) for such fitting. Our method has three key improvements. First, pairwise interactions are modeled separately from many-body interactions. Second, permutational invariance is incorporated in the basis functions, using permutationally invariant polynomials in Morse variables, and in the weight functions. Third, computational cost is reduced by statistical localization, in which we statistically correlate the cutoff radius with data point density. We motivate our discussion in this paper with a review of global and local least-squares-based fitting methods in one dimension. Then, we develop our method in six dimensions, and we note that it allows the analytic evaluation of gradients, a feature that is important for molecular dynamics. The approach, which we call statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares fitting of the many-body potential (SL-PI-L-IMLS-MP, or, more simply, L-IMLS-G2), is used to fit a potential energy surface to an electronic structure dataset for N{sub 4}. We discuss its performance on the dataset and give directions for further research, including applications to trajectory calculations.

  1. Meta-analysis of the relation of body mass index to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Lavie, Carl J; Borer, Jeffrey S; Vallakati, Ajay; Goel, Sunny; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Lazar, Jason M

    2015-05-15

    Clinical studies have indicated the existence of an "obesity paradox" in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), that is, reduced mortality in patients who have elevated body mass index (BMI) scores compared with normal-weight reference groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and hospitalization in patients with chronic HF though a systematic review and meta-analysis of published research. PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central, Scopus, web of science and Embase were searched for studies reporting rates of total mortality, cardiac mortality, and risk for hospitalization in patients with HF in various BMI categories (<20 kg/m(2) [low], 20 to 24.9 kg/m(2) [normal reference], 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2) [overweight], 30 to 34.9 [obese], and ?35 kg/m(2) [severely obese]). Event rates were compared using a forest plot of relative risk (RR) using a random-effects model assuming interstudy heterogeneity. Two study investigators independently reviewed the 124 reports retrieved and identified 6 for final analyses (n = 22,807). After a mean follow-up period of 2.85 years, the risk for adverse events was highest in patients with low BMIs: total mortality RR 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 1.37), CV mortality RR 1.20 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.43), and hospitalization RR 1.19 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.30). Risk for CV mortality and hospitalization was lowest in overweight patients (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.90, and RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.97, respectively). Increasing degree of obesity failed to achieve a statistically significant effect on CV mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.05, and RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.01, for obese and severely obese, respectively) and on hospitalization (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07, and RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.87, for obese and severely obese, respectively). In conclusion, risk for total mortality and CV mortality and hospitalization was highest in patients with chronic HF who were underweight as defined by low BMI, whereas risk for CV mortality and hospitalization was lowest in overweight subjects. PMID:25772740

  2. Effects of Poly-Bioactive Compounds on Lipid Profile and Body Weight in a Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Population with Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-M; Puzo, José; Calabuig, José-Ramón; Brea, Angel; Pedret, Anna; Moriña, David; Villar, José; Millán, Jesús; Anguera, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A dietary supplement (AP, Armolipid Plus) that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of AP, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations and other CVD biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of six Spanish hospitals Hospital Virgen del Rocío (Sevilla); Hospital San Jorge (Huesca); Hospital San Pedro (Logroño); Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid), Hospital la Fe (Valencia) and Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus) as recruiting and coordinating center. 102 participants (mean age ± SD; 50.91±11.61; 32 men) with low CVD, with mild-to-moderately elevated LDL-c (between 3.35 mmol/L and 4.88 mmol/L) without hypolipemic therapy were randomized in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, multicenter trial commencing January 2012 and ending December 2012. Among the exclusion criteria were any concomitant chronic disease, triglycerides (TG) >3.97 mmol/L, pregnant or lactating, and history of CVD. At 12 weeks, compared to placebo, AP reduced LDL-c by −6.9%, apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 by −6.6% and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio by −5.5%, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio by −8.6%, while increasing ApoA1 by +2.5% (p<0.05). AP consumption was associated with modest mean weight loss of −0.93 kg (95%CI: -1.74 to -0.12; P = 0.02) compared with control group while dietary composition remained unchanged in the AP group. The AP product was well tolerated. In conclusion, AP, combined with dietary recommendations, reduced LDL-c levels as well as total cholesterol/HDL-c and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while increasing Apo A1, all of which are improvements in CVD risk indicators. AP is a product which could benefit patients having moderate hyperlipidemia and excess body weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01562080 PMID:25084280

  3. Cigarette smoking and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Brunette, Mary F; McElvery, Raleigh; Naslund, John A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    This study explored cigarette smoking, health status, and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention. Baseline data from two studies of the In SHAPE fitness intervention were combined. A total of 341 overweight or obese adults with serious mental illness were assessed on smoking, interest in quitting, cardiovascular fitness, lipids, body mass index, readiness to change diet, and psychiatric symptoms. Thirty-six percent (n = 122) of participants were categorized as current smokers. The majority of smokers (84%) were interested in quitting. Smokers were more likely to be younger, male, and less educated than non-smokers. Smokers had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and were less ready to reduce dietary fat, after adjusting for age, gender, and education. Findings highlight the potential to address both fitness and smoking to reduce cardiovascular risk in individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:26034872

  4. [Cardiovascular risks in sports].

    PubMed

    Mller-Nordhorn, J; Willich, S N

    2005-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for about 50% of total mortality in Germany. Regular physical activity is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the long term, both in primary and secondary prevention. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that both moderate and intensive physical activity have a positive effect on cardiovascular risk. Even physical activity begun during middle age or later leads to a reduction in cardiovascular risk. However, during and immediately after an acute episode of physical activity, there is an increased risk of acute coronary events. Particularly untrained persons with an existing coronary heart disease are at risk for an event. Even in physically fit persons, the risk is increased during and after acute physical activity. Regular physical activity, however, is an important protective factor and reduces the risk of coronary events during acute strenuous exercise. Despite the increased risk during acute episodes of physical activity, regular physical activity is an important ingredient in the prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases. Current guidelines, therefore, recommend regular physical activity. PMID:16086204

  5. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Vega, Gloria L; Haskell, William L

    2012-04-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relation between cardiovascular risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a large population. Low CRF has been associated with increased total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. The mechanisms underlying greater cardiovascular mortality have not yet been determined. A series of cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 59,820 men and 22,192 women who had undergone determinations of CRF with maximal exercise testing. The risk factor profiles were segregated into 5 quintiles of CRF. With decreasing CRF, increases occurred in obesity, triglycerides, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratios, blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cigarette smoking. Self-reported physical activity declined with decreasing levels of CRF. In conclusion, it appears likely that the enrichment of cardiovascular risk factors, especially metabolic risk factors, account for a portion of the increased cardiovascular mortality in low-fitness subjects. The mechanisms responsible for this enrichment in subjects with a low CRF represent a challenge for future research. PMID:22221951

  7. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels. PMID:23419502

  8. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  9. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

  10. The Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy on Whole-Body Physical Fitness and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation In Vivo in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients – An Observational Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    West, Malcolm A.; Loughney, Lisa; Lythgoe, Daniel; Barben, Christopher P.; Adams, Valerie L.; Bimson, William E.; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Jack, Sandy; Kemp, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, patients with locally advanced rectal cancer routinely receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. However, the effects of this on physical fitness are unclear. This pilot study is aimed to investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on objectively measured in vivo muscle mitochondrial function and whole-body physical fitness. Methods We prospectively studied 12 patients with rectal cancer who completed standardized neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, recruited from a large tertiary cancer centre, between October 2012 and July 2013. All patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy quadriceps muscle exercise-recovery study before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Data were analysed and reported blind to patient identity and clinical course. Primary variables of interest were the two physical fitness measures; oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold and oxygen uptake at Peak exercise (ml.kg−1.min−1), and the post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (min−1), a measure of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo. Results Median age was 67 years (IQR 64–75). Differences (95%CI) in all three primary variables were significantly negative post-NACRT: Oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold −2.4 ml.kg−1.min−1 (−3.8, −0.9), p = 0.004; Oxygen uptake at Peak −4.0 ml.kg−1.min−1 (−6.8, −1.1), p = 0.011; and post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant −0.34 min−1 (−0.51, −0.17), p<0.001. Conclusion The significant decrease in both whole-body physical fitness and in vivo muscle mitochondrial function raises the possibility that muscle mitochondrial mechanisms, no doubt multifactorial, may be important in deterioration of physical fitness following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This may have implications for targeted interventions to improve physical fitness pre-surgery. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01859442 PMID:25478898

  11. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  12. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  13. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:

  14. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade

  15. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Lathers, Claire M.

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on the rate of adaptation of the human cardiovascular system to conditions of spaceflight, with particular attention given to data obtained during spaceflight in the U.S. Space Shuttle Program. It is pointed out that many of the cardiovascular changes that occurred during spaceflights that lasted from 2 to 11 days can be traced directly to changes in the body fluid volume. The beneficial effects of a fluid loading countermeasure (oral rehydration) and of the supine body position on the heart rate during the spaceflight are demonstrated. It is noted that, after hours or a few days of spaceflight, a state of adaptation is reached, in which the subject is well adapted and appropriately hydrated for the weightless environment. However, the return to the normal gravity of the earth leaves the individual especially sensitive to orthostatic stress.

  16. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had

  17. The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

    1992-01-01

    Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

  18. Associations between health behaviours and health related fitness.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J; Bouchard, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine relations between health behaviours and health related fitness. METHODS: Subjects were a convenience sample of 350 healthy adults (172 men, 178 women). Covariance analysis adjusted data for significant influences of age and socioeconomic status. Obesity was assessed by anthropometry and body density. Cardiovascular fitness was assessed and various metabolic measurements were made. Questionnaires on physical activity and health related behaviours were completed. RESULTS: Cigarette abstinence was associated with a small abdominal circumference (men) and a low trunk/extremity skinfold ratio (women). Obesity indices (body mass index, total skinfolds, percent fat, and abdominal circumference) were negatively associated with perceived fitness. Leisure activity and exercise frequency were also negatively linked to some obesity indices. Blood glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were favourably influenced by perceived activity, exercise frequency, and perceived fitness, but not by exercise intensity. Abstinence from coffee was associated with a low cholesterol/HDL ratio (men only). Principal component, discriminant, and multiple logistic regression analyses showed only weak clustering of habitual physical activity with other positive health behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiphasic health promotion programmes are economical, favourable interactions between individual programme elements seem likely to be quite limited. PMID:8799591

  19. Augmented limb blood flow during neurovascular stress in physically fit women.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Jackson, Erica M; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ray, Chester A

    2013-09-01

    The study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies cardiovascular responses by normotensive men and women during the Stroop color-word interference test. Independent of age and an estimate of body fatness, fitness level was positively related (R ?=?.39 and .51) to increases in limb blood flow and vascular conductance, coherent with cardiac-vagal withdrawal and a decrease in heart period, among women but not men. Fitness was unrelated to changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The augmented hemodynamic responses among fitter women were not consistent with passive vasodilation via withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone. The results encourage further gender comparisons testing whether fitness augments limb blood flow during mental stress by neurohumoral and flow-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms or by increased cardiac output. PMID:23802906

  20. Fitness Is Fun for Everyone!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamiya, Artie

    1989-01-01

    Exercises and classroom activities that familiarize students with the "human body machine" are the focus of this article which addresses the decline in elementary student health and fitness. A reproducible worksheet, "Benefits of Exercise Worksheet", is included. (IAH)

  1. Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body

  2. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  3. Cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rupert A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major, growing, worldwide problem. It is important that individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease can be effectively identified and appropriately stratified according to risk. This review examines what we understand by the term risk, traditional and novel risk factors, clinical scoring systems, and the use of risk for informing prescribing decisions. Many different cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. Established, traditional factors such as ageing are powerful predictors of adverse outcome, and in the case of hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. Numerous novel biomarkers have also been described, such as inflammatory and genetic markers. These have yet to be shown to be of value in improving risk prediction, but may represent potential therapeutic targets and facilitate more targeted use of existing therapies. Risk factors have been incorporated into several cardiovascular disease prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham equation, SCORE and QRISK. These have relatively poor predictive power, and uncertainties remain with regards to aspects such as choice of equation, different risk thresholds and the roles of relative risk, lifetime risk and reversible factors in identifying and treating at-risk individuals. Nonetheless, such scores provide objective and transparent means of quantifying risk and their integration into therapeutic guidelines enables equitable and cost-effective distribution of health service resources and improves the consistency and quality of clinical decision making. PMID:22348281

