Note: This page contains sample records for the topic cardiovascular fitness body from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Relationship of Body Fat and Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds\\/ObjectivesCardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren.MethodsThe study subjects comprised 676

Pei-gang Wang; Jie Gong; Su-qing Wang; Evelyn O. Talbott; Bo Zhang; Qi-qiang He

2011-01-01

2

Relationship of Body Fat and Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Children  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds/Objectives Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren. Methods The study subjects comprised 676 schoolchildren (392 boys and 284 girls, aged 9.6±0.7 yrs old) in Wuhan, China. Their body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), CRF, blood pressure (BP), lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. Children were categorized into different groups based on their BMI, WC, and CRF using Chinese obesity cut-off points and CRF sex-specific median points. Metabolic Risk Score (MRS) was computed based on the standardized scores of BP, lipids, and glucose. Results Multiple linear regression models showed that, in the separate models, body fat was positively associated with MRS while CRF was inversely associated with MRS (p<0.001). However, when assessed simultaneously, only body fat had a significant association with MRS (p<0.001). In general, low-fit children had a lower MRS compared to their counterparts, and a significant difference between the two extreme groups was observed (low CRF and high fat vs. high CRF and low fat, p<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that both body fat and CRF should be considered when interpreting CVD risk in Chinese children, while body fat may be correlated with CVD risk more than CRF.

Talbott, Evelyn O.; Zhang, Bo; He, Qi-qiang

2011-01-01

3

Relationship of body composition and cardiovascular fitness to lipoprotein lipid profiles in master athletes and sedentary men.  

PubMed

A number of studies demonstrate that highly conditioned older athletes are leaner than their sedentary counterparts, and have lipoprotein profiles similar to that of young individuals. It is not clear whether the high maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) or lean body habitus is the major determinant of the favorable lipoprotein lipid profiles present in older athletes. The objective of this study was to determine whether body composition or VO2max was the major determinant of lipoprotein lipid profiles among 61 master (age 63 +/- 6 years, mean +/- SD) athletes (VO2max > 40 mL/kg/min), 39 age-matched lean (% body fat < 25%), and 51 obese (% body fat > 25%) sedentary men. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were 25% higher in that athletes than in the lean sedentary men, and 42% higher than in the obese sedentary men. Triglyceride (TG) concentrations were 24% lower in the master athletes than in the lean sedentary men, and 51% lower than in the obese sedentary group. Plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were 9% lower in the athletes than in the other groups of sedentary individuals. In stepwise multiple regression analysis the percent body fat was the major independent predictor of HDL-C and TG levels accounting for 29% and 41% of the variation in these levels, respectively. The VO2max accounted for an additional 6% of the variance in HDL-C levels and 2% of the variance in TG levels. These cross-sectional results suggest that the favorable lipoprotein profile of master athletes is largely due to their lean body habitus, with a small independent contribution from their higher levels of cardiovascular fitness. Thus, regular vigorous aerobic exercise and maintenance of low body fat may prevent the commonly observed age-associated deterioration in lipoprotein concentrations. PMID:9177590

Yataco, A R; Busby-Whitehead, J; Drinkwater, D T; Katzel, L I

4

Combined influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index on cardiovascular disease risk factors among 8–18 year old youth: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective . The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors across four cross-tabulated groups of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in 8- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. Methods. The sample included 296 boys and 188 girls (mean age \\/15.7 years) participating in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participants were cross tabulated into

Joey C. Eisenmann; Gregory J. Welk; Eric E. Wickel; Steven N. Blair

2007-01-01

5

Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations.

Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

2011-01-01

6

Cardiovascular Fitness Education for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cardiovascular fitness program for grades 1-6 (with emphasis on grades 5 and 6) consists of (1) discussion classes and exercise experiments, (2) discussion of exercise effects during regular activity sessions, (3) required cardiovascular warmup exercises, and (4) evaluation of cardiovascular fitness. (Author/MJB)

Jenkins, David

1978-01-01

7

Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Fitness in Adults with Severe Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated the effects of an aerobic fitness program and dietary intervention with external control components on three obese adults with severe mental retardation. Results indicated severely retarded adults respond to a program of progressive aerobic exercise and caloric restriction much the same way as nonretarded persons. (Author/DB)

Croce, Ronald V.

1990-01-01

8

Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular fitness is thought to offset declines in cognitive performance, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in humans. Research using animal models shows that aerobic training increases cortical capillary supplies, the number of synaptic connections, and the development of new neurons. The end result is a brain that is more efficient, plastic, and adaptive, which translates into better performance in aging animals. Here, in two separate experiments, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, in humans that increases in cardiovascular fitness results in increased functioning of key aspects of the attentional network of the brain during a cognitively challenging task. Specifically, highly fit (Study 1) or aerobically trained (Study 2) persons show greater task-related activity in regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices that are involved in spatial selection and inhibitory functioning, when compared with low-fit (Study 1) or nonaerobic control (Study 2) participants. Additionally, in both studies there exist groupwise differences in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, which is thought to monitor for conflict in the attentional system, and signal the need for adaptation in the attentional network. These data suggest that increased cardiovascular fitness can affect improvements in the plasticity of the aging human brain, and may serve to reduce both biological and cognitive senescence in humans.

Colcombe, Stanley J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Scalf, Paige; McAuley, Edward; Cohen, Neal J.; Webb, Andrew; Jerome, Gerry J.; Marquez, David X.; Elavsky, Steriani

2004-01-01

9

Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

2008-01-01

10

Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

2008-01-01

11

Aerobic Fitness, Psychological Characteristics, and Cardiovascular Reactivity to Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relations among aerobic fitness (AF), psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity using 62 men divided into highly fit and less fit groups based on a maximal treadmill exercise test. Several psychological and physiological variables were measured, and subjects’ cardiovascular reactivity was assessed during a mental arithmetic task and during a video game task. Highly fit subjects showed a significantly

Susan M. Czajkowski; R. David Hindelang; Theodore M. Dembroski; Suzin E. Mayerson; Edward B. Parks; John C. Holland

1990-01-01

12

Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

1998-01-01

13

Changes in Physical Fitness Predict Improvements in Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors Independently of Body Weight Loss in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Participating in the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Physical fitness is inversely related to mortality in the general population and in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Here, we present data concerning the relationship between changes in physical fitness and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 606) were enrolled in 22 outpatient diabetes clinics and randomized to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling versus counseling alone for 12 months. Baseline to end-of-study changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and flexibility, as assessed by Vo2max estimation, a 5–8 maximal repetition test, and a hip/trunk flexibility test, respectively, were calculated in the whole cohort, and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS Changes in Vo2max, upper and lower body strength, and flexibility were significantly associated with the variation in the volume of physical activity, HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score, and inversely, HDL cholesterol. Changes in fitness predicted improvements in HbA1c, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, hs-CRP, and CHD risk score, independent of study arm, BMI, and in case of strength, also waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity/exercise-induced increases in fitness, particularly muscular, predict improvements in cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss, thus indicating the need for targeting fitness in these individuals, particularly in subjects who struggle to lose weight.

Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Mazzitelli, Giulia; Bazuro, Alessandra; Iacobini, Carla; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

14

Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAIBI, G. Q., M. L. CRUZ, G. D. C. BALL, M. J. WEIGENSBERG, H. A. KOBAISSI, G. J. SALEM, and M. I. GORAN. Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 922-928, 2005. Purpose: To determine whether cardiovascular fitness (V ú O2max) is associated with the metabolic syndrome and

GABRIEL Q. SHAIBI; MARTHA L. CRUZ; GEOFF D. C. BALL; MARC J. WEIGENSBERG; HASSAN A. KOBAISSI; GEORGE J. SALEM; MICHAEL I. GORAN

15

Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as…

Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

2002-01-01

16

Cardiovascular fitness modulates brain activation associated with spatial learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in aging humans, especially on executive functions associated with frontal brain regions. In rodents, exercise has been shown to induce structural and neurophysiological changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve spatial learning. The present study investigated the relationship between cardiovascular fitness, spatial learning and associated patterns of brain activation cross-sectionally and

Kathrin Holzschneider; Thomas Wolbers; Brigitte Röder; Kirsten Hötting

17

Cardiovascular whole-body MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases still rank number one in mortality statistics in the industrialized world. In these countries the five most common causes of death are associated to atherosclerotic changes of the arterial vasculature. Due to its often long lasting treatment and the possible loss of ability to work atherosclerotic disease constitutes an economic factor which should not be disregarded. Thus screening

Harald Kramer; Konstantin Nikolaou; Maximilian F. Reiser

2009-01-01

18

Fitting Percentage of Body Fat to Simple Body Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dataset, created by Roger W. Johnson of Carleton College, presented in this article, contains body measurements for 252 men and can be used to illustrate multiple regression and to provide practice in model building. Some of these measurements include: body fat, age, weight, height and ten different body circumference measurements. The author shows how to "fit body fat to the other measurement using multiple regression" and provide a easy method to estimating body fat percentage. This is a good example of using regression and also model building.

Johnson, Roger W.

2009-06-24

19

Cardiovascular fitness modulates brain activation associated with spatial learning.  

PubMed

Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in aging humans, especially on executive functions associated with frontal brain regions. In rodents, exercise has been shown to induce structural and neurophysiological changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve spatial learning. The present study investigated the relationship between cardiovascular fitness, spatial learning and associated patterns of brain activation cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of middle-aged men and women (40-55 years) that took part in a six-month exercise intervention and an additional spatial training. Spatial learning capacities before and after the interventions were measured with a virtual maze task. During this task, participants were repeatedly moved through a virtual town and were instructed to infer the spatial layout of the environment. Brain activations during encoding of the virtual town were assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data revealed that brain activations during successful spatial learning were modulated by the individual fitness level in a neural network, comprising the hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex, cuneus, precuneus, parahippocampal gyrus, caudate nucleus, insula, putamen, and further frontal, temporal, occipital and cingulate regions. Moreover, physical exercising induced changes in cardiovascular fitness that correlated positively with changes in brain activations in the medial frontal gyrus and the cuneus. However, overall spatial learning performance did not vary with cardiovascular fitness. These data suggest that cardiovascular fitness has an impact on brain regions associated with spatial learning in humans and hence, could be a potent intervention to prevent age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22027496

Holzschneider, Kathrin; Wolbers, Thomas; Röder, Brigitte; Hötting, Kirsten

2011-10-17

20

Body Cathexis and Satisfaction with Fit of Apparel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparel as the product of standard sizing is reflected in female evaluation of self and body, i.e., body cathexis. This study focused upon body cathexis and the perceptions offit of clothing of 107 female consumers. Responses were measured on three scales: (1) satisfaction with fit of apparel at upper, lower, and total body; (2) satisfaction with fit at specific body

Karen L. LaBat; Marilyn R. DeLong

1990-01-01

21

Physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: the Oslo Youth Study.  

PubMed

Aerobic fitness, resting pulse rate, and self-reported physical activity were examined along with prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population-based study of 413 boys and 372 girls, ages 10 to 14 years. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2 max) was predicted from heart rate measured during submaximal bicycle exercise. For both genders, fitness level was significantly and inversely related to body weight, body mass index [weight in kilos/(height in meters)2], triceps skinfold thickness, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate and positively related to high-density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio and physical activity. In addition, fitness level was positively related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and negatively related to triglycerides in females; it was also negatively related to height, total cholesterol, and hematocrit in males. Analyses of covariance, controlling for sexual maturity ratings, revealed that students in the lowest quartiles of VO2 max had significantly higher body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness than students in the higher quartiles. After adjustment for body mass index and sexual maturity ratings, blood pressure and pulse rate in both genders were significantly higher among students in the lower quartiles of VO2 max than among the groups who scored higher on the fitness test. Higher levels of VO2 max were also associated with a more favorable lipid profile in females. In gender-specific multiple regression analysis, triceps skinfold thickness was the strongest predictor of VO2 max, followed by pulse rate. Our study provides evidence that higher levels of fitness are associated with more favorable risk profiles in adolescents. PMID:3362798

Tell, G S; Vellar, O D

1988-01-01

22

Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned

Barbara Sassen; Gerjo Kok; Herman Schaalma; Henri Kiers; Luc Vanhees

2010-01-01

23

Lipid profile, BMI, body fat distribution, and aerobic fitness in men with metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance are wellknown components of metabolic syndrome and are associated to increased cardiovascular morbidity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, body fat distribution, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors. A total of 22 untrained subjects affected by one or more features of metabolic

A. BertoliN; N. Di Daniele; M. Ceccobelli; A. Ficara; C. Girasoli; A. De Lorenzo

2003-01-01

24

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adults, physical activity and exercise training are associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, a reduced likelihood of developing adverse cardiovascular risk factors, and improved insulin sensitivity. In childhood, participation in appropriate physical activity may prevent the development of cardiovascular risk factors in the future and complement treatment of existing cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight. Exercise

Samuel S. Gidding

2007-01-01

25

COMPARISON OF CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS IN HOME SCHOOL AND PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuville AL, Mohr CE, Pierquet MF Comparison of Cardiovascular Fitness in Home School and Public School Children. Journal of Undergraduate Kinesiology Research. 2006; 2(1):32-40. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in cardiovascular fitness between home school and public school children by using the mile run. Methods: Twenty six healthy subjects (14 boys, 12 girls) ages

ANDREA NEUVILLE; CHRISTINE MOHR; MICHELLE PIERQUET

26

Cardiorespiratory fitness is a marker of cardiovascular health in renal transplanted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with renal transplants (TX) are at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Study objectives were to assess\\u000a the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR fitness) and daily physical activity (PA) in renal TX children and adolescents\\u000a in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Laboratory testing included assessment of CR fitness by treadmill\\u000a exercise testing (VO2peak), 24-h ambulatory blood-pressure (ABPM) measurement,

Trine Tangeraas; Karsten Midtvedt; Per Morten Fredriksen; Milada Cvancarova; Lars Mørkrid; Anna Bjerre

2010-01-01

27

Aerobic fitness, blood lipids, and body fat in children.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and serum cholesterol and the effects of controlling for gender, body composition, abdominal fat, and dietary saturated fat in 262 children. The 1-mile run was used to estimate fitness. Skinfolds were used in assessing body fat. Fit children had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than unfit children, except after adjustment for body fat and/or abdominal fat. Unfit children appear to be at an increased risk of unhealthy levels of serum cholesterol due primarily to increased levels of body fat.

Hager, R L; Tucker, L A; Seljaas, G T

1995-01-01

28

Walking, fitness, body composition and inch loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two women aged 53.4±8.6 years (mean ± SD) walked four nights per week for eight weeks at 76% of maximum heart rate in an indoor facility. The women maintained their regular diet as evidenced by comparison of three-day diet records before and during the study. The fitness level of the women improved. Resting heart rate improved from 78.2±9.9 beats per

E. A. Bergman; J. C. Boyungs; E. Joseph

1996-01-01

29

Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes: Where Does Glucose Fit In?  

PubMed Central

Context: Recent prospective clinical trials have failed to confirm a unique benefit from normalization of glycemia on cardiovascular disease outcomes, despite evidence from basic vascular biology, epidemiological, and cohort studies. Evidence Acquisition: The literature was searched using the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov search engine including over 20 million citations on MEDLINE (1970 to present). Keyword searches included: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular, and glucose. Epidemiological, cohort, and interventional data on cardiovascular disease outcomes and glycemic control were reviewed along with analysis of recent reviews on this topic. Evidence Synthesis: High glucose activates a proatherogenic phenotype in all cell types in the vessel wall including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and platelets, leading to a feedforward atherogenic response. Epidemiological and Cohort Studies: Epidemiological and cohort evidence indicates a clear and consistent correlation of glycemia with cardiovascular disease. A recent report of over 25,000 subjects with diabetes in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry verifies this relationship in contemporary practice. Interventional Studies: Prospective randomized interventions targeting a hemoglobin A1c of 6–6.5% for cardiovascular disease prevention failed to consistently decrease cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Basic vascular biology data plus epidemiological and cohort evidence would predict that glucose control should impact cardiovascular events. Prospective clinical trials demonstrate that current strategies that improve blood glucose do not achieve this goal but suggest that a period of optimal control may confer long-term cardiovascular disease benefit. Clinicians should target a hemoglobin A1c of 7% for the prevention of microvascular complications, individualized to avoid hypoglycemia.

Wang, Cecilia C. Low

2011-01-01

30

Relationships among Fitness, Body Composition, and Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was designed to examine the associations of physical activity and body composition with cardiorespiratory fitness in eighth grade girls. Methods A random sample of 1440 eighth grade girls at 36 schools participated in this cross-sectional investigation, which represented an ethnically and geographically diverse group. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a modified physical work capacity test on a cycle ergometer that predicted workload at a heart rate of 170 beats·min?1. Physical activity was assessed over 6 d in each girl using an accelerometer and body composition was estimated from body mass index and triceps skinfolds using a previously validated equation. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine the relationships among fitness, physical activity, and body composition. Results Significant linear relationships among cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and physical activity were found. The combination of fat and fat-free mass along with racial group and a race by fat-free-mass interaction accounted for 18% (R2) of the variation in physical fitness. Adding moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to the regression model increased the R2 to 22%. Black girls had somewhat lower fitness levels (P < 0.05) especially at higher levels of fat and fat-free mass than other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Physical activity, fat-free mass, and the interaction between fat-free mass and racial group are significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescent girls.

LOHMAN, TIMOTHY G.; RING, KIMBERLY; PFEIFFER, KARIN; CAMHI, SARAH; ARREDONDO, ELVA; PRATT, CHARLOTTE; PATE, RUSS; WEBBER, LARRY S.

2008-01-01

31

Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner.  

PubMed

Forty male high school students, age 12-15 yrs, participated for a study of yoga in relation to body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power. Ths Ss were placed into two subsets viz., yoga group and control group. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance anaerobic power were measured using standard method. The duration of experiment was one year. The result of ANCOVA revealed that a significant improvement in ideal body weight, body density, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power was observed as a result of yoga training. This study could not show significant change in body fat (midaxillary), skeletal diameters and most of the body circumferences. It was evident that some of the fat-folds (tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, umbilical, thigh and calf) and body circumferences (waist, umbilical and hip) were reduced significantly. PMID:8276501

Bera, T K; Rajapurkar, M V

1993-07-01

32

Cardiovascular Fitness of Young Canadian Children with and without Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared cardiovascular fitness of 60 children (mean age 95 months) either with or without mental retardation (MR). Results indicated that nondisabled children exhibited significantly greater levels of aerobic fitness than those with MR and supported the need for a critical examination of physical activity programs for children with…

Gillespie, Mike

2003-01-01

33

Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness without Exercise in Elderly Men with Chronic Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Low cardiorespiratory (CRF) is associated with health problems in elderly people, especially cardiovascular and metabolic disease. However, physical limitations in this population frequently preclude the application of aerobic tests. We developed a model to estimate CRF without aerobic testing in older men with chronic cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Subjects aged from 60 to 91 years were randomly assigned into validation (n = 67) and cross-validation (n = 29) groups. A hierarchical linear regression model included age, self-reported fitness, and handgrip strength normalized to body weight (R2 = 0.79; SEE?=?1.1 METs). The PRESS (predicted residual sum of squares) statistics revealed minimal shrinkage in relation to the original model and that predicted by the model and actual CRF correlated well in the cross-validation group (r = 0.85). The area under curve (AUC) values suggested a good accuracy of the model to detect disability in the validation (0.876, 95% CI: 0.793–0.959) and cross-validation groups (0.826, 95% CI: 0.677–0.975). Our findings suggest that CRF can be reliably estimated without exercise test in unhealthy elderly men.

Maranhao Neto, Geraldo A.; de Leon, Antonio P.; Lira, Vitor A.; Farinatti, Paulo T. V.

2012-01-01

34

Cardiovascular Health Promotion—Physical Fitness in the School Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Physical activity is a major lifestyle behavior related to cardiovascular disease. Lack of energy expenditure is considered\\u000a an important contributor to the epidemic of obesity. Schools are an obvious area of interest in health promotion due to their\\u000a centrality in the life of children. Over the course of the school day, physical education, recess, extracurricular activities,\\u000a and classroom activities provide

Marietta Orlowski; James Ebert; Arthur Pickoff

35

Cardiovascular stress responsivity, body mass and abdominal adiposity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To assess the relationship between adiposity and cardiovascular stress reactivity and recovery in middle-aged men and women, and investigate the influence of impaired poststress cardiovascular recovery on changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist–hip ratio over 3 y.PARTICIPANTS:In total, 225 healthy men and women aged 47–59 y were recruited from the British civil service.METHODS:Laboratory mental stress testing was carried

A Steptoe; J Wardle

2005-01-01

36

Cardiovascular Fitness and Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose This descriptive study of adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes examined the relationships between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity (PA) with generic or health-related quality of life (QoL), glycemic control, and lipids. Design and Methods Graded ergometry testing for fitness, fasting assays for lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), and self-reported PA and QoL instruments were completed with 151 adolescents. Results Adolescents with type 2 diabetes had lower fitness. Fitness was associated with improved lipids, A1C, health perception, and athletic competence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Practice Implications Interventions to encourage active lifestyles are imperative for adolescents with diabetes.

Faulkner, Melissa Spezia

2010-01-01

37

Body Mass Bias in a Combat Fitness Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Allometric theory predicts that, pound for pound, lighter individuals will perform better than heavier individuals on strength and endurance tests. This study evaluated body mass bias as a factor in the U.S. Marine Corps Combat Fitness Test (CFT), a test ...

B. J. McGuire J. H. Reynolds J. R. Vickers

2011-01-01

38

Serum Neuregulin-1? as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Fitness  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Neuregulins (NRG) are growth factors that bind to receptors of the erbB family, and are known to mediate a number of processes involved in diverse tissues. Neuregulin-1? is expressed in skeletal muscle and is activated by exercise. We hypothesized that NRG-1? might circulate in the bloodstream and increase as a consequence of physical activity. A study was conducted in healthy subjects to determine if NRG-1? is immunodetectable in human serum, and if so whether levels relate acutely or chronically to exercise. METHODS Nine healthy men underwent three bouts of exercise of varying degrees of intensity on a bicycle ergometer over a period of three weeks. Cardio-respiratory fitness was determined by measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum was sampled prior to and immediately after each session (up to 30 minutes post) and serum NRG-1? was quantified utilizing an indirect sandwich ELISA assay developed in our lab. RESULTS Across subjects, mean serum NRG-1? levels ranged from 32 ng/mL to 473 ng/mL. Individual subjects showed relatively stable levels during the study period that did not change acutely after exercise. Serum NRG-1? demonstrated a positive correlation with VO2max (r2=0.49, p =.044). CONCLUSIONS These preliminary observations suggest that at least in healthy men, serum NRG-1? is an indicator of cardio-respiratory fitness and does not change acutely with exercise.

Moondra, Vaibhav; Sarma, Satyam; Buxton, Tracy; Safa, Radwan; Cote, Gregory; Storer, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Sawyer, Douglas B

2009-01-01

39

Body fat, fitness and level of everyday physical activity in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Data on body fat and fitness in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess body fat and fitness in this patient group. In addition, we explored whether the level of every- day physical activity is related to body fat and fitness. Subjects and methods: Body fat (skinfold thickness), fitness (VO2peak),

Hendrika J. G. van den Berg-Emons; Johannes B. J. Bussmann; Huub J. Meyerink; Marij E. Roebroeck; Henk J. Stam

2003-01-01

40

Cardiovascular Fitness and Maximal Heart Rate Differences Among Three Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of differences in maximal heart rate and treadmill time among three ethnic groups revealed no significant age-adjusted differences among white, black, and Mexican-American males, and suggested that black females' lower maximal heart rate may be explained by their lower cardiovascular fitness level when compared to those of other…

Farrell, S. W.

1988-01-01

41

Long-term outcome after exercising throughout pregnancy: fitness and cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to test the null hypothesis that continuing vigorous weight-bearing exercise throughout pregnancy has no discernible long-term effect on indices of fitness and/or cardiovascular risk. STUDY DESIGN This was a follow-up observational study of the fitness and cardiovascular risk profile of 39 women conducted on the General Clinical Research Center at the University of Vermont. Data were analyzed using the paired Student t test, analysis of variance, and linear regression. RESULTS Women who voluntarily maintain their exercise regimen during pregnancy continue to exercise over time at a higher level than those who stop. Over time they also gain less weight (3.4 vs 9.9 kg), deposit less fat (2.2 vs 6.7 kg), have increased fitness, and have a lower cardiovascular risk profile than those who stop. CONCLUSION Women who continue weight-bearing exercise during pregnancy maintain their long-term fitness and have a low cardiovascular risk profile in the perimenopausal period.

Clapp, James F.

2009-01-01

42

The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

2009-01-01

43

Interactive Information Environment for the controlled practice of physical training to improve cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease. Physical activity protects against the development of CVD and also favorably modifies other risk factors, however a huge part of the population lead a relatively sedentary lifestyle. Virtual trainer (vt) concept is a technological platform for the controlled practice of physical training to achieve better cardiovascular fitness results

Sergio G. Guillén; María T. Arredondo; Vicente Traver; Pilar Sala; Marco Romagnoli; Manuel Traver; Alessandro Arduini

2005-01-01

44

The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

2009-01-01

45

Thermal model of human body fitted with individual characteristics of body temperature regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a thermal model that can predict the thermal responses of the human body under given environmental conditions, it is necessary for the model to be fitted with the individual characteristics of human body temperature regulation. As the basis for this, in this paper, it is shown that the coefficients that represent the thermoregulatory responses in the two-node model

Satoru Takada; Hiroaki Kobayashi; Takayuki Matsushita

2009-01-01

46

National physical education curriculum: motor and cardiovascular health related fitness in Greek adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: State school physical education (PE) programmes are common throughout Greece. However, it is not known if the main objectives of the Greek PE curriculum are achieved.Objective: To assess the current national PE curriculum in relation to selected motor and cardiovascular health related fitness parameters.Methods: A sample of 84 Greek schoolboys (mean (SD) age 13.6 (0.3) years, height 160.7 (8.6)

Y Koutedakis; C Bouziotas

2003-01-01

47

Cardiovascular fitness associated with cognitive performance in heart failure patients enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Reduced cognitive function is common in persons with heart failure (HF). Cardiovascular fitness is a known contributor to cognitive function in many patient populations, but has only been linked to cognition based on estimates of fitness in HF. The current study examined the relationship between fitness as measured by metabolic equivalents (METs) from a standardized stress test and cognition in persons with HF, as well as the validity of office-based predictors of fitness in this population. Methods Forty-one HF patients enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation completed a standardized exercise stress test protocol, a brief neuropsychological battery, the 2-minute step test (2MST), and a series of medical history and self-report questionnaires. Results Maximum METs from stress testing demonstrated incremental predictive validity for attention (??=?.41, p?=?.03), executive function (??=?.37, p?=?.04), and memory domains (??=?.46, p?=?.04). Partial correlations accounting for key medical and demographic characteristics revealed greater METs was associated with the 2MST (r (32)?=?.41, p?=?.02) but not with the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) (r(32)?=?.24, p?=?.17). Conclusion The current findings indicate that better fitness levels measured by METs is independently associated with better cognitive function in older adults with HF. Results also showed that METs was closely associated with one office-based measure of fitness (2MST), but not another (DASI). Prospective studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms linking fitness and cognitive function in HF.

2013-01-01

48

The Impact of an Aerobic Fitness Program on the Body Image of Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between older women's participation in an aerobic fitness program and body image was examined. Major results showed that aerobic fitness participants had a significantly higher positive body image than non-participants. Selected sociodemographic characteristics differentially influenced the body image of aerobic fitness participants. The practical implications of these results are discussed. Future research ideas on the topic are suggested.

Carol Cutler Riddick; Robin Stanger Freitag

1984-01-01

49

Predictors of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase in middle-aged and older men: Relationship to leptin and obesity, but not cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of long-term endurance exercise training, body composition, and cardiovascular fitness (Vo2max) on the activity of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (AT-LPL) and lipoprotein lipids were examined in 66 healthy age-matched middle-aged and older men (mean ± SE, 61 ± 1 years). We compared subcutaneous abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLT) heparin-elutable AT-LPL activity in 19 master athletes (Vo2max > 40

Dora M. Berman; Ellen M. Rogus; M. Jan Busby-Whitehead; Leslie I. Katzel; Andrew P. Goldberg

1999-01-01

50

Trends in body fat, body mass index and physical fitness among male and female college students.  

PubMed

There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of physical fitness related to BMI and body fat among university students between 1996 and 2008. The results showed a significant decline in the average fitness levels measured as an estimation of VO(2max) for male and female students (p < 0.001 for both sexes). The linear trend for BMI by years was not significant for both sexes (p for males = 0.772, p for females = 0.253). On average, in the last 13 years, % body fat was increasing 0.513%/year for males and 0.654%/year for females. There is a significant indirect correlation between the student's VO(2max) levels and % body fat, r = -0.489; p < 0.001 for males; and r = -0.416, p < 0.001 for females. Approximately 23.9% of the variance in the VO(2max) levels in males and 17.3% in females can be explained by the variance in % body fat. The results support recent findings that physical fitness among college students is declining and body fatness is increasing. PMID:22253998

Pribis, Peter; Burtnack, Carol A; McKenzie, Sonya O; Thayer, Jerome

2010-10-25

51

Relationship of physical activity with motor skills, aerobic fitness and body fat in preschool children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study (Ballabeina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Adiposity, low aerobic fitness and low levels of activity are all associated with clustered cardiovascular disease risk in children and their high prevalence represents a major public health concern.Objective:The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with motor skills (agility and balance), aerobic fitness and %body fat in young children.Design:This study is

F Bürgi; U Meyer; U Granacher; C Schindler; P Marques-Vidal; S Kriemler; J J Puder

2011-01-01

52

Relation between Body Iron Status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between iron stores and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study aimed to investigate the association between body iron indices and some cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In a case–control study conducted in the south of Shiraz, Iran, we determined ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), metabolic risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), and anthropometric measurements in 100 men aged 45 years and higher with newly diagnosed CVD and 100 adjusted controls without evidence for CVD. Results: The mean of low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), CRP, and ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in cases than controls, and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) was significantly lower in cases than controls. Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and the other risk factors in case group showed that only ferritin, serum iron, waist circumference, and LDL-c significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.32 with P < 0.001, r = 0.29 with P < 0.05, r = 0.41 with P < 0.01, and r = 0.36 with P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicated an association between a positive balance of body iron and CVD. Hence, caution should be exercised in administration of iron supplements to patients with CVD and in consumption of food rich in iron by them.

Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Shidfar, Farzad; Zamani, Atefeh

2013-01-01

53

Body shape and fit preference in body cathexis and clothing benefits sought for professional African-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little survey research exists that categorises the body shapes of African-American women or attempts to understand how these impact their clothing choices. This study profiled 153 professional African-American women regarding the influence of body shape and fit preference on their perceptions of body cathexis (degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with one's body) (Secord, P. and Jourard, S., 1953. The appraisal

Melissa B. Manuel; Lenda J. Connell; Ann B. Presley

2010-01-01

54

Association among basal serum BDNF, cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular disease risk factors in untrained healthy Korean men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (serum BDNF) can be affected by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF),\\u000a but this relationship is far from clear. Recent reports show an inverse relationship between serum BDNF and CRF in healthy\\u000a individuals, and other studies suggest a possible association between serum BDNF and cardiovascular disease. However, the\\u000a possible interaction between serum BDNF, CRF, and cardiovascular

Seung Ho Jung; Jongkyu Kim; J. Mark Davis; Steven N. Blair; Hyun-chul Cho

2011-01-01

55

Differences Emerge in Visceral Adipose Tissue Accumulation After Selection for Innate Cardiovascular Fitness  

PubMed Central

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been reported to be inversely associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, independent of body weight. However, the confounding effect of physical activity on the association between CRF and VAT remains inadequately addressed. Based on VO2max, 143 sedentary, overweight women were dichotomized into high-fit (HF) and low-fit (LF) groups. Body composition and VAT were measured using DEXA and CT, respectively, and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated using the doubly-labeled water technique. No differences were observed between HF and LF for BMI (HF: 28.2 ± 1.3; LF: 28.3 ± 1.31 kg/m2), total body weight (HF: 77.5 ± 6.8; LF: 77.9 ± 7.3 kg), total fat mass (HF: 33.5 ± 5.1; LF: 33.9 ± 4.4 kg), or AEE (HF: 439.9 ± 375.4; LF: 517.9 ± 298.7 kcal/day). Significant differences in visceral adiposity (HF: 68.5 ± 30.4; LF: 91.2 ± 31.8 cm2; P < 0.001) and insulin sensitivity (HF: 5.1 ± 1.8; LF: 3.1 ± 2.4 SI ×10?4min?1/?IU/ml; P < 0.01) were observed between the high- and low-fitness groups, independent of age, race, and AEE. This study affirms previous findings that CRF is an important determinant of the accumulation of VAT, and this relationship is independent of physical activity.

Brock, David W.; Irving, Brian A; Gower, Barbara; Hunter, Gary R.

2010-01-01

56

Cardiovascular emergency preparedness in recreation facilities at major US universities: college fitness center emergency readiness.  

PubMed

Recent American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine (AHA/ACSM) guidelines advocate preparticipation screening, planning, and rehearsal for emergencies and automated external defibrillators in all health/fitness facilities. The authors evaluated adherence to these recommendations at 158 recreational service departments in major US universities (51% response rate for 313 institutions queried). Many made their facilities available to unaffiliated residents, with 39% offering programs for those with special medical conditions. Only 18% performed universal preparticipation screening. Twenty-seven percent reported having 1 or more exercise-related instances of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death within the past 5 years. Seventy-three percent had an automated external defibrillator, but only 6% reported using it in an emergency. Almost all had written emergency plans, but only 50% posted their plans, and only 27% performed the recommended quarterly emergency drills. The authors' findings suggest low awareness of and adherence to the AHA/ACSM recommendations for identifying individuals at risk for exercise-related cardiovascular complications and for handling such emergencies in university-based fitness facilities. ( PMID:17617775

Herbert, William G; Herbert, David L; McInnis, Kyle J; Ribisl, Paul M; Franklin, Barry A; Callahan, Mandy; Hood, Aaron W

2007-01-01

57

Female Collegiate Basketball Players' Perceptions About Their Bodies, Garment Fit and Uniform Design Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing basketball uniforms for female athletes is a challenge for soft goods manufacturers. Data were collected from 503 female collegiate basketball players concerning body cathexis, body form, garment fit satisfaction, uniform design preferences and demographic characteristics. Of the three areas of the body (upper, lower and total), players indicated they were most dissatisfied with parts of the lower body. Being

Betty L. Feather; Sheila Ford; David G. Herr

1996-01-01

58

Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

2010-01-01

59

Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

2010-01-01

60

Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

2007-01-01

61

Respiratory Fitness, Free Living Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Older Individuals: A Doubly Labeled Water Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the importance of car- diorespiratory fitness vs. physical activity energy expenditure on se- lected cardiovascular disease risk factors in older individuals. One hundred and seventeen older individuals, 53 men (68 6 9 yr) and 63 women (67 6 7 yr), participated in the study. This cohort was divided into 4 groups: 1)

ROMAN V. DVORAK; RAYMOND D. STARLING; PHILIP A. ADES; LORETTA DIPIETRO; ERIC T. POEHLMAN; John D. Pierce

2009-01-01

62

A Review of Body Image Influences on Men's Fitness Goals and Supplement Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men's fitness goals are influenced by the lens through which they view their bodies, which is different from the way women view their bodies. Their increased focus on a muscular, hairless body means that they exercise to enhance their physical bulk and are more likely to engage in depilatory behaviors. In addition, the drive for muscularity may be associated with

Donald R. McCreary; Thomas B. Hildebrandt; Leslie J. Heinberg; Michael Boroughs; J. Kevin Thompson

2007-01-01

63

Inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease (The Health, Aging and Body Composition [Health ABC] Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the association of several inflammatory markers with subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in older men and women. Data are from the baseline assessment of 3,045 well-functioning persons aged 70 to 79 years, participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. The study sample was divided into 3 groups: “cardiovascular disease” (diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary

Matteo Cesari; Brenda W. J. H Penninx; Anne B Newman; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Barbara J Nicklas; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Russell P Tracy; Susan M Rubin; Tamara B Harris; Marco Pahor

2003-01-01

64

The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors and CV risk factors in young Australian men. Methods Thirty five healthy men aged 18–25 years had their blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity, dietary intake and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed. Results Participants were categorised according to the percentage of body fat into two groups: lean and overweight men. There were no between-group differences in the biochemical indicators except that overweight men had lower HDL-C compared to lean men. Both groups had similar mean energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol intake, RMR, physical activity level (PAL) and energy expenditure (EE). Most of the participants (65.7%) had LDL?2.5 mmol/L. Other common individual risk factors were body fat?20% (42.9%), waist circumference?88 cm (28.6%), PAL<1.8 (22.9%) and systolic BP?130 mmHg (20%). The mean number of CV risk factors was lower among men having a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, >12% of the energy intake) regardless of whether they were overweight or lean and did not seem to differ according to the source of MUFA consumed. Conclusions It is a serious concern to observe such a high percentage of CV risk factors in a group of apparently healthy young men. The likelihood of multiple CV risk factors is greater among those with high body fatness and low MUFA intake. Intake of MUFA favorably affects CV risk factors regardless of the source.

2013-01-01

65

Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)|

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

1989-01-01

66

Plasma epinephrine during mental stress in relation to fitness, cardiovascular reactivity, and metabolic risk factors in young men  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied plasma epinephrine (E) at rest and during mental stress in relation to physical fitness, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and cardiovascular responses, and metabolic risk factors in men (age 21–24 yrs) with high (?140\\/90 mm Hg, n = 19) and normal (?115\\/75 mm Hg, n = 19) screening blood pressure (BP). E and NE (radioenzymatic method), R-R interval (RR), and

Henrik M. Reims; Arnljot Flaa; Knut Sevre; Eigil Fossum; Harald Mellem; Sverre E. Kjeldsen

2005-01-01

67

Treadmill Exercise Rehabilitation Improves Ambulatory Function and Cardiovascular Fitness in Patients With Chronic Stroke A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Physical inactivity propagates disability after stroke through physical deconditioning and learned nonuse. We investigated whether treadmill aerobic training (T-AEX) is more effective than conventional rehabilitation to improve ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke. Methods—Sixty-one adults with chronic hemiparetic gait after ischemic stroke (6 months) were randomized to 6 months (3\\/week) progressive T-AEX or a

Richard F. Macko; Frederick M. Ivey; Larry W. Forrester; Daniel Hanley; John D. Sorkin; Leslie I. Katzel; Kenneth H. Silver; Andrew P. Goldberg

2010-01-01

68

The effect of viewing ultra-fit images on college women's body dissatisfaction.  

PubMed

Modern ideals of female attractiveness include an extremely toned and fit appearance in addition to extreme thinness. Although viewing thin models has a negative effect on women's body image, research has not tested the effect of exposure to the ultra-fit physique separate from the thin-ideal. This randomized, posttest-only experiment tested the effects of the athletic aspect of the current ideal by exposing 138 undergraduate women to thin and athletic models, normal weight athletic models, or a control condition consisting of neutral objects. The study also tested the moderating effects of thin-ideal and athletic-ideal internalization. Exposure to thin ultra-fit models, but not normal weight ultra-fit models, produced an increase in body dissatisfaction and neither internalization variable moderated this effect. Findings suggest that interventions that focus on the benefits of fitness while challenging the desirability of thinness may offer promising results. PMID:21880562

Homan, Kristin; McHugh, Erin; Wells, Daniel; Watson, Corrinne; King, Carolyn

2011-08-30

69

How is a seita fitted to the body?  

PubMed

A seita is a carrier frame for backpacking used in Nishiki-cho, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. In this mountainous district, people make their living by agriculture and forestry and carry everything on their backs with seita. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the sizes of a body and the dimensions of a seita. This survey was conducted on 30 subjects (mean +/- SD; 68.1 +/- 9.0 years old) at three mountain villages. We measured some anthropometric sizes and seita dimensions and found that the correlation between height and sum of shoulder-lumbar-nuki distance (back length of a seita) and shoulder strap length is significant. In additional surveys, we took photographs with some markers on iliocristale, trochanterion, and so on, when the subjects carried seita in two load conditions. The photographs indicate that the load-supporting points in 16 of 23 subjects were between the iliocristale and trochanterion (i.e., on the sacrum). It is important to note that nobody showed that point above the iliocristale (i.e., on the lumbar vertebra). These data lead to the conclusion that when people in Nishik-icho carry loads with seita, they support loads not on the lumbar vertebrae but on the sacrum, and that they adjust the perimeter consisting of the back part and shoulder strap of the seita. PMID:11579698

Kawahara, M; Namihira, E; Sato, H

1998-12-01

70

Maximal Oxygen Uptake Based on Lean Body Mass: A Meaningful Measure of Physical Fitness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and maximal oxygen uptake on the basis of lean body mass, 18 subjects were tested before and after a vigorous six-week training program. Maximal oxygen consumption based on lean body mass (VO2 max (LBM...

E. L. Gitin J. E. Olerud H. W. Carroll

1973-01-01

71

Effectiveness of a personalized fitness module on knowledge, attitude, and cardiovascular endurance of fifth-grade students: "heart smart".  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a Personalized Fitness Module was compared to a Traditional Fitness Unit, both of which were designed to develop knowledge, behavioral skills, fitness and positive attitudes. 95 students in Grade 5 and from intact physical education/health classes within two public schools participated in a seven-week cardiovascular fitness program. The experimental group of 48 participated in the personalized and noncompetitive fitness module. The control group of 47 participated in the traditional unit, a teacher-centered fitness module. Students received a total of 14 55-min. lessons over seven weeks. Pre- and posttest measurements included the Superkids-Superfit Knowledge Test, the Children's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity Inventory, and the one-mile run/walk. Data were analyzed using group mean gain scores on eight dependent variables (knowledge, six subscales of attitude, and one-mile run/walk) followed by a multivariate analysis of variance. A significant difference between groups led to a discriminant function analysis as a post hoc test. Findings indicated that the use of the personalized unit can substantially improve one-mile run/walk time. The use of modules of this type in health and physical education programs may promote life-long exercise patterns and fitness. PMID:1792133

Mott, D S; Virgilio, S J; Warren, B L; Berenson, G S

1991-12-01

72

Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

... responsibilities. So don’t wait — get fit today! Content last updated July 24, 2013 top Twitter Facebook About this site Mission Statement Privacy Policy For the Media Contact Us This site is owned and maintained by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health ...

73

Psychosocial variables associated with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school students.  

PubMed

This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), participants in the body composition HFZ reported higher levels of self-esteem and body satisfaction and rated themselves as being more flexible and having greater endurance than those in the NIZ. After controlling for SES, girls in the cardiorespiratory HFZ had higher levels of self-esteem and body satisfaction and rated themselves as stronger having greater endurance, and having lower levels of depression than those in the NIZ. Similarly, boys in the cardiorespiratory HFZ reported having greater endurance and being stronger and more satisfied with their bodies than boys in the NIZ. The findings have implications for promoting healthy school environments. PMID:21049839

Greenleaf, Christy A; Petrie, Trent A; Martin, Scott B

2010-09-01

74

Determination of Best Fitted Regression Model for Estimation of Body Weight in Awassi Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topal, M., Yildiz, N., Esenbu?a, N., Aksakal, V., Macit, M. and Özdemir, M. 2003. Determination of best fitted regression model for estimation of body weight in Awassi sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 23: 201–208.In this research, linear regression models were improved for estimation of body weights using various body measurements from Awassi sheep. Simple and multiple regression models were formed

Mehmet Topal; Necati Yildiz; Nurinisa Esenbu?a; Vecihi Aksakal; Muhlis Macit; Memi? Özdemir

2003-01-01

75

Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary school children in Ellisras, South Africa.Design:A cross-sectional study.Setting:The study consisted of 462 boys and 393 girls who

M. A. Monyeki; L. L. J. Koppes; H. C. G. Kemper; K. D. Monyeki; A. L. Toriola; A. E. Pienaar; J. W. R. Twisk

2005-01-01

76

Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Markers after Remission of Cushing's Disease: A Prospective Study Using Whole-Body MRI  

PubMed Central

Context: Cushing's Disease (CD) alters fat distribution, muscle mass, adipokine profile, and cardiovascular risk factors. It is not known whether remission entirely reverses these changes. Objectives: Our objective was to determine whether the adverse body composition and cardiovascular risk profile in CD change after remission. Design, Setting, and Patients: Fourteen CD patients were studied prospectively: before surgery (active disease) and again postoperatively 6 months after discontinuing oral glucocorticoids (remission). Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine lean and fat tissue distributions. Outcome Measures: Body composition (skeletal muscle and fat in the visceral, bone marrow, sc, and inter-muscular compartments) and cardiovascular risk factors (serum insulin, glucose, leptin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and lipid profile) were measured in active CD and remission (mean 20 months after surgery). Results: Remission decreased visceral, pelvic bone marrow, sc (including trunk and limb sc), and total fat; waist circumference; and weight (P < 0.05). Remission altered fat distribution, resulting in decreased visceral/total fat (P = 0.04) and visceral fat/skeletal muscle ratios (P = 0.006). Remission decreased the absolute muscle mass (P = 0.015). Cardiovascular risk factors changed: insulin resistance, leptin, and total cholesterol decreased (P < 0.05), but adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other lipid measures did not change. Conclusions: CD remission reduced nearly all fat depots and reverted fat to a distribution more consistent with favorable cardiovascular risk but decreased skeletal muscle. Remission improved some but not all cardiovascular risk markers. Remission from CD dramatically improves body composition abnormalities but may still be associated with persistent cardiovascular risk.

Shen, Wei; Strohmayer, Erika; Post, Kalmon D.; Freda, Pamela U.

2012-01-01

77

The effect of viewing ultra-fit images on college women's body dissatisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern ideals of female attractiveness include an extremely toned and fit appearance in addition to extreme thinness. Although viewing thin models has a negative effect on women's body image, research has not tested the effect of exposure to the ultra-fit physique separate from the thin-ideal. This randomized, posttest-only experiment tested the effects of the athletic aspect of the current ideal

Kristin Homan; Erin McHugh; Daniel Wells; Corrinne Watson; Carolyn King

78

Effects of a reduced-glycemic-load diet on body weight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lowering the dietary glycemic load and increasing protein intake may be advantageous for weight management. Objective: This randomized controlled trial was designed to eval- uate the effects of an ad libitum reduced-glycemic-load (RGL) diet on body weight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)riskmarkersinoverweightandobeseadultsduringaninitial weight-loss phase (12 wk) and a weight-loss maintenance phase (weeks 24-36). Design:SubjectswereassignedtoRGL(n43)orlow-fat,portion- controlled (control; n 43)

Kevin C Maki; Tia M Rains; Valerie N Kaden; Kathleen R Raneri; Michael H Davidson

79

Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic-resistance training. Subjects' enjoyment and implementation intentions were also examined prior to and following training. Subjects (22 recreationally active females (20.3 ± 1.4 years)) completed 4 weeks of exercise training 4 days per week consisting of either 30 min of endurance treadmill training (~85% maximal heart rate; n = 7) or whole-body aerobic-resistance training involving one set of 8 × 20 s of a single exercise (burpees, jumping jacks, mountain climbers, or squat thrusts) separated by 10 s of rest per session (n = 7). A third group was assigned to a nontraining control group (n = 8). Following training, [Formula: see text]O(2peak) was increased in both the endurance (~7%) and interval (~8%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas muscle endurance was improved (p < 0.05) in the interval group (leg extensions, +40%; chest presses, +207%; sit-ups, +64%; push-ups, +135%; and back extensions, +75%). Perceived enjoyment of, and intentions to engage in, very low volume, high-intensity, whole-body interval exercise were both increased following training (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control (nontraining) group. These data demonstrate that although improvements in cardiovascular fitness are induced by both endurance and extremely low volume interval-style training, whole-body aerobic-resistance training imparted addition benefit in the form of improved skeletal muscle endurance. PMID:22994393

McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

2012-09-20

80

Canadian Cardiovascular Society focused position statement update on assessment of the cardiac patient for fitness to drive: fitness following left ventricular assist device implantation.  

PubMed

There have been significant advances in mechanical circulatory support during the past several years. Older pulsatile models of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) (also known as VADs) have shown improved outcomes compared with medical therapy but have had limited durability and significant morbidity associated with their use. For this reason, Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2003 guidelines recommended permanent cessation of driving in these patients (for both private and commercial vehicle operation). However, recent advances with newer, continuous-flow devices have resulted in much lower rates of device-related complications and greater use of these devices for destination therapy. The majority of patients now are discharged home and lead active lives subsequently. Based on new evidence applied to the Society's "Risk of Harm" formula, it has been determined that patients with continuous-flow devices who are doing well 2 months post implantation are fit to hold noncommercial class drivers' licenses. PMID:22342270

Baskett, Roger; Crowell, Richard; Freed, Darren; Giannetti, Nadia; Simpson, Christopher S

2012-02-17

81

The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

82

The Body Revolution. Revolutionize Your Life Through Nutrition, Behavior Change and Fitness. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed for teachers of the "Body Revolution" weight control program. The program may be used either in conjunction with a school program or as an activity for adults in community education programs. The emphasis of the program is on weight loss. Activities are outlined that focus on behavior change, nutrition, and physical fitness.…

Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others

83

Modeling three-dimensional groundwater flows by the body-fitted coordinate (BFC) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine if the body-fitted coordinate (BFC) method could be utilized to model three-dimensional groundwater flows and what advantages it offers. This method was initially developed and used in aerodynamics and heat transfer areas to simulate air and heat flows in irregular domains. Chapter 1 introduces the BFC method as an alternative to two

Min-Ho Koo

1996-01-01

84

Preaccession Fitness and Body Composition as Predictors of Attrition in U.S. Army Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Assessment of Recruit Motivation and Strength (ARMS) project evaluated whether active duty Army enlistees who exceeded weight and body-fat standards but were able lo pass the ARMS physical fitness test were at elevated risk of early attrition relative...

C. T. Scott D. W. Neibuhr S. A. Bedno W. Han Y. Li

2009-01-01

85

The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

2002-01-01

86

Body composition & cardiovascular functions in healthy males acclimatized to desert & high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: Several physiological changes affecting physical fitness occur in humans whenever they are exposed to extremes of environments such as heat, cold and high altitude (HA). The present study was undertaken to evaluate effect of stay in desert and HA on physical fitness and body composition of physically active individuals. Methods: Study was conducted on three groups of

V. K. Singh; Praveen Vats; S. Kishnani; S. N. Pramanik; S. N. Singh; Shashi Bala Singh; P. K. Banerjee

87

Differences in health behavior, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk in early, average, and late mature children.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between biological maturity, CVD risk, fitness and health behavior in 709 (359 male, 350 female) 8-year-old children (range: 6.3-8.9 years). Sports participation and sedentary behavior was assessed via parent questionnaire. Height and weight was measured and maturity status was predicted based on % of adult-height reached. Fitness was assessed via a test battery and CVD risk was determined using mean arterial pressure, cholesterol and intra-abdominal fat. BMIpercentiles (BMIPCT) differed significantly among early, average and late maturing children. Early maturing children displayed a higher CVD risk profile (0.5 vs. -0.2), lower fitness scores (-0.4 vs. 0.2), and spent more time watching TV (51 vs. 43 min/day) compared with their peers. After controlling for BMIPCT differences remained only for fitness in boys and TV time in girls. PMID:23406708

Drenowatz, Clemens; Wartha, Olivia; Klenk, Jochen; Brandstetter, Susanne; Wabitsch, Martin; Steinacker, Jürgen

2013-02-01

88

A Controlled Evaluation of a Fitness and Nutrition Intervention Program on Cardiovascular Health in 10YearOld to 12YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Programs to improve cardiovascular health in schoolchildren need careful scientific evaluation. Method. In a randomized controlled trial of nutrition and fitness programs over a period of about 9 months, 1,147 10- to 12-year-olds from 30 schools were allocated to one of five health programs: fitness, fitness + school nutrition, school-based nutrition, school + home nutrition, home-based nutrition, or a

R. Vandongen; D. A. Jenner; C. Thompson; A. C. Taggart; E. E. Spickett; V. Burke; L. J. Beilin; R. A. Milligan; D. L. Dunbar

1995-01-01

89

Blood pressure, body mass index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is still uncertain whether increased blood pressure (BP) has a stronger effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lean persons than in obese persons. We tested it using a data set collected from a large cohort of Chinese adults. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP, body mass index (BMI) and other variables were measured in 169,871 Chinese

Hongwei Wang; Jie Cao; Jianxin Li; Jichun Chen; Xigui Wu; Xiufang Duan; Jianfeng Huang; Dongfeng Gu

2010-01-01

90

Body size at birth and cardiovascular response to and recovery from mental stress in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular (CV) response to mental stress, a predictor of CV disease risk, may be determined already in utero. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and previous studies have used adult subjects and neglected CV recovery. We investigated 147 girls and 136 boys aged 8 years who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for children to determine whether body size at

K Feldt; K Räikkönen; R Pyhälä; A Jones; D I W Phillips; J G Eriksson; A K Pesonen; K Heinonen; A-L Järvenpää; T E Strandberg; E Kajantie

2011-01-01

91

Impact of Obesity and Body Fat Distribution on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Body fat distribution has been reported to differentially contribute to the development of cardiovascular risk. We report the relative associations between general and central obesity and risk factors in 2893 Chinese subjects recruited from the Hong Kong population.Research Methods and Procedures: Anthropometric parameters [waist circumference (WC) and BMI], surrogate measures of insulin resistance (fasting plasma glucose and insulin, oral

G. Neil Thomas; Sai-Yin Ho; Karen S. L. Lam; Edward D. Janus; Anthony J. Hedley; Tai Hing Lam

2004-01-01

92

Effects of Physical Training on Cardiovascular Fitness and Behavior Patterns of Mentally Retarded Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five mentally retarded adults participated in an ongoing walk-jogging program for 23 weeks. Assessments for maximal oxygen comsumption (VO2 max) and body weight changes before and after training revealed Ss's body weight was reduced by 3.6 kg and VO2 max increased 43 percent. Favorable behavior changes were also noted. (CL)

Schurrer, Rob; And Others

1985-01-01

93

Effects of Physical Training on Cardiovascular Fitness and Behavior Patterns of Mentally Retarded Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five mentally retarded adults participated in an ongoing walk-jogging program for 23 weeks. Assessments for maximal oxygen comsumption (VO2 max) and body weight changes before and after training revealed Ss's body weight was reduced by 3.6 kg and VO2 max increased 43 percent. Favorable behavior changes were also noted. (CL)|

Schurrer, Rob; And Others

1985-01-01

94

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

2004-01-01

95

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

2004-01-01

96

Implementation of Finite-Difference Lattice Boltzmann Method on General Body-Fitted Curvilinear Coordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite-difference lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm is described on general body-fitted coordinate systems. An alternative treatment for the implicit collision term of the Boltzmann-Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation is used, which completely removes the implicitness of the numerical scheme through using the characteristic of collision invariants. LB simulations are carried out for a two-dimensional supersonic viscous flow past a circular cylinder and the

Q. Li; Y. L. He; Y. J. Gao

2008-01-01

97

Body-fitted electromagnetic PIC software for use on parallel computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the algorithm and implementation issues for the three-dimensional body-fitted Particle-In-Cell (PIC) software suite 3DPIC for modelling the time evolution of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and flows of relativistic charged particles. 3DPIC is applicable to EM calculations in complex geometries where displacement fields are important, and was developed specifically for microwave device modelling. A description is given

J. W. Eastwood; W. Arter; N. J. Brealey; R. W. Hockney

1995-01-01

98

Assessment of gender differences in body composition and physical fitness scoring in Saudi adults by bioelectrical impedance analysis.  

PubMed

Obesity is a global problem that is reaching epidemic proportions. Body composition is an important parameter for humans because previous studies indicate high values of body fat as a predictor of mortality. The aim of the study was to assess gender differences in body composition and physical fitness in Saudi adult population. This epidemiological cross-sectional study included 411 healthy adult Saudi subjects aged 18-72 years (mean +/- SD, 36.91 +/- 15.22). All participants underwent body composition analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, with a commercially available body analyzer (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Measurements included body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, target weight, fat control, muscle control and fitness scoring based on target values. The mean BMI of the whole study population was 27.22 +/- 5.65 (median = 26.80, range = 15.6-55.4). The mean fitness score was 69.3 +/- 8.48 (median = 71.0, range = 29-99). Significant gender differences were observed in BMI, fitness score, percent body fat, and other parameters of body composition. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity, percent body fat (%BF) and poor fitness is high in Saudi population with significant gender differences. In this regard, public awareness programs including exercise and diet teaching are required at large scale to cope up with the growing burden of obesity. PMID:24053079

Al Dokhi, Laila; Habib, Syed Shahid

2013-06-01

99

Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition  

PubMed Central

Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n?=?322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493

2012-01-01

100

Body Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular Health Risk Factors in Caucasians: A Comparison with the Body Mass Index and Others  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown a relation between the adipose tissue accumulation and a higher risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, body fat content and, mainly, the fat distribution or adiposity could be considered as important indicators of health risk. In spite of presenting several limitations, BMI is the most widely used and accepted index for classifying overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlations between Body Adiposity Index (BAI), BMI and other adiposity indexes such as WC, WHR and WHtR with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Furthermore, the behavior of BAI and BMI regarding the ability to discriminate overweight or obese individuals was also analyzed. Research Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adult workers. Participants in the study (29.214 men and 21.040 women, aged 20–68 years) were systematically selected during their work health periodic examinations. BAI, BMI, WHR, WHtR, body weight, hip and waist circumference (WC) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and glucose were also determined. Results of the study indicated that BAI was less correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic risk factors than other adiposity indexes (BMI, WC and WHtR). The best correlations were found for WHtR. In addition, the BAI presented lower discriminatory capacity than BMI for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS) using both IDF and ATP III criteria. A different behavior of the BAI in men and women when considering the ability to discriminate overweight or obese individuals was also observed. Conclusions The adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (WHtR and WC) may be better candidates than BAI and BMI to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular risk in both clinical practice and research.

Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Angel A.; Tauler, Pedro; Cespedes, Mey L.; Vicente-Herrero, Teofila; Yanez, Aina; Tomas-Salva, Matias; Aguilo, Antoni

2013-01-01

101

Fitness and Health CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS FOR PARTICIPANTS OF A UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STAFF WELLNESS PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS FOR PARTICIPANTS OF A UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STAFF WELLNESS PROGRAM. Frank Essig, Dean Sinclair, Jennifer Hare, Jennifer Moreillon, Daniel Funk, Ann Marie Swank. JEPonline 2004;7(4):37-43. Reducing the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and enhancing physical fitness are important components of worksite wellness programs. Effective programs have the potential to significantly reduce

FRANK ESSIG; DEAN SINCLAIR; JENNIFER HARE; JENNIFER MOREILLON; DANIEL FUNK

102

Traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in school-aged children: A call for the further development of public health strategies with emphasis on fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and\\u000a the early aetiology of cardiovascular disease. We examined if the levels of traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk\\u000a factors were influenced by the levels of CRF in children. A total of 339 randomly selected children aged 9–10 years participated\\u000a in the Swedish part

Jonatan R. Ruiz; Francisco B. Ortega; Dirk Meusel; Michael Sjöström

2007-01-01

103

Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls  

PubMed Central

Objective The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls. Methods A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regional fat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status. Findings The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total and regional body fat percent (P<0.001). After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat mass especially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure. Conclusion Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

Mirhosseini, Naghmeh Zahra; Shahar, Suzana; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Parizadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi

2012-01-01

104

Exercise against lower body negative pressure as a countermeasure for cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with oral salt and water ingestion has been tested by astronauts as a countermeasure to prevent postflight orthostatic intolerance. Exercise is another countermeasure that astronauts commonly use during spaceflight to maintain musculoskeletal strength. We hypothesize that a novel combination of exercise and simultaneous exposure to lower body negative pressure during spaceflight will produce Earth-like musculoskeletal loads as well as cardiovascular stimuli to maintain adaptation to Earth's gravity. Results from recent studies indicate that leg exercise within a LBNP chamber against the suction force of 100 mmHg LBNP in horizontal-supine posture produces an equivalent, if not greater exercise stress compared to similar leg exercise in upright posture (without LBNP) against Earth's gravity. 12 Therefore, the concept of LBNP combined with exercise may prove to be a low cost and low mass technique to stress the cardiovascular and the musculoskeletal systems simultaneously.

Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

105

A Green Tea Extract High in Catechins Reduces Body Fat and Cardiovascular Risks in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The body fat reducing effect and reduction of risks for cardiovascular disease by a green tea extract (GTE) high in catechins was investigated in humans with typical lifestyles.Research Methods and Procedures: Japanese women and men with visceral fat-type obesity were recruited for the trial. After a 2-week diet run-in period, a 12-week double-blind parallel multicenter trial was performed, in

Tomonori Nagao; Tadashi Hase; Ichiro Tokimitsu

2007-01-01

106

Impact of body weight and weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overwieght and obesity are classified as a major risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). An increase in the body mass index\\u000a is associated with adverse changes in the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile resulting in elevated total cholesterol, low-density\\u000a lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein levels. An android pattern of\\u000a obesity is associated with a more deleterious

Kari D. Hecker; Penny M. Kris-Etherton; Guixiang Zhao; Stacie Coval; Sachiko St. Jeor

1999-01-01

107

Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or sedentary individuals. The measurement of energy expenditure across yoga sessions is highly reliable.

Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

2007-01-01

108

Body composition, not body weight, is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex hormone levels in men.  

PubMed Central

To clarify the independent relationships of obesity and overweight to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex steroid levels, three age-matched groups of men were studied: (i) 8 normal weight men, less than 15% body fat, by hydrostatic weighing; (ii) 16 overweight, obese men, greater than 25% body fat and 135-160% of ideal body weight (IBW); and (iii) 8 overweight, lean men, 135-160% IBW, but less than 15% fat. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater for the obese (mean +/- SEM, 82 +/- 2 mmHg) than the normal (71 +/- 2) and overweight lean (72 +/- 2) groups, as were low density lipoprotein levels (131 +/- 9 vs. 98 + 11 and 98 + 14 mg/dl), the ratio of high density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (0.207 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.308 +/- 0.03 and 0.302 +/- 0.03), fasting plasma insulin (22 +/- 3 vs. 12 +/- 1 and 13 +/- 2 microU/ml), and the estradiol/testosterone ratio (0.076 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.042 +/- 0.02 and 0.052 +/- 0.02); P less than 0.05. Estradiol was 25% greater for the overweight lean group (40 +/- 5 pg/ml) than the obese (30 +/- 3 pg/ml) and normal groups (29 +/- 2 pg/ml), P = 0.08, whereas total testosterone was significantly lower in the obese (499 +/- 33 ng/dl) compared with the normal and overweight, lean groups (759 +/- 98 and 797 +/- 82 ng/dl). Estradiol was uncorrelated with risk factors and the estradiol/testosterone ratio appeared to be a function of the reduced testosterone levels in obesity, not independently correlated with lipid levels after adjustment for body fat content. Furthermore, no risk factors were significantly different between the normal and overweight lean groups. We conclude that (a) body composition, rather than body weight per se, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk factors; and (b) sex steroid alterations are related to body composition and are not an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor.

Segal, K R; Dunaif, A; Gutin, B; Albu, J; Nyman, A; Pi-Sunyer, F X

1987-01-01

109

Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and their Relationship to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in African Americans and Non-African Americans With Above-Optimal Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes cross-sectional associations among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary habits, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a large sample (n=810) of African Americans (n=279) and non-African Americans (n=531) with above-optimal blood pressure. Participants in PREMIER, a clinical trial for blood pressure control through lifestyle approaches, underwent baseline assessments to determine physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness category, dietary

Deborah R. Young; Mikel Aickin; Phillip Brantley; Patricia J. Elmer; David W. Harsham; Abby C. King; Victor J. Stevens

2005-01-01

110

Body dissatisfaction and eating attitudes in slimming and fitness gyms in London and Lahore: a cross-cultural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire survey of women attending slimming and fitness gyms in London and Lahore was conducted using the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test. Twenty-nine South Asian and 40 White women in London and 35 English-speaking women in Lahore were recruited into the study. Similar associations between body mass, body dissatisfaction and eating attitudes were found in all

David Bardwell Mumford; Iffat Yaqub Choudry

2000-01-01

111

A multigrid scheme for three dimensional body-fitted coordinates in turbomachine applications  

SciTech Connect

An efficient numerical scheme for the generation of curvilinear body-fitted coordinate systems in three dimensions is presented. The grid is obtained by the solution of a system of three elliptic partial differential equations. The method is based on the classical SOR scheme with an acceleration of convergence using the multigrid technique. The full approximation scheme has been used and is described with the overall algorithm. A number of numerical experiments are given with comparisons to illustrate the efficiency of the method. Practical applications to typical three-dimensional turbomachinery geometries are then shown.

Camarero, R.; Reggio, M.

1983-03-01

112

Flow simulation around an airfoil using a body-fitted grid modified from Cartesian coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow past a NACA0012 airfoil is simulated using a body-fitted coordinates derived from Cartesian coordinates instead of using C or O-type grids, or unstructured grids. The simulations solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using a multi-directional finite difference methodology. No explicit turbulent model is incorporated in the numerical model. A third-order upwind scheme is employed to assure stability of the solution. Results of high Reynolds and small angles of attack are presented to show the applicability of the present method.

Bethancourt, Angel; Kuwahara, Kunio; Komurasaki, Satoko

2004-11-01

113

Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present systematic review was to investigate whether physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, events and syndromes, quality of life and low back pain later in life. Physical fitness-related components were: cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, motor fitness and body composition. Adiposity was considered as both exposure and outcome.

J R Ruiz; J Castro-Piñero; E G Artero; F B Ortega; M Sjöström; J Suni; M J Castillo

2009-01-01

114

Associations of muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness with total and central body fat in adolescents: The HELENA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the association of healthrelated physical fitness with total and central body fat in adolescents.Participants\\/MethodsThe present cross-sectional study comprises 363 Spanish adolescents (186 female participants) aged 12.5–17.5 years. We assessed fitness by the 20-m shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness); the handgrip strength, the standing broad jump and the Abalakov tests (muscular strength); and the 4×10-m shuttle run test (speed–agility).

D. Moliner-Urdiales; J. R. Ruiz; G. Vicente-Rodriguez; F. B. Ortega; J. P. Rey-Lopez; V. Espana-Romero; J. A. Casajus; D. Molnar; K. Widhalm; J. Dallongeville; M. Gonzalez-Gross; M. J. Castillo; M. Sjostrom; L. A. Moreno

2011-01-01

115

Body Fat and Racial Genetic Admixture Are Associated With Aerobic Fitness Levels in a Multiethnic Pediatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate (i) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to BMI as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and (ii) the

Amanda L. Willig; Gary R. Hunter; Krista Casazza; Douglas C. Heimburger; T. Mark Beasley; Jose R. Fernandez

2011-01-01

116

The Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Fitness from Physical Education in Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Physical education (PE) can improve physical fitness; however, little research has evaluated PE's long-term influence. The purpose is to determine PE's longitudinal effects on fitness in a group of adolescent girls and to determine whether body mass index (BMI) status influenced any potential effects. Methods: Participants were…

Camhi, Sarah M.; Phillips, Jennie; Young, Deborah R.

2011-01-01

117

Muscular fitness, body composition and physical self-perception in adolescents.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between muscular strength, body composition, and physical self-perception in adolescents. Participants (n=106, age 15.0±0.7 years, 51% boys) completed the following assessments: height and weight, bio-electrical impedance analysis (body fat %), muscular strength (1RM bench press and leg press), and the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile. Bivariate correlations were examined and mediation analysis was used to explore if physical self-perception sub-domains mediated the relationship between muscular strength/adiposity and overall physical self-worth. Among boys, physical self-worth was associated with absolute total strength (r=0.36, p<0.01), but not with body fat % (r=-0.11, p=0.44), or relative total strength (r=0.21, p=0.13). In adolescent girls, physical self-worth was associated with body fat % (r=-0.42, p<0.01), relative total strength (r=0.40, p<0.01) but not absolute total strength (r=0.07, p=0.62). In boys, perceived physical strength mediated the relationship between absolute muscular strength and physical self-worth. Relative muscular strength was not associated with perceived strength (p>0.05) in girls and the test of the mediated effect was non-significant (p>0.05). Perceived body attractiveness was found to mediate the relationship between body fat % and physical self-worth among boys and girls. Physical self-worth is associated with different components of health-related fitness in adolescent girls and boys. Mediation analysis can be used to provide insights into the complex interrelationships between variables. PMID:21111677

Lubans, David R; Cliff, Dylan P

2010-11-25

118

Modeling Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flows by the Body-Fitted Coordinate (BFC) Method: II. Free and Moving Boundary Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology and solution procedure of the time-dependent body-fitted coordinate (BFC) method for the analysis of transient, three-dimensional groundwater flow problems characterized by free and moving boundaries. The technique consists of numerical grid generation, time-dependent body-fitted coordinate transformation, and application of the finite difference method (FDM) to the transformed partial differential equations. Based on the time-dependent BFC

Min-Ho Koo; Darrell I. Leap

1998-01-01

119

A QUMOND galactic N-body code - I. Poisson solver and rotation curve fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a new particle-mesh galactic N-body code that uses the full multigrid algorithm for solving the modified Poisson equation of the quasi-linear formulation of modified Newtonian dynamics (QUMOND). A novel approach for handling the boundary conditions using a refinement strategy is implemented and the accuracy of the code is compared with analytical solutions of Kuzmin discs. We then employ the code to compute the predicted rotation curves for a sample of five spiral galaxies from the THINGS sample. We generated static N-body realizations of the galaxies according to their stellar and gaseous surface densities and allowed their distances, mass-to-light ratios (M/L values) and both the stellar and gas scale-heights to vary in order to estimate the best-fitting parameters. We found that NGC 3621, NGC 3521 and DDO 154 are well fitted by MOND using expected values of the distance and M/L. NGC 2403 required a moderately larger M/L than expected and NGC 2903 required a substantially larger value. The surprising result was that the scale-height of the dominant baryonic component was well constrained by the rotation curves: the gas scale-height for DDO 154 and the stellar scale-height for the others. In fact, if the suggested stellar scale-height (one-fifth the stellar scale-length) was used in the case of NGC 3621 and NGC 3521 it would not be possible to produce a good fit to the inner rotation curve. For each of the four stellar dominated galaxies, we calculated the vertical velocity dispersions which we found to be, on the whole, quite typical compared with observed stellar vertical velocity dispersions of face-on spirals. We conclude that modelling the gas scale-heights of the gas-rich dwarf spiral galaxies will be vital in order to make precise conclusions about MOND.

Angus, G. W.; van der Heyden, K. J.; Famaey, B.; Gentile, G.; McGaugh, S. S.; de Blok, W. J. G.

2012-04-01

120

Body fat and racial genetic admixture are associated with aerobic fitness levels in a multiethnic pediatric population  

PubMed Central

Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate 1) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to body mass index (BMI) as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and 2) the congruence of BMI categories with high and low body fat categories of objectively measured percent body fat. Participants were 232 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American children aged 7-12 years (Tanner stage ? 3). Aerobic fitness was measured via a submaximal indirect calorimetry treadmill test (VO2-170), and physical activity levels with accelerometry. Genetic admixture estimates were obtained using 140 genetic ancestry informative markers to estimate European, African, and Amerindian admixture. Fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Children were classified into a low body fat group (< 25% in males, < 30% in females) or a high body fat group based on their percent body fat; children were also categorized according to BMI percentile. Children in the low body fat group had significantly higher aerobic fitness (P < 0.05) regardless of BMI percentile classification. Higher African genetic admixture was associated with lower aerobic fitness (P < 0.05), while physical activity was positively associated with fitness (P < 0.01). In conclusion, aerobic fitness levels differ by percent body fat and genetic admixture irrespective of BMI classification, and such differences should be taken into account when evaluating outcomes of health interventions.

Willig, Amanda L.; Hunter, Gary R.; Casazza, Krista; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

2011-01-01

121

Influence of Hatha yoga on physical activity constraints, physical fitness, and body image of breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer survivors often experience changes in their perception of their bodies following surgical treatment. These changes in body image may increase self-consciousness and perceptions of physical activity constraints and reduce participation in physical activity. While the number of studies examining different types of yoga targeting women with breast cancer has increased, studies thus far have not studied the influence that Hatha yoga has on body image and physical activity constraints. The objective of this study was to explore the changes that occur in breast cancer survivors in terms of body image, perceived constraints, and physical fitness following an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention. This study used a nonrandomized two-group pilot study, comparing an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention with a light exercise group, both designed for women who were at least nine months post-treatment for breast cancer. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in the areas of body image, physical activity constraints, and physical fitness. Findings indicated that quantitatively, yoga participants experienced reductions in physical activity constraints and improvements in lower- and upper-body strength and flexibility, while control participants experienced improvements in abdominal strength and lower-body strength. Qualitative findings support changes in body image, physical activity constraints, and physical fitness for the participants in the yoga group. In conclusion, Hatha yoga may reduce constraints to physical activity and improve fitness in breast cancer survivors. More research is needed to explore the relationship between Hatha yoga and improvements in body image. PMID:22398344

Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene; Shinew, Kimberly J; Hsieh, Pei-Chun

2011-01-01

122

The burden of cardiovascular disease associated with high body mass index in the Asia-Pacific region.  

PubMed

Studying obesity in the Asia-Pacific region is difficult because of the diverse ethnic background and different stages of economic and nutrition transition. The burden of cardiovascular disease associated with overweight (defined as body mass index ?25 kg m(-2) ) was previously estimated for countries within the region. However, using the conventional cut-point of 25 kg m(-2) ignores the continuous association between body mass index and cardiovascular disease from approximately 20 kg m(-2) . By estimating the proportion of cardiovascular disease that would be prevented if the theoretical mean body mass index in the population was shifted to 21 kg m(-2) , nationally representative data from 15 countries suggested the population attributable fractions for cardiovascular disease were approximately three times higher than the previous estimates. Coronary heart disease attributable to body mass index other than 21 kg m(-2) ranged from 2% in India to 58% in American Samoa. Similarly, the population attributable fraction for ischaemic stroke ranged from 3% in India to 64% in American Samoa. If cardiovascular risk increases from 21 kg m(-2) applies to all populations, most countries in the region will need to aim towards substantially reducing their current population mean body mass index in order to lower the burden of cardiovascular disease associated with excess weight. PMID:21366838

Lee, C M Y; Colagiuri, S; Ezzati, M; Woodward, M

2011-03-02

123

Relationship between estimated aerobic fitness and injury rates among active duty at an Air Force base based upon two separate measures of estimated cardiovascular fitness.  

PubMed

With the increased focus on physical fitness and increased fitness regimens, overuse injuries in United States Air Force (USAF) personnel are increasing. We evaluated injuries and level of fitness among a large population-based sample of USAF men and women aged 18 to 60 years from 2003 to 2005. Aerobic capacity was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometry fitness test and the 1.5-mile run. There was an increase of 6.04 mL kg(-1) min(-1) in approximate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) for men and 3.25 mL kg(-1) min(-1)for women with the run test results versus the cycle ergometry test. The results showed increased injuries and higher VO2 max scores during the implementation of a new "Fit to Fight" fitness program. PMID:22338977

Giovannetti, Jennifer M; Bemben, Michael; Bemben, Debra; Cramer, Joel

2012-01-01

124

Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity--a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events.

Chevalier, Gaetan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

2013-01-01

125

Comparison of effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on body composition and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents.  

PubMed

Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12-17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student's t-test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regular unstructured physical activity for 60 minutes daily for the duration of one year can help the students to maintain their anthropometric parameters, body composition measures and CRF at par with the athletes of the same age and gender. However, athletic level training further reduces the cardiovascular load of the adolescent students. PMID:24179887

Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

2013-09-10

126

Comparison of Effect of Regular Unstructured Physical Training and Athletic Level Training on Body Composition and Cardio Respiratory Fitness in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12–17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student’s t–test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regular unstructured physical activity for 60 minutes daily for the duration of one year can help the students to maintain their anthropometric parameters, body composition measures and CRF at par with the athletes of the same age and gender. However, athletic level training further reduces the cardiovascular load of the adolescent students.

Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

2013-01-01

127

Implementation of Finite-Difference Lattice Boltzmann Method on General Body-Fitted Curvilinear Coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite-difference lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm is described on general body-fitted coordinate systems. An alternative treatment for the implicit collision term of the Boltzmann-Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation is used, which completely removes the implicitness of the numerical scheme through using the characteristic of collision invariants. LB simulations are carried out for a two-dimensional supersonic viscous flow past a circular cylinder and the natural convection heat transfer in a circular enclosure with an inner hexagonal cylinder for the first time. The pressure coefficient distribution along the surface of the circular cylinder and the Nusselt number in the natural convection obtained from the simulations agree well with previous experimental measurements and/or classical computational fluid dynamics simulations. Comparisons of detailed flow patterns with other studies are also satisfactory.

Li, Q.; He, Y. L.; Gao, Y. J.

128

Indexing left ventricular mass to account for differences in body size in children and adolescents without cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left ventricular (LV) mass has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. To account for differences in body size, a variety of factors have been proposed for indexing LV mass. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry provides a measure of lean body mass which can be used as a comparison with other more clinically applicable methods

Stephen R. Daniels; Thomas R. Kimball; John A. Morrison; Philip Khoury; Richard A. Meyer

1995-01-01

129

Combining Template Matching and Model Fitting for Human Body Segmentation and Tracking with Applications to Sports Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper present a method for extracting and automatic tracking of human body using template matching and human body model\\u000a fitting for specific activity. The method includes training and testing stages. For training, the body shapes are manually\\u000a segmented from image sequences as templates and are clustered. The 2D joint locations of each cluster center are labeled and\\u000a the dynamical

Hao-Jie Li; Shou-Xun Lin; Yong-Dong Zhang

2006-01-01

130

High intensity interval running enhances measures of physical fitness but not metabolic measures of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, the purpose of this study was to examine whether a high intensity training (HIT) intervention could enhance the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents in a time efficient manner. Methods Participants in the study were adolescent school children (64 boys, 25 girls, 16.7 ± 0.6 years). The intervention group (30 boys, 12 girls) performed three weekly exercise sessions over 7 weeks with each session consisting of either four to six repeats of maximal sprint running within a 20 m area with 30 s recovery. The control group were instructed to continue their normal behaviour. All participants had indices of obesity, blood pressure and nine biochemical risk markers for cardiovascular disease recorded as well as four physical performance measures at baseline and post-intervention. Feedback was provided through informal discussion throughout the intervention period as well as post-intervention focus groups. Statistical differences between and within groups were determined by use of paired samples t-tests and ANCOVA. Results Significant enhancements (P ? 0.05) in vertical jump performance, 10?m sprint speed and cardiorespiratory fitness was evident in the intervention group whereas a significant decrease in both agility and vertical jump performance was evident in the control group. Participants in the intervention group also experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure post-intervention. Limited changes occurred with respect to the biochemical markers although both groups did experience a significant increase in LDL post-intervention whilst the control group experienced a significant decrease in total cholesterol. No apparent differences were evident between groups post intervention for any of the biochemical markers. Feedback indicated that participants endorsed the use of the intervention as an effective means of exercise. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that high intensity exercise interventions may be used in the school setting for adolescents as a means of improving measures of physical fitness. Further investigations involving a larger cohort of participants, taken from different schools, is recommended. Trial registration NCT01027156

2013-01-01

131

Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)|

Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

2010-01-01

132

Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. METHODS: Using data collected in the 2003--2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (<= 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and <= 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. RESULTS: Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05), and lower adjusted intakes of protein and cholesterol (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased frequency of candy consumption among adults in the United States was not associated with objective measures of adiposity or select cardiovascular risk factors, despite associated dietary differences. Given the cross-sectional study design, however, it cannot be concluded that candy consumption does not cause obesity or untoward levels of cardiovascular risk markers. The lack of an association between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors could be due to reduced intake of candy among the overweight due to dieting or a health professional's recommendations. Additionally, it is important to note that the analysis was based on frequency of candy consumption and not amount of candy consumed. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the lack of associations between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23631725

Murphy, Mary M; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Stettler, Nicolas

2013-04-30

133

Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. Methods Using data collected in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (? 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and ? 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. Results Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p?cardiovascular risk factors, despite associated dietary differences. Given the cross-sectional study design, however, it cannot be concluded that candy consumption does not cause obesity or untoward levels of cardiovascular risk markers. The lack of an association between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors could be due to reduced intake of candy among the overweight due to dieting or a health professional’s recommendations. Additionally, it is important to note that the analysis was based on frequency of candy consumption and not amount of candy consumed. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the lack of associations between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors.

2013-01-01

134

Adiponectin multimers, body weight and markers of cardiovascular risk in adolescence: Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.  

PubMed

Background:Research examining the relationship between adiponectin (AN) isoforms, body weight and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is limited, particularly in younger populations.Objectives:To investigate the inter-relationships between AN isoforms and CV risk factors, and their dependence on body weight status, in adolescents.Design:Blood samples from 92 obese, 92 overweight and 92 normal weight age- and sex-matched adolescents were analysed for traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers and also total, high molecular weight (HMW), medium and low molecular weight (LMW) AN.Results:A significant inverse association was observed between total and HMW AN and waist-hip ratio (P=0.015, P=0.006, respectively), triglycerides (P=0.003, P=0.003, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (P=0.012, P=0.024, respectively) and a significant positive association with high-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively) in multi-adjusted analyses. There was no evidence of a relationship between multimeric AN and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was also little evidence of a relationship between LMW AN and CVD risk factors. There was a strong, body mass index (BMI)-independent, association between AN, CVD biomarkers and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype.Conclusion:Prominent, BMI-independent associations between total and HMW AN, but not LMW AN, and CVD risk factors were already evident in this young population. This research in adolescents supports the contention that AN subfractions may have different biological actions. These associations in apparently healthy adolescents suggest an important role for AN and its subfractions in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome traits and indicate that the potential for total or HMW AN to act as early universal biomarkers of CV risk warrants further study. PMID:23318722

McCourt, H J; Hunter, S J; Cardwell, C R; Young, I S; Murray, L J; Boreham, C A; McEneny, J; Woodside, J V; McKinley, M C

2013-01-15

135

The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)|

Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

1995-01-01

136

Effect of an accelerometer on body weight and fitness in overweight and obese active duty soldiers.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether using a web-linked accelerometer, plus mandatory physical training, is associated with various weight- and fitness-related outcomes in overweight/obese active duty soldiers. Soldiers who failed the height/weight standards of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) were randomized to use a Polar FA20 accelerometer device (polar accelerometer group [PA], n = 15) or usual care (UC, n = 13) for 6 months. Both groups received 1.5 hours of lifestyle instruction. We collected data at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months, and evaluated group differences in temporal changes in study outcomes. At 6 months, 1/28 subjects (UC) passed the APFT height/weight standards. There were no group differences in changes in weight (PA: -0.1 kg vs. UC: +0.3 kg; p = 0.9), body fat (PA: -0.9% vs. UC: -1.1%; p = 0.9), systolic blood pressure (PA: +1.3 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.1 mm Hg; p = 0.2), diastolic blood pressure (PA: +3.8 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.4 mm Hg; p = 0.3), or resting heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) (PA: +7.8 bpm vs. UC: +0.1 bpm; p = 0.2). These results suggest that using an accelerometer with web-based feedback capabilities plus mandatory physical training does not assist in significant weight loss or ability to pass the APFT height/weight standards among overweight/obese soldiers. PMID:23356124

Shrestha, Merica; Combest, Travis; Fonda, Stephanie J; Alfonso, Abel; Guerrero, Arthur

2013-01-01

137

Changes in body weight, body composition and cardiovascular risk factors after long-term nutritional intervention in patients with severe mental illness: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Compared with the general population, individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) have increased prevalence rates of obesity\\u000a and greater risk for cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a long term nutritional intervention\\u000a on body weight, body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in a large number of patients with SMI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine hundred and eighty-nine patients with a

Maria Hassapidou; Konstantina Papadimitriou; Niki Athanasiadou; Valasia Tokmakidou; Ioannis Pagkalos; George Vlahavas; Fotini Tsofliou

2011-01-01

138

An investigation into the body image perception, body satisfaction and exercise expectations of male fitness leaders: implications for professional practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the body image perceptions, body satisfaction and exercise habits of six male étness leaders and explores the impact of these issues on pro- fessional practice. High levels of body satisfaction were exhibited and associated with the ability to perform physical activity well. Therefore, a lean and deéned body was desired, rather than a hypermuscular physique. The men

Janine M. Philips; Murray J. N. Drummond

2001-01-01

139

Prognostic value of body mass index in the development of cardiovascular diseases among Kaunas male population.  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of a primary medical examination and of a prospective, on the average 14-year follow-up study of the male population of Kaunas aged 45-59 years (n = 2452). The prevalence of overweight, according to the WHO criteria, was 48.7%, that of obesity 20.5%. With increasing body mass index (BMI) there occurred a statistically significant increase of main risk factors of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and of IHD itself. The results of the prospective study showed a U-shaped relationship between BMI and mortality from all cardiovascular diseases, and a J-shaped relationship between BMI and mortality from IHD and morbidity of acute myocardial infarction, respectively. The same relationship held true even after standardization of the level of all other risk factors using the multiple logistic function. Thus, the overweight was confirmed as an independent IHD risk factor in the given population. PMID:1308727

Tamosi?nas, A; Domarkiene, S; Reklaitiene, R; Jureniene, K; Varanauskiene, Z; Janusauskas, A

1992-01-01

140

Cortical regions associated with autonomic cardiovascular regulation during lower body negative pressure in humans  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to determine the cortical structures involved with integrated baroreceptor-mediated modulation of autonomic cardiovascular function in conscious humans independent of changes in arterial blood pressure. We assessed the brain regions associated with lower body negative pressure (LBNP)-induced baroreflex control using functional magnetic resonance imaging with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in eight healthy male volunteer subjects. The levels of LBNP administered were 5, 15 and 35 mmHg. Heart rate (HR; representing the cardiovascular response) and LBNP (representing the baroreceptor activation level) were simultaneously monitored during the scanning period. In addition, estimated central venous pressure (CVP), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity were recorded on a separate session. Random effects analyses (SPM2) were used to evaluate significant (P < 0.05) BOLD signal changes that correlated separately with both LBNP and HR (15- and 35-mmHg versus 5-mmHg LBNP). Compared to baseline, steady-state LBNP at 15 and 35 mmHg decreased CVP (from 7 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mmHg, respectively) and increased MSNA (from 12 ± 1 to 23 ± 3 and 36 ± 4 bursts min?1, respectively, both P < 0.05 versus baseline). Furthermore, steady-state LBNP elevated HR from 54 ± 2 beats min?1 at baseline to 64 ± 2 beats min?1 at 35-mmHg suction. Both mean arterial and pulse pressure were not different between rest and any level of LBNP. Cortical regions demonstrating increased activity that correlated with higher HR and greater LBNP included the right superior posterior insula, frontoparietal cortex and the left cerebellum. Conversely, using the identical statistical paradigm, bilateral anterior insular cortices, the right anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, midbrain and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus showed decreased neural activation. These data corroborate previous investigations highlighting the involved roles of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala in central autonomic cardiovascular control. In addition, we have provided the first evidence for the identification of the cortical network involved specifically with baroreflex-mediated autonomic cardiovascular function in conscious humans.

Kimmerly, Derek S; O'Leary, Deborah D; Menon, Ravi S; Gati, Joseph S; Shoemaker, J Kevin

2005-01-01

141

The effect of a combined intervention on body mass index and fitness in obese children and adolescents - a clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of a weight management programme on body weight, body mass index (BMI), and fitness in obese children and adolescents. The study was designed as a longitudinal, non-randomised, clinical experience of a 3 and 6 month combined dietary-behavioural-exercise intervention. A total of 177 obese children (age 6-16 years) participated in the 3 month programme, of whom 65

Alon Eliakim; Galit Kaven; Isaac Berger; Orit Friedland; Baruch Wolach; Dan Nemet

2002-01-01

142

The Relationship of Body-Related Self-Discrepancy to Body Dissatisfaction, Apparel Involvement, Concerns With Fit and Size of Garments, and Purchase Intentions in Online Apparel Shopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study was to examine the relationships among body-related self-discrepancy, body dissatisfaction, apparel involvement, concerns with fit and size of garments, and purchase intentions based on self-discrepancy theory. A random sample of college female students (n = 348) was drawn from a Midwestern university. The data was collected using a web-based survey. A hypothesized model was tested

Hyejeong Kim; Mary Lynn Damhorst

2010-01-01

143

Aerobic fitness does not influence the biventricular response to whole body passive heat stress.  

PubMed

We examined biventricular function during passive heat stress in endurance trained (ET) and untrained (UT) men to evaluate whether aerobic fitness alters the volumetric response. Body temperature was elevated ~0.8°C above baseline in 20 healthy men (10 ET, 64.4 ± 3.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); and 10 UT, 46.3 ± 6.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) by circulating warm water (50°C) throughout a tube-lined suit. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure biventricular volumes, function, filling velocities, volumetric flow rates, and left ventricular (LV) twist and circumferential strain at baseline (BL) and after 45 min of heat stress. In both groups, passive heat stress reduced biventricular end-diastolic (ET, -19.5 ± 24.0 ml; UT, -25.1 ± 23.8 ml) and end-systolic (ET, -15.9 ± 8.8 ml; UT, -17.6 ± 7.9 ml) volumes and left atrial volume (ET, -19.2 ± 11.6 ml; UT, -15.0 ± 12.7 ml) and significantly increased heart rate (ET, 29.3 ± 9.0 beats/min; UT, 31.7 ± 10.4 beats/min) and cardiac output (ET, 3.8 ± 2.2 l/min; UT, 3.2 ± 1.4 l/min) similarly, while biventricular stroke volume was unchanged. There were no between-group differences in any parameter. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05), as a percentage of baseline values, biventricular ejection fraction (ET, 3.4 ± 5.3%; UT, 4.4 ± 3.7%), annular systolic tissue velocities (ET, 32.5 ± 34.9%; UT, 44.0 ± 38.1%), and peak LV twist (ET, 51.6 ± 59.7%; UT, 59.7 ± 54.2%) and untwisting rates (ET, 45.5 ± 42.3%; UT, 51.8 ± 55.0%) similarly in both groups. Early LV diastolic tissue and blood velocities, volumetric flow rates, and strain rates (diastole) were unchanged with heat stress in both groups. The present findings indicate that aerobic fitness does not influence the biventricular response to passive heat stress. PMID:20724563

Nelson, Michael D; Haykowsky, Mark J; Petersen, Stewart R; DeLorey, Darren S; Stickland, Michael K; Cheng-Baron, June; Thompson, Richard B

2010-08-19

144

The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

2010-01-01

145

Body Fat Measured by a Near-Infrared Interactance Device as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Events: The FINRISK'92 Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated how body fat percentage, measured by a portable near-infrared interactance (NIR) device predicts cardiovascular (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events in a prospective population-based survey. The study population consisted of 2,842 men and 3,196 women, who participated in the FINRISK'92 survey. Obesity was assessed with BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat

Pia Pajunen; Pekka Jousilahti; Katja Borodulin; Kennet Harald; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Veikko Salomaa

2011-01-01

146

Cardiovascular regulation of bedridden patients with severe physical disabilities to orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to identify the cardiovascular response to an orthostatic tolerance test in severely disabled patients during prolonged recumbency in a sitting position and under lower body negative pressure. The disabled subjects were categorized into three groups according to the degree of their exposure to gravitational stress in daily living and their past history of posture

K. Mita; K. Akataki; N. Suzuki; T. Miyagawa; N. Ishida; J. Yamakawa

1991-01-01

147

Effects of resistance training with whole-body vibration on muscle fitness in untrained adults.  

PubMed

The effects of resistance training (RT) combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on muscle fitness, particularly muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular performance, are not well understood. We investigated the effects of WBV in healthy, untrained participants after a 13-week RT course by performing magnetic resonance imaging and by measuring maximal isometric (with electromyography) and isokinetic knee extension strengths, isometric lumbar extension torque, countermovement-jump, knee extension endurance, and sit-ups. Thirty-two individuals (22-49 years old) were randomly assigned to RT groups with (RT-WBV, n=16) or without WBV (RT, n=16). Following the RT course, significantly higher increases in the cross-sectional areas of m. psoas major (vs baseline values) and erector spinae muscle (vs the RT group) were observed in the RT-WBV group (+10.7%, P<0.05; +8.7%, P<0.05) compared with the RT group (+3.8%, P=0.045; 0.0%). Higher increases from baseline were also observed in maximal isometric force, concentric knee extension torque, countermovement-jump, and maximal isometric lumbar extension torque in RT-WBV (+63.5%; +76.7%, +15.0%, and +51.5%, respectively; P<0.05) than in those of RT (+25.6%, P=0.001; +17.8%, P=0.18; +11.3%, P=0.001; and +26.4%, P<0.001, respectively). The WBV-induced increases in muscle hypertrophy and isometric lumbar extension torque suggest a potential benefit of incorporating WBV into slow-velocity RT programs involving exercises of long duration. PMID:21812821

Osawa, Y; Oguma, Y

2011-08-03

148

Impact of education on food behaviour, body composition and physical fitness in children.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of obesity during growth and development is significantly related to the education of children, and also to that of parents who influence food intake and physical activity from the beginning of life. The effect of maternal level of education has been shown in regular anthropometric surveys in 10-year intervals since 1951. This concerns the mother's own nutrition and physical activity regimen as well as the child's nutrition since birth, including the duration of breast-feeding. Children of parents with overweight and obesity were shown more often to be obese, as was the case for children from families with the lowest level of education, or from smaller communities where the level of education is usually lower than in larger cities. The composition of the mother's diet during pregnancy had, for example, an effect on the blood lipids of newborns. During preschool age, less body fat, a higher level of HDL, and higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, skill and physical performance were found in active children. In school-age children, when obesity increases, a number of prevention programmes using diet, exercise and behavioural intervention have been developed for schools, communities, churches, and/or have been organized by special institutions and medical centres, which were most efficient in family groups. The greatest reduction of weight, BMI and fatness, and improvement of functional capacity, and hormonal and metabolic parameters were achieved in summer camps or spas, with consistent and monitored nutrition, exercise and behavioural treatment. Fluctuation of positive outcomes occurred due to the interruption of the educational process during the school year, and repeated long-lasting interventions have been always necessary for permanent desirable results. PMID:18257949

Parizkova, Jana

2008-02-01

149

Association between Neighborhood Walkability, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body-Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Many studies have found cross-sectional associations between characteristics of the neighborhood built environment and physical activity (PA) behavior. However, most are based on self-reported PA, which is known to result in overestimation of PA and differential misclassification by demographic and biological characteristics. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective marker of PA because it is primarily determined by PA. Furthermore, it is causally related to long-term health outcomes. Therefore, analyses of the association between CRF and built environment could strengthen arguments for the importance of built environment influences on health. We examined the association between neighborhood walkability and CRF and body-mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional analysis included 16,543 adults (5,017 women, 11,526 men) aged 18–90 years with home addresses in Texas who had a comprehensive clinical examination between 1987 and 2005. Outcomes included CRF from total duration on a maximal exercise treadmill test and measured BMI. Three neighborhood walkability factors emerged from principal components analyses of block-group measures derived from the U.S. Census. In multilevel adjusted analyses, the neighborhood walkability factors were significantly associated with CRF and BMI among men and women in the expected direction. An interaction between one of the neighborhood factors and age was also observed. The interaction suggested that living in neighborhoods with older homes and with residents traveling shorter distances to work was more strongly positively associated with CRF among younger adults and more strongly negatively associated with BMI among older adults. In conclusion, neighborhood characteristics hypothesized to support more PA and less driving were associated with higher levels of CRF and lower BMI. Demonstration of an association between built environment characteristics and CRF is a significant advance over past studies based on self-reported PA. Nevertheless, stronger causal evidence depends on more robust study designs and sophisticated measures of the environment, behavior, and their physiological consequences.

Hoehner, Christine M.; Handy, Susan L.; Yan, Yan; Blair, teven N.; Berrigan, David

2011-01-01

150

Non-obese (body mass index < 25 kg\\/m 2) Asian Indians with normal waist circumference have high cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAlthough the prevalence of obesity is not high in Asian Indians, increased prevalence rates of metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular risk factors have been reported. In this study, we evaluated body mass index (BMI), anthropometric measurements, and body fat profiles of obese and non-obese subjects and correlated those values with cardiovascular risk factors.

Naval K Vikram; Ravindra Mohan Pandey; Anoop Misra; Rekha Sharma; J Rama Devi; Nidhi Khanna

2003-01-01

151

Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability) is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activity in supine and prone positions, postures commonly assumed by patients in manual therapy. We intend to redress this deficiency. Methods Heart rate, heart rate variability, and beat-to-beat blood pressure were measured in young, healthy non-smokers, during prone, supine, and sitting postures and with breathing paced at 0.25 Hz. Data were recorded for 5 minutes in each posture: Day 1 – prone and supine; Day 2 – prone and sitting. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate posture-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Results Prone versus supine: blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher in the prone posture (p < 0.001). Prone versus sitting: blood pressure was higher and heart rate was lower in the prone posture (p < 0.05) and significant differences were found in some components of heart rate variability. Conclusion Cardiac autonomic activity was not measurably different in prone and supine postures, but heart rate and blood pressure were. Although heart rate variability parameters indicated sympathetic dominance during sitting (supporting work of others), blood pressure was higher in the prone posture. These differences should be considered when autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function is studied in different postures.

Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Reece, John; Polus, Barbara I

2007-01-01

152

Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

2012-01-01

153

Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

2012-01-01

154

Body Measurement Specifications for Fit Models as a Factor in Clothing Size Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost every apparel company employs a different fit model and develops its own size charts. As a result, there are widespread differences in sizing and fit of garments from various apparel manufacturers. It has been recommended that size charts need to be checked and revised every 10 years to reflect changes in characteristics of the U.S. population. The purpose of

Jane E. Workman

1991-01-01

155

ROC Generated Thresholds for Field-Assessed Aerobic Fitness Related to Body Size and Cardiometabolic Risk in Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Objectives 1. to investigate whether 20 m multi-stage shuttle run performance (20mSRT), an indirect measure of aerobic fitness, could discriminate between healthy and overweight status in 9–10.9 yr old schoolchildren using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis; 2. Investigate if cardiometabolic risk differed by aerobic fitness group by applying the ROC cut point to a second, cross-sectional cohort. Design Analysis of cross-sectional data. Participants 16,619 9–10.9 year old participants from SportsLinx project and 300 11–13.9 year old participants from the Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study. Outcome Measures SportsLinx; 20mSRT, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, subscapular and superilliac skinfold thicknesses. Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study; 20mSRT performance, waist circumference, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. Analyses Three ROC curve analyses were completed, each using 20mSRT performance with ROC curve 1 related to BMI, curve 2 was related to waist circumference and 3 was related to skinfolds (estimated % body fat). These were repeated for both girls and boys. The mean of the three aerobic fitness thresholds was retained for analysis. The thresholds were subsequently applied to clustered cardiometabolic risk data from the Welsh Schools study to assess whether risk differed by aerobic fitness group. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the ROC generated thresholds was higher than would be expected by chance (all models AUC >0.7). The mean thresholds were 33 and 25 shuttles for boys and girls respectively. Participants classified as ‘fit’ had significantly lower cardiometabolic risk scores in comparison to those classed as unfit (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of the ROC generated cut points by health professionals, teachers and coaches may provide the opportunity to apply population level ‘risk identification and stratification’ processes and plan for “at-risk” children to be referred onto intervention services.

Boddy, Lynne M.; Thomas, Non E.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Brophy, Sinead; Rees, Anwen; Knox, Gareth; Baker, Julien S.; Stratton, Gareth

2012-01-01

156

A community-based trial to improve body shape and metabolic fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central obesity combined with elevated blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol are cardinal signs of metabolic syndrome (MS). People with MS have increased risk of early progression to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The latest National Health Survey found that 62% of males and 45% of females are overweight\\/obese, indicating a high risk of developing MS in

Kate Warren; Alison Coates; Kate Owen; Peter Howe

157

A community-based trial to improve body shape and metabolic fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Central obesity combined with elevated blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol are cardinal signs of metabolic syndrome,(MS). People with MS have increased risk of early progression to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The latest National Health Survey found that 62% of males and 45% of females are overweight\\/obese, indicating a high risk of developing MS in

Tahna Pettman; Aprof Gary Misan; Kate Warren; Aprof Jon Buckley; Alison Coates

158

Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia  

PubMed Central

Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60–74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (?2.1% body weight, ?1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (?4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia.

Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Manaf, Zahara Abd; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

2013-01-01

159

Fitness consequences of body-size-dependent host species selection in a generalist ectoparasitoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In insect parasitoids, offspring fitness is strongly influenced by the adult female’s choice of host, particularly in ectoparasitoids that attack non-growing host stages. We quantified the fitness consequences of size-dependent host species selection in Dirhinus giffardii, a solitary ectoparasitoid of tephritid fruit fly pupae. We first showed a positive correlation between the size of emerged D. giffardii wasps and the

X. G. Wang; R. H. Messing

2004-01-01

160

Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

2001-01-01

161

Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

2001-01-01

162

Modeling Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flows by the Body-Fitted Coordinate (BFC) Method: I. Stationary Boundary Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the body-fitted coordinate (BFC) method, a three-dimensional finite difference computer code, BFC3DGW, was developed to simulate groundwater flow problems. Methodology and solution procedures of the BFC method for simulating groundwater flows, particularly when the flow domain is stationary as in the case of confined aquifers, are described. The code was verified by comparing numerical results with analytical solutions

Min-Ho Koo; Darrell I. Leap

1998-01-01

163

Associations between habitual school-day breakfast consumption, body mass index, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in English schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The aim of this study was to assess associations between habitual school-day breakfast consumption, body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).Methods:BMI, PA and CRF were measured in 4326 schoolchildren aged 10–16 years. Participants were classified as obese or non-obese, as having low or high PA and CRF. Habitual school-day breakfast consumption was assessed by a questionnaire

G R H Sandercock; C Voss; L Dye; GRH Sandercock

2010-01-01

164

Objectification in Fitness Centers: Self-Objectification, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Aerobic Instructors and Aerobic Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate self-objectification, its theoretical consequences, and its relationship to reasons for exercise within a fitness center environment. Sixty female aerobic instructors and 97 female aerobic participants, who ranged in age from 18 to 45 years, completed questionnaire measures of self-objectification, reasons for exercise, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating. Increased self-objectification (and self-surveillance) was related to

Ivanka Prichard; Marika Tiggemann

2005-01-01

165

Physical Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The protective effects of physical activity and fitness on cardiovascular health have clearly been shown among normally developed children. However, data are currently lacking pertaining to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fitness measures, body composition, and…

Schott, Nadja; Alof, Verena; Hultsch, Daniela; Meermann, Dagmar

2007-01-01

166

Associations between health behaviours and health related fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine relations between health behaviours and health related fitness. METHODS: Subjects were a convenience sample of 350 healthy adults (172 men, 178 women). Covariance analysis adjusted data for significant influences of age and socioeconomic status. Obesity was assessed by anthropometry and body density. Cardiovascular fitness was assessed and various metabolic measurements were made. Questionnaires on physical activity and

R J Shephard; C Bouchard

1996-01-01

167

Fitting techniques of cell survival curves in high-dose region for use in stereotactic body radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) uses high doses of radiation to treat tumors. The cell survival behavior at these high doses is subject to debate. We investigated this high-dose region by fitting a variety of formulas to cell survival data. Each of the formulas is motivated by a discussion of the theory of cell survival. Fourteen cell lines are examined. These are fit to a variety of equations. Among the equations include the traditional single-hit multi-target and linear quadratic as well as recent proposals such as the universal survival curve (USC). The ?2/df of each fit is compared to determine the best fit. While no formula is clearly superior for all cell lines, the newer formulas often provide better fits than the single-hit multi-target and linear quadratic. We recommend that the more recent formula discussed herein be used over the linear quadratic in dealing with the high-dose regions dealt with in SBRT.

McKenna, F W; Ahmad, S

2009-03-01

168

Too fat to fit through the door: first evidence for disturbed body-scaled action in anorexia nervosa during locomotion.  

PubMed

To date, research on the disturbed experience of body size in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) mainly focused on the conscious perceptual level (i.e. body image). Here we investigated whether these disturbances extend to body schema: an unconscious, action-related representation of the body. AN patients (n?=?19) and healthy controls (HC; n?=?20) were compared on body-scaled action. Participants walked through door-like openings varying in width while performing a diversion task. AN patients and HC differed in the largest opening width for which they started rotating their shoulders to fit through. AN patients started rotating for openings 40% wider than their own shoulders, while HC started rotating for apertures only 25% wider than their shoulders. The results imply abnormalities in AN even at the level of the unconscious, action oriented body schema. Body representation disturbances in AN are thus more pervasive than previously assumed: They do not only affect (conscious) cognition and perception, but (unconscious) actions as well. PMID:23734207

Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A M; Dijkerman, H Chris; Uzunbajakau, Siarhei A; van Elburg, Annemarie; Postma, Albert

2013-05-29

169

Too Fat to Fit through the Door: First Evidence for Disturbed Body-Scaled Action in Anorexia Nervosa during Locomotion  

PubMed Central

To date, research on the disturbed experience of body size in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) mainly focused on the conscious perceptual level (i.e. body image). Here we investigated whether these disturbances extend to body schema: an unconscious, action-related representation of the body. AN patients (n?=?19) and healthy controls (HC; n?=?20) were compared on body-scaled action. Participants walked through door-like openings varying in width while performing a diversion task. AN patients and HC differed in the largest opening width for which they started rotating their shoulders to fit through. AN patients started rotating for openings 40% wider than their own shoulders, while HC started rotating for apertures only 25% wider than their shoulders. The results imply abnormalities in AN even at the level of the unconscious, action oriented body schema. Body representation disturbances in AN are thus more pervasive than previously assumed: They do not only affect (conscious) cognition and perception, but (unconscious) actions as well.

Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Dijkerman, H. Chris; Uzunbajakau, Siarhei A.; van Elburg, Annemarie; Postma, Albert

2013-01-01

170

Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The "Martial Fitness" Study  

PubMed Central

Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 ± 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.

Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael R.; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

2010-01-01

171

Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

2012-01-01

172

In Fitness and in Health: Crafting Bodies in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses ethnographic data from a U.S. eating disorders treatment program to examine how medical and psychiatric practitioners actively craft the types of bodies they claim merely to describe, diagnose, and normalize, producing very real, socially located, embodied effects by acting as if these bodies preexist both socialization and medicalization.…

Gremillion, Helen

2002-01-01

173

[Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].  

PubMed

To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P < 0.0001) from 0.9 ± 0.2 METs?hr/week in the pre-intervention period to 6.6 ± 0.7 METs?hr /week during the intervention period. The exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.01) and increased the whole-body muscle mass (Pre, 69.1 ± 0.5%; Post, 70.8 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01). The results of physical fitness tests showed that the intervention promoted muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and muscular power. The scores for mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students. PMID:23475024

Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

2013-03-01

174

Physical Fitness of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A 13-Year Follow-up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low…

Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg

2000-01-01

175

Effects of an 8-week weight-loss program on cardiovascular disease risk factors and regional body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the influence of weight loss on multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.Design: Overweight women (n=12; mean 44.2% fat) and men (n=10; mean 30.7% fat) participated in an 8 week weight-loss program that included dietary, exercise, multi-vitamin\\/mineral supplementation, and behavior modification components. Measurement of total and regional body composition assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), circumferences and

JS Volek; AL Gómez; DM Love; AM Weyers; R Hesslink; JA Wise; WJ Kraemer

2002-01-01

176

Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT < 30%; n=19, 10 female/9 male, age = 43 +/- 10 y); and (3) an inactive control group (C, n=17, 5 female/12 male, age 43 +/- 11 y). RC+BD resulted in more favorable changes (P < 0.01) in percent body fat (-15.8% vs. -6.9%) and abdominal fat (-15.6% vs. -7.5%) compared to C+TD and C. Total cholesterol (-13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (-5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals. PMID:17136940

Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

2006-08-01

177

Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

2000-01-01

178

Does chronic kidney disease modify the association between body mass index and cardiovascular disease risk factors?  

PubMed Central

Background Excess weight is paradoxically associated with better cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with hemodialysis. This association has been observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well. One potential explanation for this inverse relationship is that the usual positive correlation between severity of CVD risk factors and higher body mass index (BMI) is reversed in CKD. To test this hypothesis, we determined the relationship between BMI and CVD risk factors in patients with and without CKD. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of the nationally representative US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. CKD was defined as glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, sex and use of relevant prescription medications. Outcome variables were total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose (FG). Results There were 1,895 and 32,431 patients with and without CKD, respectively. Those with CKD were older and had higher BMI. The shapes of the association between BMI and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, CRP and FG were similar in those with or without CKD. In a sensitivity analysis excluding patients taking relevant prescription medications, our results did not differ substantially. Conclusions CKD did not alter the shapes of the association between higher BMI and CVD risk factors. Inverse associations between BMI and CVD risk factors are unlikely to explain why CKD patients with higher BMI may have better outcomes.

Bansal, Nisha; Vittinghoff, Eric; Plantinga, Laura; Hsu, Chi-yuan

2013-01-01

179

The cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure in humans depends on seal location.  

PubMed

We tested whether seal location at iliac crest (IC) or upper abdomen (UA), before and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), would affect thoracic electrical impedance, hepatic blood flow, and central cardiovascular responses to LBNP. After 30 min of supine rest, LBNP at -40 mm Hg was applied for 15 min, either at IC or UA, in 14 healthy males. Plasma density and indocyanine green concentrations assessed plasma volume changes and hepatic perfusion. With both sealing types, LBNP-induced effects remained unchanged for mean arterial pressure (-3.0+/-1.1 mm Hg), cardiac output (-1.0 l min(-1)), and plasma volume (-11 %). Heart rate was greater during UA (80.6+/-3.3 bpm) than IC (76.0+/-2.5 bpm) (p<0.01) and thoracic impedance increased more using UA (3.2+/-0.2 Omega) than IC (1.8+/-0.2 Omega) (p<0.0001). Furthermore, during supine rest, UA was accompanied by lower thoracic impedance (26.9+/-1.1 vs 29.0+/-0.8 Omega, p<0.001) and hepatic perfusion (1.6 vs 1.8 l.min(-1), p<0.05) compared to IC. The data suggest that the reduction in central blood volume in response to LBNP depends on location of the applied seal. The sealing in itself altered blood volume distribution and hepatic perfusion in supine resting humans. Finally, application of LBNP with the seal at the upper abdomen induced a markedly larger reduction in central blood volume and greater increases in heart rate than when the seal was located at the iliac crest. PMID:18637716

GOSWAMI, N; GRASSER, E; ROESSLER, A; SCHNEDITZ, D; HINGHOFER-SZALKAY, H

2008-07-18

180

The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a remarkably powerful, intergenerational effect on body size and total and central adiposity. Indians are highly susceptible to insulin resistance and cardiovascular risks, with babies being born small but relatively fat. Insulin resistance is amplified by rapid childhood growth. Dietary factors seem to have profound long-term metabolic influences in pregnancy. Overcrowding with infections and central obesity may amplify cytokine-induced insulin resistance and early diabetes in Indian adults with a low BMI. PMID:12164475

Yajnik, C S

2002-08-01

181

"Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.  

PubMed

Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility. PMID:23746610

Hutson, David J

2013-05-13

182

A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untested alternative weight loss diets, such as very low car- bohydrate diets, have unsubstantiated efficacy and the po- tential to adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors. There- fore, we designed a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of a very low carbohydrate diet on body composi- tion and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects were random- ized to 6 months of either

BONNIE J. BREHM; RANDY J. SEELEY; STEPHEN R. DANIELS; DAVID A. D'ALESSIO

2010-01-01

183

Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate\\/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate\\/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Eighty

Manny Noakes; Paul R Foster; Jennifer B Keogh; Anthony P James; John C Mamo; Peter M Clifton

2006-01-01

184

Changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profile, and body composition at high altitude in two different ethnic groups.  

PubMed

High altitude (HA) presents inhospitable environmental conditions that adversely affects human physiology and metabolism. Changes in physiological functions are reported during high altitude exposure, but the changes vary with physical state, culture habits, geographical locations, and genetic variation of individual. The present study was carried out to explore the variation in acclimatization pattern of two different ethnic groups in relation to cardiovascular functions, lipid profile and body composition. The study was carried out on 30 human volunteers (20 Indian and 10 Kyrgyz) initially at Bishkek for basal recording and on day 3, 7, 14, and 21 of high altitude (3200 m) induction and again on day 3 of de-induction. On altitude exposure significant decrease in body weight was observed both in Indian (day 14, p<0.001) and Kyrgyz (day 3, p<0.01) subjects. Decreased levels of total body water, extra cellular and intra cellular body water were also observed in both the groups. Significant reduction in body mass index (p<0.01), fat free mass (p<0.01), body cell mass (p<0.01) and body volume (p<0.01) was also observed in Kyrgyz subjects, whereas in Indian subjects the changes were not significant in these variables on high altitude exposure. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly on day 3 (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) of induction in Indian subjects; whereas in Kyrgyz significant increase was observed on day 14 (p<0.05) in both the cases. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly on day 7 of HA exposure in both the groups. Results indicate that the Indian and Kyrgyz groups report differently, in relation to changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profiles, and body composition, when exposed to HA. The difference observed in acclimatization pattern in the two groups may be due to ethnic/genetic variation of two populations. PMID:23537260

Vats, Praveen; Ray, Koushik; Majumadar, Dhurjati; Amitabh; Joseph, Duraisamy Arul; Bayen, Susovon; Akunov, Almaz; Sarbaev, Akpav; Singh, Shashi Bala

2013-03-01

185

Effects of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Body Composition and Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk after Definitive Therapy for Acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Background Both growth hormone (GH) excess and GH deficiency are associated with body composition and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in patients with pituitary disorders. However, the effects of developing GH deficiency after definitive treatment of acromegaly are largely unknown. Objective To determine whether development of GH deficiency after definitive therapy for acromegaly is associated with increased visceral adiposity and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk compared to GH sufficiency after definitive therapy for acromegaly. Design Cross-sectional Patients We studied three groups of subjects, all with a history of acromegaly (n=76): subjects with subsequent GH deficiency (GHD; n=31), subjects with subsequent GH sufficiency (GHS; n=25), and subjects with active acromegaly (AA; n=20). No study subjects were receiving somatostatin analogues, dopamine agonists or hGH. Measurements Body composition (by DXA), abdominal adipose tissue depots (by cross-sectional CT), total body water (by bioimpedance analysis) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Fasting morning serum was collected for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipids and lipoprotein levels. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Results Abdominal visceral adipose tissue, total adipose tissue, and total body fat were higher in subjects with GHD than GHS or AA (p < 0.05). Subcutaneous abdominal fat was higher, and fibrinogen and IMT were lower in GHD (but not GHS) than AA (p < 0.05). Patients with GHD had the highest hsCRP, followed by GHS, and hsCRP was lowest in AA (p < 0.05). Fasting glucose, 120-minute glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and percent total body water were lower in GHD and GHS than AA (p < 0.05). Triglycerides were higher in GHS than AA (p < 0.05). Lean body mass, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL were comparable among groups. Conclusions Development of GHD after definitive treatment of acromegaly may adversely affect body composition and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk but does not appear to adversely affect glucose homeostasis, lipids and lipoproteins, or other cardiovascular risk markers.

Lin, E; Wexler, TL; Nachtigall, L; Tritos, N; Swearingen, B; Hemphill, L; Loeffler, J; Biller, BMK; Klibanski, A; Miller, KK

2012-01-01

186

Sexual Dimorphism in Body Fat Distribution and Risk for Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased over the past decade along with the cardiovascular and other health risks\\u000a it encompasses. Adipose tissue, which is distributed in the abdominal viscera, carries a greater risk for cardiovascular disorders\\u000a than adipose tissue subcutaneously. There is a sex difference in the regional fat distribution. Women have more subcutaneous\\u000a fat, whereas men have more

Thekkethil P. Nedungadi; Deborah J. Clegg

2009-01-01

187

The combined effects of exercise and ingestion of a meal replacement in conjunction with a weight loss supplement on body composition and fitness parameters in college-aged men and women.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the combined effect of a meal replacement and an alleged weight loss supplement (WLS) on body composition, fitness parameters, and clinical health in moderately overweight college-aged men and women. Body mass, bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg press 1RM, body composition, V(O2)max, fasting glucose (GLU), and lipid panels were evaluated before (T1) and after (T2) 8 weeks of combined resistance training (RT) and cardiovascular training (CVT). After T1, subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either the WLS (6 men, 7 women; 21 ± 5 years, 168 ± 8 cm, 75.4 ± 12.7 kg, 31.6 ± 7.7%BFAT) or placebo (PLA: 6 men, 6 women; 22 ± 4 years, 174 ± 9 cm, 84.1 ± 8.8 kg, 30.2 ± 5.6%BFAT) group. Both groups performed 3 d · wk(-1) of combined progressive RT (2 × 12 reps of 8 exercises at 75-80% 1RM) and CVT (30 minutes on a cycle ergometer at 70-85% heart rate reserve). Subjects consumed 4 capsules per day and a once-daily meal replacement throughout the protocol. Percent body fat, bench press 1RM, and leg press 1RM significantly improved (p < 0.05) in both groups. Blood GLU (G × T; p = 0.048) improved in WLS and systolic blood pressure (SBP) approached significance (G × T; p = 0.06) in the WLS group. Follow-up analysis of SBP revealed a significant within-group decrease in the WLS group, whereas no within-group changes were found for either group for GLU. Practically speaking, daily supplementation with a meal replacement and a thrice weekly exercise program can increase fitness levels and improve body composition, whereas adding a thermogenic substance provides no additional benefit over fitness or body composition changes but may favorably alter serum markers of clinical health. PMID:21157390

Poole, Chris N; Roberts, Michael D; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Sunderland, Kyle L; DeBolt, Nick D; Billbe, Brett W; Kerksick, Chad M

2011-01-01

188

Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, low physical activity and an urban environment are independently associated with increased cardiovascular risk in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  To assist in the development of preventive strategies, we studied whether the neighbourhood environment or modifiable behavioural\\u000a parameters, including cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA), are independently associated with obesity\\u000a and metabolic risk markers in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 502 randomly selected first and fifth grade urban and rural Swiss schoolchildren\\u000a with regard to CRF,

S. Kriemler; S. Manser-Wenger; L. Zahner; C. Braun-Fahrländer; C. Schindler; J. J. Puder

2008-01-01

189

Effects of lupin-enriched foods on body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Regular consumption of diets with increased protein or fibre intakes may benefit body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient high in protein and fibre.Objective:To investigate the effects of a lupin-enriched diet, during and following energy restriction, on body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals.Design:Participants (n=131) were

R Belski; T A Mori; I B Puddey; S Sipsas; R J Woodman; T R Ackland; L J Beilin; E R Dove; N B Carlyon; V Jayaseena; J M Hodgson

2011-01-01

190

Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms: Fitting Pieces of a Life-History Puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The majority of ectotherms grow slower but mature at a larger body size in colder environments. This phenomenon has puzzled biologists because classic theories of life-history evolution predict smaller sizes at maturity in environments that retard growth. During the last decade, intensive theoretical and empirical research has generated some plausible explanations based on nonadaptive or adaptive plasticity. Nonadaptive plasticity

TODD D. STEURY; MICHAEL W. S EARS

2004-01-01

191

An Integrated System for Body Shape Analysis and Physical Fitness Test -HIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise has been proven to be very helpful for maintaining and promoting human health. However, recent research showed that too much or inappropriate exercise may hurt human health. In order to maintain and promote human health, appropriate amount of exercise should be performed according to physical condition and appropriate exercise prescription. This paper proposes an integrated system for body shape

Hyun-Min Kwak; Seung-Hun Park; Young-Ro Yoon

2005-01-01

192

Radiation dose associated with renal failure mortality: a potential pathway to partially explain increased cardiovascular disease mortality observed after whole-body irradiation.  