  4. Physical fitness and changes in mortality: the survival of the fittest.

    PubMed

    Erikssen, G

    2001-01-01

    Physical fitness is a term describing maximal aerobic capacity adjusted for body size and composition, and is an integrated measure of cardiorespiratory and neuromusculo-skeletal function, oxygen transport and delivery, and psychological drive. Accordingly, high physical fitness requires that all these important body functions function normally, while low physical fitness suggests malfunction of one or more of them. High levels of physical fitness--maintained through heavy daily exercise--has probably been a necessary requirement for survival in the earlier history of humans. In modern, industrialised countries the demand for physical activity to sustain life is declining, and a decline in physical fitness is observed in many populations. Epidemiological studies over the past 50 years have unanimously shown that low physical activity and physical fitness is associated with high cardiovascular and total mortality. Recent data also suggest that low physical activity and physical fitness is followed by an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and nonfatal cardiovascular diseases. A number of unfavourable biochemical and physiological aberrations following physical inactivity probably explain these observations. However, recent studies also indicate that changes in physical activity, and especially changes that bring increases in physical fitness, can reverse this rather pessimistic scenario. The Global Burden of Disease Study initiated by the World Health Organization included physical inactivity among the most important risk factors threatening global health. A sedentary life style may be as detrimental to health as smoking. Encouragement of physical activity is an important and difficult task, as society is becoming increasingly successful in reducing our need to move. PMID:11475318

  5. The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

  6. CardioGenBase: A Literature Based Multi-Omics Database for Major Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    V, Alexandar; Nayar, Pradeep G.; Murugesan, R.; Mary, Beaulah; P, Darshana; Ahmed, Shiek S. S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both, genetic and epigenetic factors are involved in the enumeration of various cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a vast amount of multi-omics data are accumulated in the field of cardiovascular research, yet the understanding of key mechanistic aspects of CVDs remain uncovered. Hence, a comprehensive online resource tool is required to comprehend previous research findings and to draw novel methodology for understanding disease pathophysiology. Here, we have developed a literature-based database, CardioGenBase, collecting gene-disease association from Pubmed and MEDLINE. The database covers major cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertensive heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, ischemic heart disease and rheumatic heart disease. It contains ~1,500 cardiovascular disease genes from ~2,4000 research articles. For each gene, literature evidence, ontology, pathways, single nucleotide polymorphism, protein-protein interaction network, normal gene expression, protein expressions in various body fluids and tissues are provided. In addition, tools like gene-disease association finder and gene expression finder are made available for the users with figures, tables, maps and venn diagram to fit their needs. To our knowledge, CardioGenBase is the only database to provide gene-disease association for above mentioned major cardiovascular diseases in a single portal. CardioGenBase is a vital online resource to support genome-wide analysis, genetic, epigenetic and pharmacological studies. PMID:26624015

  7. CardioGenBase: A Literature Based Multi-Omics Database for Major Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    V, Alexandar; Nayar, Pradeep G; Murugesan, R; Mary, Beaulah; P, Darshana; Ahmed, Shiek S S J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both, genetic and epigenetic factors are involved in the enumeration of various cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a vast amount of multi-omics data are accumulated in the field of cardiovascular research, yet the understanding of key mechanistic aspects of CVDs remain uncovered. Hence, a comprehensive online resource tool is required to comprehend previous research findings and to draw novel methodology for understanding disease pathophysiology. Here, we have developed a literature-based database, CardioGenBase, collecting gene-disease association from Pubmed and MEDLINE. The database covers major cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertensive heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, ischemic heart disease and rheumatic heart disease. It contains ~1,500 cardiovascular disease genes from ~2,4000 research articles. For each gene, literature evidence, ontology, pathways, single nucleotide polymorphism, protein-protein interaction network, normal gene expression, protein expressions in various body fluids and tissues are provided. In addition, tools like gene-disease association finder and gene expression finder are made available for the users with figures, tables, maps and venn diagram to fit their needs. To our knowledge, CardioGenBase is the only database to provide gene-disease association for above mentioned major cardiovascular diseases in a single portal. CardioGenBase is a vital online resource to support genome-wide analysis, genetic, epigenetic and pharmacological studies. PMID:26624015

  8. Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention reduces the estimated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sprangers, R.L.H.; Stam, F.; Smid, H.E.C.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hellemans, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle. However, successful lifestyle intervention is proving to be a challenge for healthcare professionals. Objectives Evaluation of the effect of lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors, on reaching treatment targets and on the estimated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods The effect of a six-month multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme was assessed in 186 patients with and without a history of CVD. Results Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention reduced the estimated ten-year risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without a history of CVD, the absolute risk reduction was higher in patients with a history of CVD. In both groups blood pressure and body weight decreased, and the maximal work rate and maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly. Blood levels of total cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL ratio decreased significantly in patients with a history of CVD. In addition, target levels for blood pressure and physical fitness were more frequently reached in both patient groups. Conclusion Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without evidence of cardiovascular disease. Follow-up is needed to see how well these effects can be maintained. PMID:25696263

  9. Cardiovascular responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular system's adaptive changes during and after spaceflight are discussed. Cephalic fluid shifts are demonstrated by photographs along with calf girth and leg volume changes. Inflight measurements show an increase in average resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure, and a sympathetic-parasympathetic neural imbalance. Postflight findings include a small but reversible decrease in the left ventricular muscle mass. Since 1980, NASA's research has emphasized cardiovascular deconditioning and countermeasures: hemodynamic changes, endocrine and neurohumoral aspects, etiologic factors, and lower body negative pressure devices. Though human beings acclimate to the space environment, questions concerning the immediate and long-term aspects of spaceflight need to be answered for adequate planning of extended space missions.

  10. Sports Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are in pain, you may be overdoing it. Injuries can be the result. And be sure that you use your body and your equipment safely. What you eat and drink is also important. Water is the most important nutrient for active people. Drink it before, during and after workouts.

  11. Boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for solution of partial differential equations on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multi-connected two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. No restrictions are placed on the shape of the boundaries, which may even be time-dependent, and the approach is not restricted in principle to two dimensions. With this procedure the numerical solution of a partial differential system may be done on a fixed rectangular field with a square mesh with no interpolation required regardless of the shape of the physical boundaries, regardless of the spacing of the curvilinear coordinate lines in the physical field, and regardless of the movement of the coordinate system in the physical plane. A number of examples of coordinate systems and application thereof to the solution of partial differential equations are given. The FORTRAN computer program and instructions for use are included.

  12. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Gonzales, J; Levin, S; Barnard, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting. Subjects/methods: Employees from 10 sites of a major US company with body mass index ?25?kg/m2 and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were randomized to either follow a low-fat vegan diet, with weekly group support and work cafeteria options available, or make no diet changes for 18 weeks. Dietary intake, body weight, plasma lipid concentrations, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were determined at baseline and 18 weeks. Results: Mean body weight fell 2.9?kg and 0.06?kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fell 8.0 and 8.1?mg/dl in the intervention group and 0.01 and 0.9?mg/dl in the control group (P<0.01). HbA1C fell 0.6 percentage point and 0.08 percentage point in the intervention and control group, respectively (P<0.01). Among study completers, mean changes in body weight were ?4.3?kg and ?0.08?kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Total and LDL cholesterol fell 13.7 and 13.0?mg/dl in the intervention group and 1.3 and 1.7?mg/dl in the control group (P<0.001). HbA1C levels decreased 0.7 percentage point and 0.1 percentage point in the intervention and control group, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions: An 18-week dietary intervention using a low-fat plant-based diet in a corporate setting improves body weight, plasma lipids, and, in individuals with diabetes, glycemic control. PMID:23695207

  13. Cardiovascular system

    MedlinePLUS

    ... living cells in the body, and also carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. Most of the blood is made up of a watery, protein-laden fluid called plasma. A little less than half of this blood ...

  14. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

  15. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

    2007-10-01

    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations. PMID:17990383

  16. Ideal cardiovascular health in young adult populations from the United States, Finland, and Australia and its association with cIMT: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals for cardiovascular disease prevention were set by the American Heart Association in 2010 for the concept of cardiovascular health. Ideal cardiovascular health is defined by senen cardiovascular health metrics: blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity on ...

  17. Cardiovascular Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measuring the response of certain elements (such as hydrogen) in the body to a magnetic field. MRI ... attack and stroke patients. Trans fat - Created when hydrogen is forced through an ordinary vegetable oil (hydrogenation), ...

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Self-Reported Physical Fitness (SRFit) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Clark, Daniel O.; Stump, Timothy E.; Miller, Douglas K.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background An accurate physical fitness survey could be useful in research and clinical care. Purpose To estimate the validity and reliability of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey; an instrument that estimates muscular fitness, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, BMI, and body composition (BC) in adults ? 40 years of age. Methods 201 participants completed the SF-36 Physical Function Subscale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Older Adults Desire for Physical Competence Scale (Rejeski), the SRFit survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test. BC, height and weight were measured. SRFit survey items described BC, BMI, and Senior Fitness Test movements. Correlations between the Senior Fitness Test and the SRFit survey assessed concurrent validity. Cronbachs Alpha measured internal consistency within each SRFit domain. SRFit domain scores were compared with SF-36, IPAQ, and Rejeski survey scores to assess construct validity. Intraclass correlations evaluated test-retest reliability. Results Correlations between SRFit and the Senior Fitness Test domains ranged from 0.35 to 0.79. Cronbachs Alpha scores were .75 to .85. Correlations between SRFit and other survey scores were ?0.23 to 0.72 and in the expected direction. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.79 to 0.93. All P-values were 0.001. Conclusion Initial evaluation supports the SRFit surveys validity and reliability. PMID:23676451

  19. The effects of pre- and post-exercise consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements on cardiovascular health and body fat in trained men after six weeks of resistance training: a stratified, randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) in conjunction with periodized resistance training (RT) in resistance-trained men are unknown. This population is a major target audience for performance supplements, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of RT and commercially available pre- and post-exercise performance supplements on CV health and body fat in resistance-trained men. Methods Twenty-four resistance-trained men completed six weeks (three times/week) of periodized RT while either ingesting SHOT 15-min pre-exercise and SYN immediately post-exercise (multi-ingredient performance supplement group: MIPS) or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo 15-min pre-exercise and immediately post-exercise (Placebo group). Before and after six weeks of RT and supplementation, resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat, fat-free mass (FFM) and fasting blood measures of glucose, lipids, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), cortisol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using a one-way ANOVA for baseline differences and a 2 × 2 (group × time) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was no group × time interaction for HR, BP, blood glucose, lipids, NOx, hs-CRP, cortisol concentrations or body fat. However, there was a time effect where significant decreases in body fat (mean ± SD; MIPS: -1.2 ± 1.2%; Placebo: -0.9 ± 1.1%), android fat (MIPS: -1.8 ± 2.1%; Placebo: -1.6 ± 2.0%), and gynoid fat (MIPS: -1.3 ± 1.6%; Placebo: -1.0 ± 1.4%) for both groups were observed. FFM increased in both groups, and a group × time interaction was observed with MIPS increasing significantly more than the Placebo group (4.2% vs. 1.9%). Conclusions Six weeks of MIPS ingestion and periodized RT does not alter CV health parameters or blood indices of health or body fat more than a Placebo treatment in healthy, resistance-trained men. However, MIPS significantly increased FFM more than Placebo. PMID:23680036

  20. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

    2014-09-01

    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  1. Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with

  2. Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

  3. Multimodality Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    ODonnell, Matthew; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Strauss, H. William; Tanaka, Atsushi; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Guttman, Michael A.; Garcia, Ernest V.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a new discipline that integrates scientific advances in both functional imaging and molecular probes to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the cardiovascular system. These advances are driven by in vivo imaging of molecular processes in animals, usually small animals, and are rapidly moving toward clinical applications. Molecular imaging has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The 2 key components of all molecular imaging systems are the molecular contrast agents and the imaging system providing spatial and temporal localization of these agents within the body. They must deliver images with the appropriate sensitivity and specificity to drive clinical applications. As work in molecular contrast agents matures and highly sensitive and specific probes are developed, these systems will provide the imaging technologies required for translation into clinical tools. This is the promise of molecular medicine. PMID:20457794

  4. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to −6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and −5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) −1.1 kg (−2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) −0.49 mmol/L (−0.70 to −0.28), p<0.001 and −0.34 mmol/L (−0.57 to −0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (−0.57 (−0.83, −0.32), p<0.001 and −0.05 (−0.09, −0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516. PMID:24500611

  5. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  6. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  7. Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Hyperaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Prejbisz, A; Warcho?-Celi?ska, E; Lenders, J W M; Januszewicz, A