PubMed

Whole-body and thoracic ionizing radiation exposure are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In atomic bomb survivors, radiation dose is also associated with increased hypertension incidence, suggesting that radiation dose may be associated with chronic renal failure (CRF), thus explaining part of the mechanism for increased CVD. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association of radiation dose with various definitions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. A secondary analysis was performed using a subsample for whom self-reported information on hypertension and diabetes, the two biggest risk factors for CRF, had been collected. We found a significant association between radiation dose and only our broadest definition of CRF among the full cohort. A quadratic dose excess relative risk model [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.091 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.198)] fit minimally better than a linear model. Within the subsample, association was also observed only with the broadest CRF definition [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.15 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.32)]. Adjustment for hypertension and diabetes improved model fit but did not substantially change the ERR/Gy(2) estimate, which was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.35). We found a significant quadratic dose relationship between radiation dose and possible chronic renal disease mortality that is similar in shape to that observed between radiation and incidence of hypertension in this population. Our results suggest that renal dysfunction could be part of the mechanism causing increased CVD risk after whole-body irradiation, a hypothesis that deserves further study. PMID:22149958

Adams, Michael Jacob; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Akahoshi, Masazumi

2011-12-07

193

Predicting cardiovascular risk using measures of regional and total body fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive body fat is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Various anthropometric methods are currently used to quantify regional and total body fat. The objectives of this study were to provide more insight into differences in cutoff points between methods for measuring total body fat and those for measuring regional body fat, independently and in combination, and

Richard Ricciardi; E. Jeffery Metter; Erica W. Cavanaugh; Anna Ghambaryan; Laura A. Talbot

2009-01-01

194

Role of body mass index on physical fitness index in two different age groups of healthy young males from north interior Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body mass index (BMI) is an index of weight adjusted for hieght. It is one of the useful tools for diagnosing obesity or malnutrition; however, such diagnosis should take into account a person's age, gender, fitness, and ethnicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the BMI and physical fitness index (PFI) of healthy subjects consists of early

Haroonrashid M. Hattiwale; Shaheen A. Maniyar; Kusal K. Das; Salim A. Dhundasi

195

Association of Body Fat Distribution and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents ??? 512  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adults and less favorable cardiovas- cular risk factor status in children and adolescents. In adults, fat distribution has been shown to be related to lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, blood pressure levels, and left ventricular mass. These relationships have not been extensively studied in young subjects. Methods and Results—This was a

Stephen R. Daniels; John A. Morrison; Dennis L. Sprecher; Philip R Khoury; Thomas R. Kimball

1998-01-01

196

Links Between Infectious Diseases and Cardiovascular Disease: A Growing Body of Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely acknowledged that a systemic inflammatory process is involved in atherogenesis leading to subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several types of microbes have been implicated as possible causative agents in acquired CVD. This article reviews current and emerging links established between specific microorganisms and cardiac vessel and other vascular damage. Studies are reviewed that have investigated a possible role

Kim Curry; Lauren Lawson

2009-01-01

197

The "lipid accumulation product" performs better than the body mass index for recognizing cardiovascular risk: a population-based comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) may not be the best marker for estimating the risk of obesity-related disease. Consistent with physiologic observations, an alternative index uses waist circumference (WC) and fasting triglycerides (TG) concentration to describe lipid overaccumulation. Methods The WC (estimated population minimum 65 cm for men and 58 cm for women) and TG concentration from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 9,180, statistically weighted to represent 100.05 million US adults) were used to compute a "lipid accumulation product" [LAP = (WC-65) × TG for men and (WC-58) × TG for women] and to describe the population distribution of LAP. LAP and BMI were compared as categorical variables and as log-transformed continuous variables for their ability to identify adverse levels of 11 cardiovascular risk factors. Results Nearly half of the represented population was discordant for their quartile assignments to LAP and BMI. When 23.54 million with ordinal LAP quartile > BMI quartile were compared with 25.36 million with ordinal BMI quartile > LAP quartile (regression models adjusted for race-ethnicity and sex) the former had more adverse risk levels than the latter (p < 0.002) for seven lipid variables, uric acid concentration, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Further adjustment for age did not materially alter these comparisons except for blood pressures (p > 0.1). As continuous variables, LAP provided a consistently more adverse beta coefficient (slope) than BMI for nine cardiovascular risk variables (p < 0.01), but not for blood pressures (p > 0.2). Conclusion LAP (describing lipid overaccumulation) performed better than BMI (describing weight overaccumulation) for identifying US adults at cardiovascular risk. Compared to BMI, LAP might better predict the incidence of cardiovascular disease, but this hypothesis needs prospective testing.

Kahn, Henry S

2005-01-01

198

Effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal profile and muscle damage indices.  

PubMed

There is a huge market for ergogenic supplements for athletes. However, only a few products have been proven to have ergogenic effects and to be effective at improving muscle strength and body composition. One such supplement is beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). Derived from the amino acid leucine and its keto acid alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), HMB has been well documented as an oral ergogenic supplement commonly used by athletes. Several studies have shown that combining exercise training with HMB supplementation leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and there is some anecdotal evidence of aerobic improvement. However, HMB supplementation has been found to be effective mainly for untrained individuals. While previous reviews have emphasized three main pathways for HMB's mode of action: 1) enhancement of sarcolemmal integrity via cytosolic cholesterol, 2) inhibition of protein degradation via proteasomes, and 3) increased protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, more recent studies have suggested additional possible mechanisms for its physiological effects. These include decreased cell apoptosis and enhanced cell survival, increased proliferation, differentiation and fusion via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and enhanced IGF-I transcription. These are described here, and hormonal interactions are discussed, along with HMB dosage and safety issues. PMID:20857835

Portal, Shawn; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Halevy, Orna; Zadik, Zvi

2010-07-01

199

Intelligence tests with higher g-loadings show higher correlations with body symmetry: Evidence for a general fitness factor mediated by developmental stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a bgeneral fitness factor.Q If so, then intellectual tests with higher g-loadings should show higher correlations with a composite measure of body symmetry.

Mark D. Prokosch; Ronald A. Yeo; Geoffrey F. Miller

2005-01-01

200

Three City Feasibility Study of a Body Empowerment and HIV Prevention Intervention Among Women with Drug Use Histories: Women FIT  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background New intervention models are needed for HIV prevention among drug-using women. Methods The Women Fighting Infection Together (Women FIT) feasibility study enrolled 189 women in three U.S. cities (Providence, New York, Philadelphia) with drug-using histories, who also reported risky sexual behavior. Eligible women had participated previously in a yearlong study of HIV Counseling and Testing (HIV-CT) and limited case management. Two thirds of the sample were black, most were unemployed, and about two thirds reported prior or current crack use. Women were randomized into two groups. In one group, women participated in a manualized, four-session, peer-led, interactive group intervention that stressed body knowledge, woman-initiated HIV/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) prevention, including a focus on women's health (reproductive health screening, sexual violence, self-breast examination, STI signs, symptoms), which aimed to increase comfort with and pride in their bodies. Control group women received HIV-CT enriched by female condom counseling. Outcomes included study retention, session attendance and ratings, changes in knowledge, and use of protection methods. Results The study successfully retained 95% of the participants for a 2-month follow-up. Positive assessments from participants and peer leaders exceeded preset thresholds for success. Pre-post changes in body knowledge (p?body empowerment model deserves further elaboration in interventions focusing on women at high risk of HIV/STI acquisition.

Morrow, Kathleen M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Peterside, Pamela Brown; Husnik, Marla J.; Metzger, David S.

2010-01-01

201

Comparison of cardiovascular response to sinusoidal and constant lower body negative pressure with reference to very mild whole-body heating  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present study was to compare sinusoidal versus constant lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with reference to very mild whole-body heating. Sinusoidal LBNP has a periodic load component (PLC) and a constant load component (CLC) of orthostatic stress, whereas constant LBNP has only a CLC. We tested two sinusoidal patterns (30-s and 180-s periods with 25 mmHg amplitude) of LBNP and a constant LBNP with ?25 mmHg in 12 adult male subjects. Results Although the CLC of all three LBNP conditions were configured with ?25 mmHg, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) results showed a significantly large decrease from baseline in the 30-s period condition (P <0.01). In contrast, the other cardiovascular indices (heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), basal thoracic impedance (Z0), total peripheral resistance (TPR), the natural logarithmic of the HF component (lnHF), and LF/HF (ln(LF/HF))) of heart rate variability (HRV) showed relatively small variations from baseline in the 30-s period condition (P <0.01). The result of the gain and phase of transfer function at the sinusoidal period of LBNP showed that the very mild whole-body heating augmented the orthostatic responses. Conclusion These results revealed that the effect of the CLC of LBNP on cardiovascular adjustability was attenuated by the addition of the PLC to LBNP. Based on the results of suppressed HRV response from baseline in the 30-s period condition, we suggest that the attenuation may be caused by the suppression of the vagal responsiveness to LBNP.

2012-01-01

202

Nonlinear Systems Dynamics in Cardiovascular Physiology: The Heart Rate Delay MAP and Lower Body Negative Pressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay...

J. C. Hooker

1990-01-01

203

Association between body mass index and cardiovascular disease mortality in east Asians and south Asians: pooled analysis of prospective data from the Asia Cohort Consortium  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between body mass index and mortality from overall cardiovascular disease and specific subtypes of cardiovascular disease in east and south Asians. Design Pooled analyses of 20 prospective cohorts in Asia, including data from 835?082 east Asians and 289?815 south Asians. Cohorts were identified through a systematic search of the literature in early 2008, followed by a survey that was sent to each cohort to assess data availability. Setting General populations in east Asia (China, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and Korea) and south Asia (India and Bangladesh). Participants 1?124?897 men and women (mean age 53.4 years at baseline). Main outcome measures Risk of death from overall cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and (in east Asians only) stroke subtypes. Results 49?184 cardiovascular deaths (40?791 in east Asians and 8393 in south Asians) were identified during a mean follow-up of 9.7 years. East Asians with a body mass index of 25 or above had a raised risk of death from overall cardiovascular disease, compared with the reference range of body mass index (values 22.5-24.9; hazard ratio 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.15), 1.27 (1.20 to 1.35), 1.59 (1.43 to 1.76), 1.74 (1.47 to 2.06), and 1.97 (1.44 to 2.71) for body mass index ranges 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, 30.0-32.4, 32.5-34.9, and 35.0-50.0, respectively). This association was similar for risk of death from coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke; for haemorrhagic stroke, the risk of death was higher at body mass index values of 27.5 and above. Elevated risk of death from cardiovascular disease was also observed at lower categories of body mass index (hazard ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.39) and 2.16 (1.37 to 3.40) for body mass index ranges 15.0-17.4 and <15.0, respectively), compared with the reference range. In south Asians, the association between body mass index and mortality from cardiovascular disease was less pronounced than that in east Asians. South Asians had an increased risk of death observed for coronary heart disease only in individuals with a body mass index greater than 35 (hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.12). Conclusions Body mass index shows a U shaped association with death from overall cardiovascular disease among east Asians: increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease is observed at lower and higher ranges of body mass index. A high body mass index is a risk factor for mortality from overall cardiovascular disease and for specific diseases, including coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and haemorrhagic stroke in east Asians. Higher body mass index is a weak risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular disease in south Asians.

2013-01-01

204

Impact of Whole-Body Vibration Training Versus Fitness Training on Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Men: A 1Year Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 1-year whole-body vibration (WBV) training on isometric and explosive muscle strength and muscle mass in community-dwelling men older than 60 years. Methods. Muscle characteristics of the WBV group (n ¼31, 67.3 6 0.7 years) were compared with those of a fitness (FIT) group (n ¼ 30, 67.4 6 0.8 years) and

An Bogaerts; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Walter Coudyzer; Steven Boonen; Sabine M. P. Verschueren

2007-01-01

205

The association between low physical fitness and high body mass index or waist circumference is increasing with age in children: the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate physical fitness and body composition of children involved in the ‘Québec en Forme’ (QEF) Project and to compare data obtained to the reference values of the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS).Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 1140 children (591 boys and 549 girls) of first (7 years), second (8 years) and fourth (10 years) grade from primary schools in the

M Brunet; J-P Chaput; A Tremblay

2007-01-01

206

Elevated body fat percentage and cardiovascular risks at low body mass index levels among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) in Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians, and to determine the risk for selected comorbidities at various BMI categories and abdominal fat distributions, as assessed by waist circumference (WC). The study was a cross-sectional (population) design. In total, 4723 subjects participated in the National Health Survey of 1998 in which the risks were investigated. A selected subsample of 291 subjects participated in a detailed body composition study, where weight, height and WC were measured, as were blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, serum triglycerides and fasting glucose. In the subsample, BF% was determined by means of a chemical four-compartment model. At any given BF% the BMI of Singaporeans was about 3 kg m(-2) lower than that of Caucasians. There were slight differences in the BF%/BMI relationship between the three ethnic groups. For all the ethnic groups, it was found that at low categories of BMI (between 22 and 24 kg m(-2)) and WC (between 75 and 80cm for women and between 80 and 85 cm for men), the absolute risks for having at least one of the aforementioned risk factors were high, ranging from 41 to 81%. At these same categories the relative risks were significantly higher compared to the reference category, odds ratios ranging from 1.97-4.38. These categories of BMI and WC were all far below the cut-off values of BMI and WC as currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The data from the current study, which includes evidence that not only risk factors, but also BF% are elevated at low BMI values, presents a strong case for lowering the BMI cut-off value for overweight and obesity among Singaporeans, from 25 kg m(-2) and 30 kg m(-2) to 23 kg m(-2) and 27 kg m(-2), respectively. PMID:12164474

Deurenberg-Yap, M; Chew, S K; Deurenberg, P

2002-08-01

207

Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

2004-01-01

208

BMI, lipid profile, physical fitness and smoking habits of young male adults and the association with parental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have focused on the potential relationship between parental educational level and cardiovascular risk factors among young male adults. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiovascular disease risk factors among young men and whether body mass index (BMI), serum lipids, physical fitness and smoking habits were related to paternal and maternal education. Methods: In this cross-sectional

Tonje Holte Stea; Margareta Wandel; Mohammad Azam Mansoor; Solveig Uglem; W. Frolich

2008-01-01

209

Cardiovascular responses to a laboratory stressor in women: Assessing the role of body awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body awareness (BA) is characterised by a general tendency towards awareness and recognition of normal, non-emotive bodily processes and physical sensations. BA considers one's sensitivity towards and belief in how well they can sense, predict, and describe their bodily functions and sensations. This study investigated the role of BA in haemodynamic and anxiety responses to a laboratory stressor. Women (n?=?40)

M. Kathleen B. Lustyk; Haley A. C. Douglas; Jacob A. Bentley; Winslow G. Gerrish

2012-01-01

210

Cardiovascular responses to a laboratory stressor in women: Assessing the role of body awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body awareness (BA) is characterised by a general tendency towards awareness and recognition of normal, non-emotive bodily processes and physical sensations. BA considers one's sensitivity towards and belief in how well they can sense, predict, and describe their bodily functions and sensations. This study investigated the role of BA in haemodynamic and anxiety responses to a laboratory stressor. Women (n?=?40)

M. Kathleen B. Lustyk; Haley A. C. Douglas; Jacob A. Bentley; Winslow G. Gerrish

2011-01-01

211

Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability) is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation

Nobuhiro Watanabe; John Reece; Barbara I Polus

2007-01-01

212

Understanding the independent and joint associations of the home and workplace built environments on cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index.  

PubMed

This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20-88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000-2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group-level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

Hoehner, Christine M; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Schootman, Mario

2013-08-13

213

Physical performance, body weight and BMI of young adults in Germany 2000 - 2004: results of the physical-fitness-test study.  

PubMed

In westernized countries the sedentary lifestyle in conjunction with a hypercaloric diet has caused an increase in the number of obese adults. Moreover, recent studies suggest that the prevalence of overweight in children increased during the last decade. However, the literature has to be interpreted with some caution since the majority of epidemiological studies examining health, fitness, and obesity rely on self-reported data rather than measurements. A further limitation is that most studies examine either physical activity or nutrition, only few deal with both aspects simultaneously. In the present study we analyzed both aspects in more than 58,000 persons aged between 17 and 26 years. All of them were applicants for the German Bundeswehr, which accepts only volunteers with school leaving certificates and a body mass index (BMI) below 30 kg . m (-2). The admitted subjects performed a Physical-Fitness-Test (PFT) consisting of 5 simple sport tests (shuttle run, sit-ups, push-ups, standing jump, Cooper test). For 23 000 subjects additional measurements of body height and body weight as well as information about their education level were available. These data were combined with the PFT results. We found large deficits in the physical fitness of young adults: More than 37 % of the participants failed to pass the PFT, with failure rates of the male volunteers increasing significantly since 2001. While the female volunteers showed virtually constant body weight and BMI, the corresponding values of men increased monotonously between the age of 17 and 26 years. Physical fitness was positively, BMI negatively correlated with education level. The present findings suggest that body weight increases and fitness decreases in non-obese young adults in Germany. Despite the correlations between BMI and physical fitness the terms "overweight" and "physically unfit" should not be regarded as synonyms. PMID:16874592

Leyk, D; Rohde, U; Gorges, W; Ridder, D; Wunderlich, M; Dinklage, C; Sievert, A; Rüther, T; Essfeld, D

2006-08-01

214

Cardiovascular Disease in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a physician, coach, or trainer, we see athletes as healthy, physically fit, and able to tolerate extremes of physical endurance. It seems improbable that such athletes may have, on occasion, underlying life-threatening cardiovascular abnormalities. Regular physical activity promulgates cardiovascular fitness and lowers the risk of cardiac disease. However, under intense physical exertion and with a substrate of significant cardiac

Frederick C. Basilico

1999-01-01

215

Body mass index trajectories and predictors among 3rd to 12th graders using growth curve mixture modeling the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examined body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories and the effects of gender, ethnicity, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) on BMI growth trajectories among 3rd to 12th graders (9-18 years of age). Growth curve model analysis was performed using data from The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study. The study population included 2909 students who

Hao T Duong

2009-01-01

216

Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

2005-01-01

217

Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either…

Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

2012-01-01

218

Protein Intake during Energy Restriction: Effects on Body Composition and Markers of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of dietary protein intake on energy restriction (ER)-induced changes in body mass and body composition. Clinical markers of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases were also measured. Design 54 postmenopausal women, age 58 ± 2 y, body mass index 29.6 ± 0.8 kg/m2, were assigned to one of four groups. For 9 weeks, three ER groups ate a 1000 kcal/d lacto-ovo vegetarian basal diet plus 250 kcal/d of either beef (BEEF, n = 14), chicken (CHICKEN, n = 15), or carbohydrate/fat foods (CARB (lacto-ovo), n = 14), while a control group (CON, n = 11) consumed their habitual diets. Results Energy intake was lower in the ER groups compared to CON (BEEF, 1114 ± 155 kcal/d, CHO: PRO: FAT, 46:24:30 % of energy intake; CHICKEN, 1098 ± 203 kcal/d, 51:25:24; CARB 1158 ± 341 kcal/d, 59:17:24; CON, 1570 ± 633 kcal/d, 47:20:33), but did not differ among ER groups. For all ER subjects combined, body mass (?6.7 ± 2.4 kg, 9 %), fat mass (?4.6 ± 1.9 kg, 13 %), and fat-free mass (?2.1 ± 1.1 kg, 5 %) decreased. These responses did not differ among the ER groups, except for body mass (CHICKEN ?7.9 ± 2.6 kga; BEEF ?6.6 ± 2.7 kga,b; CARB ?5.6 ± 1.8 kgb; CON ?1.2 ± 1.2 kgc; values with a difference superscript differ, p < 0.05). From PRE (week 0) to POST (week 9), total and LDL cholesterol decreased ?12%, with no differences among groups. Triacylglycerol, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were not changed over time or differentially affected by diet. Conclusions Overweight postmenopausal women can achieve significant weight loss and comparable short-term improvements in body composition and lipid-lipoprotein profile by consuming either a moderate-protein (25% of energy intake) poultry- or beef-containing diet or a lacto-ovo vegetarian protein (17% of energy intake) diet.

Mahon, Anne K.; Flynn, Michael G.; Stewart, Laura K.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Mattes, Richard D.; Lyle, Roseann M.; Considine, Robert V.; Campbell, Wayne W.

2008-01-01

219

A new curriculum for fitness education.  

PubMed Central

Regular exercise is important in a preventive approach to health care because it exerts a beneficial effect on many risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. However, many Americans lack the skills required to devise and carry out a safe and effective exercise program appropriate for a life-time of fitness. This inability is partly due to the lack of fitness education during their school years. School programs in physical education tend to neglect training in the health-related aspects of fitness. Therefore, a new curriculum for fitness education is proposed that would provide seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students with (a) a basic knowledge of their physiological response to exercise, (b) the means to develop their own safe and effective physical fitness program, and (c) the motivation to incorporate regular exercise into their lifestyle. This special 4-week segment of primarily academic study is designed to be inserted into the physical education curriculum. Daily lessons cover health-related fitness, cardiovascular fitness, body fitness, and care of the back. A final written examination covering major areas of information is given to emphasize this academic approach to exercise. Competition in athletic ability is deemphasized, and motivational awards are given based on health-related achievements. The public's present lack of knowledge about physical fitness, coupled with the numerous anatomical and physiological benefits derived from regular, vigorous exercise, mandate an intensified curriculum of fitness education for school children.

Boone, J L

1983-01-01

220

Television viewing and physical fitness in adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with cardiovascular fitness among 8,885 adults. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, smoking, length of work week, time reported exercising each week, and obesity were also examined. Subjects who watched TV more than 4 hours per day (frequent viewers) were 0.37 times as likely to be physically fit as those who watched TV less than 1 hour per day (infrequent viewers) with age and gender controlled. Similarly, adults who watched TV 3-4 hours per day (moderately frequent viewers) were 0.45 times as likely to be fit as infrequent watchers. Adjustment for potential confounders, particularly measured body fat and reported exercise duration in combination, weakened the TV viewing/fitness relation moderately. Given the findings of this study and the results of previous research, caution should be exercised regarding excessive television viewing. PMID:2132888

Tucker, L A

1990-12-01

221

Hearing Sensitivity in Older Adults: Associations with cardiovascular risk factors in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors with age-associated hearing loss, in a cohort of older black and white adults. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study Setting The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study; A community-based cohort study of older adults from Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis TN. Participants 2,049 well-functioning adults (mean age: 77.5 years; 37% black) Measurements Pure-tone audiometry and history of clinical CVD were obtained at the 4th annual follow-up visit. Pure-tone averages in decibels reflecting low frequencies (250, 500, and 1000 Hz) middle frequencies (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (2000, 4000, and 8000Hz) were calculated for each ear. CVD risk factors, aortic pulse-wave velocity, and ankle-arm index were obtained at the study baseline. Results In gender-stratified models, after adjustment for age, race, study site and occupational noise exposure, risk factors associated with poorer hearing sensitivity among men included higher triglyceride levels, higher resting heart rate and history of smoking. Among women, poorer hearing sensitivity was associated with higher BMI, higher resting heart rate, faster pulse-wave velocity, and low ankle-arm index. Conclusion Modifiable risk factors for CVD may play a role in the development of age-related hearing loss.

Helzner, Elizabeth P.; Patel, Ami S.; Pratt, Sheila; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Cauley, Jane A; Talbott, Evelyn; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara B.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ding, Jingzhong; Newman, Anne B.

2012-01-01

222

The obesity paradox and cardiorespiratory fitness.  

PubMed

Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3 ± 7.2 years) male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS). Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third) and fit (upper two-thirds); and by body mass index (kg/m(2)): nonobese (18.5-29.9) and obese (?30.0). Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (P = 0.01) and 1.9 (P = 0.03) times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit. PMID:22523668

McAuley, Paul A; Smith, Nancy S; Emerson, Brian T; Myers, Jonathan N

2012-02-20

223

Loss of body mass under predation risk: cost of antipredatory behaviour or adaptive fit-for-escape?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation risk may compromise the ability of animals to acquire and maintain body reserves by hindering foraging efficiency and increasing physiological stress. Locomotor performance may depend on body mass, so losing mass under predation risk could be an adaptive response of prey to improve escape ability. We studied individual variation in antipredatory behaviour, feeding rate, body mass and escape performance

Javier Pérez-Tris; José A. D??az; José Luis Teller??a

2004-01-01

224

A 5-month weight-reduction programme has a positive effect on body composition, aerobic fitness, and habitual physical activity of severely obese girls: A pilot evaluation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this pilot study, we wished to determine whether a 5-month multidisciplinary programme of a combined dietary-nutritional education-exercise intervention would have favourable effects on the health status of 18 obese adolescent girls. Before and after the clinical intervention, body composition and habitual physical activity were assessed by bioelectrical impedance and accelerometry, respectively. Aerobic fitness and substrate utilization were determined by

Céline Aguer; Olivier Gavarry; Yoann Gole; Alain Boussuges; Pierre Doyard; Guy Falgairette

2010-01-01

225

The effects of 18 months of intermittent vs continuous exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of 18 months of continuous vs intermittent exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females.DESIGN: Randomized, prospective, long-term cohort study. Subjects performed continuous exercise at 60–75% of maximum aerobic capacity, 3 days per week, 30 min per session, or exercised intermittently using brisk walking for two,

JE Donnelly; DJ Jacobsen; K Snyder Heelan; R Seip; S Smith; E Donnelly

2000-01-01

226

Comparison of body fatness measurements by BMI and skinfolds vs dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and their relation to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To compare estimates of adiposity by dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), skinfolds and body mass index (BMI); and to evaluate the relation of these measures to cardiovascular risk in adolescents.DESIGN:In a cohort of adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of insulin resistance, Slaughter formulas were used to estimate adiposity from skinfolds and DXA was used to estimate adiposity as %

J Steinberger; D R Jacobs; S Raatz; A Moran; C-P Hong; A R Sinaiko

2005-01-01

227

The effects of physical activity and body mass index on cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality among 47 212 middle-aged Finnish men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To examine the association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI), and their combined effect, with the risk of total, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality.DESIGN:Prospective follow-up study.SUBJECTS:In all, 22 528 men and 24 684 women aged 25–64 y at baseline having 7394 deaths during a mean follow-up of 17.7 y.MEASUREMENT:A self-administered questionnaire data on smoking, socioeconomic factors, physical

G Hu; J Tuomilehto; K Silventoinen; N C Barengo; M Peltonen; P Jousilahti

2005-01-01

228

A Hybrid GP\\/GA Approach for Co-Evolving Controllers and Robot Bodies to Achieve Fitness-Specified Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary approaches have been advocated toautomate robot design. Some research work has shown thesuccess of evolving controllers for the robots by genetic approaches.As we can observe, however, not only the controllerbut also the robot body itself can affect the behaviorof the robot in a robot system. In this paper, we developa hybrid GP\\/GA approach to evolve both controllers androbot bodies

Wei-po Lee; John Haallam; Henrik Hautop Lund

1996-01-01

229

The Importance of Aerobic Fitness in Extending Thermotolerance in Extreme Environments: Connecting Molecular Biology to the Whole Body Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\/Relevance Current theatres of military operations involve exposure to high ambient temperatures while wearing protective clothing such as fragmentation vests and\\/or the use of biological and chemical ensembles. Under conditions of uncompensable heat stress, aerobic fitness is a critical factor in explaining the higher core temperature (Tc) that can be tolerated by endurance trained (TR) versus untrained (UT) individuals. Tolerating

Tom M. McLellan; Glen A. Selkirk; Heather E. Wright; Shawn G. Rhind

230

Pondering the puzzle of PML (promyelocytic leukemia) nuclear bodies: Can we fit the pieces together using an RNA regulon?  

PubMed Central

Summary The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML and its associated nuclear bodies are hot topics of investigation. This interest arises for multiple reasons including the tight link between the integrity of PML nuclear bodies and several disease states and the impact of the PML protein and PML nuclear bodies on proliferation, apoptosis and viral infection. Unfortunately, an understanding of the molecular underpinnings of PML nuclear body function remains elusive. Here, a general overview of the PML field is provided and is extended to discuss whether some of the basic tenets of “PML-ology” are still valid. For instance, recent findings suggest that some components of PML nuclear bodies form bodies in the absence of the PML protein. Also, a new model for PML nuclear body function is proposed which provides a unifying framework for its effects on diverse biochemical pathways such as Akt signaling and the p53-Mdm2 axis. In this model, the PML protein acts as an inhibitor of gene expression post-transcriptionally via inhibiting a network node in the eIF4E RNA regulon. An example is given for how the PML RNA regulon model provided the basis for the development of a new anti-cancer strategy being tested in the clinic.

Borden, Katherine L.B.

2008-01-01

231

Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial  

PubMed Central

There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n = 242) and (ii) that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths.