    2015-12-01

    After the first cases of primary aldosteronism were described and characterized by Conn, a substantial body of experimental and clinical evidence about the long-term effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system was gathered over the last 5 decades. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism varies considerably between different studies among hypertensive patients, depending on patient selection, the used diagnostic methods, and the severity of hypertension. Prevalence rates vary from 4.6 to 16.6% in those studies in which confirmatory tests to diagnose primary aldosteronism were used. There is also growing evidence indicating that prolonged exposure to elevated aldosterone concentrations is associated with target organ damage in the heart, kidney, and arterial wall, and high cardiovascular risk in patients with primary aldosteronism. Therefore, the aim of treatment should not be confined to BP normalization and hypokalemia correction, but rather should focus on restoring the deleterious effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system. Current evidence convincingly demonstrates that both surgical and medical treatment strategies beneficially affect cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in the long term. Further studies can be expected to provide better insight into the relationship between cardiovascular risk and complications and the genetic background of primary aldosteronism. PMID:26575306

  8. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35%), the fully adjusted HR for CVD events was 1.39, 95%CI 1.17-1.64 compared with 1.46, 95%CI 1.23-1.72 using the NCEP definition. Conclusion. MetS-PC is a continuous measure of metabolic syndrome and was a better predictor of CVD events overall and in individual ethnicities. Additionally, a binary MetS-PC definition was better than the NCEP MetS definition in predicting incident CVD events in the MESA cohort, but this superiority was not evident in the Health ABC cohort. PMID:22536533

  9. Fitness versus Fatness: Which Influences Health and Mortality Risk the Most?

    PubMed

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Tucker, Wesley J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a more powerful predictor of mortality than body mass index or adiposity, and improving CRF is more important than losing body fat for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data on reduced morbidity and mortality associated with increased CRF are strong and consistent. By contrast, data on intentional weight loss and mortality are uncertain, and weight loss-induced risk factor modification may be largely transient. Because weight loss maintenance is poor and considering the health risks associated with chronic weight instability ( "yo-yo" dieting), we propose an alternative paradigm that focuses on improving CRF rather than reducing body weight. We contend that this is a safer alternative for management of obesity and the associated comorbidities. Exercise adherence may improve if clinicians emphasized to their patients the importance of CRF compared with weight loss in improving health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:26166058

  10. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  11. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

  12. Physical activity, physical fitness, and risk of dying.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, P J; Morrison, H I; Craig, C L; Schaubel, D E

    1998-11-01

    We examined the relation between physical activity, physical fitness, and all-cause mortality in a national population-based study of Canadians. We followed men and women ages 20-69 years who had participated in the Canada Fitness Survey between 1981 and 1988. We assessed risk factors for 6,246 men and 8,196 women using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. At baseline, all subjects were asymptomatic according to self-reported screening questions for cardiovascular disease. Men who expended > or =0.5 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per day (KKD) experienced a 20% decline in risk of mortality [rate ratio (RR) = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-1.04] when compared with subjects expending <0.5 KKD. We observed a 30% decline in risk of mortality among women expending > or =3.0 KKD relative to those expending <0.5 KKD (RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.45-1.11). Similar patterns of risk were evident for both men and women when analyses were restricted to participation in nonvigorous activities. Those who perceived themselves to be of less than average fitness were at increased risk of mortality (male RR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.21-2.22; female RR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.21-2.26). Subjects with undesirable cardiorespiratory fitness levels were more likely to die, compared with those having recommended fitness levels (RR = 1.52; 95% CI = 0.72-3.18). Fifty-three per cent of men and 35% of women reported participating in a vigorous activity. The relation between daily energy expenditure and risk of mortality in these subjects could not be evaluated, as there were few deaths. Nonetheless, our results among participants reporting no vigorous activities support the hypothesis that there is a reduction in mortality risk associated with even modest participation in activities of low intensity. PMID:9799172

  13. A journey toward wholeness, a journey to God: physical fitness as embodied spirituality.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Tracey C; Delgado, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    Physical fitness expressed through exercise can be, if done with the right intention, a form of spiritual discipline that reflects the relational love of humanity to God as well as an expression of a healthy love of the embodied self. Through an analysis of the physiological benefits of exercise science applied to the human body, this paper will demonstrate how such attention to the optimal physical fitness of the body, including weight and cardiovascular training and nutrition, is an affirmation of three foundational theological principles of human embodiment: as created in the "imago Dei", as unified body/spirit, and as part of God's creation calling for proper stewardship. In a contemporary climate where women's bodies in particular are viewed through the lens of commodification-as visual objects for sale based on prescribed notions of superficial esthetics and beauty-as well as the consistently high rates of eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and obesity, authors Greenwood and Delgado offer a vision of how women and men can imagine a subjective relationship with their own bodies that reflects the abundant love of God for God's creation. Spoken from the lived experience of professional fitness competitor and trainer, as well as trained biokineticist, Dr. Greenwood presents the most current scientific data in the field of biokinetics that grounds the theological analysis offered by Dr. Delgado, whose personal journey through anorexia and scholarly emphasis on Christian theological anthropology inform this work. Taken together, Greenwood and Delgado suggest a response to God's love for humanity, including our physical bodily humanity, which entails a responsibility to attend to the physical fitness of our bodies in order to live into the fullness, flourishing and love of God's creation as God intended. PMID:22005967

  14. Tobacco and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Prajeena; Pant, Sadip; Rodriguez, Alexis Phillip; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco consumption has been inextricably intertwined with society and its evolution. At one time, centuries ago, thought to be a sign of refinement and nobility, fortunately, this perception has been changing worldwide. Currently, this change in perception has been so dramatic that laws are enacted to limit tobacco exposure through second-hand smokers. Countless studies continue to emerge on tobacco's healthcare toll to the point that we now consider indisputable facts that smokers have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, among many others. However, there are other less well-known emerging facts that still require close attention such as the effect on the immune and hematopoietic systems. Tobacco smoke is injurious to all major organs in our bodies. With over 30 known carcinogens, it should not be surprising that it affects all aspects of human health. In this chapter, we will focus on the effects of tobacco on cardiovascular health. PMID:25225032

  15. Physical Fitness and Serum Vitamin D and Cognition in Elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong-Deok; Kang, Hyunsik

    2015-01-01

    Poor physical fitness and low serum vitamin D are known to be modifiable risk factors for cognitive declines with normal aging. We investigated the association of physical fitness and serum vitamin D levels with global cognitive function in older adults. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 412 older Korean adults (108 men aged 74.4 ± 6.0 years and 304 women aged 73.1 ± 5.4 years) completed the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess global cognitive performance and the senior fitness test to assess strength, flexibility, agility, and endurance domains of physical fitness. Body mass index, percent body fat, serum vitamin D, geriatric depression scale (GDS), level of education, smoking, and history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were also assessed as covariates. Age, sex, GDS, and body fatness were negatively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Serum vitamin D and physical fitness were positively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression showed that agility (partial R2 = -0.184, p = 0.029) and endurance (partial R2 = 0.191, p = 0.022) domains of physical fitness along with serum vitamin D (partial R2 = 0.210, p = 0.012) were significant predictors for global cognitive performance after controlling for covariates (i.e., age, sex, education, GDS, body fatness, and comorbidity index). The current findings of the study suggest that promotion of physical fitness and vitamin D supplementation should be key components of interventions to prevent cognitive decline with normal aging. Key points Cognitive declines are associated with normal aging as well as modifiable lifestyle risk factors, and there is an increasing need to identify the modifiable risk factors for the onset of cognitive declines and to provide evidence-based strategies for healthy and successful aging. In Korea, little is known about the relationships of physical fitness and serum vitamin D with cognitive function in older adults, and we determined the associations between a) serum vitamin D levels and cognitive function and b) physical fitness and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly Koreans. The current findings of the study suggest that agility and endurance domains of physical fitness along with serum vitamin D were significant predictors for global cognitive performance after controlling for covariates. PMID:26664270

  16. Physical Fitness and Serum Vitamin D and Cognition in Elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Deok; Kang, Hyunsik

    2015-12-01

    Poor physical fitness and low serum vitamin D are known to be modifiable risk factors for cognitive declines with normal aging. We investigated the association of physical fitness and serum vitamin D levels with global cognitive function in older adults. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 412 older Korean adults (108 men aged 74.4 6.0 years and 304 women aged 73.1 5.4 years) completed the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess global cognitive performance and the senior fitness test to assess strength, flexibility, agility, and endurance domains of physical fitness. Body mass index, percent body fat, serum vitamin D, geriatric depression scale (GDS), level of education, smoking, and history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were also assessed as covariates. Age, sex, GDS, and body fatness were negatively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Serum vitamin D and physical fitness were positively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression showed that agility (partial R(2) = -0.184, p = 0.029) and endurance (partial R(2) = 0.191, p = 0.022) domains of physical fitness along with serum vitamin D (partial R(2) = 0.210, p = 0.012) were significant predictors for global cognitive performance after controlling for covariates (i.e., age, sex, education, GDS, body fatness, and comorbidity index). The current findings of the study suggest that promotion of physical fitness and vitamin D supplementation should be key components of interventions to prevent cognitive decline with normal aging. Key pointsCognitive declines are associated with normal aging as well as modifiable lifestyle risk factors, and there is an increasing need to identify the modifiable risk factors for the onset of cognitive declines and to provide evidence-based strategies for healthy and successful aging.In Korea, little is known about the relationships of physical fitness and serum vitamin D with cognitive function in older adults, and we determined the associations between a) serum vitamin D levels and cognitive function and b) physical fitness and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly Koreans.The current findings of the study suggest that agility and endurance domains of physical fitness along with serum vitamin D were significant predictors for global cognitive performance after controlling for covariates. PMID:26664270

  17. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  18. Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

  19. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  20. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,

  1. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  2. The female athlete triad and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Anne Z; Lal, Sophia; Jurva, Jason W; Gutterman, David D

    2007-08-01

    In the past 35 years, a significant increase has occurred in sports participation by women. An estimated 3 million girls and young women compete in American high school sports. Women who participate in sports and fitness programs are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, an increase has also been seen in gender-specific injuries and medical problems. The female athlete triad is a syndrome of separate but interrelated conditions of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Athletic amenorrhea is known to have a hormonal profile similar to menopause characterized by decreased circulating estrogens. Menopause is known to be associated with osteoporosis and accelerated cardiovascular disease. Although enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease is theoretically possible, it has not been explored in the young athletic population. Premature cardiovascular disease first manifests as endothelial dysfunction, which can be examined noninvasively with ultrasound. This article discusses disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and the potential for heightened cardiovascular risk in young athletic women. PMID:17678758

  3. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Blood Pressure Trajectory With Aging in a Cohort of Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Carl J.; Zhou, Haiming; Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Cai, Bo; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the trajectory of blood pressure (BP) with aging is well known, there is a lack of data on how cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) impacts age-associated BP changes. Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate whether fitness alters the aging-BP trajectory. Methods: A cohort from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study totaling 13,953 men aged 20 to 90 years, free of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, completed from 3 to 28 (mean, 3.8) follow-up medical examinations between 1970 and 2006. Fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Longitudinal data were analyzed with a linear mixed model . Results: Diastolic BP (DBP) tended to increase until nearly age 60, when a decrease was observed. Systolic BP (SBP) tended to increase over all age periods. In multivariable analysis, average SBP increased by 0.31 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.32) with 1 year age increments, after adjusting for body fat %, fitness, resting heart rate, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, and parental history of hypertension. DBP also increased with age, with a yearly increase of 0.15 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.16). Overall, abnormal SBP (>120 mm Hg) began to occur at about age 50 and abnormal DBP (>80 mm Hg) began at to occur at age 60. Men with higher fitness levels experienced abnormal SBP later than those with low fitness levels. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the potential modifying effect of fitness on BP trajectory with aging over the male adult life span. Improving fitness levels might extend the normal SBP and DBP ranges, delaying the development of hypertension. PMID:25236517

  4. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows

  5. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, I.A.; Dick, T.J.M.; Guenette, J.A.; Hoogbruin, A.; Mackey, D.C.; Singer, J.; Lear, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n=55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.821.8mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.027.7mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p<0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  6. Rationale, design and baseline data for the Activating Consumers to Exercise through Peer Support (ACE trial): A randomized controlled trial to increase fitness among adults with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Gerald J.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Stewart, Kerry J.; Crum, Rosa M.; Latkin, Carl; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Charleston, Jeanne; Leatherman, Elisabeth; Appel, Lawrence J.; Daumit, Gail L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of regular physical activity are particularly salient to persons with serious mental illness (SMI) who have increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and earlier mortality from cardiovascular disease. Methods The Activating Consumers to Exercise through Peer Support (ACE) trial will examine the effectiveness of peer support on adherence to a 4-month pilot exercise program for adults with SMI. Design, rationale and baseline data are reported. Baseline measures included: graded treadmill test; six-minute walk; height, weight and blood pressure; body composition; fasting blood; and self-reported psychiatric symptoms. Fitness levels were compared with national data and relationships among fitness parameters, psychological factors and cardiovascular disease risk factors were examined. Results There were 93 participants and 18 peer leaders recruited from community psychiatry programs with an average age of 47 years (SD 10). There were no differences in demographics (76% female, 72% African American) or mental health symptoms between participants and peer leaders. Ninety-five percent of the sample had below average fitness levels for their age and sex with average MET levels of 5.9(SD 2.2) for participants and 6.2(SD 2.3) for peer leaders. Fitness evaluated during the treadmill test and the six-minute-walk were associated (rs = 0.36, p<.001). Lower MET levels were associated with a higher BMI (rs = −0.35, p<.001) and percent body fat (rs = −0.36, p <.001). Conclusion The uniformly low baseline cardiovascular fitness and the association of fitness with BMI and adiposity underscore the importance of suitably tailored programs to increase physical activity among adults with SMI. PMID:23471190

  7. Partnerships for the Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    The YMCA has helped train and employ fitness leaders while educating the public on physical fitness. Colleges and universities can help develop careers in fitness while maintaining their traditional role of developing teachers and coaches. (DF)

  8. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... survey. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  9. Fit-testing for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Brickman, C P

    1999-01-01

    When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect respirator fit, such as facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight. PMID:9891408

  10. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  11. Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Vnttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Hkkinen, Keijo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

  12. Endurance exercise and resistance training in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Meka, Naga; Katragadda, Srikanth; Cherian, Biju; Arora, Rohit R

    2008-04-01

    Contrary to the age old taboo of exercise in cardiac patients, resistance training has been gaining importance recently as a safe, healthy fitness option in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the leading killer disease in the population above 45 years in the United States. Endurance or aerobic exercise helps improve overall stamina and the ability of the heart to pump oxygenated blood in those with and without prior cardiovascular disease. In addition to modifying cardiovascular risks, resistance training has profound beneficial effects on improving muscle strength and endurance, preventing osteoporosis and improving quality of life both in the healthy and cardiovascular patients including women and heart failure patients. So resistance training should be regarded as a complementary fitness program rather that a substitute to endurance training. This review discusses the physiological phenomenon and benefits of exercise training programs on cardiovascular disease patients focusing on endurance exercise and resistance training. PMID:19124415

  13. Effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on short-term morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Smith, James L; Verrill, Thomas A; Boura, Judy A; Sakwa, Marc P; Shannon, Francis L; Franklin, Barry A

    2013-10-15

    Although preoperative risk assessment for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been evaluated with multiple predictive models, none have incorporated a low level of cardiorespiratory fitness, which represents one of the strongest predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in subjects with and without heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as METs (1 MET= 3.5ml O2/kg/min), and short-term morbidity and mortality after CABG. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database was queried for patients who underwent CABG from January 2002 to December 2010 at Beaumont Health Systems. Electronic medical records were reviewed for peak or symptom-limited exercise testing <90days before CABG. Peak METs were estimated from the achieved treadmill speed, grade, and duration or the cycle ergometer workload, corrected for body weight. Patients who met eligibility criteria (n= 596) were categorized into 2 groups: those with reduced aerobic capacity (<5 METs [n= 78]) and those achieving ?5 METs (n= 518). Fisher's exact tests were used to compare preoperative aerobic capacity and short-term postoperative morbidity and mortality between the 2 groups. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, an inverse relation was found between cardiorespiratory fitness and complications after CABG. Specifically, low preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness (<5 METs) was associated with higher operative and 30-day mortality after CABG (p <0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness provides an independent and additive marker for mortality after CABG. PMID:23849973

  14. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and

  15. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  16. Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14years (Mage?=?12.3??0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR?=?2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p?fitness and weight status were independently and combined related to academic achievement in seventh-grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born. PMID:25001376

  17. [Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].

    PubMed

    Picciotto, D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

  18. Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Keen, Carl L; Holt, Roberta R; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Csar G; Schmitz, Harold H

    2005-01-01

    An increasing body of epidemiologic evidence supports the concept that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases. Epidemiologic data support the idea that these health benefits are causally linked to the consumption of certain flavonoids present in fruit and vegetables. In the context of cardiovascular health, a particular group of flavonoids, namely, the flavan-3-ols (flavanols), has received attention. Flavanol-rich, plant-derived foods and beverages include wine, tea, and various fruits and berries, as well as cocoa and cocoa products. Numerous dietary intervention studies in humans and animals indicate that flavanol-rich foods and beverages might exert cardioprotective effects with respect to vascular function and platelet reactivity. This review discusses the bioactivity of flavanols in the context of cardiovascular health, with respect to their bioavailability, their antioxidant properties, and their vascular effects. PMID:15640494

  19. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee

  20. Pathogenetic Mechanisms and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Cristina; Miccoli, Roberto; Bonadonna, Riccardo C.; Giorgino, Francesco; Frontoni, Simona; Faloia, Emanuela; Marchesini, Giulio; Dolci, Maria A.; Cavalot, Franco; Cavallo, Gisella M.; Leonetti, Frida; Del Prato, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain to which extent the use of HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for diagnosis of glucose tolerance could identify individuals with different pathogenetic mechanisms and cardiovascular risk profile. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 844 subjects (44% men; age 49.5 11 years; BMI 29 5 kg/m2) participated in this study. Parameters of ?-cell function were derived from deconvolution of the plasma C-peptide concentration after a 75-g OGTT and insulin sensitivity assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (IR). Cardiovascular risk profile was based on determination of plasma lipids and measurements of body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Glucose regulation categories by OGTT and HbA1c were compared with respect to insulin action, insulin secretion, and cardiovascular risk profile. RESULTS OGTT results showed 42% of the subjects had prediabetes and 15% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whereas the corresponding figures based on HbA1c were 38 and 11%, with a respective concordance rate of 54 and 44%. Subjects meeting both diagnostic criteria for prediabetes presented greater IR and impairment of insulin secretion and had a worse cardiovascular risk profile than those with normal glucose tolerance at both diagnostic methods. In a logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, prediabetic subjects, and even more T2DM subjects by OGTT, had greater chance to have IR and impaired insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS HbA1c identifies a smaller proportion of prediabetic individuals and even a smaller proportion of T2DM individuals than OGTT, with no difference in IR, insulin secretion, and cardiovascular risk profile. Subjects fulfilling both diagnostic methods for prediabetes or T2DM are characterized by a worse metabolic profile. PMID:22912427

  1. Cardiovascular Health Issues in Inner City Populations.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Dhruv; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Inner city populations in high-income countries carry a disproportionately high burden of cardiovascular disease. Although low individual socioeconomic status has long been associated with higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, there is a growing body of evidence that area-level socioeconomic status may also have a major effect on cardiovascular outcomes. A lack of supermarkets, limited green space, and high rates of violent crime in inner city neighbourhoods result in poor dietary intake and low rates of physical activity among residents. The physical and social environments of inner city neighbourhoods may also contribute to high rates of comorbid mental illness in disadvantaged urban populations. Mental illness may lead to the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors through its impact on health behaviours, effects of psychiatric medications, and sequelae of substance abuse. Individuals residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods experience reduced access to both primary preventive and acute in-hospital cardiovascular care. This may be driven by financial disincentives for caring for patients with low socioeconomic status, as well as system capacity issues in the inner city, and patient-level differences in health-seeking behaviours. Small-scale studies of interventions to improve individual-level health behaviours and access to care in the inner city have demonstrated some success in improving cardiovascular outcomes through the use of mobile clinics, health coaching, and case management approaches. There is a need for further research into community-wide interventions to improve the cardiovascular health of inner city populations. PMID:26321435

  2. Cardiovascular Biology of the Incretin System

    PubMed Central

    Ussher, John R.; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and exerts direct and indirect actions on the cardiovascular system. GLP-1 and its related incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a key determinant of incretin bioactivity. Two classes of medications that enhance incretin action, GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We review herein the cardiovascular biology of GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, including direct and indirect effects on cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, adipocytes, the control of blood pressure and postprandial lipoprotein secretion. Both GLP-1R activation and DPP-4 inhibition exert multiple cardioprotective actions in preclinical models of cardiovascular dysfunction, and short term studies in human subjects appear to demonstrate modest yet beneficial actions on cardiac function in subjects with ischemic heart disease. Incretin-based agents control body weight, improve glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia, decrease blood pressure, inhibit the secretion of intestinal chylomicrons, and reduce inflammation in preclinical studies. Nevertheless, there is limited information on the cardiovascular actions of these agents in patients with diabetes and established cardiovascular disease. Hence, a more complete understanding of the cardiovascular risk:benefit ratio of incretin-based therapies will require completion of long term cardiovascular outcome studies currently underway in patients with T2DM. PMID:22323472

  3. The Cardiovascular Physiology of Sports and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Opondo, Mildred A; Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities. This article reviews the basic principles of exercise physiology, cardiovascular adaptations unique to the "athlete's heart," and the utility of exercise testing in athletes. PMID:26100417

  4. Physical fitness of militia forces.

    PubMed

    Song, T M; Moore, J

    1989-09-01

    Anthropometry and physical fitness of Canadian militia infantry (n = 19) and militia service battalion (SVC, n = 27) men, ranging in age from 17 to 21 years, were examined and were compared with recent Canadian fitness norms. The height of the infantry was taller (p less than 0.05) than that of civilians. There was no difference between the two groups for the body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, grip strength, and maximum oxygen consumption rate. Flexibility and muscular endurance (sit-ups) of the infantry were greater (p less than 0.01) than those of the militia service battalion. Skinfolds and muscular endurance of the militia were above the average, and BMI and maximum oxygen consumption rate of the militia were below the average for civilians. Further study is needed to establish the fitness criteria that should be met by the militia in the future. PMID:2507969

  5. World military expenditures and global cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Can we estimate the consequences of world military expenditures for the physical and mental health of nations that produce and purchase armaments? If anxiety and fear are promoting military expenditures, then those sentiments may well reflect poorer mental health and war-related stress as it influences cardiovascular illness rates. Further, extensive military expenditure by a society implies that other societal needs are allocated fewer resources, including nutrition, water and sanitation, health care, and economic development. We use a model focused on military expenditures to predict cardiovascular mortality in world samples of industrialized and developing countries over 2000-2011. The cardiovascular mortality model controls for economic development, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and carbon dioxide emissions. Military expenditures as proportion of gross domestic product show significant positive relations to cardiovascular disease mortality in linear multiple regression analyses, using both cross-sectional and pooled cross-sectional time-series approaches. PMID:26675148

  6. Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 minday?1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 daysweek?1 (NW and CW) or 2 dayweek?1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

  7. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Hkkinen, K; Kyrlinen, H

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (255 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

  8. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.

  9. Impact of Harness Fit on Suspension Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Turner, Nina; Whisler, Richard; Zwiener, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of body size and shape and harness fit on suspension tolerance time. Background Fall victims may develop suspension trauma, a potentially fatal reduction of return blood flow from legs to the heart and brain, after a successfully arrested fall if they are not rescued quickly or the harness does not fit them well. Method For this study, 20 men and 17 women with construction experience were suspended from the dorsal D-ring of a full-body fall-arrest harness. Their suspension tolerance time, physical characteristics, and harness fit levels were assessed. Results Body characteristics (i.e., weight, stature, upper- and lower-torso depths) were associated with decreased suspension tolerance time (r = ?.36 ~ .45, p ? .03). In addition, harness fit affected suspension tolerance time; workers with a torso angle of suspension greater than 35, a thigh strap angle greater than 50, or a poorly fitting harness size had shorter suspension tolerance time (mean differences = 14, 11, and 9.8 min, respectively, p ? .05). Conclusion Body size and harness fit were predictors of suspension tolerance time. Selecting well-fit harnesses and establishing a 9-min rescue plan are suggested to ensure that no more than 5% of workers would experience suspension trauma. Applications The study provides a basis for harness designers, standards writers, and manufacturers to improve harness configurations and testing requirements for better worker protection against suspension trauma. PMID:22768638

  10. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

    2014-12-01

    This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram() ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n=19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n=14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.11.7 to 8.51.9h; p=0.002) and weekend (6.32.6 to 8.42.5h; p=0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.32.0 to 8.32.1h; p=0.05. Weekend activity: 7.72.7 to 8.32.3h; p=0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes. PMID:25307141

  11. Lower serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

    2012-01-01

    Lower levels of serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap have been associated with insulin resistance and hypertension in the general population. Whether these associations extend to other cardiovascular disease risk factors is unknown. To clarify this, we examined the association of serum bicarbonate and anion gap with cardiorespiratory fitness in 2714 adults aged 2049 years in the 19992004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.6 mEq/L and the mean anion gap was 10.26 mEq/L, with fitness determined by submaximal exercise testing. After multivariable adjustment, gender, length of fasting, soft drink consumption, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphate, and hemoglobin were independently associated with both the serum bicarbonate and the anion gap. Low fitness was most prevalent among those in the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate or highest quartile of anion gap. After multivariable adjustment, a one standard deviation higher serum bicarbonate or anion gap was associated with an odds ratio for low fitness of 0.80 (95% CI 0.700.91) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.151.48), respectively. The association of bicarbonate with fitness may be mediated by differences in lean body mass. Thus, lower levels of serum bicarbonate and higher levels of anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in adults aged 2049 years in the general population. PMID:22297677

  12. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  13. Flavonols and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In addition to their anti-oxidant effect, flavonols interfere with a large number of biochemical signaling pathways and, therefore, physiological and pathological processes. There is solid evidence that, in vitro, quercetin and related flavonols exert endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, protective effect on nitric oxide and endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress, platelet antiaggregant effects, inhibition of LDL oxidation, reduction of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory markers and prevention of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory damage. The metabolites of quercetin show partial protective effects on endothelial function and LDL oxidation. Quercetin produces undisputed antihypertensive and antiatherogenic effects, prevents endothelial dysfunction and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It has no clear effects on serum lipid profile and on insulin resistance. Human intervention trials with isolated flavonols demonstrate an antihypertensive effect. The meta-analysis of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between flavonol (together with flavone) intake and coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, although there is no solid proof yet, a substantial body of evidence suggests that quercetin may prevent the most common forms of cardiovascular disease contributing to the protective effects afforded by fruits and vegetables. PMID:20837053

  14. [Residual cardiovascular risk markers].