Gutin, Bernard; Harris, Ryan A.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

2011-01-01

232

Developing a Self-Reported Physical Fitness Survey  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness measures indicate health status and could be used to improve management of overall health. Purpose To describe the development of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey intended to estimate fitness in adults aged ?40 years across four domains; 1) muscular strength and endurance, 2) cardiovascular fitness, 3) flexibility, and 4) body composition. Methods SRFit items were developed from the previously validated Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. Face-to-face participant interviews were used to refine SRFit item wording. Data from a pilot administration of the SRFit survey were used to guide further revisions of SRFit items. The Senior Fitness Test battery was used to evaluate the four fitness domains. The BodPod was used to measure body composition. Height, weight, and resting blood pressure were measured and the revised SRFit survey was administered to 108 participants. Results Forty-five percent of the participants were female and 37% reported being Black or in the “other” race category. Mean age was 53.5±8.0 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.6±8.8 kg/m2. SRFit summary score means (SD) and correlations found between summary score means (SD) and fitness test scores were: Upper body strength m=12.8 (2.4), r=0.59, p<0.001; lower body strength m=12.6 (2.6), r=0.68, p<0.001; upper body flexibility left-side m=12.3 (2.8), r=0.47, p<0.001; right-side m=12.4 (2.8), r=0.67, p<0.001; lower body flexibility m=17.4 (3.8), r = 0.55, p<0.001; cardiovascular endurance m=12.9 (2.6), r=0.66, p<0.001; BMI m=7.7 (2.23), r=0.79, p<0.001; and percent body fat m=7.7 (2.2), r=0.78, p<0.001. Conclusion SRFit survey items in each fitness domain were correlated with analogous Senior Fitness Test items indicating that participants could accurately use the SRFit survey to self-report physical fitness.

Keith, NiCole R.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.

2012-01-01

233

Influence of extracurricular sport activities on body composition and physical fitness in boys: a 3-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To analyse the effect of extracurricular physical activities on fat mass accumulation and physical fitness during growth in early pubertal males.Design:Longitudinal study.Subjects:A total of 42 male children (9.4±1.4 years, Tanner I–II and 12.7±1.5 years, Tanner III–IV, before and after the 3.3 years follow-up, respectively), randomly sampled from the population of Gran Canaria (Spain), 26 of them physically active (PA, at

I Ara; G Vicente-Rodriguez; J Perez-Gomez; J Jimenez-Ramirez; J A Serrano-Sanchez; C Dorado; J A L Calbet; JAL Calbet

2006-01-01

234

Cardiovascular disease in women: reducing cardiovascular comorbidity.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the leading etiology of mortality in women. The American Heart Association recommends classifying a woman's risk as 1 of 3 categories: ideal cardiovascular health, at risk, and high risk. Risk levels are based on traditional risk factors, such as lipid levels, blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status. Risk can be assessed using the Framingham risk score, which estimates an individual's 10-year risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. Other risk factors for cardiovascular disease that should be considered include psychosocial disadvantage, marital status, depression, and anxiety. A multidisciplinary approach to managing these stressors may decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23977826

Madrazo, Catinca

2013-08-01

235

Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in…

Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

2009-01-01

236

Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Physical Fitness of Male Adolescents in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk\\/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a

Selina Khoo; Ali Khalifa Al-Shamli

2012-01-01

237

Is the reduction of lower-body subcutaneous adipose tissue associated with elevations in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Since the accumulation of lower-body subcutaneous adipose tissue (LBSAT) is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk,\\u000a we evaluated whether reductions in LBSAT independent of changes in visceral AT (VAT) and abdominal SAT are associated with\\u000a elevations in diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Overweight and obese men (n?=?58) and premenopausal women (n?=?49) with elevated cardiometabolic risk underwent 3 months of diet and\\/or

P. M. Janiszewski; J. L. Kuk; R. Ross

2008-01-01

238

Anthropometric Correlates of Total Body Fat, Abdominal Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in a Biracial Sample of Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between anthropometric measurements and total body fat, abdominal adipose tissue, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large biracial sample. Patients and Methods This study is limited to cross-sectional analyses of data from participants attending a baseline visit between January 26, 1996, and February 1, 2011. The sample included 2037 individuals aged 18 to 69 years: 488 African American women (24%), 686 white women (34%), 196 African American men (9%), and 667 white men (33%). Anthropometry included weight; hip circumference; waist circumference; waist-hip, waist-height, and weight-height ratios; body adiposity index; and body mass index. Body fat and percentage of fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by computed tomography. Bivariate correlations, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used, and analyses were stratified by sex and race. Results In each sex-by-race group, all anthropometric measures were highly correlated with percentage of fat, fat mass, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and moderately correlated with visceral adipose tissue, with the exception of the waist-hip ratio. The odds of having an elevated cardiometabolic risk were increased more than 2-fold per SD increase for most anthropometric variables, and the areas under the curve for each anthropometric measure were significantly greater than 0.5. Conclusion Several common anthropometric measures were moderately to highly correlated with total body fat, abdominal fat, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of women and men. This comprehensive analysis provides evidence of the linkage between simple anthropometric measurements and the purported pathways between adiposity and health.

Barreira, Tiago V.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Smith, Steven R.; Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

2012-01-01

239

Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective Body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50?±?8.8?years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.8?±?3.7 and 25.5?±?4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm) 94.1?±?9.7 and 84.3?±?10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5?hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r?=??0.280 and r?=??0.377, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both) and in women (r?=??0.514 and r?=??0.491, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both). In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

2013-01-01

240

Melanocortin-4 receptor activation stimulates hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor release to regulate food intake, body temperature and cardiovascular function.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuromodulatory role played by hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of acute cardiovascular and feeding responses to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activation. In vitro, a selective MC4R agonist, MK1, stimulated BDNF release from isolated rat hypothalami and this effect was blocked by preincubation with the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119. In vivo, peripheral administration of MK1 decreased food intake in rats and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with an anti-BDNF antibody administered into the third ventricle. When anorexia was induced with the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM251, the anti-BDNF antibody did not prevent the reduction in food intake. Peripheral administration of MK1 also increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with the anti-BDNF antibody whereas the intracerebroventricular administration of BDNF caused changes similar to those of MK1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that activation of MC4R leads to an acute release of BDNF in the hypothalamus. This release is a prerequisite for MC4R-induced effects on appetite, body temperature and cardiovascular function. By contrast, CB1R antagonist-mediated anorexia is independent of the MC4R/BDNF pathway. Overall, these results show that BDNF is an important downstream mediator of the MC4R pathway. PMID:18001327

Nicholson, J R; Peter, J-C; Lecourt, A-C; Barde, Y-A; Hofbauer, K G

2007-12-01

241

Low level of physical activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors but not with body fat mass - a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background As many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased fat mass (FM) and increased frequency of cardiovascular diseases we evaluated if total physical activity (MET-hours) had impact on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in women with RA. Methods Sixty-one out-ward RA women, 60.8 (57.3-64.4) years, answered a self-administered questionnaire, to estimate total daily physical activity during the previous year. Physical activity level was given as metabolic equivalents (MET) × h/day. Diet content was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and body composition by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood lipids and antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) were determined. Results Forty-one percent of the women had BMI > 25, 6% were centrally obese and 80% had FM% > 30%. The median (IQR) total physical activity was 40.0 (37.4-47.7), i.e. the same activity level as healthy Swedish women in the same age. Total physical activity did not significantly correlate with disease activity, BMI or FM%. Disease activity, BMI and FM% did not differ between those in the lowest quartile of total physical activity and those in the highest quartile. However, the women in the lowest quartile of physical activity had lower HDL (p = 0.05), Apo A1 (p = 0.005) and atheroprotective natural anti-PC (p = 0.016) and higher levels of insulin (p = 0.05) and higher frequency of insulin resistance than those in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile consumed larger quantities of saturated fatty acids than those in the highest quartile (p = 0.042), which was associated with high oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Conclusion This cross sectional study demonstrated that RA women with fairly low disease activity, good functional capacity, high FM and high frequency of central obesity had the same total physical activity level as healthy Swedish women in the same age. The amount of total physical activity was not associated with functional capacity or body composition. However, low total physical activity was associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, low levels of atheroprotective anti-PC and consumption of saturated fatty acids, which is of interest in the context of increased frequency of cardiovascular disease in RA.

2011-01-01

242

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437

O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

2007-01-01

243

Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to provide a clear, accurate, public health message to the many groups now using AS for performance and image enhancement. PMID:22229259

Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

2012-02-01

244

Comparison of cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters of supine lower body negative pressure and upright lower body positive pressure to simulate activity in 1/6 G and 3/8 G.  

PubMed

For future space exploration missions, it is important to determine the best method of simulating on Earth cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions for lunar and Martian gravities. For this purpose, we compared exercise performed within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber. Twelve subjects underwent a protocol of resting and walking (0.25 Froude) within supine LBNP and upright LBPP simulation. Each protocol was performed in simulated 1/6 G and 3/8 G. We assessed heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption (Vo2), normalized stride length, normalized vertical peak ground reaction force, duty factor, cadence, perceived exertion (Borg), and comfort of the subject. A mixed linear model was employed to determine effects of the simulation on the respective parameters. Furthermore, parameters were compared with predicted values for lunar and Martian gravities to determine the method that showed the best agreement. During walking, all cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters were unaffected by the simulation used for lunar and Martian gravities. During rest, HR and Vo2 were lower in supine LBNP compared with upright LBPP. HR, Vo2, and normalized vertical peak ground reaction force obtained with supine LBNP and upright LBPP showed good agreement with predicted values. Since supine LBNP and upright LBPP are lacking significant differences, we conclude that both simulations are suited to simulate the cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions during activity in lunar and Martian gravities. Operational characteristics and the intended application should be considered when choosing either supine LBNP or upright LBPP to simulate partial gravities on Earth. PMID:23640597

Schlabs, Thomas; Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Stahn, Alexander C; Hargens, Alan R

2013-05-02

245

Changes in cardiovascular risk associated with phentermine and topiramate extended-release in participants with comorbidities and a body mass index ?27 kg/m(2).  

PubMed

The aim of this analysis was to evaluate changes in cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension receiving phentermine (PHEN) and topiramate extended-release (TPM ER). In the 56-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter CONQUER trial, PHEN/TPM ER demonstrated significant weight loss compared with placebo in overweight or obese participants with ?2 weight-related co-morbidities. Participants with body mass indexes of 27 to 45 kg/m(2) were randomized to placebo, PHEN 7.5 mg/TPM ER 46 mg, or PHEN 15 mg/TPM ER 92 mg; participants also received lifestyle modification counseling. Primary end points were percentage weight loss and the proportion of participants achieving ?5% weight loss. Additional end points were changes in lipid variables in the dyslipidemia population and blood pressure in the hypertensive population, stratified by treatment and magnitude of weight loss. PHEN/TPM ER produced significantly greater dose-related mean percentage weight loss compared with placebo in the subgroups of participants with dyslipidemia and those with hypertension. Regardless of treatment group assignment, participants with dyslipidemia who lost ?5% of their baseline weight experienced significantly greater reductions in triglycerides (-14.5% to -39.8%), and in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.4% to -14.8%) than those losing <5% of their weight (p <0.05). Similarly, participants with hypertension at baseline showed reduced systolic blood pressure by -7.5 to -11.8 mm Hg (p <0.001 vs those with <5% weight loss). In conclusion, the dose-related weight loss induced by PHEN/TPM ER treatment was accompanied by significant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors in participants who had dyslipidemia or hypertension at baseline, suggesting that facilitating weight loss by augmenting lifestyle changes with pharmacotherapies may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease in obese and overweight patients with co-morbidities. PMID:23375187

Davidson, Michael H; Tonstad, Serena; Oparil, Suzanne; Schwiers, Michael; Day, Wesley W; Bowden, Charles H

2013-01-29

246

Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk of first-onset cardiovascular disease. Methods We used individual records from 58 cohorts to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) per 1 SD higher baseline values (4·56 kg/m2 higher BMI, 12·6 cm higher waist circumference, and 0·083 higher waist-to-hip ratio) and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification. Serial adiposity assessments were used to calculate regression dilution ratios. Results Individual records were available for 221?934 people in 17 countries (14?297 incident cardiovascular disease outcomes; 1·87 million person-years at risk). Serial adiposity assessments were made in up to 63?821 people (mean interval 5·7 years [SD 3·9]). In people with BMI of 20 kg/m2 or higher, HRs for cardiovascular disease were 1·23 (95% CI 1·17–1·29) with BMI, 1·27 (1·20–1·33) with waist circumference, and 1·25 (1·19–1·31) with waist-to-hip ratio, after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. After further adjustment for baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total and HDL cholesterol, corresponding HRs were 1·07 (1·03–1·11) with BMI, 1·10 (1·05–1·14) with waist circumference, and 1·12 (1·08–1·15) with waist-to-hip ratio. Addition of information on BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio to a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model containing conventional risk factors did not importantly improve risk discrimination (C-index changes of ?0·0001, ?0·0001, and 0·0008, respectively), nor classification of participants to categories of predicted 10-year risk (net reclassification improvement ?0·19%, ?0·05%, and ?0·05%, respectively). Findings were similar when adiposity measures were considered in combination. Reproducibility was greater for BMI (regression dilution ratio 0·95, 95% CI 0·93–0·97) than for waist circumference (0·86, 0·83–0·89) or waist-to-hip ratio (0·63, 0·57–0·70). Interpretation BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, whether assessed singly or in combination, do not importantly improve cardiovascular disease risk prediction in people in developed countries when additional information is available for systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and lipids. Funding British Heart Foundation and UK Medical Research Council.

The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration

2011-01-01

247

Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women  

PubMed Central

Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat) were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON) a no diet + exercise control (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP]) in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass) and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat) changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength) occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise groups. Conclusions Overall and over the entire test period, all diet groups which restricted their caloric intake and exercised experienced similar responses to each other. Regular exercise and modest caloric restriction successfully promoted anthropometric and body composition improvements along with various markers of muscular fitness. Significant increases in relative energy expenditure and reductions in circulating leptin were found in response to all exercise and diet groups. Macronutrient distribution may impact circulating levels of insulin and overall ability to improve strength levels in obese women who follow regular exercise.

2010-01-01

248

Mental Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author explores Andie Knutson's plea for a more appropriate term to describe the positive aspects of mental health and suggest the term mental fitness. She provides the definition of fitness and explains that this concept of mental fitness carries much of the connotation we are groping for. It forms an excellent counterpart for the late President Kennedy's program for

Dorothea McCarthy

1964-01-01

249

Body mass index and waist circumference predict both 10-year nonfatal and fatal cardiovascular disease risk: study conducted in 20000 Dutch men and women aged 2-65 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are both predictors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We compared absolute risk, hazard ratio (HR), and population attributable risk of nonfatal and fatal CVD for BMI and WC in a large prospective cohort study with an average follow-up of 10 years. Methods and results: Anthropometric data were measured between 1993 and 1997

Dis van I; Daan Kromhout; Johanna M. Geleijnse; Jolanda M. A. Boer; W. M. Monique Verschuren

2009-01-01

250

Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Limited evidence suggests that a higher ratio of pro- tein to carbohydrate during weight loss has metabolic advantages. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of a diet with a high ratio of protein to carbohydrate during weight loss on body composition, cardiovascular disease risk, nutritional status, and markers of bone turnover and renal function in overweight women.

Manny Noakes; Jennifer B Keogh; Paul R Foster; Peter M Clifton

251

Having a Ball with Fitness Balls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

McNulty, Betty

2011-01-01

252

High body fatness, but not low fat-free mass, predicts disability in older men and women: the Cardiovascular Health Study.  

PubMed

Using data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, we studied the relation between body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance) and self-reported, mobility-related disability (difficulty walking or stair climbing) in 2714 women and 2095 men aged 65-100 y. In a cross-sectional analysis at baseline (1989-1990), disability was reported by 26.5% of the women and 16.9% of the men. A positive association was observed between fat mass and disability. The odds ratio for disability in the highest quintile of fat mass was 3.04 (95% CI: 2.18, 4.25) for women and 2.77 (95% CI: 1.82, 4.23) for men compared with those in the lowest quintile. Low fat-free mass was not associated with a higher prevalence of disability. In a longitudinal analysis among persons not reporting disability at baseline, 20.3% of the women and 14.8% of the men reported disability 3 y later. Fat mass at baseline was predictive of disability 3 y later, with odds ratios of 2.83 (95% CI: 1.80, 4.46) for women and 1.72 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.85) for men in the highest quintile of fat. The increased risk was not explained by age, physical activity, chronic disease, or other potential confounders. Low fat-free mass was not predictive of disability. The results showed that high body fatness is an independent predictor of mobility-related disability in older men and women. These findings suggest that high body fatness in old age should be avoided to decrease the risk of disability. PMID:9734734

Visser, M; Langlois, J; Guralnik, J M; Cauley, J A; Kronmal, R A; Robbins, J; Williamson, J D; Harris, T B

1998-09-01

253

Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of stimulation of cell bodies of the parabrachial nuclei in the anaesthetized rat.  

PubMed Central

1. In order to assess the importance of the parabrachial nuclei in modulating cardiorespiratory activity, electric current or microinjections of glutamate were used to stimulate discrete regions of the parabrachial nuclei in anaesthetized rats. 2. Stimulation of cell bodies in the medial region of the parabrachial nuclei and in the Kölliker-Fuse nuclei, caused an expiratory facilitatory response. This consisted mainly of a decrease in respiratory rate as measured by observing phrenic nerve activity. 3. Stimulation of cell bodies in the lateral region of the parabrachial nuclei caused an inspiratory facilitatory response. This consisted mainly of an increase in respiratory rate. 4. At the majority of sites (16 out of 20) where changes in respiratory rate were elicited by glutamate injection or electrical stimulation an increase in blood pressure was observed. The coexistence of increases in blood pressure and heart rate indicates the presence of inhibition of the heart rate component of the baroreflex and/or an increase in cardiac sympathetic drive. 5. The expiratory facilitatory response was not evoked reflexly by the rise in blood pressure since it was still present after administration of guanethidine, which abolished the rise in blood pressure. 6. The interactions between the parabrachial nuclei and the medullary respiratory complex in eliciting these changes are discussed.

Lara, J P; Parkes, M J; Silva-Carvhalo, L; Izzo, P; Dawid-Milner, M S; Spyer, K M

1994-01-01

254

21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor...or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular diagnostic, surgical, and therapeutic applications to interconnect tubing,...

2013-04-01

255

Effects of weight lifting training combined with plyometric exercises on physical fitness, body composition, and knee extension velocity during kicking in football.  

PubMed

The effects of a training program consisting of weight lifting combined with plyometric exercises on kicking performance, myosin heavy-chain composition (vastus lateralis), physical fitness, and body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) was examined in 37 male physical education students divided randomly into a training group (TG: 16 subjects) and a control group (CG: 21 subjects). The TG followed 6 weeks of combined weight lifting and plyometric exercises. In all subjects, tests were performed to measure their maximal angular speed of the knee during in-step kicks on a stationary ball. Additional tests for muscle power (vertical jump), running speed (30 m running test), anaerobic capacity (Wingate and 300 m running tests), and aerobic power (20 m shuttle run tests) were also performed. Training resulted in muscle hypertrophy (+4.3%), increased peak angular velocity of the knee during kicking (+13.6%), increased percentage of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) type IIa (+8.4%), increased 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) of inclined leg press (ILP) (+61.4%), leg extension (LE) (+20.2%), leg curl (+15.9%), and half squat (HQ) (+45.1%), and enhanced performance in vertical jump (all p < or = 0.05). In contrast, MHC type I was reduced (-5.2%, p < or = 0.05) after training. In the control group, these variables remained unchanged. In conclusion, 6 weeks of strength training combining weight lifting and plyometric exercises results in significant improvement of kicking performance, as well as other physical capacities related to success in football (soccer). PMID:18461103

Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Olmedillas, Hugo; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ortiz, Rafael Arteaga; Chavarren, Javier; Calbet, Jose A L

2008-06-01

256

Effect of consuming salad and yogurt as preload on body weight management and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Few investigations reported the reductive effect of preload consuming on energy intake. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of consuming a mix of low glycaemic index foods such as vegetable salad, yogurt and water before or with meal on anthropometric measures and cardio vascular diseases (CVD) risks. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 25 men and 35 women were recruited to consume similar amounts of macronutrients within a hypocaloric diet for 3 months. Although subjects in the preload group consumed preload 15 min before the main meal, subjects in the control group consumed them with meal. The results showed that body weight, waist circumference, triglyceride, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure decreased in more amount in the preload group ( - 7.8 ± 0.5%, - 2.7 ± 0.2%, - 5.7 ± 1.1%, - 3.1 ± 0.53% and - 4.4 ± 0.4%, respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Fasting blood sugar and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly only in the preload group. Consuming vegetable salad, yogurt and water as preload leads to greater changes in anthropometric measures and CVD risks. PMID:23249429

Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Karimi, Golgis; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

2012-12-19

257

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Long-Term Survival in "Low-Risk" Adults  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to establish whether cardiorespiratory fitness had important implications for long-term cardiovascular risk among individuals classified as low risk by the Framingham Risk Score (10-year coronary heart disease risk <10%). Prognostic factors of long-term cardiovascular risk are needed for low-risk subjects who make up the largest percentage of the US population. Methods and Results The study population was composed of men and women, 30 to 50 years of age, who had a baseline medical exam at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, TX, between 1970 and 1983. Eligible individuals were defined as at low risk for coronary heart disease by Framingham Risk Score at the time of study entry and had no history of diabetes (n=11 190). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by maximum graded exercise treadmill tests. Over an average 27±2-year period, 15% of low-fit (quintile 1) compared to 6% of high-fit (quintile 5) individuals died (P<0.001). A 1–metabolic equivalent level increase in baseline fitness was associated with an 11% reduction in all-cause deaths and an 18% reduction in deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, blood glucose levels, smoking, and early family history of coronary disease. There was an incremental decrease in CVD risk with increasing fitness quintile, such that the high fit had the lowest adjusted 30-year CVD mortality rate (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% CI: 0.16–0.51) compared to the low fit. Conclusions Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a significant reduction in long-term CVD among individuals identified as low risk by Framingham Risk Score. These data suggest that preventive lifestyle interventions geared to optimize cardiorespiratory fitness, even among a “low-risk” subset, should be considered to improve CVD-free survival. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001354 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001354.)

Barlow, Carolyn E.; DeFina, Laura F.; Radford, Nina B.; Berry, Jarett D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.; Haskell, William L.; Jones, Lee W.; Lakoski, Susan G.

2012-01-01

258

Curve Fitting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by John Michel for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to extend the concept of fitting a least squares line to allow fitting more complex functions, including those in which the model parameters do not appear linearly. This is part of a larger collection of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Michel, John

2010-06-08

259

Body Mass Index, Waist-circumference and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Iranian Adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC alone.

Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

2013-01-01

260

Aerobic fitness and the hypohydration response to exercise-heat stress.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence that aerobic fitness (VO2 max) had on final heart rate (HR), final rectal temperature (Tre), and total body sweat rate (Msw) when subjects exercised while euhydrated and hypohydrated (-5.0% from baseline body weight). Eight male and six female subjects completed four exercise tests both before and after a 10-d heat acclimation program. The tests were a euhydration and a hypohydration exposure conducted in a comfortable (20 degrees C, 40% rh) and in a hot-dry (49 degrees C, 20% rh) environment. Significant differences were not generally found between the genders for HR, Tre and Msw during the tests. In the comfortable environment, HR, Tre and Msw were not generally significantly correlated (p greater than 0.05) with VO2max. In the hot-dry environment, Tre and VO2max were significantly correlated (r = -0.58) when euhydrated before acclimation. HR was significantly related to VO2max before acclimation when eu- (r = -0.61) and hypohydrated (r = -0.60) as well as after acclimation when eu- (r = -0.57) and hypohydrated (r = -0.67). These data indicate that, when euhydrated in the heat, aerobic fitness provides cardiovascular and thermoregulatory benefits before acclimation, but only cardiovascular benefits after acclimation. However, when hypohydrated in the heat, cardiovascular benefits are present for fit subjects both before and after acclimation, but thermoregulatory benefits are not associated with fitness. PMID:6466246

Cadarette, B S; Sawka, M N; Toner, M M; Pandolf, K B

1984-06-01

261

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001) and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001) than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents.

O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

262

Kids Weigh to Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

Maione, Mary Jane

263

Fitness Testing Athletes  

PubMed Central

Fitness testing of athletes can be subdivided into tests of body build, strength, aerobic power, and tests specific to the athletic event. World class athletes seem to fall into specific body types for the individual events. The top athlete usually has very little of the endomorphic characteristics and should be lean. Strength testing should be used more frequently as weight and isometric training techniques are used by many athletes and coaches without specific goals. The aerobic power of many national class athletes may be only 10-30 percent above that of the general population, and high values were found only in cyclists and distance runners. It is emphasized that the scores of fitness tests are specific for each test and do not necessarily correlate at all with athletic performance which is also specific. Despite this limitation, fitness tests do have a place in athletics and should be utilized more fully and with more understanding by coaches and athletes. Imagesp48-a

Cumming, Gordon R.

1970-01-01

264

A survey of health-fitness evaluation centers.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three medically oriented private health-fitness evaluation centers in the United States were surveyed to determine the types of tests available, protocols used, the availability of exercise prescriptions, qualifications of employees, and facility use. All centers administered an electrocardiogram exercise tolerance test, but great variability existed with regard to the number and type of other tests given and services available. Questions in the survey explored the availability of cardiovascular, pulmonary function, musculoskeletal, body composition, and lifestyle evaluations. Some centers were restricted to testing solely for cardiovascular function, while others were complete wellness centers. The centers had a range of 8 to 325 patrons per month, and in general, they tested more men than women.

Maud, P J; Longmuir, G E

1983-01-01

265

Changes in Body Fat Distribution and Fitness Are Associated With Changes in Hemoglobin A1c After 9 Months of Exercise Training: Results from the HART-D study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations between changes in body composition and fitness after exercise training and changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 201) were randomized to aerobic, resistance, or combined training for 9 months. HbA1c, waist circumference, total and trunk fat mass, appendicular fat mass, lean body mass, isokinetic leg muscle strength, peak O2 uptake, and estimated METs were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Change in HbA1c was evaluated across quartiles of change in body composition and fitness. RESULTS Change in HbA1c was associated with changes in body weight (r = 0.13, P = 0.052), waist circumference (r = 0.17, P = 0.013), trunk fat mass (r = 0.19, P = 0.005), and estimated METs (r = -0.16, P = 0.023). There was a trend in change in HbA1c across quartiles of waist circumference (P = 0.011), trunk fat mass (P = 0.020), and estimated METs (P = 0.011). Participants with increased estimated METs and reduced trunk fat mass had greater odds of having reduced HbA1c after training (3.48, 1.46-8.31). Finally, participants with increased estimated METs and reduced waist circumference were 2.81 (1.13-6.98) times more likely to have reduced HbA1c and type 2 diabetes medication use than those without improved fitness and central adiposity. CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 2 diabetes, a reduction in central adiposity and increase in fitness were the most prominent predictors of the change in HbA1c in response to exercise training. PMID:23670995

Sénéchal, Martin; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Blair, Steven N; Earnest, Conrad P; Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S

2013-05-13

266

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. Results In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. Conclusions We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive abilities of waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference on the metabolic disease.

Guasch-Ferre, Marta; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Aros, Fernando; Warnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, Jose; Munoz, Miguel Angel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pinto, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Diaz-Lopez, Andres; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

2012-01-01

267

Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

1992-01-01

268

Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of

Peter L Kristensen; Niels Wedderkopp; Niels C Møller; Lars B Andersen; Charlotte N Bai; Karsten Froberg

2006-01-01

269

Fitness Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners partner up to complete several physical exercises and assess their starting fitness level. Over the course of 6 weeks, learners practice the activities and record their improvement. This is a simple way to get young learners interested in practicing fitness. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. They can also keep track of their progress in all of the Kinetic City activities, and compare their progress to other participants worldwide.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

270

Children and Fitness: A Public Health Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article discusses what is known about children's fitness based on numerous small-scale studies. Specifically addressed are issues of cardiovascular fitness, effects of training, participation in physical activity, and behavioral carryovers to adulthood. Six articles follow that comment on and critique the first. (Author/MT)

Simons-Morton, Bruce; And Others

1987-01-01

271

Crisis in Youth Fitness and Wellness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current studies suggest that children today are less physically fit, are more obese, and have less healthy cardiovascular systems than their peers of 10 years ago. Obesity affects more than fitness; it is a major health problem. Physical education specialists, teachers, administrators, parents, and business leaders can cooperate to change this…

Vogel, Paul R.

1991-01-01

272

Inclusive fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the prisoner's dilemma (PD) has been used extensively to study reciprocal altruism, here we show that the n-player prisoner's dilemma (NPD) is also central to two other prominent theories of the evolution of altruism: inclusive fitness and multilevel selection. An NPD model captures the essential factors for the evolution of altruism directly in its parameters and integrates important aspects

Andy Gardner; Martin Zwick

2011-01-01

273

Evaluation of an aquatics programme on fitness parameters of individuals with a brain injury.  