    PubMed

    Rosolov, Hana; Nussbaumerov, Barbora

    2014-11-01

    The European definition of biomarker is presented; it is a measurable factor, which reflects a physiological or pathological process in human body. There are also mentioned transferred meanings of the term marker used in different fields of medicine. The importance, categorization and calculation of global cardiovascular (CV) risk are explained in patients in primary prevention of CV disease (SCORE risk chart). Residual CV risk persists in patients in primary or secondary prevention of CV diseases treated according to current guidelines, even if their risk factors (blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, glucose level) have achieved the recommended values. This residual risk was done by non-LDL dyslipidemia especially, so called atherogenic dyslipidemia (Residual Risk Reduction Initiative definition). Investigators of preventive EUROASPIRE studies assessed, that 5-year mortality from CV diseases was in a positive association with glucose level, smoking and total cholesterol. In our recent analysis, we have described among the Czech samples of EUROASPIRE studies I-IV, that BMI and prevalence of diabetes increase during the last 16 years very steeply. Patients with stable coronary heart diseases in combination with diabetes have had higher prevalence of residual risk markers (atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherogenic index of plasma described by M. Dobiasova and hypertriglyceridemic waist) than patients without diabetes. Except of prescription of statins, ACE inhibitors, antiaggregative or anticoagulative drugs was increasing, the residual CV risk was not changing during the followed period of 16 years. PMID:25600039

  15. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles. PMID:26736588

  16. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy

  17. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  18. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping ...

  19. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  20. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jimnez, Arnulfo; Hernndez-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muoz-Daw, Mara DJ; Torres-Durn, Patricia V; Jurez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness in children: a simple screening test for population studies.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Marek; Niedzielska, Aleksandra; Brzezinski, Micha?; Drabik, Jzef

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is one measure of body functions, and its assessment should play an important role in the activities associated with the promotion of physical activity as an important component of a healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to develop a reference system of the mean post-exercise heart rate (HRmean post-ex) after a 3-min step test for use in screening the cardiorespiratory fitness of 6- to 12-year-old children. The study included 14,501 children ages 6-12 years from primary schools in Gdansk. The participants were subjected to the 3-min Kasch Pulse Recovery Test (KPR Test). The reference range for the classification of cardiorespiratory fitness was developed on the basis of the age-specific percentile distribution of HRmean post-ex in 6- to 9- and 10- to 12-year-old children. This study showed that the 3-min KPR Test is easy to perform and well tolerated by school-age children. As such, it can constitute a useful tool for health promoters and educators. The presented age- and gender-specific reference range of HRmean post-ex enables the assessment and monitoring of submaximal exercise-induced changes in the cardiovascular system and, consequently, the physical fitness of a given individual. PMID:25070386

  2. 76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... AFFAIRS VASRD Improvement Forum--Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...) Improvement Forum-- Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing... four body systems: (1) Respiratory System (38 CFR 4.96-4.97), (2) the Cardiovascular System (38 CFR...

  3. Kids and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corradini, Deedee

    1999-01-01

    Too many U.S. children are out of shape. Parents must help them learn to improve their fitness by exercising with them. The U.S. Conference of Mayors recently made physical fitness of the nation's children a primary emphasis. A sidebar presents information on how to contact local mayors to start up programs to help children improve their fitness.

  4. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePLUS

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals Youll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  5. Tool removes brazed fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, W. J.; Nelson, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Device, which removes fittings from thin-walled tubing, will not accidentally bond to fitting, nor will it cause tube wall to melt. Key feature is the use of expendable split-ring heat sink insert. Technique is applicable to fitting stubs of all sizes and wall thicknesses.

  6. Cardiorespiratory endurance in relation to body mass in Polish rural children: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, E; Kali?ska, K; Bogda?ski, P; Sobieska, M

    2015-06-01

    Physical fitness is generally viewed as having morphological, muscular, motor, cardiovascular and metabolic components. Cardiorespiratory fitness describes the capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to carry out prolonged strenuous exercise. It is often considered as the most important indicator of health status. The place of residence is seen as a factor that may influence the feasibility of physically active lifestyles, and thus shaping cardiorespiratory fitness. The study group consisted of 121 children aged 10-16 years, including 60 girls and 61 boys. All of the children lived in rural areas. The investigated group was divided according to age and sex; body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. All children performed the Cooper's run test and the Ruffier's test. The analysis of BMI for the nutritional status of children in relation to the entire study group demonstrated that 81 children had normal weight, 20 children were overweight and 11 were obese, while 9 children were underweight. The studied group of children showed on average very good and good performance in the Cooper's test, regardless of body weight, whereas the results of the Ruffier's test showed merely weak or medium cardiorespiratory endurance, which was even worse in overweight or obese children. PMID:25736079

  7. Cardiovascular drug development: is it dead or just hibernating?

    PubMed

    Fordyce, Christopher B; Roe, Matthew T; Ahmad, Tariq; Libby, Peter; Borer, Jeffrey S; Hiatt, William R; Bristow, Michael R; Packer, Milton; Wasserman, Scott M; Braunstein, Ned; Pitt, Bertram; DeMets, David L; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Armstrong, Paul W; Berkowitz, Scott D; Scott, Rob; Prats, Jayne; Galis, Zorina S; Stockbridge, Norman; Peterson, Eric D; Califf, Robert M

    2015-04-21

    Despite the global burden of cardiovascular disease, investment in cardiovascular drug development has stagnated over the past 2 decades, with relative underinvestment compared with other therapeutic areas. The reasons for this trend are multifactorial, but of primary concern is the high cost of conducting cardiovascular outcome trials in the current regulatory environment that demands a direct assessment of risks and benefits, using clinically-evident cardiovascular endpoints. To work toward consensus on improving the environment for cardiovascular drug development, stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory bodies, and government agencies convened for a think tank meeting in July 2014 in Washington, DC. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the meeting and aims to delineate the current adverse trends in cardiovascular drug development, understand the key issues that underlie these trends within the context of a recognized need for a rigorous regulatory review process, and provide potential solutions to the problems identified. PMID:25881939

  8. Ghrelin and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaigai; Yin, Xinhua; Qi, Yongfen; Pendyala, Lakshmana; Chen, Jack; Hou, Dongming; Tang, Chaoshu

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, is a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor and initially identified as a strong stimulant for the release of GH. Subsequent research has shown that ghrelin and its various receptors are ubiquitous in many other organs and tissues. Moreover, they participate in the regulation of appetite, energy, bodyweight, metabolism of glucose and fat, as well as modulation of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, immune functions and cell proliferation/apoptosis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that ghrelin has a close relationship with cardiovascular system. Ghrelin and its receptors are widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, and there is no doubt that the effects of ghrelin in the cardiovascular system are mediated not only via its growth-hormone-releasing effect but also by its direct effects on the heart. Exogenous administration of ghrelin can dilate peripheral blood vessels, constrict coronary artery, improve endothelial function, as well as inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis. So, ghrelin may have cardiovascular protective effect, including lowering of blood pressure, regulation of atherosclerosis, and protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury as well as improving the prognosis of myocardial infarction and heart failure. Some of these new functions of ghrelin may provide new potential therapeutic opportunities for ghrelin in cardiovascular medicine. In this paper, we will review the existing evidence for cardiovascular effects of ghrelin, including the cardiovascular function, the variations in ghrelin plasma levels in pathophysiologicalogical conditions, the possible protective mechanisms of ghrelin, as well as its future potential therapeutic roles. PMID:21286280

  9. A Cardiovascular Mathematical Model of Graded Head-Up Tilt

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Einly; Chan, Gregory S. H.; Dokos, Socrates; Ng, Siew C.; Latif, Lydia A.; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Karunanithi, Mohan; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2013-01-01

    A lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system has been developed and optimized using experimental data obtained from 13 healthy subjects during graded head-up tilt (HUT) from the supine position to . The model includes descriptions of the left and right heart, direct ventricular interaction through the septum and pericardium, the systemic and pulmonary circulations, nonlinear pressure volume relationship of the lower body compartment, arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, as well as autoregulatory mechanisms. A number of important features, including the separate effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, and autoregulation in the lower body, as well as diastolic ventricular interaction through the pericardium have been included and tested for their significance. Furthermore, the individual effect of parameter associated with heart failure, including LV and RV contractility, baseline systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, total blood volume, LV diastolic stiffness and reflex gain on HUT response have also been investigated. Our fitted model compares favorably with our experimental measurements and published literature at a range of tilt angles, in terms of both global and regional hemodynamic variables. Compared to the normal condition, a simulated congestive heart failure condition produced a blunted response to HUT with regards to the percentage changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, end diastolic volume and effector response (i.e., heart contractility, venous unstressed volume, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate) with progressive tilting. PMID:24204817

  10. "Shapes for Kids!" Life Fitness for Grades 5 through 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Julie Stiles

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an exercise program for children. "Shapes for Kids," takes the same 30-minute approach at the Curves workout for women. The program is set up using 20 stations, which rotate upper-body work, abdominal exercises, lower-body work, and cardiovascular exercises. Some stations combine more than one component. Children change

  11. Toward a cardiovascular pathology training report on the forum held in Vancouver, March 6, 2004, Society for Cardiovascular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Thiene, Gaetano; Becker, Anton E; Buja, L Maximilian; Fallon, John T; McManus, Bruce M; Schoen, Frederick J; Winters, Gayle L

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that requires both clinical education and expertise in contemporary physiopathology. The Society for Cardiovascular Pathology sponsored a special workshop within the frame of the USCAP Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, March 6-12, 2004, to address the present and future role of cardiovascular pathology in research, clinical care, and education. Clearly, the recruitment and training of young pathologists are crucial to this aim. The forum tried to answer a series of questions. First, is there room for cardiovascular pathologists and clinicopathologic correlations in the era of extraordinary advances of in vivo human body imaging? What is the evolving role of the autopsy? How can the cardiovascular pathologist simultaneously be an autopsy prosector, a surgical pathologist, a molecular pathologist, and an experimental pathologist? Is there a specific domain content for training in cardiovascular pathology and does it meet the constellation of market needs and demands? What are the experiences in Europe, North America and elsewhere? What is the influence of cardiovascular pathology in departments of pathology? Is the subdiscipline still a Cinderella in the anatomic theatre or a Princess with a double helix coat of arms? The Society for Cardiovascular Pathology is strongly committed to optimizing the academic and professional profile of the future generation of cardiovascular pathologists. This article reports the outcome of the forum and directions that may lead to a vibrant future for well-trained cardiovascular pathologists. PMID:16286040

  12. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (d)(1) Other interior fittings shall be attached to the passenger car body with sufficient...

  13. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (d)(1) Other interior fittings shall be attached to the passenger car body with sufficient...

  14. Health-Related Measures of Children's Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes health-related physical fitness measurement procedures for children, emphasizing field measures. Health-related physical fitness encompasses cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. The article presents several issues pertinent to research on health-related fitness testing. (SM)

  15. Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getchell, Bud

    The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness.

  16. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (d)(1) Other interior fittings shall be attached to the passenger car body with sufficient...

  17. Worksite Opportunities for Wellness (WOW): Effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors after 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Deusinger, Susan S.; Inman, Cindi L.; Burlis, Tamara L.; Highstein, Gabrielle R.; Buskirk, Trent D.; Steger-May, Karen; Peterson, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite health promotion program on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods In St Louis, Missouri from 2005 to 2006, 151 employees (134 F, 17 M, 81% overweight/obese) participated in a cohort-randomized trial comparing assessments + intervention (worksite A) with assessments only (worksite B) for 1 year. All participants received personal health reports containing their assessment results. The intervention was designed to promote physical activity and favorable dietary patterns using pedometers, healthy snack cart, WeightWatchers® meetings, group exercise classes, seminars, team competitions, and participation rewards. Outcomes included BMI, body composition, blood pressure, fitness, lipids, and Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk. Results 123 participants, aged 45 ± 9 yr, with BMI 32.9 ± 8.8 kg/m2 completed 1 year. Improvements (P ≤ 0.05) were observed at both worksites for fitness, blood pressure, and total-, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol. Additional improvements occurred at worksite A in BMI, fat mass, Framingham risk score, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; only the changes in BMI and fat mass were different between worksites. Conclusion A multi-faceted worksite intervention promoted favorable changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors, but many of the improvements were achieved with worksite health assessments and personalized health reports in the absence of an intervention. PMID:19576927

  18. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jrgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  19. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

    1985-08-05

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  20. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  1. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  2. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Peter L; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mller, Niels C; Andersen, Lars B; Bai, Charlotte N; Froberg, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade). Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 1416-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 810 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed development of social inequalities in the absolute prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness underline the need for broad preventive efforts targeting children of low socioeconomic status in early childhood. PMID:16441892

  3. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26932226

  4. [Cancer and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Lahoz, Carlos; Valdivielso, Pedro; González-Alegre, María Teresa; García-Iglesias, María Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Mostaza, José M

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of cancer have a shorter survival in the long term partly due to the increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Some chemotherapy drugs, thoracic and cranial radiotherapy and above all the transplantation of hematopoietic cells are associated with an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular events compared with general population. Some of these treatments favor the development of a metabolic syndrome that could be the intermediary between these treatments and the development of CVD. It is recommended for cancer survivors to promote healthy lifestyles and the strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25772547

  5. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  6. Brisk walking compared with an individualised medical fitness programme for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, E. S. J.; Wijtvliet, A.; Boonman-de Winter, L. J. M.; Enneking, Th.; Kuipers, H.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; van Loon, L. J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Structured exercise is considered a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, adherence to combined resistance and endurance type exercise or medical fitness intervention programmes is generally poor. Group-based brisk walking may represent an attractive alternative, but its long-term efficacy as compared with an individualised approach such as medical fitness intervention programmes is unknown. We compared the clinical benefits of a 12-month exercise intervention programme consisting of either brisk walking or a medical fitness programme in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 92 type 2 diabetes patients (60??9years old) to either three times a week of 60min brisk walking (n?=?49) or medical fitness programme (n?=?43). Primary outcome was the difference in changes in HbA1c values at 12months. Secondary outcomes were differences in changes in blood pressure, plasma lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, body composition, physical fitness, programme adherence rate and health-related quality of life. Results After 12months, 18 brisk walking and 19 medical fitness participants were still actively participating. In both programmes, 50 and 25% of the dropout was attributed to overuse injuries and lack of motivation, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no important differences between brisk walking and medical fitness programme in primary or secondary outcome variables. Conclusions/interpretation The prescription of group-based brisk walking represents an equally effective intervention to modulate glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in type 2 diabetes patients when compared with more individualised medical fitness programmes. Future exercise intervention programmes should anticipate the high attrition rate due to overuse injuries and motivation problems. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-008-0950-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:18297259

  7. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you can exercise. Examples of cardiovascular exercise are: • Swimming • Running • Bicycling • Walking • Cross-country skiing • Aerobic activities ... means doing different activities, such as tennis and swimming. Water-based activities, such as swimming or water ...

  8. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. In this Review, we discuss the potential for targeting autophagy therapeutically and our vision for where this exciting biology may lead in the future. PMID:25654551

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Screenings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cardiovascular disease screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... video) Medicare & You: women's health (video) Medicare & You: heart disease (video) Medicare & You: Million Hearts initiative (video) Return ...

  10. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

  11. Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

  12. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  13. Cardiovascular Effects of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, K.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological changes resulting from long term weightlessness are reviewed and activities conducted to study cardiovascular deconditioning at NASA Ames are discussed. Emphasis is on using monkeys in chair rest, water immersion, and tilt table studies to simulate space environment effects.

  14. Cardiovascular and related agents.

    PubMed

    Mtyus, P

    2001-10-01

    Research activities of the Hungarian Institute of Drug Research in the field of cardiovascular agents are reviewed. Many promising drug candidates were found including a compound already marketed. Novel concepts for drug research were developed as well. PMID:11686092

  15. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity

  16. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Gary Peter

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1980's fitness craze is wearing off and adults are again becoming "couch potatoes," this trend does not justify expansion of high school compulsory physical education requirements. To encourage commitment to lifetime physical fitness, the Phoenix (Arizona) Union High School District offers students private showers, relaxed uniform

  17. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  18. Fitness: A Lifestyle Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennyey, Donna J.

    1985-01-01

    Factors contributing to the evolution of fitness are discussed, and some of the challenges these hold for those in the fields of food and nutrition are identified. This includes a discussion of basic concepts of nutrition and exercise, misconceptions of nutrition and exercise, and fitness instructors as nutrition educators. (Author/CT)

  19. The Quality Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertiz, Virginia C.; Downey, Carolyn J.

    This paper proposes a two-pronged approach for examining an educational program's "quality of fit." The American Association of School Administrators' (AASA's) Curriculum Management Audit for quality indicators is reviewed, using the Downey Quality Fit Framework and Deming's 4 areas of profound knowledge and 14 points. The purpose is to examine

  20. Equality of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoyer, Jesse O.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has been a personal trainer for the past ten years, recently realized that all fitness centers are not equal. In February, he was able to participate in the grand opening of the Center for Independent Living of Central PA (CILCP), a fitness center that is designed to accommodate persons with disabilities living in the Central

  1. Fitness in Disguise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Neil F.; Germain, Jenna

    2008-01-01

    Physical fitness activities are often viewed as monotonous and tedious, so they fail to motivate students to become more physically active. This tedium could be relieved by using a "learning as play" strategy, widely used in other academic disciplines. This article describes how to incorporate fitness into a variety of games so that students do

  2. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a

  3. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  4. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive

  5. Flavonoids, vascular function and cardiovascular protection.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Croce, Giuseppe; Tiberti, Sergio; Aggio, Annalisa; Ferri, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports that the dietary intake of polyphenols - particularly of flavonoids and the specific class of flavonoids named flavanols - might be able to exert some beneficial vascular effects and reduce the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The review of epidemiological and mechanistic studies supports the role of flavonoids, particularly cocoa and tea flavanols, in protecting the cardiovascular system against cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, flavonoids are an heterogeneous group of natural molecules differently represented in fruit and vegetables and definitive data on cardiovascular benefits are lacking. The weakness of the available data include few and very small studies, no crossover designed studies and a wide range of dose and type of flavonoids tested. Thus, although flavonoid-rich foods and beverages are likely to protect cardiovascular system, further research is needed to characterize the mechanism of action on flavanol-rich foods. Long-term clinical trials are also needed to definitively clarify the benefits deriving from long-term consumption of flavanol-rich foods, particularly focussing on the lowest effective levels as well as synergism or antagonistic actions between different classes of flavonoids commonly found in foods. PMID:19355949

  6. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  7. Colchicine for cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Colchicine is an ancient drug with anti-inflammatory effects especially on neutrophils. These cells are critically involved in pericardial and atherosclerotic plaques inflammation, thus representing a new potential target for new therapies to treat and especially prevent cardiovascular events such as pericarditis, atrial fibrillation triggered by inflammation and ischemic vascular events. The aim of the present review is to briefly review the essential pharmacology and explore potential efficacy and safety of colchicine for new emerging cardiovascular indications. PMID:26632860

  8. Cardiovascular Effects of Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Martin G.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the literature on the cardiovascular effects of caffeine indicates that moderate caffeine consumption does not cause cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, or an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Caffeine use is often associated with atherogenic behavior, such as cigarette smoking. Failure to take into account covariables for cardiovascular disease could be responsible for commonly held misconceptions about caffeine and heart disease. PMID:21221403

  9. Cardiovascular response to punching tempo.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Len; Greene, Larry; Burkett, Zachary; Wongsathikun, Jataporn

    2003-02-01

    Eighteen trained volunteers (12 men and 6 women: age = 22.0 +/- 2.8 years, height = 170.79 +/- 7.67 cm, weight = 71.54 +/- 12.63 kg) participated in 2-minute, randomized fitness boxing trials, wearing 0.34-kg punching gloves, at various tempos (60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 b.min(-1)). During each trial, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR), and ventilation (VE) were measured continuously. A rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was attained at the conclusion of each trial. Subjects were able to attain VO(2) values ranging from 26.83 to 29.75 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), which correspond to 67.7-72.5% of VO(2)max. The HR responses yielded results ranging from 167.4 to 182.2 b.min(-1), or 85 to 93% of HRmax. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was seen with VO(2) between trials, although a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed with HR, VE, and RPE. It appears that boxing speed is associated with increased VE, HR response, and perceived effort but not with VO(2). Energy expenditure values ranged from 9.8 to 11.2 kcal.min(-1) for the boxing trials. These results suggest that fitness boxing programs compare favorably with other exercise modalities in cardiovascular response and caloric expenditure. PMID:12580664

  10. Cardiovascular effects of incretins in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Advani, Andrew; Bugyei-Twum, Antoinette; Connelly, Kim A

    2013-10-01

    Recent years have seen an enormous increase in the number of therapeutic agents available for lowering blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Among these agents, the incretin mimetics glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors have received particular attention for the potential of these interventions to positively impact on cardiovascular outcomes. Although the results of large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials eagerly are anticipated, an increasing body of literature from preclinical and early phase clinical studies has indicated that both GLP-1R agonists and DPP4 inhibitors may exert glucose-independent cardiovascular effects. Despite its role in glucose homeostasis, the GLP-1R is surprisingly widely distributed throughout the body, including in the heart. GLP-1 may exert its effects through both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent mechanisms and through the actions of both the intact peptide and its metabolites. In addition, DPP4 inhibition not only augments the circulating levels of incretin hormones, but it also holds the capacity to augment the activity of other biologically important substrates, most notably the small protein stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha. Whether these collective functions will act to reduce cardiovascular events in patients remains to be determined. PMID:24500557

  11. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  12. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, Ronald R.; Jandrasits, Walter G.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  13. Personal Fitness. A Curriculum Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Mary A.; Stueck, Patricia M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research on fitness levels and physical education are reviewed. Six curriculum models are briefly noted, and a personal fitness model is proposed. The primary objective of the personal fitness model is lifetime fitness. (MT)

  14. Fit to play: the fitness effect on physically challenging flute repertoire.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Jennifer A

    2011-03-01

    This case study was done to determine whether physical fitness plays a part in performing flute repertoire. Most repertoire allows performers the choice of where to breathe. However, there exists a "brute" repertoire where breathing is prescribed by the composer, which poses physical challenges for performers. The author contrasted pieces from traditional repertoire with Heinz Holliger's (t)air(e), which requires passages of breath-holding and measured inhalations. The author was tested for cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) and corresponded these levels to pulse rates while playing at baseline and 6 months after undertaking a physical fitness program. After the exercise program, expertise with standard repertoire combined with the unmeasured variables of resonance, openness of the chest and oral cavities, embouchure size, and air speed saw little improvement with increased fitness levels. However, when air regulation is out of the performer's control, the effect of cardiovascular training brought the "brute" repertoire into the same range of difficulty as the standard repertoire. PMID:21442138

  15. Smoking Cessation Program with Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in Sedentary Women

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy; Miesmaa, Petra; Dupuis, Elizabeth A.; Kinnunen, Taru

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Several cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers sensitive to tobacco exposure have been identified, but how tobacco use cessation impacts them is less clear. We sought to investigate the effects of a smoking cessation program with an exercise intervention on CVD biomarkers in sedentary women. Methods This is a cohort study on a subsample of a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) (exercise setting: home vs. facility; level of exercise counseling: prescription only vs. prescription and adherence counseling) conducted January 2004 through December 2007. The analyses were completed in October 2010. In the greater Boston area, 130 sedentary female smokers aged 19–55 completed a 15-week program. All participants received nicotine replacement therapy (transdermal patch) and brief behavioral counseling for 12 weeks. They all received an exercise prescription on a moderate intensity level. All exercise interventions lasted for 15 weeks, from 3 weeks precessation until 12 weeks postcessation. Main outcome measures were selected CVD biomarkers hypothesized to be affected by smoking cessation or exercise measured at baseline and 12 weeks postcessation. Results Independent of tobacco abstinence, improvement was seen in inflammation (white blood cells [WBC]), prothrombotic factor (red blood cells [RBC]), and cardiovascular fitness level (maximum oxygen consumption [Vo2max]). This suggests that even if complete abstinence is not achieved, reduction in tobacco exposure and increase in exercise can improve the cardiovascular risk profile. A significant decrease was seen for total cholesterol and the total cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C): ratio only among the abstainers. The heart rate was reduced among all participants, but this decrease was more profound among abstainers. A significant weight gain and body mass index (BMI) increase were observed among abstainers and those who relapsed. We also found an increase in hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c), although significant only when the groups were combined. Conclusions A smoking cessation intervention including exercise reduced tobacco-induced cardiovascular damage selectively within 3 months. PMID:21675876