PubMed

The primary objective was to determine the effect of an aquatic exercise programme on the physical fitness of people with a brain injury. A pre-test-post-test randomized-groups design was conducted. Sixteen outpatients with a brain injury were included in the study. Eight participants were assigned to an aquatic exercise group and eight to a control group. The components of physical fitness measured included cardiovascular endurance, body composition, muscular strength and endurance and flexibility. Measurements were taken pre- and post-programme. Results indicated an increase in components of physical fitness for the experimental group but not the control group. Increases in fitness were reported as having a positive impact on the functional capacity of individuals in the exercise group as well as enhancing the individual's ability to complete activities of daily living successfully. Results indicate that aquatic exercise may positively impact the primary and secondary physical injuries caused by a brain injury. PMID:15223738

Driver, Simon; O'connor, John; Lox, Curt; Rees, Keely

2004-09-01

274

Leptin and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

1. Leptin is a 16-kDa hormone, synthesized primarily by adipocyte, which acts as a key factor for maintenance of energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues. In most obese individuals, serum leptin levels are increased and correlate with the individual's body mass index. 2. Abundant investigations ranging from clinical and animal model studies to in vitro analyses show that leptin plays a pivotal role in obesity-related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hyperleptinaemia has been confirmed to be a predictor of acute cardiovascular events. However, some studies have shown that leptin has a cardioprotective effect in leptin-deficient models. These data suggest the influences of leptin on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases are complex and not completely understood. 3. In the present review, we summarize the major leptin signalling pathways, including Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) signalling pathways, and analyse the probable mechanisms of selective leptin resistance. We then provide a detailed review of the effects of leptin on the cardiovascular system, including sympathoactivation, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vascular cell proliferation, cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as well as fatty acid metabolism, all of which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease). The central premise of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms by which leptin affects the cardiovascular function and provide insight into obesity-related CVD. PMID:21957899

Hou, Ning; Luo, Jian-Dong

2011-12-01

275

Self-rated health status and cardiorespiratory fitness as predictors of mortality in men.  

PubMed

Self-rated health (SRH) and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) are independent risk factors for all-cause mortality. The purpose of this report is to examine the single and joint effects of these exposures on mortality risk. The study included 18 488 men who completed a health survey, clinical examination and a maximal exercise treadmill test during 1987-2003. Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the associations of SRH and fitness with all-cause mortality. There were 262 deaths during 17 years of follow-up. There was a significant inverse trend (p(trend) <0.05) for mortality across SRH categories after adjustment for age, examination year, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, abnormal ECG, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Adjustment for fitness attenuated the association (p value =0.09). The authors also observed an inverse association between fitness and mortality after controlling for the same covariates and SRH (p(trend) = 0.006). The combined analysis of SRH and fitness showed that fit men with good or excellent SRH had a 58% lower risk of mortality than their counterparts. SRH and fitness were both associated with all-cause mortality in men. Fit men with good or excellent SRH live longer than unfit men with poor or fair SRH. PMID:21659563

Gander, Jennifer; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hébert, James R; Hooker, Steven P; Blair, Steven N

2011-06-09

276

Sports Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

... result. And be sure that you use your body and your equipment safely. What you eat and drink is also important. Water is the most important nutrient for active people. Drink it before, during and after workouts.

277

Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey  

PubMed Central

Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ?20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

2013-01-01

278

Boundary-Fitted Curvilinear Coordinate Systems for Solution of Partial Differential Equations on Fields Containing Any Number of Arbitrary Two-Dimensional Bodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is presented for automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multi-connected two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies...

C. W. Mastin F. C. Thames J. F. Thompson

1977-01-01

279

Physical characteristics related to bra fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper

Chin-Man Chen; Karen LaBat; Elizabeth Bye

2010-01-01

280

Systems and methods for improved apparel fit  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Systems and methods for providing garments with improved and customized fits to one or more target consumer groups fit are described in the present invention. One method provides for a garment fit to a target consumer group comprising the steps of determining common body types for the target consumer group, establishing customized body measurement standards for each body type, selecting at least one real fit model for each body type, creating a sample garment in a range of sizes using grading rules, checking each sample garment on a fit model selected for each size and body type, preparing a block for each sample garment size and body type, and using the block to provide a garment fit for a target consumer group. Additional aspects are also disclosed.

2006-08-15

281

Chandra FITS Dictionary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-defined data and metadata specifications are fundamental for the operation of large observing facilities. We have collected the complete body of FITS keywords, as used in Chandra data products, into a dictionary database that provides easy access to their use and meaning. We present an account of the functionality of the dictionary, as well as a description of the database design and details of the tools which display the dictionary.

Winkelman, S. L.; Rots, A. H.; Michaud, K.; Blecksmith, S. E.

2004-07-01

282

Cardiovascular Screening before Exercise  

PubMed Central

The cost of health care continues to rise as we deal with changes in the natural history of disease and deploy increasingly advanced medical technology for diagnosis and treatment. A different focus must be established if we are to control both disease and our health-care budget. One area of promise is preventive medicine. Improved fitness through exercise is one component in this approach, and increasing numbers of the general public are choosing this positive lifestyle change. Patients are seeking the advice and blessing of the primary-care physician before engaging in physical activity. In order to prescribe safe exercise, physicians must be able to screen individuals for possible contraindications and to evaluate their current fitness levels. This article describes a comprehensive cardiovascular system screen, including history, physical, lab work, and fitness appraisal, and reviews the current recommendations for treadmill stress testing.

Pottle, Kent

1988-01-01

283

Tea and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk.

Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

284

The Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project: the relations between program attendance and changes in outcomes in year 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the relations of attendance of children in an after-school physical activity (PA) program to changes in body composition and cardiovascular fitness (CVF).Design:Eight-month after-school PA-based intervention.Subjects:In all, 278 third-grade boys and girls from nine elementary schools (age, 8.7 y (s.d.=0.6 y), body mass index (BMI) 19.1 kg\\/m2 (s.d.=4.4) and percent body fat (%BF) 26.0 (s.d.=9.0)).Measurements:Body composition (from dual-energy X-ray

Z Yin; J B Moore; M H Johnson; P Barbeau; M Cavnar; J Thornburg; B Gutin

2005-01-01

285

TOMCAT — A code for numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure and availability of the FORTRAN code for a method for automatic numerical generation of curvilinear coordinate systems with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected, two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies is described. No restrictions are placed on the shape of the boundaries, which may even be time dependent, and the approach

JOE F. THOMPSON; FRANK C. THAMES; C. WAYNE MASTIN

1977-01-01

286

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

287

A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk-1 for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key points Participation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group. All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of exercise is worth investigating further for adherence and efficacy. This was the first randomized, placebo-exercise controlled trial to be conducted, examining the effects of martial arts training alone on body composition in sedentary overweight/obese adolescents. Larger, longer-term trials are required to confirm our findings.

Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

2009-01-01

288

Whole Body Metabolism Is Not Restricted to D-Sugars because Energy Metabolism of L-Sugars Fits a Computational Model in Rats1»2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can i -sugars contribute to whole body energy metabolism? Energy balance studies were un dertaken in rats fed i-sugars at a rate of 10 g\\/100 g basal diet. Partial metabolizable energy values (MEVP) during the last 28 of 56 d while consuming the i -sugar diets showed that i -glucose contributed no energy (0.3 ±0.9 kJ\\/g, P > 0.5, mean

G. LIVESEY; C. BROWN

289

Effects of Increased Consumption of Fluid Milk on Energy and Nutrient Intake, Body Weight, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the impact of increased consumption of milk, without other dietary advice, on older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, weight, cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, plasma lipid levels), and quality of life.Subjects\\/setting Two hundred four healthy men and women, aged 55 to 85 years, who consumed fewer than 1.5 dairy servings per day were chosen from six US

SUSAN I BARR; DAVID A McCARRON; ROBERT P HEANEY; BESS DAWSON-HUGHES; SARAH L BERGA; JUDITH S STERN; SUZANNE OPARIL

2000-01-01

290

Systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure in the elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study and the Health, Ageing and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe exact form of the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart failure (HF) risk in the elderly remains incompletely defined, especially in individuals not receiving antihypertensive drugs.ObjectiveTo examine the association between SBP and HF risk in the elderly.DesignCompeting-risks proportional hazards modelling of incident HF risk, using 10-year follow-up data from two NIH-sponsored cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study

Javed Butler; Andreas P Kalogeropoulos; Vasiliki V Georgiopoulou; Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; Samer S Najjar; Kim C Sutton-Tyrrell; Tamara B Harris; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Donald M Lloyd-Jones; Anne B Newman; Bruce M Psaty

2011-01-01

291

Clothing fit preferences of young female adult consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper explores the relationships between body type and fit preferences with body cathexis, clothing benefits sought by consumers, and demographic profiles of consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The survey instrument consisted of a questionnaire with scales assessing fit preference, body type, body cathexis, clothing benefits sought and consumer demographics. Findings – Significant associations were found between body cathexis (satisfaction

Marina Alexander; Lenda Jo Connell; Ann Beth Presley

2005-01-01

292

NSUSY fits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a global fit to Higgs signal-strength data in the context of light stops in Natural SUSY. In this case, the Wilson coefficients of the higher dimensional operators mediating gg ? h and h ? ??, given by c g , c ? , are related by c g = 3 (1 + 3 ? s /(2?)) c ? /8. We examine this predictive scenario in detail, combining Higgs signal-strength constraints with recent precision measurements of m W , Br( overline{B} ? X s ?) constraints and direct collider bounds on weak scale SUSY, finding regions of parameter space that are consistent with all of these constraints. However it is challenging for the allowed parameter space to reproduce the observed Higgs mass value with sub-TeV stops. We discuss some of the direct stop discovery prospects and show how Higgs search data can be used to exclude light stop parameter space difficult to probe by direct collider searches. We determine the current status of such indirect exclusions and estimate their reach by the end of the 8 TeV LHC run.

Espinosa, José R.; Grojean, Christophe; Sanz, Verónica; Trott, Michael

2012-12-01

293

Commencing growth hormone replacement in adults with a fixed low dose. Effects on serum lipoproteins, glucose metabolism, body composition, and cardiovascular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and effects of a fixed low dose of growth hormone (GH), 0.17 mg\\/day was evaluated for 3 months, on glucose metabolism, serum lipids, body composition and cardiac function in 53 GH deficient adults aged 18–78 years. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body water was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Echocardiography was used to

P. Gillberg; M. Bramnert; M. Thorén; S. Werner; G. Johannsson

2001-01-01

294

Aerobic Fitness: What Are We Measuring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic fitness depends upon the components of oxygen delivery and the oxidative mechanisms of the exercising muscle. Peak oxygen uptake is recognised as the best single criterion of aerobic fitness but it is strongly correlated with body size. Methods of controlling for body size are discussed and it is demonstrated how inappropriate use of ratio scaling has clouded our understanding

N. Armstrong; J. Welsman

2007-01-01

295

Expanded Air Force Physical Fitness Battery: Muscle Strength, Muscle Endurance, and Flexibility Considered. Volume I, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current Air Force fitness test is a submaximal cycle ergometry test which is used to estimate cardiovascular fitness. Interest in adding to this fitness requirement has arisen from several quarters. CSERIAC, the Crew System Ergonomics Information Anal...

B. Palmer J. Soest

1997-01-01

296

Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention reduces the estimated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Current guidelines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle. However, successful lifestyle intervention is proving to be a challenge for healthcare professionals. Objectives Evaluation of the effect of lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors, on reaching treatment targets and on the estimated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods The effect of a six-month multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme was assessed in 186 patients with and without a history of CVD. Results Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention reduced the estimated ten-year risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without a history of CVD, the absolute risk reduction was higher in patients with a history of CVD. In both groups blood pressure and body weight decreased, and the maximal work rate and maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly. Blood levels of total cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL ratio decreased significantly in patients with a history of CVD. In addition, target levels for blood pressure and physical fitness were more frequently reached in both patient groups. Conclusion Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without evidence of cardiovascular disease. Follow-up is needed to see how well these effects can be maintained.

Sprangers, R.L.H.; Stam, F.; Smid, H.E.C.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hellemans, I.M.

2004-01-01

297

Cardiovascular phantom  

SciTech Connect

A cardiovascular phantom is described for providing the proper indexing of a cine camera for X-Ray cineangiography consisting of: a plastic boardlike substrate; a metallic X-Ray absorptive material configured with the arborescent outline of a system of coronary arteries on the plastic boardlike substrate for absorbing X-Rays; and a covering material for the board.

Ridge, W.B.

1988-12-27

298

Relations of total physical activity and intensity to fitness and fatness in children: the European Youth Heart Study1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Itisunclearhowtheamountandintensityofphysical activity (PA) are associated with cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and body fatness in children. Objective: We aimed to examine the associations of total PA and intensity levels to CVF and fatness in children. Design: A cross-sectional study of 780 children aged 9-10 y from Sweden and Estonia was conducted. PA was measured by acceler- ometry and was expressed as min\\/d

Jonatan R Ruiz; Nico S Rizzo; Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf; Francisco B Ortega; Julia Warnberg; Michael Sjöström

299

Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

Tucker, Larry A.

1990-01-01

300

Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

Tucker, Larry A.

1990-01-01

301

Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.  

PubMed

In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

Costa, James T

2013-10-16

302

Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of ?-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

In therapy of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal dietary approach with regard to its macronutrient composition and metabolically favourable food components, such as the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA), is still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of a hypoenergetic diet with low energy density (ED) enriched in rapeseed oil, resulting in high MUFA content and an ALA intake of 3.5 g/d on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in eighty-one patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison with an olive oil diet rich in MUFA, but with a low ALA content. After a 6-month dietary intervention, body weight was significantly reduced in the rapeseed oil and olive oil groups ( -7.8 v. -6.0 kg; P < 0.05). There were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and insulin levels in both groups (P < 0.05). For all of these changes, no inter-group differences were observed. After the rapeseed oil diet, diastolic blood pressure declined more than after the olive oil diet (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). Furthermore, concentrations of serum TAG were significantly reduced after the high ALA intake, but not in the low ALA group (P < 0.05 for time × group interaction). In conclusion, our dietary food pattern with a low ED and high intakes of MUFA and ALA may be a practical approach for long-term dietary treatment in patients with the metabolic syndrome, leading to weight reduction and an improvement in the overall cardiovascular risk profile. PMID:22894911

Baxheinrich, Andrea; Stratmann, Bernd; Lee-Barkey, Young Hee; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Wahrburg, Ursel

2012-08-01

303

[Staying fit after fifty].  

PubMed

It is common knowledge that when women reach the menopause, they put on weight and change body shape. The menopause is particularly feared as a sign of aging. The deficiency in estrogen at the menopause is responsible for the change from a gynoid fat pattern to an android one (i.e. fat accumulates on the upper portion of the abdomen instead of on the hips). In addition, women are no longer protected against CardioVascular Diseases (CVD), and will rapidly share the same risks as men. The menopause is marked by an increase in the prevalence of various CVD risk factors: elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, Diabetes, etc. This phenomenon may be explained by an increase in the occurrence of the polymetabolic (PM) syndrome at this time of life. In the IDF ((International Diabetics Federation) 2005 definition, waist circumference becomes the main criterion of PM syndrome. Keeping a slim waist can no longer be considered a woman's vain obsession but a justified health concern, since the waist to height ratio is a better predictor of CVD than BMI (Body Mass Index). A diet and healthcare program is now available which, if followed from the age of 35, can help women live 'in good shape' and for longer. PMID:16996770

Berdah, J

2006-09-25

304

Cardiovascular Proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional cardiovascular proteomics includes the comparative large-scale determination of protein profiles and the identification\\u000a of individual proteins of myocardial tissue from different species including humans. The goal of these studies consisted,\\u000a and still consists, in the establishment of comprehensive proteome databases. By comparison with protein profiles from diseased\\u000a tissues such databases will enable to an increasing degree the fast identification

Rainer Klocke; Sergiu Scobioala; Sigrid Nikol

305

Aromatherapy for sports and fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the use of aromatherapy for achieving excellence in sports and fitness. Aromatherapy is the science of holistic approach for taking care of the body and mind using pleasant smelling of botanical oils. It has been extensively studied and found to be one of the fastest growing areas of alternative medicine. There have been numerous studies showing different

Preeti Sharma; Tilak R Meena

2010-01-01

306

The Effects of Growth Hormone and Sex Steroid on Lean Body Mass, Fat Mass, Muscle Strength, Cardiovascular Endurance and Adverse Events in Healthy Elderly Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreases in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I occur with age, in addition to oestrogen deficiency in women and a reduction in the levels of testosterone in men. These age-related hormonal changes may contribute to reductions in lean body mass, muscle strength and cardiac endurance, which can be partially reversed in elderly people with GH treatment, and testosterone

S. Mitchell Harman; Marc R. Blackman

2003-01-01

307

Cardiovascular physiology: mechanisms of control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to maintain homeostasis, the heart must pump blood commensurate with the metabolic needs of the body and do so at a pressure that is adequate to perfuse the vital organs. Basic cardiovascular physiology is reviewed and emphasis is place on those factors that are important in the control of cardiac output, heart rate and blood pressure.

Abbott, Jonathan A.

2001-10-01

308

A journey toward wholeness, a journey to God: physical fitness as embodied spirituality.  

PubMed

Physical fitness expressed through exercise can be, if done with the right intention, a form of spiritual discipline that reflects the relational love of humanity to God as well as an expression of a healthy love of the embodied self. Through an analysis of the physiological benefits of exercise science applied to the human body, this paper will demonstrate how such attention to the optimal physical fitness of the body, including weight and cardiovascular training and nutrition, is an affirmation of three foundational theological principles of human embodiment: as created in the "imago Dei", as unified body/spirit, and as part of God's creation calling for proper stewardship. In a contemporary climate where women's bodies in particular are viewed through the lens of commodification-as visual objects for sale based on prescribed notions of superficial esthetics and beauty-as well as the consistently high rates of eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and obesity, authors Greenwood and Delgado offer a vision of how women and men can imagine a subjective relationship with their own bodies that reflects the abundant love of God for God's creation. Spoken from the lived experience of professional fitness competitor and trainer, as well as trained biokineticist, Dr. Greenwood presents the most current scientific data in the field of biokinetics that grounds the theological analysis offered by Dr. Delgado, whose personal journey through anorexia and scholarly emphasis on Christian theological anthropology inform this work. Taken together, Greenwood and Delgado suggest a response to God's love for humanity, including our physical bodily humanity, which entails a responsibility to attend to the physical fitness of our bodies in order to live into the fullness, flourishing and love of God's creation as God intended. PMID:22005967

Greenwood, Tracey C; Delgado, Teresa

2013-09-01

309

Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to summarize the latest developments with regard to physical fitness and several health outcomes in young people. The literature reviewed suggests that (1) cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with total and abdominal adiposity; (2) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness are shown to be associated with established and emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors; (3) improvements in muscular fitness

F B Ortega; J R Ruiz; M J Castillo; M Sjöström

2008-01-01

310

Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting…

Rivkin, Mary S.

2007-01-01

311

Promoting Exercise and Physical Fitness in the Medical School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elective course focusing on exercise physiology and cardiovascular fitness offered at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine consists of weekly lectures and student self-designed fitness programs. Student participation correlates with significantly increased levels of student maximum oxygen consumption, a moderate training effect.…

Cohen, Jerome D.; And Others

1988-01-01

312

Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

1996-01-01

313

Relationship between homocysteine and cardiorespiratory fitness is sex-dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated plasma homocysteine is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, there have been conflicting reports of the relationship between physical activity and homocysteine. A more objective measure of physical activity is cardiorespiratory fitness; however, its relationship with homocysteine has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness

Jeff S. Coombes; David I. Fraser; James E. Sharman; Christine Booth

2004-01-01

314

Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)|

Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

1996-01-01

315

Fit-testing for firefighters.  

PubMed

When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect respirator fit, such as facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight. PMID:9891408

Brickman, C P

1999-01-01

316

[Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations. PMID:17990383

Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

2007-10-01

317

Migraine and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Migraine, especially migraine with aura (MA), is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication, and cardiovascular mortality. The mechanisms which link migraine to ischemic vascular disease remain uncertain and are likely to be complex. Cortical spreading depression, the presumed substrate of aura, may directly predispose to brain lesions and that would explain why MA is consistently demonstrated as a risk factor for cerebral ischemia, while for migraine without aura (MO), the evidence is less consistent. Additionally, individuals with migraine have a higher prevalence of risk factors known to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. The increased prevalence of CVD risk factors is also higher for MA than for MO. Since the evidence linking migraine and CVD is getting robust, neurologists should be aware of this association. Individuals with MO seem to be at little increased risk of CVD. MA is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and likely also for other ischemic CVD events. Accordingly, heightened vigilance is recommended for modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in migraineurs, especially with MA. Ultimately, it will be important to determine whether MA is a modifiable risk factor for CVD and if preventive medications for migraine or antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of CVD in patients with MA. GLOSSARY BMI = body mass index; CDH = chronic daily headache; CI = confidence interval; CSD = cortical spreading depression; CVD = cardiovascular disease; EPC = endothelial progenitor cells; HR = hazard ratio; MA = migraine with aura; MMP = matrix metalloproteinase; MO = migraine without aura; MTHFR = methyltetrahydrofolate reductase; RR = relative risk.

Bigal, M E.; Kurth, T; Hu, H; Santanello, N; Lipton, R B.

2009-01-01

318

Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197) were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure). Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

Grace, Sherry L; Fry, Rick; Cheung, Angela; Stewart, Donna E

2004-01-01

319

Body Dimensions for Apparel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents a compilation of body dimensions that are used in the manufacturing and fitting of apparel. It is the result of a comparison of five body measurements reports, including documentations of national and international apparel sizing st...

Y. T. T. Lee

1994-01-01

320

Physical fitness testing in the West of Scotland — health counselling and individual fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a health education programme dealing with cardiovascular disease and the risk factors amenable to personal control, adult volunteers from communi ty centres and the workplace provided information about their lifestyles, including smoking habits and level of physical activity, and completed a battery of tests to assess current physical fitness. This informa tion was used primarily to counsel individuals on

Valerie Inglis; Edward McMillan; Elizabeth McIntyre; Martin Farrally

1984-01-01

321

The effects of pre- and post-exercise consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements on cardiovascular health and body fat in trained men after six weeks of resistance training: a stratified, randomized, double-blind study  

PubMed Central

Background The cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) in conjunction with periodized resistance training (RT) in resistance-trained men are unknown. This population is a major target audience for performance supplements, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of RT and commercially available pre- and post-exercise performance supplements on CV health and body fat in resistance-trained men. Methods Twenty-four resistance-trained men completed six weeks (three times/week) of periodized RT while either ingesting SHOT 15-min pre-exercise and SYN immediately post-exercise (multi-ingredient performance supplement group: MIPS) or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo 15-min pre-exercise and immediately post-exercise (Placebo group). Before and after six weeks of RT and supplementation, resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat, fat-free mass (FFM) and fasting blood measures of glucose, lipids, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), cortisol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using a one-way ANOVA for baseline differences and a 2?×?2 (group?×?time) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Significance was set at p?body fat. However, there was a time effect where significant decreases in body fat (mean?±?SD; MIPS: -1.2?±?1.2%; Placebo: -0.9?±?1.1%), android fat (MIPS: -1.8?±?2.1%; Placebo: -1.6?±?2.0%), and gynoid fat (MIPS: -1.3?±?1.6%; Placebo: -1.0?±?1.4%) for both groups were observed. FFM increased in both groups, and a group?×?time interaction was observed with MIPS increasing significantly more than the Placebo group (4.2% vs. 1.9%). Conclusions Six weeks of MIPS ingestion and periodized RT does not alter CV health parameters or blood indices of health or body fat more than a Placebo treatment in healthy, resistance-trained men. However, MIPS significantly increased FFM more than Placebo.

2013-01-01

322

Effects of soya isoflavones and exercise on body composition and clinical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in overweight postmenopausal women: a 6-month double-blind controlled trial.  

PubMed

Results from a pilot project indicate that isoflavones and exercise could have an additive effect on body composition and clinical risk factors of CVD in postmenopausal women. The objective of the present study was to assess the combined effect of exercise and isoflavones in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women. In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, 100 overweight-to-obese (BMI 29·9 (sd 3·2) kg/m2) postmenopausal women were assigned to four groups: (1) placebo (PLA); (2) isoflavones (ISO); (3) exercise and placebo (Ex+PLA); (4) exercise and isoflavones (Ex+ISO). The supplementation contained 70 mg/d of isoflavones. Exercise consisted of three weekly sessions of resistance training and aerobics. Outcome measures included fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density, lipid profile, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis assessment model). The main effects of exercise were observed for total FM (P = 0·02), FM% (P < 0·01), trunk FM% (P = 0·05), arm FM% (P < 0·01), leg FM% (P = 0·02), arm LBM (P < 0·01), leg LBM (P = 0·02) and C-reactive protein (P < 0·01). A main effect was detected for isoflavones in improving leg FM% (P = 0·05). No interactions were observed between isoflavones and exercise. In conclusion, it was observed that 6 months of exercise brought favourable changes in total FM, FM% and LBM in overweight postmenopausal women. No synergistic effects were observed between exercise and isoflavones. However, isoflavones could have a beneficial effect on leg FM%. PMID:21205384

Choquette, Stéphane; Riesco, Éléonor; Cormier, Éric; Dion, Tommy; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Dionne, Isabelle J

2010-12-17

323

Psychologic effects of cardiovascular conditioning: a controlled experiment.  

PubMed

Although there have been numerous studies documenting a relationship between physical fitness and psychologic functioning, few have employed the type of experimental design that would allow conclusions to be drawn regarding cause and effect. In the present study, college students were randomly assigned to a cardiovascular conditioning program or to a control program designed to give the appearance of physical training while minimizing cardiovascular benefits. Both groups were tested for cardiovascular fitness as well as on a number of self-rating scales before and after the 6-week program. The cardiovascular group demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in cardiovascular fitness than the control group and also tended to show a greater reduction in anxiety and greater increase in measures of general psychologic well-being. PMID:4048364

Goldwater, B C; Collis, M L

324

A Pretty Good Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We often look for a best-fit function to a set of data. This article describes how a "pretty good" fit might be better than a "best" fit when it comes to promoting conceptual understanding of functions. In a pretty good fit, students design the function themselves rather than choosing it from a menu; they use appropriate variable names; and they…

Erickson, Tim

2008-01-01

325

Effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on short-term morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting.  

PubMed

Although preoperative risk assessment for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been evaluated with multiple predictive models, none have incorporated a low level of cardiorespiratory fitness, which represents one of the strongest predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in subjects with and without heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as METs (1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min), and short-term morbidity and mortality after CABG. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database was queried for patients who underwent CABG from January 2002 to December 2010 at Beaumont Health Systems. Electronic medical records were reviewed for peak or symptom-limited exercise testing <90 days before CABG. Peak METs were estimated from the achieved treadmill speed, grade, and duration or the cycle ergometer workload, corrected for body weight. Patients who met eligibility criteria (n = 596) were categorized into 2 groups: those with reduced aerobic capacity (<5 METs [n = 78]) and those achieving ?5 METs (n = 518). Fisher's exact tests were used to compare preoperative aerobic capacity and short-term postoperative morbidity and mortality between the 2 groups. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, an inverse relation was found between cardiorespiratory fitness and complications after CABG. Specifically, low preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness (<5 METs) was associated with higher operative and 30-day mortality after CABG (p <0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness provides an independent and additive marker for mortality after CABG. PMID:23849973

Smith, James L; Verrill, Thomas A; Boura, Judy A; Sakwa, Marc P; Shannon, Francis L; Franklin, Barry A

2013-07-10

326

Adolescents with metabolic syndrome have a history of low aerobic fitness and physical activity levels  

PubMed Central

Purpose Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors that identifies individuals with the highest risk for heart disease. Two factors that may influence the MS are physical activity and aerobic fitness. This study determined if adolescent with the MS had low levels of aerobic fitness and physical activity as children. Methods This longitudinal, exploratory study had 389 participants: 51% girls, 84% Caucasian, 12% African American, 1% Hispanic, and 3% other races, from the State of North Carolina. Habitual physical activity (PA survey), aerobic fitness (VO2max), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and lipids obtained at 7–10 y of age were compared to their results obtained 7 y later at ages 14–17 y. Results Eighteen adolescents (4.6%) developed 3 or more characteristics of the MS. Logistic regression, adjusting for BMI percentile, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels, found that adolescents with the MS were 6.08 (95%CI = 1.18–60.08) times more likely to have low aerobic fitness as children and 5.16 (95%CI = 1.06–49.66) times more likely to have low PA levels. Conclusion Low levels of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness are associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Thus, efforts need to begin early in childhood to increase exercise.

McMurray, Robert G; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Harrell, Joanne S; Amorim, Leila D

2008-01-01

327

Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

1997-01-01

328

Dance for health: improving fitness in African American and Hispanic adolescents.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease begins early in life but might be prevented or delayed by primary prevention programs designed for children and adolescents. Regular physical activity is an important part of primary prevention programs, and school physical education programs have potential for the promotion of regular physical activity. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death among Hispanics and African Americans in the United States. Low levels of fitness and increased body mass index are common in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Increased physical activity and the adoption of healthy eating habits would increase fitness and reduce body mass index among these adolescents. The purpose of the study was to undertake a small-scale controlled trial to determine if Dance for Health, an intervention program designed to provide an enjoyable aerobic program for African American and Hispanic adolescents, has a significant effect on improving aerobic capacity, helping students maintain or decrease weight, and on improving attitudes toward physical activity and physical fitness. In the first year of the program (1990-91), approximately 110 boys and girls ages 10-13 years participated in an aerobic dance pilot program three times per week for 12 weeks. Dance for Health was revised and continued in the 1992-93 school year with seventh grade students and an added culturally sensitive health curriculum. Forty-three students were randomized to Dance for Health and 38 to usual physical activity. Those in the intervention class received a health education curriculum twice a week and a dance oriented physical education class three times a week. The usual physical activity consisted mostly of playground activities. Students in the intervention had a significantly greater lowering in body mass index and resting heart rate than students in regular physical activity. PMID:7630998

Flores, R

329

Multimodality Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Technology  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a new discipline that integrates scientific advances in both functional imaging and molecular probes to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the cardiovascular system. These advances are driven by in vivo imaging of molecular processes in animals, usually small animals, and are rapidly moving toward clinical applications. Molecular imaging has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The 2 key components of all molecular imaging systems are the molecular contrast agents and the imaging system providing spatial and temporal localization of these agents within the body. They must deliver images with the appropriate sensitivity and specificity to drive clinical applications. As work in molecular contrast agents matures and highly sensitive and specific probes are developed, these systems will provide the imaging technologies required for translation into clinical tools. This is the promise of molecular medicine.