  16. Limitations of inclusive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  17. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  18. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  19. Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved contractility, and an increase in blood volume, allowing for greater filling of the ventricles and a consequent larger stroke volume. In parallel with the greater maximal cardiac output, the perfusion capacity of the muscle is increased, permitting for greater oxygen delivery. To accommodate the higher aerobic demands and perfusion levels, arteries, arterioles, and capillaries adapt in structure and number. The diameters of the larger conduit and resistance arteries are increased minimizing resistance to flow as the cardiac output is distributed in the body and the wall thickness of the conduit and resistance arteries is reduced, a factor contributing to increased arterial compliance. Endurance training may also induce alterations in the vasodilator capacity, although such adaptations are more pronounced in individuals with reduced vascular function. The microvascular net increases in size within the muscle allowing for an improved capacity for oxygen extraction by the muscle through a greater area for diffusion, a shorter diffusion distance, and a longer mean transit time for the erythrocyte to pass through the smallest blood vessels. The present article addresses the effect of endurance training on systemic and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016. PMID:26756625

  20. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  1. Preoperative cardiovascular investigations in liver transplant candidate: An update

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Lalit; Srivastava, Piyush; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Jha, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) undergoing liver transplantation. Identifying candidates at the highest risk of postoperative cardiovascular complications is the cornerstone for optimizing the outcome. Ischaemic heart disease contributes to major portion of cardiovascular complications and therefore warrants evaluation in the preoperative period. Patients of ESLD usually demonstrate increased cardiac output, compromised ventricular response to stress, low systemic vascular resistance and occasionally bradycardia. Despite various recommendations for preoperative evaluation of cardiovascular disease in liver transplant candidates, a considerable controversy on screening methodology persists. This review critically focuses on the rapidly expanding body of evidence for diagnosis and risk stratification of cardiovascular disorder in liver transplant candidates. PMID:26962249

  2. Alcohol and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Klatsky, Arthur L

    2010-04-26

    The substantial medical risks of heavy alcohol drinking as well as the probable existence of a less harmful or safe drinking limit have been evident for centuries. Modern epidemiology studies suggest lowered risk of morbidity and mortality among lighter drinkers. Thus, defining "heavy" drinking as > or =3 standard drinks per day, the alcohol-mortality relationship is a J-curve with risk highest for heavy drinkers, lowest for light drinkers and intermediate for abstainers. A number of non-cardiovascular and cardiovascular problems contribute to the increased mortality risk of heavier drinkers. The lower risk of light drinkers is due mostly to lower risk of the most common cardiovascular condition, coronary heart disease (CHD). These disparate relationships of alcoholic drinking to various cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions constitute a modern concept of alcohol and health. Increased cardiovascular risks of heavy drinking include: (1) alcoholic cardiomyopathy, (2) systemic hypertension (high blood pressure), (3) heart rhythm disturbances, and (4) hemorrhagic stroke. Lighter drinking is not clearly related to increased risk of any cardiovascular condition and, in observational studies, is related to lower risk of CHD, ischemic stroke, and diabetes mellitus. A protective hypothesis for CHD is supported by evidence for plausible biological mechanisms attributable to ethyl alcohol. International comparisons and some prospective study data suggest that wine is more protective against CHD than liquor or beer. Possible non-alcohol beneficial components in wine (especially red) support possible extra protection by wine, but a healthier pattern of drinking or more favorable risk traits in wine drinkers may be involved. PMID:20045009

  3. Healthy Bodies: Construction of the Body and Health in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Louisa; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Ohman, Marie

    2008-01-01

    In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be "healthy bodies"--for teachers to be "appropriate" physical, fit, healthy and skillful "role models" and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In teachers' monitoring of students

  4. Renal protection in cardiovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Di Tomasso, Nora; Monaco, Fabrizio; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most relevant complications after major surgery and is a predictor of mortality. In Western countries, patients at risk of developing AKI are mainly those undergoing cardiovascular surgical procedures. In this category of patients, AKI depends on a multifactorial etiology, including low ejection fraction, use of contrast media, hemodynamic instability, cardiopulmonary bypass, and bleeding. Despite a growing body of literature, the treatment of renal failure remains mainly supportive (e.g. hemodynamic stability, fluid management, and avoidance of further damage); therefore, the management of patients at risk of AKI should aim at prevention of renal damage. Thus, the present narrative review analyzes the pathophysiology underlying AKI (specifically in high-risk patients), the preoperative risk factors that predispose to renal damage, early biomarkers related to AKI, and the strategies employed for perioperative renal protection. The most recent scientific evidence has been considered, and whenever conflicting data were encountered possible suggestions are provided. PMID:26998249

  5. Obesity and Aerobic Fitness among Urban Public School Students in Elementary, Middle, and High School

    PubMed Central

    White, M. Leanne; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Burlis, Tamara L.; DuPont, Nicholas C.; Wallendorf, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk among urban public school students through a collaborative school district and university partnership. Methods Children and adolescents in grades K-12 from 24 urban public schools participated in measurements of height, weight, and other health metrics during the 20092010 school year. Body mass index (BMI) percentiles and z-scores were computed for 4673 students. Presidents Challenge 1-mile endurance run was completed by 1075 students ages 919 years. Maximal oxygen consumption (?O2max) was predicted using an age-, sex-, and BMI-specific formula to determine health-related fitness. Resting blood pressure (BP) was assessed in 1467 students. Regression analyses were used to compare BMI z-scores, fitness, and age- and sex-specific BP percentiles across grade levels. Chi-square tests were used to explore the effect of sex and grade-level on health-related outcomes. Results Based on BMI, 19.8% were categorized as overweight and 24.4% were obese. Included in the obese category were 454 students (9.7% of sample) classified with severe obesity. Using FITNESSGRAM criteria, 50.2% of students did not achieve the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ); the proportion of students in the Needs Improvement categories increased from elementary to middle school to high school. Male students demonstrated higher fitness than female students, with 61.4% of boys and only 35.4% of girls meeting HFZ standards. Elevated BP was observed among 24% of 1467 students assessed. Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores revealed low correlation with BMI z-scores. Conclusions A community-university collaboration identified obesity, severe obesity, overweight, and low aerobic fitness to be common risk factors among urban public school students. PMID:26378914

  6. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  7. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected

  8. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  9. Fitness Shoes and Clothes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clothes you like can be a great motivator! Download the Tip Sheet Fitness Shoes and Clothes (PDF, ... Health and Human Services. About Go4Life Policies & Disclaimer Download Acrobat Reader En Español United States Department of ...

  10. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a quarterly e-newsletter written for the general public on a variety of popular health and fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for ...

  11. Exponentially fitted symplectic integrator.

    PubMed

    Simos, T E; Vigo-Aguiar, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for constructing efficient symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian problems is introduced. This procedure is based on the combination of the exponential fitting technique and symplecticness conditions. Based on this procedure, a simple modified Runge-Kutta-Nystrm second-order algebraic exponentially fitted method is developed. We give explicitly the symplecticness conditions for the modified Runge-Kutta-Nystrm method. We also give the exponential fitting and trigonometric fitting conditions. Numerical results indicate that the present method is much more efficient than the "classical" symplectic Runge-Kutta-Nystrm second-order algebraic method introduced by M.P. Calvo and J.M. Sanz-Serna [J. Sci. Comput. (USA) 14, 1237 (1993)]. We note that the present procedure is appropriate for all near-unimodal systems. PMID:12636631

  12. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT)

    MedlinePLUS

    Immunochemical fecal occult blood test; iFOBT; Colon cancer screening - FIT ... nih.gov/pubmed/22763141 . National Cancer Institute: PDQ Colorectal Cancer Screening. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified ...

  13. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  14. Nutrition and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Berciano, Silvia; Ordovs, Jos M

    2014-09-01

    A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies. PMID:25172070

  15. It's Your Choice: A Program for Cardiovascular Health. Teaching Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, Shirley Holder

    This publication is designed to help high school students develop a lifestyle that promotes cardiovascular and overall health; activities are intended to promote total health and wellness. The handbook is composed of a curriculum guide and classroom materials, and is designed to fit into a comprehensive health education program. Multidisciplinary

  16. Cardiovascular Endurance Activities for Children in Grades Four Through Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary Ann

    A program of cardiovascular endurance activities for children in grades four through six was developed to emphasize success and improvement and establish lifelong patterns of concern for and enjoyment of activities that contribute to physical fitness and optimum health. The activities in the program require more teacher preparation than the

  17. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  18. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  19. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  20. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict

  1. Alcohol and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Klatsky, Arthur L

    2009-05-01

    With respect to cardiovascular disorders, epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis of increased risks among heavy alcohol drinkers and indicate a lower risk among lighter drinkers. Increased cardiovascular risks of heavy drinking include cardiomyopathy, systemic hypertension, supraventricular arrhythmias, hemorrhagic stroke and heart failure that is not associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Light-to-moderate drinking is probably unrelated to increased risk of any cardiovascular condition and is related to lower risks of CAD, ischemic stroke and CAD-related heart failure. A protective alcohol-CAD hypothesis is supported by plausible biological mechanisms attributable to ethyl alcohol. Possible nonalcohol beneficial components in wine (especially red) could explain the extra protection of wine, but a healthier pattern of drinking or more favorable risk traits in wine drinkers may also be involved. Advice regarding the advisability of alcohol drinking for health needs to be individualized according to specific risks and benefits. PMID:19419257

  2. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Methods Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this casecontrol study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Students t-test for independent samples or the MannWhitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. Results All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. Conclusion These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk. PMID:24011175

  3. Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that inadequate or disturbed sleep is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. Methods: We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario. Participants underwent measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and blood pressure, and they completed questionnaires measuring sleeping habits and nutritional status. We assessed sleep disturbance using the sleep disturbance score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We explored associations between sleeping habits and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Among 4104 adolescents (51% male), the mean hours of sleep per night ( standard deviation) were 7.9 1.1 on weeknights and 9.4 1.6 on weekends. In total, 19% of participants reported their sleep quality as fairly bad or very bad on weeknights and 10% reported it as fairly bad or very bad on weekends. In the multivariable regression models, a higher sleep disturbance score was associated with increased odds of being at high cardiovascular risk (highest v. lowest tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.161.77], p < 0.001), increased odds of hypertension (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.022.05], p = 0.05) and increased odds of elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.001.64], p = 0.05). The mean duration of sleep was not associated with these outcomes. Interpretation: In healthy adolescents, sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities. Intervention strategies to optimize sleep hygiene early in life may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23027917

  4. Rules, culture, and fitness

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be internalized, the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (If you'll do X, then I'll do Y), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (Dress warmly; it's cold outside) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

  5. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies.

  6. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  7. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  8. 21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold... Devices 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold... Devices 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular...

  10. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

  11. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of

  12. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  13. Understanding and Improving Cardiovascular Health: An Update on the American Heart Association's Concept of Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Shay, Christina M; Gooding, Holly S; Murillo, Rosenda; Foraker, Randi

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goal is "By 2020, to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% while reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20%." To monitor progress towards this goal, a new construct "ideal cardiovascular health" (iCVH) was defined that includes the simultaneous presence of optimal levels of seven health behaviors (physical activity, smoking, dietary intake, and body mass index) and factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose). In this review, we present a summary of major concepts related to the concept of iCVH and an update of the literature in this area since publication of the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal, including trends in iCVH prevalence, new determinants and outcomes related to iCVH, strategies for maintaining or improving iCVH, policy implications of the iCVH model, and the remaining challenges to reaching the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal. PMID:25958016

  14. A 10-Month Physical Activity Intervention Improves Body Composition in Young Black Boys

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Cheryl A.; Harris, Ryan A.; Gutin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine if a 10-month after-school physical activity (PA) intervention could prevent deleterious changes in body composition and cardiovascular (CV) fitness in young black boys. Methods. Following baseline measures, 106 boys (8–12 yrs) were randomized to either a control group or an intervention group, further divided into attenders (ATT) and nonattenders (NATT), participating in ≥60% or <60% of the intervention, respectively. The daily intervention consisted of skills development (25 min), vigorous PA (VPA, 35 min), and strengthening/stretching (20 min) components. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Following the intervention, the ATT exhibited an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA and a significant reduction in BMI, fat mass, and %BF compared to the control group. A significant association among the intervention energy expenditure and changes in body composition and CV fitness was observed only in the ATT group. Conclusion. An after-school PA program of sufficient length and intensity can promote healthy changes in body composition and fitness levels in black boys who attend at least 3 days/week. PMID:20981151

  15. Effects of horizontal body casting on the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, G. E.; Dickey, D. T.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term horizontal body position on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate. Six male rhesus monkeys (6.2-9.4 kg) were given bolus injections of 4.0 microgram/kg, phenylephrine during each of the following conditions: awake, anesthetized (10 mg/kg ketamine HCl), and after beta-blockade (1 mg/kg propranolol HCl) before, 7, 14, and 28 days after being placed in a horizontal body cast. R-R interval vs. systolic arterial pressure was plotted, and the slope was determined by least-squares-fit linear regression. Baroreceptor slope was significantly reduced by 7 days of horizontal body position and remained attenuated throughout the 28-day restraint period both before and after beta-receptor blockade. These data are consistent with the thesis that prolonged exposure to a zero-gravity environment impairs autonomic reflex regulation of the cardiovascular system.

  16. An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation?

    PubMed Central

    Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J.K.; Suskin, N.; St. Lawrence, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compared to age-matched controls, and 2) the effects of a six-month exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation program on CAD-related GMV decline. Compared to controls, significant decreases in regional GMV were found in the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyrus; superior and inferior parietal gyrus; middle and superior temporal gyrus and in the posterior cerebellum of CAD patients. Cardiovascular rehabilitation was associated with the recovery of regional GMV in the superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellum of the CAD patients as well as the increase in GMV in the supplementary motor area. Total and regional GMV correlated with fitness level, defined by the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), at baseline but not after cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study demonstrates that cardiovascular disease can adversely affect age-related decline in GMV; and that these disease-related effects could be mitigated by moderate levels of exercise training as part of cardiovascular rehabilitation. PMID:24273722

  17. Increase of circulating BDNF levels and its relation to improvement of physical fitness following 12 weeks of combined exercise in chronic patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-jae; Song, Bong-kil; So, Byunghun; Lee, On; Song, Wook; Kim, Yeonsoo

    2014-12-30

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant of neurotrophins in the brain, is known to be responsible for maintenance of neurons has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of a combined exercise program on circulating BDNF expression and the relationship between BDNF and improvements in physical fitness. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia participated in the exercise intervention, three nonconsecutive days per week for 12 weeks. The resistance exercise program used the elastic band for eight different exercises for 25 min, and the aerobic exercise consisted of moderate walking for 25 min. After the training program, there were positive improvements in body composition and blood pressure. Also, there was significant improvement in leg strength, cardiovascular fitness, balance, and jump. Serum BDNF values had significantly increased following the combined exercise program. The elevation in serum BDNF concentrations correlated significantly with improvements in cardiovascular fitness and leg strength. These results suggest that exercise induced modulation of BDNF may play an important role in developing non-pharmacological treatment for chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, these preliminary results serve to generate further hypothesis and facilitate the planning the exercise training program and management of participants. PMID:25446461

  18. Ginga: Flexible FITS viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Ginga is a viewer for astronomical data FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files; the viewer centers around a FITS display widget which supports zooming and panning, color and intensity mapping, a choice of several automatic cut levels algorithms and canvases for plotting scalable geometric forms. In addition to this widget, the FITS viewer provides a flexible plugin framework for extending the viewer with many different features. A fairly complete set of "standard" plugins are provided for expected features of a modern viewer: panning and zooming windows, star catalog access, cuts, star pick/fwhm, thumbnails, and others. This viewer was written by software engineers at Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and is in use at that facility.

  19. Coloring the FITS Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.

    2004-12-01

    A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

  20. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral-line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It converges rapidly and is very flexible in that it can be used with any fitting function. We present examples of cubic-spline and Gaussian fits and give special attention to measurements of blue-red asymmetries of coronal emission lines.

  1. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral-line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It converges rapidly and is very flexible in that it can be used with any fitting function. We present examples of cubic-spline and Gaussian fits and give special attention to measurements of blue-red asymmetries of coronal emission lines.

  2. Sleep Deprivation and Cardiovascular Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Sleep Deprivation and Cardiovascular Risk (0:31) Dr. Janet Mullington discusses how studies suggest a link between sleep deprivation and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. choose settings to watch ...

  3. Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

  4. Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.

    PubMed

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

    2014-01-01

    Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage. PMID:25581946

  5. Cardiovascular Health, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Baman, Timir S.; Gupta, Sanjaya; Day, Sharlene M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: An athlete’s health may be endangered if he or she continues to compete after diagnosis of certain cardiovascular conditions. The most worrisome risk is sudden cardiac death; the annual rate in US athletes is 1 in 50 000 to 200 000. Evidence Acquisition: Part 2 of this review highlights the current guidelines and controversies surrounding compatibility of participation with a variety of cardiac conditions in competitive and recreational athletics. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications from 1984 to the April 2009. Results: The guidelines published by the American College of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology provide a framework for safe competitive and recreational sports participation in athletes with a broad spectrum of inherited and acquired cardiovascular disorders. These guidelines are necessarily conservative because it is not currently possible to individualize risk prediction. Few data are available in many areas, particularly in the noncompetitive arena or in older athletes. Conclusions: Published national guidelines are currently the foundation governing return-to-play decisions in athletes with cardiovascular conditions. Further studies are needed to refine risk stratification algorithms to allow athletes with cardiovascular conditions to reap the health benefits of regular exercise and sports participation without undue risk. PMID:23015920

  6. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  7. Advancing Cardiovascular Research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, we have seen dramatic changes in cardiovascular science and clinical care, accompanied by marked declines in the morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the world, and its nature is changing as Americans become older, fatter, and ethnically more diverse. Instead of young or middle-aged men with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, the “typical” cardiac patient now presents with acute coronary syndrome or with complications related to chronic hypertension or ischemic heart disease, including heart failure, sudden death, and atrial fibrillation. Analogously, structural heart disease is now dominated by degenerative valve or congenital disease, far more common than rheumatic disease. The changing clinical scene presents cardiovascular scientists with a number of opportunities and challenges, including taking advantage of high-throughput technologies to elucidate complex disease mechanisms, accelerating development and implementation of evidence-based strategies, assessing evolving technologies of unclear value, addressing a global epidemic of cardiovascular disease, and maintaining high levels of innovation in a time of budgetary constraint and economic turmoil. PMID:22315116

  8. Cardiovascular Actions of Neurotrophins

    PubMed Central

    CAPORALI, ANDREA; EMANUELI, COSTANZA

    2010-01-01

    Neurotrophins were christened in consideration of their actions on the nervous system and, for a long time, they were the exclusive interest of neuroscientists. However, more recently, this family of proteins has been shown to possess essential cardiovascular functions. During cardiovascular development, neurotrophins and their receptors are essential factors in the formation of the heart and critical regulator of vascular development. Postnatally, neurotrophins control the survival of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes and regulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Recent studies suggest the capacity of neurotrophins, via their tropomyosin-kinase receptors, to promote therapeutic neovascularization in animal models of hindlimb ischemia. Conversely, the neurotrophin low-affinity p75NTR receptor induces apoptosis of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and impairs angiogenesis. Finally, nerve growth factor looks particularly promising in treating microvascular complications of diabetes or reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarcted heart. These seminal discoveries have fuelled basic and translational research and thus opened a new field of investigation in cardiovascular medicine and therapeutics. Here, we review recent progress on the molecular signaling and roles played by neurotrophins in cardiovascular development, function, and pathology, and we discuss therapeutic potential of strategies based on neurotrophin manipulation. PMID:19126759

  9. Photonics in cardiovascular medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Regar, Evelyn; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-10-01

    The use of photonics technology is bringing new capabilities and insights to cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging and sensing, laser ablation and optical pacing are just some of the functions being explored to help diagnose and treat conditions of the heart and arteries.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  11. [Cardiovascular system and aging].

    PubMed

    Saner, H

    2005-12-01

    Aging is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Age-related morphologic changes in large resistance vessels include an intima-media-thickening and increased deposition of matrix substance, ultimately leading to a reduced compliance and an increased stiffness of the vessels. Aging of the heart is mainly characterized by an increase of the left ventricular mass in relation to the chamber volume and a decrease of diastolic function. There is some controversy in regard to the question if these changes in the vessel wall are the consequence of aging or if a decrease in physical activity is a major contributor of this process. With age the cardiovascular profile is changing. Whereas smoking is less prominent, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus are more often encountered. Primary and secondary prevention through cardiovascular risk factor management is also very important in the aging population due to the increased risk of acute vascular complications with age. Preventive measures have to include life style factor interventions as well as optimized drug therapy. There is no scientific evidence that vascular aging can be prevented by administration of supplements such as antioxidant vitamins. Aspirin is effective for cardiovascular prevention up to a higher age. Betablockers and ACE-inhibitors are generally underused in older patients after myocardial infarctions. Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular complications up to an age of 80 years. Myocardial infarction in elderly patients is often characterized by atypical symptoms and may be even silent. Interventional therapy in elderly patients is as successful as in younger patients but has an increased complication rate. Ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients leads to significant improvements of physical capacity, well-being and quality of life and may help to prevent social isolation. PMID:16405288

  12. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Webster, Andrew L H; Yan, Matthew Shu-Ching; Marsden, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    A commonly-assumed paradigm holds that the primary genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease resides within the DNA sequence of our genes. This paradigm can be challenged. For example, how do sequence changes in the non-coding region of the genome influence phenotype? Why are all diseases not shared between identical twins? Part of the answer lies in the fact that the environment or exogenous stimuli clearly influence disease susceptibility, but it was unclear in the past how these effects were signalled to the static DNA code. Epigenetics is providing a newer perspective on these issues. Epigenetics refers to chromatin-based mechanisms important in the regulation of gene expression that do not involve changes to the DNA sequence per se. The field can be broadly categorized into three areas: DNA base modifications (including cytosine methylation and cytosine hydroxymethylation), post-translational modifications of histone proteins, and RNA-based mechanisms that operate in the nucleus. Cardiovascular disease pathways are now being approached from the epigenetic perspective, including those associated with atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, ischemia-reperfusion damage, and the cardiovascular response to hypoxia and shear stress, among many others. With increasing interest and expanding partnerships in the field, we can expect new insights to emerge from epigenetic perspectives of cardiovascular health. This paper reviews the principles governing epigenetic regulation, discusses their presently-understood importance in cardiovascular disease, and considers the growing significance we are likely to attribute to epigenetic contributions in the future, as they provide new mechanistic insights and a host of novel clinical applications. PMID:23261320

  13. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  14. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to

  15. Fitness, fatness and survival in elderly populations.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby; Yau, Forrest

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the relative importance of fitness versus fatness in predicting mortality in elderly populations aged 70 years and over, and whether fitness may account for the 'paradoxical' relationship between better survival and increasing weight. Four thousand community-living Chinese men and women aged 65 years or over were recruited and stratified so that approximately 33% were in each of the age groups: 65-69, 70-74, and 75 or above. Medical history, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, body composition using DEXA, and walking speed were obtained. They were followed up for a mean of 7.0 years to ascertain death. Compared with the high fitness category, those in the moderate and low categories have a 43% and 68% increased risk of mortality at 7 years adjusting for multiple confounders. When mortality risk according to various fatness indicators was examined, only the lowest quartile of BMI, BFI, and FLMR conferred statistically significant increased risk. Fitness categories were significantly associated with all fatness indicators. The finding of fewer people in the high fitness category among the highest quartiles of other fatness indicators suggests that fitness is not the underlying mechanism for the obesity paradox. Within each quartile of fatness indicator, there was a significant trend towards reduced mortality with increasing fitness. In conclusion, the study confirms the beneficial effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on mortality but does not explain the 'obesity paradox'. The findings underscore the importance of maintaining physical fitness through exercise and re-confirm the importance of weight maintenance in reducing mortality risk. PMID:22391688

  16. Mentoring that Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Davis, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the classroom with diverse backgrounds, training, expectations, and needs. Yet too often, write the authors, induction programs resemble a one-size-fits-all poncho rather than a well-tailored coat. Reviewing the research, the authors write that high-quality mentors, a focus on improving instruction, and allocated time are

  17. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a

  18. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  19. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  20. Student-Institution Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Terry E.

    The concept of student-institution fit in higher education is clarified, and an approach that can be applied to different types of campuses is described. Also considered is the theoretical framework, including the concept of "person-environment interaction." Three sets of factors are important: student characteristics, institutional