O'Donnell, Matthew; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Strauss, H. William; Tanaka, Atsushi; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Guttman, Michael A.; Garcia, Ernest V.

2010-01-01

330

Prediction of Body Weight from Body Measurements in Morkaraman Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topai, M. and Macit, M. 2004. Prediction of body weight from body measurements in Morkaraman sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 97–100.In this research, linear regression models were used for estimation of body weights from various body measurements in Morkaraman sheep. Simple and multiple regression models were fitted with body weight (BW) as dependent variable and body length (BL), heart

Mehmet Topai; Muhlis Macit

2004-01-01

331

Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study).  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Cardiovascular risk factors were obtained in youth and in young adulthood. Associations were examined using multivariable-adjusted regression models including major confounding factors. RESULTS: Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth (0.17 N/kg) was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; -0.60 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.97 to -0.22), triglyceride (-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (-1.22 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.29) and a composite cardiovascular risk factor score (-0.61 SD, 95% CI -1.03 to -0.20) in young adulthood in multivariable-adjusted analyses including fitness. Associations to triglyceride, diastolic BP and the cardiovascular risk factor score remained with additional adjustment for waist circumference or BMI. Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth was significantly associated with 0.59 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.87) lower odds of general overweight/obesity in young adulthood (p=0.007) and was marginally associated with incident raised BP, raised triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that greater isometric muscle strength in youth is associated with lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood independent of fitness, adiposity and other confounding factors. PMID:23525553

Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars Bo

2013-03-23

332

Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day?1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week?1 (NW and CW) or 2 day·week?1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults.

Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

2013-01-01

333

Effects of nordic walking compared to conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on fitness in older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day(-1) (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week(-1) (NW and CW) or 2 day·week(-1) (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key PointsNordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults.Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not.Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking.Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Rogers, Nicole L; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

2013-09-01

334

Could sport specialization influence fitness and health of adults with mental retardation?  

PubMed

Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in recreational and leisure activity programs (non-athletic people); (b) contribution of sport specialization on athletes' fitness; and c) correlation of each fitness variable with subjects' ID levels. Twenty-two track and field, 19 basketball, and 23 non-athletic adults were recruited. Before and after a 9-month period, all participants performed fitness tests assessing body composition, flexibility (SR), arm muscular strength (HG), lower and upper-body muscular strength and endurance (SUP and PUP), explosive leg power (SLJ), cardiovascular endurance (ST), balance ability (FT), motor coordination (TUGT). The results showed that participants' weight, BMI and FT were significantly affected by time; SLJ by activity; ST, HG, PUP, SUP, and TUGT by both time and activity. Only track and field athletes increased significantly ST. All athletes improved significantly HG, PUP and SUP, instead non-athletic people decreased significantly SUP (p<0.01). TUGT improved significantly in track and field athletes (p<0.05), and decreased significantly in non-athletic people. ID level was positively correlated to TUGT. Findings of this study showed that physical activity improved fitness in adult athletes with ID, decreasing health risks. Athletes with lower ID obtained higher performance scores in motor coordination test. PMID:20434307

Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

2010-05-14

335

Physical fitness, fatigue, and quality of life after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue is often experienced after liver transplantation. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess physical fitness\\u000a (cardiorespiratory fitness, neuromuscular fitness, body composition) in liver transplant recipients and to explore whether\\u000a physical fitness is related to severity of fatigue. In addition, we explored the relationship between physical fitness and\\u000a health-related quality of life. Included were 18 patients 1–5 years after

Berbke T. J. van Ginneken; Rita J. G. van den Berg-Emons; Geert Kazemier; Herold J. Metselaar; Hugo W. Tilanus; Henk J. Stam

2007-01-01

336

Family Activities for Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.|

Grosse, Susan J.

2009-01-01

337

Youth Physical Fitness Awards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article explores theoretical and practical factors that support or challenge the effectiveness of various awards programs intended to motivate improvement in youth fitness, motivate youth to take fitness tests, and encourage active lifestyles. (Author/CB)|

Corbin, Charles B.; And Others

1988-01-01

338

Fitness for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Fitness Inactivity in front of a computer or television contributes to children being out of shape. Fitness ... org/topic.cfm?topic=A00038) Weightbearing Exercise for Women and Girls Weightbearing Exercise for Women and Girls ( ...

339

CARDIOVASCULAR AND METABOLIC RESPONSES TO WALKING WITH AND WITHOUT LEG BLOOD FLOW REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-intensity walking with leg blood flow reduction has been shown to elicit a significant increase in skeletal muscle size and strength, and may also improve cardiovascular fitness. However, the cardiovascular and respiratory response to walking with blood flow reduction has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular and metabolic responses during a graded maximum

Hayao Ozaki; Keiko Kusuhara; Yoshiaki Sato; William F. Brechue; Futoshi Ogita

340

Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their…

Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

2008-01-01

341

Men's consumption of fitness and exercise: An exploration of motivations for exercise and fitness involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals in the U.S. have become increasingly involved in fitness and exercise within the last decade. As health of Americans decreases due to unhealthy diets and stresses of family and career coupled with society's obsession with attractiveness and physical appearance, more individuals are turning to exercise and fitness to get healthy and enhance the physical appearance of the body (Bordo,

Melissa Lynne Jakubauskas

2010-01-01

342

Cardiorespiratory fitness of obese boys.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and may be linked to coronary heart diseases that appear later in life but its risk related behaviour patterns are evident during childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in obese boys of West Bengal, India. Obese boys (N = 49) in the age range of 10-16 years were separated from their non-obese counterparts (N = 70) according to international age-wise cut off points of body mass index (BMI) and VO2max was evaluated by Queen's College Step Test (QCT). Lean body mass (LBM) was measured by skinfold method. Absolute VO2max was significantly higher (P<0.001) among obese boys because of higher values of body mass and LBM, which in turn exhibited significant correlation (r = 0.82 and r = 0.93, respectively; P<0.001) with VO2max. But VO2max per kg of body mass was significantly higher among non-obese boys but the VO2max per unit of body surface area was significantly higher (P<0.001) in obese group. VO2max is largely dependent on body mass and LBM whereas excessive fat mass imposes unfavourable burden on cardiac function and oxygen uptake by working muscles. This indicates that reduced oxygen utilization by adipose tissue during exercise reduces the overall VO2max. PMID:16440856

Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

343

Dance for health: improving fitness in African American and Hispanic adolescents.  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease begins early in life but might be prevented or delayed by primary prevention programs designed for children and adolescents. Regular physical activity is an important part of primary prevention programs, and school physical education programs have potential for the promotion of regular physical activity. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death among Hispanics and African Americans in the United States. Low levels of fitness and increased body mass index are common in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Increased physical activity and the adoption of healthy eating habits would increase fitness and reduce body mass index among these adolescents. The purpose of the study was to undertake a small-scale controlled trial to determine if Dance for Health, an intervention program designed to provide an enjoyable aerobic program for African American and Hispanic adolescents, has a significant effect on improving aerobic capacity, helping students maintain or decrease weight, and on improving attitudes toward physical activity and physical fitness. In the first year of the program (1990-91), approximately 110 boys and girls ages 10-13 years participated in an aerobic dance pilot program three times per week for 12 weeks. Dance for Health was revised and continued in the 1992-93 school year with seventh grade students and an added culturally sensitive health curriculum. Forty-three students were randomized to Dance for Health and 38 to usual physical activity. Those in the intervention class received a health education curriculum twice a week and a dance oriented physical education class three times a week. The usual physical activity consisted mostly of playground activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Flores, R

1995-01-01

344

Construct validation of a non-exercise measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality but is rarely assessed in medical settings due to burdens of time, cost, risk, and resources. The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a regression equation developed by Jurca and colleagues (2005) to estimate CRF without exercise testing in community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants (n = 172) aged 60 to 80 years with no contraindications to submaximal or maximal exercise testing completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) and the submaximal Rockport 1-mile walk test on separate occasions. Data included in the regression equation (age, sex, body mass index, resting heart rate, and physical activity) were obtained via measurement or self-report. Participants also reported presence of cardiovascular conditions. Results The multiple R for the regression equation was .72, p < .001 and CRF estimated from this equation was significantly correlated with the MET value from the GXT (r = 0.66) and with CRF estimated from submaximal field testing (r = 0.67). All three CRF indices were significantly and inversely associated with reporting more cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence that a non-exercise estimate of CRF is at least as valid as field test estimates of CRF and represents a low-risk, low-cost, and expedient method for estimating fitness in older adults.

2010-01-01

345

Transfer of cardiovascular forces through the body  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the importance of certain factors involved in the genesis of the ballistocardiogram, the transfer function relating\\u000a the blood flow in the ascending aorta and the velocity ballistocardiogram has been measured in dogs. This complex transfer\\u000a function is determined by the characteristics of the arterial system such as pulse wave velocity, anatomical distribution\\u000a of the blood vessels etc. The

G. Elzinga; N. Westerhof; G. C. van den Bos; P. D. Verdouw

1974-01-01

346

In situ repair of a failed compression fitting  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

1985-08-05

347

Relationships between physical fitness, physical activity, smoking and metabolic and mental health parameters in people with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Low physical fitness has been recognised as a prominent behavioural risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. No studies have systematically assessed physical fitness compared with a matched health control group in patients with schizophrenia. Eighty patients with schizophrenia and 40 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers were included. All participants performed an Eurofit test battery and filled out the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients additionally had a fasting metabolic laboratory screening and were assessed for psychiatric symptoms. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significant differences from controls in whole body balance, explosive leg muscle strength, abdominal muscular endurance, and running speed. Inactive patients scored worse on most Eurofit items than patients walking for at least 30min per day. Low physical fitness was associated with illness duration, smoking, the presence of MetS and more severe negative, depressive and cognitive symptoms. Less physically active patients who smoke and suffer from high levels of negative, depressive and/or cognitive symptoms might benefit from specific rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. PMID:23051886

Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Scheewe, Thomas; De Herdt, Amber; Sweers, Kim; Knapen, Jan; van Winkel, Ruud; De Hert, Marc

2012-10-07

348

The Body Dysmorphic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Body Dysmorphic is a book of poetry situated around the absurdity of the human body in a world of fast advancing technologies, or around the body as a machine, a pump primed for sexual exertion in a cycle of life and death that is shit across the following pages while the poet grimaces and writhes in an overwhelming fit

Nicholas Grant Goodwin

2011-01-01

349

Fitness and evolutionary explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent philosophical discussions have failed to clarify the roles of the concept fitness in evolutionary theory. Neither the\\u000a propensity interpretation of fitness nor the construal of fitness as a primitive theoretical term succeed in explicating the\\u000a empirical content and explanatory power of the theory of natural selection. By appealing to the structure of simple mathematical\\u000a models of natural selection, we

Henry C. Byerly; Richard E. Michod

1991-01-01

350

Mutation Accumulation, Performance, Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The morphology-performance-fitness paradigm is usually explored by determining whether nat- ural or ''phenotypically engineered'' variation among individuals in morphology (physiology) or perfor- mance covaries with an index of fitness such as survival. Here we study between-line covariation between performance and fitness for 44 lines of flies that had undergone mutation accumulation (in the absence of natural selection) on the

RAYMOND B. HUEY; W. G ILCHRIST; K IMIORA WARD; L ISA MAVES; DAVID PEPIN; DAVID HOULE

2003-01-01

351

Leak test fitting  

DOEpatents

A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

Pickett, Patrick T. (Kettering, OH)

1981-01-01

352

Cardiovascular benefits of exercise.  

PubMed

Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460-377 BC) wrote "in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise." Plato (427-347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129-217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

Agarwal, Shashi K

2012-06-22

353

Changes in physical fitness parameters during a competitive field hockey season.  

PubMed

Competitive field hockey requires a substantial amount of muscular strength, speed, and cardiovascular endurance. It is unknown how these parameters of physical fitness change between preseason conditioning to postseason recovery. Therefore, Division III female field hockey athletes (n = 13) completed tests of muscular strength, body composition, and maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) during each phase of their season. Muscular strength was assessed using 1 repetition maximum (RM) leg and bench press tests. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry (skinfolds [SKF]), circumferences ([CC]), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Incremental treadmill testing was administered to assess Vo(2)max. Vo(2)max was unchanged during the season, although a trend (p > 0.05) was shown for a higher Vo(2)max during and after the season vs. before the season. Upper- (10%) and lower-body strength (14%) decreased (p > 0.05) during the season. Percent body fat (%BF) from BIA, fat mass (FM) from CC, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in-season and postseason vs. preseason. In conclusion, preseason training was effective in decreasing %BF and increasing Vo(2)max, yet muscular strength was lost. Coaches should incorporate more rigorous in-season resistance training to prevent strength decrements. Moreover, these data support the superior levels of muscular strength and leanness in these athletes compared with age-matched peers. PMID:15574105

Astorino, Todd A; Tam, Peter A; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Johnson, Stephen M; Freedman, Thomas P

2004-11-01

354

[Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].  

PubMed

The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

Picciotto, D

355

Uncertainty propagation: Curve fitting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn a sample-variance curve fitting method that can be used to determine whether a set of experimental data appears to have been generated by a model. This method is based on minimizing the reduced chi-squared value. This video includes a reminder to inspect normalized residuals before reporting fitted parameters.

Liao, David

356

Facing Up To Fitness  

PubMed Central

Becoming fit means preparing ourselves to cope more effectively with environmental stresses. Exercise programs represent one approach to the fitness struggle. There are alternatives for those who find regular exercise unappealing - Yoga, biofeedback training or self hypnosis. At the moment these techniques appear unscientific and spooky - but they work.

Schatz, Douglas

1974-01-01

357

Outfitting Campus Fitness Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how universities and colleges, both private and public, are including fitness centers as ways of increasing their student enrollment levels. Comments are provided on school experiences in fitness-center design, equipment purchasing, and maintenance and operating-costs issues. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

358

Fun & Fitness with Balloons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

2010-01-01

359

Youth Physical Fitness Awards  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 20 years national awards have been given to youth who have met predetermined standards on physical fitness test batteries. These awards were established to motivate improvements in youth fitness, to motivate youth to want to take fimess tests, and to encourage active lifestyles. Recently questions have been raised as to the effectiveness of these award schemes. Theoretical

Charles B. Corbin; James R. Whitehead; Peter Y. Lovejoy

1988-01-01

360

ACSM Fit Society Page  

MedlinePLUS

... Page include (click title to view): 2013 -- Overhauling Fitness: Breaking Plateaus 2013 -- Youth Sports Health and Safety 2012 -- Injury Management and Recovery 2012 -- On the Move 2012 -- Managing Chronic Disease 2012 -- DIY ... Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause ...

361

Fitness and Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

Nordholm, Catherine R.

362

Fitness in Disguise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physical fitness activities are often viewed as monotonous and tedious, so they fail to motivate students to become more physically active. This tedium could be relieved by using a "learning as play" strategy, widely used in other academic disciplines. This article describes how to incorporate fitness into a variety of games so that students do…

Williams, Neil F.; Germain, Jenna

2008-01-01

363

Visualizing fitness landscapes  

PubMed Central

Fitness landscapes are a classical concept for thinking about the relationship between genotype and fitness. However, because the space of genotypes is typically high-dimensional, the structure of fitness landscapes can be difficult to understand and the heuristic approach of thinking about fitness landscapes as low-dimensional, continuous surfaces may be misleading. Here I present a rigorous method for creating low-dimensional representations of fitness landscapes. The basic idea is to plot the genotypes in a manner that reflects the ease or difficulty of evolving from one genotype to another. Such a layout can be constructed using the eigenvectors of the transition matrix describing the evolution of a population on the fitness landscape when mutation is weak. In addition, the eigendecomposition of this transition matrix provides a new, high-level view of evolution on a fitness landscape. I demonstrate these techniques by visualizing the fitness landscape for selection for the amino acid serine and by visualizing a neutral network derived from the RNA secondary structure genotype-phenotype map.

McCandlish, David M.

2013-01-01

364

Fits of hyperon data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision fits of the baryon semileptonic decay data and the baryon magnetic moments are discussed. Two versions of the spectrum generating group model are compared with the conventional cabibbo model, which gives poor fits if rates and symmetries are used. Two versions of the bag model are also tested.

Bohm, A.

1981-09-01

365

Brisk walking compared with an individualised medical fitness programme for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Structured exercise is considered a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, adherence to combined resistance and endurance type exercise or medical fitness intervention programmes is generally poor. Group-based brisk walking may represent an attractive alternative, but its long-term efficacy as compared with an individualised approach such as medical fitness intervention programmes is unknown. We compared the clinical benefits of a 12-month exercise intervention programme consisting of either brisk walking or a medical fitness programme in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 92 type 2 diabetes patients (60?±?9 years old) to either three times a week of 60 min brisk walking (n?=?49) or medical fitness programme (n?=?43). Primary outcome was the difference in changes in HbA1c values at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were differences in changes in blood pressure, plasma lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, body composition, physical fitness, programme adherence rate and health-related quality of life. Results After 12 months, 18 brisk walking and 19 medical fitness participants were still actively participating. In both programmes, 50 and 25% of the dropout was attributed to overuse injuries and lack of motivation, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no important differences between brisk walking and medical fitness programme in primary or secondary outcome variables. Conclusions/interpretation The prescription of group-based brisk walking represents an equally effective intervention to modulate glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in type 2 diabetes patients when compared with more individualised medical fitness programmes. Future exercise intervention programmes should anticipate the high attrition rate due to overuse injuries and motivation problems. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-008-0950-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.

van Rooij, E. S. J.; Wijtvliet, A.; Boonman-de Winter, L. J. M.; Enneking, Th.; Kuipers, H.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; van Loon, L. J. C.

2008-01-01

366

In situ repair of a failed compression fitting  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

Wolbert, Ronald R. (McKees Rocks, PA); Jandrasits, Walter G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01

367

Force and Fitness Requirements to Meet the National Military Strategy for the Army After Next.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physical fitness requirements mandated for soldiers in the Army After Next, highlighted by our Force XXI design and strategy must change to reflect a higher standard. Our current baseline of conditioning, physical strength, and cardio-vascular response re...

J. M. Bednarek

1999-01-01

368

"Shapes for Kids!" Life Fitness for Grades 5 through 12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an exercise program for children. "Shapes for Kids," takes the same 30-minute approach at the Curves workout for women. The program is set up using 20 stations, which rotate upper-body work, abdominal exercises, lower-body work, and cardiovascular exercises. Some stations combine more than one component. Children change…

Talley, Julie Stiles

2004-01-01

369

MAGNESIUM AND THE TREATMENT OF SOME CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short article the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases with magnesium is reviewed. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in almost all physiological systems of the body including the cardiovascular one. The most important functions dependent on magnesium are calcium antagonism, membrane sealing or stabilization, regulation of energy transfer, control of oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, production and function

TEFAN KUJANÍK

370

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated

Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Gladys Block; Michael H. Humphreys; Joel D. Kopple

2003-01-01

371

Espectro de enfermedad cardiovascular en pacientes infectados por el VIH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of evidence indicates that HIV-infected patients, both men and women, as well as adults and children, have a higher risk of developing arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This evidence comes from studies whose main primary variables were the clinical manifestations of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (acute myocardial infarction, silent myocardial ischemia, stroke and peripheral arterial disease) and the distinct markers

Fernando Lozano

2009-01-01

372

Cardiovascular Actions of Cadmium at Environmental Exposure Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low intake of dietary cadmium induces specific dose-dependent functional and biochemical changes in the cardiovascular tissues of rats. Maximum changes occur when the cadmium intake is 10 to 20 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day. The changes reflect the accumulation of ``critical'' concentrations of cadmium in the cardiovascular tissues. The biologic activity of cadmium is demonstrated for

Stephen J. Kopp; Thomas Glonek; H. Mitchell Perry; Margaret Erlanger; Elizabeth F. Perry

1982-01-01

373

Cardiovascular Responses to Dreamed Physical Exercise During REM Lucid Dreaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated intriguing psychophysiological correspondences when lucid dreamers carried out specific tasks during lucid dreams (e.g., eye movements and EMG activities). But only a few studies have investigated cardiovascular changes during dreamed physical activities. This study tests the hypothesis that physical activity (performing squats) carried out in a lucid dream increases cardiovascular parameters in the sleeping body. Therefore,

Daniel Erlacher; Michael Schredl

2008-01-01

374

Physical Fitness: Questions Teachers Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers teachers' questions about physical fitness, emphasizing children's physical fitness, why people believe children are unfit, children's activity levels, heredity and maturation in fitness testing, test results, adequate fitness, activity, and participation, how long it takes children to get fit, reward systems, current fitness testing, and…

Pangrazi, Robert P.; Corbin, Charles B.

1993-01-01

375

Development of an Elliptical Trainer Physical Fitness Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cardiovascular fitness test is one element of the U.S. Navy Physical Readiness Test (PRT). This report presents the results of 3 studies that evaluated the potential use of a commercially available elliptical trainer, the CT 9500 HR, for this testing: (...

S. B. Parker L. Griswold J. R. Vickers

2006-01-01

376

MOPET: A context-aware and user-adaptive wearable system for fitness training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: Cardiovascular disease, obesity, and lack of physical fitness are increas- ingly common and negatively affect people’s health, requiring medical assistance and decreasing people’s wellness and productivity. In the last years, researchers as well as companies have been increasingly investigating wearable devices for fitness applications with the aim of improving user’s health, in terms of cardiovascular benefits, loss of

Fabio Buttussi; Luca Chittaro

2008-01-01

377

Method for segmentation of cardiac signals based on four parameter sine fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a heartbeat segmentation method for cardiovascular signals based on 4-parameter sine fitting. The goal of the method is to segment unobtrusively- acquired cardiovascular signals, without requiring an additional reference signal to synchronize the segmentation points and without strict assumptions about the subject's heartbeat shape. Known methods rely on simultaneous electrocardiogram acquisition, or require an expert's intervention, or

Eduardo Pinheiro; Octavian Postolache; Pedro Girao

2011-01-01

378

GOSSIP: SED fitting code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

2012-10-01

379

Mayo Clinic: Fitness Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic offers a wide range of outreach services for the general public, including websites providing basic information about cancer, smoking cessation techniques, and others. Their online Fitness Center website will be a real boon to anyone who is looking to pick up some basic fitness awareness, learn about strength training, or read up on sports nutrition. First-time visitors can start by reading through the "Fitness Basics" area, which answers common questions like "Why exercise?" and also provides information on getting warmed up before exercising. Visitors can also sign up for the Mayo Clinic's free e-newsletter, "Housecall".

380

Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data…

Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

2009-01-01

381

Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

2003-01-01

382

Cardiovascular drift during prolonged exercise: new perspectives.  

PubMed

We propose that cardiovascular drift, characterized by a progressive decline in stroke volume after 10-20 min of exercise, is primarily due to increased heart rate rather tahn a progressive increase in cutaneous blood flow as body temperature rises. PMID:11337829

Coyle, E F; González-Alonso, J

2001-04-01

383

Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also insulin resistance — the core feature of type 2 diabetes — as well as alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We are now

Luc F. Van Gaal; Ilse L. Mertens; Christophe E. De Block

2006-01-01

384

Central Mineralocorticoid Receptors and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is expressed in many cell types throughout the body, including specific neurons, and mediates diverse functions, many of which are just now being appreciated. MR that pertain to the central modulation of cardiovascular function and health are addressed herein.

Gomez Sanchez, Elise P.

2009-01-01

385

Senior Community Fitness Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper summarizes the senior fitness program, which was offered by the Carbondale Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) to the residents of Greenfield and Scott Townships in Pennsylvania. Seventeen people were evaluated, and of these 10 performed bo...

L. Dean

1985-01-01

386

Exercise and Physical Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

387

Physical Fitness: The Gateway to Preventive Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promotion of physical fitness provides individuals direct physiological and psychological benefits that will serve to enhance preventive health. These benefits include: reduction of mortality rates, reduction of blood glucose, improved quality of life in patients with chronic lung diseases, reduced risk of the development of atherosclerosis by increasing high-density lipoproteins, reducing systemic hypertension, reducing body fat, reducing insulin needs,

Ben R. Abadie

388

New Developments Concerning Health Care Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we discuss some of the new developments in the health care fitness industry catering to the needs of a healthy lifestyle, and their pros and cons. Such solutions have become very popular among health-conscious people, and these developments help enhance one's appearance, make one feel good, and give more control over one's body and lifestyle. We have

Vibhuti Singhal; Brian Kleiner

2007-01-01

389

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

390

Cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities-A review.  

PubMed

Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels have been found in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), which puts them at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. The aims of this review were to update previous reviews about (a) the cardiorespiratory fitness levels and their determinants in individuals with ID, and (b) the validity and reliability of cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with ID. We searched the databases of Pubmed and Embase for relevant studies, resulting in 31 included articles. These studies mainly included younger participants with mild to moderate ID. Results confirmed previous findings of low cardiorespiratory fitness levels in individuals with ID. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels of children and adolescents with ID are already low, with further decline with increasing age. Furthermore, females have lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels than males. Physical inactivity and chronotropic incompetence are most likely to contribute to low cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Peak cardiorespiratory fitness levels of individuals with ID can be assessed with maximal treadmill protocols, after allowing for familiarization sessions. Although, predicting maximal oxygen uptake from field tests is problematic, field tests have been found valid and reliable as indicators of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:23892875

Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

2013-07-26

391

Mutation accumulation, performance, fitness.  

PubMed

The morphology-performance-fitness paradigm is usually explored by determining whether natural or "phenotypically engineered" variation among individuals in morphology (physiology) or performance covaries with an index of fitness such as survival. Here we study between-line covariation between performance and fitness for 44 lines of flies that had undergone mutation accumulation (in the absence of natural selection) on the second chromosome for 62 generations, plus 13 control lines. These mutation accumulation (MA) lines were known to have reduced competitive fitness and life history scores, and to have positive between-line covariances among life history traits. We measured several performance traits of larvae and adults (and a life history trait), examined covariances among those trait means, and also examined covariances of traits with competitive fitness. MA lines had significantly lower performances than did control lines in most traits. However, because control lines had been unknowingly contaminated, a conclusion that MA reduces performance must be tentative. Correlations among performance traits were highly variable in sign, suggesting that MA does not negatively affect all traits equivalently. Even so, correlation matrices for MA and for control lines were very similar. In bivariate comparisons, only one performance trait (a "get-a-grip index," which measures the ability of a falling fly to catch itself on baffles) was positively correlated with competitive fitness. Multivariate analyses again suggested the importance primarily of get-a-grip. Two main patterns emerge from this study. First, MA negatively affects diverse aspects of physiological performance, but does so differentially across traits. Second, except for GAG, MA-induced variation in performance is at best weakly correlated with competitive fitness. PMID:21680447

Huey, Raymond B; Gilchrist, George W; Ward, Kimiora; Maves, Lisa; Pepin, David; Houle, David

2003-07-01

392

Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is mainly due to (atherosclerotic) cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular morbidity is also increased in comparison with the general population. This increased cardiovascular burden could be caused by 1) an enhanced prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors 2) under treatment of cardiovascular risk factors or 3) RA itself, particularly due to its chronic inflammatory component.

Michael T. Nurmohamed

2009-01-01

393

A comparison of next-fit, first-fit, and best-fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Next-fit” allocation differs from first-fit in that a first-fit allocator commences its search for free space at a fixed end of memory, whereas a next-fit allocator commences its search wherever it previously stopped searching. This strategy is called “modified first-fit” by Shore [2] and is significantly faster than the first-fit allocator. To evaluate the relative efficiency of next-fit (as well

Carter Bays

1977-01-01

394

Fitting Cosmological Data Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package includes several cosmological fitting simulations for five different observations of the expansion, all of which support a cosmic acceleration. The launcher allows users to choose which simulation to use to compare and fit theoretical models of cosmology with recent supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, the Hubble Parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the CMB data sets to confirm the accelerated expansion of the universe. This modeling allows the user to vary cosmological parameters within a particular class of dark energy cosmological models to fit a particular cosmological data set. The user can plot several theoretical curves with the data to compare different models. The values of these parameters, for a particular model, determine the physical description and evolution of the universe. The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package was created using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_CosmoEJS.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS by right-clicking within the plot and selecting Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu item.

Moldenhauer, Jacob; Stone, Keenan; Shuler, Zeke; Engelhardt, Larry

2012-09-10

395

Adaptation and inclusive fitness.  

PubMed

Inclusive fitness theory captures how individuals can influence the transmission of their genes to future generations by influencing either their own reproductive success or that of related individuals. This framework is frequently used for studying the way in which natural selection leads to organisms being adapted to their environments. A number of recent papers have criticised this approach, suggesting that inclusive fitness is just one of many possible mathematical methods for modelling when traits will be favoured by natural selection, and that it leads to errors, such as overemphasising the role of common ancestry relative to other mechanisms that could lead to individuals being genetically related. Here, we argue that these suggested problems arise from a misunderstanding of two fundamental points: first, inclusive fitness is more than just a mathematical 'accounting method' - it is the answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise; second, there is something special about relatedness caused by common ancestry, in contrast with the other mechanisms that may lead to individuals being genetically related, because it unites the interests of genes across the genome, allowing complex, multigenic adaptations to evolve. The critiques of inclusive fitness theory have provided neither an equally valid answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise, nor an alternative process to unite the interest of genes. Consequently, inclusive fitness remains the most general theory for explaining adaptation. PMID:23845249

West, Stuart A; Gardner, Andy

2013-07-01

396

Body Image  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-01-02

397

Judging body weight from faces: the height-weight illusion.  

PubMed

Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670

Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian

2012-01-01

398

Coloring the FITS Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

Levay, Z. G.

2004-12-01

399

Model fitting tutorial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this tutorial is not to describe the theory of model fitting, but to focus on practical aspects and to learn how to work around difficulties. For practice, we use LITpro, a software currently developed within the JMMC research group. LITpro is based on a modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and its architecture allows a flexible implementation of complex models and fits with heterogeneous data. Through the analyzis of an example of a fit on simulated interferometric data, we learn how to deal with degeneracies and how to tackle the problem of local minima, with tools provided by LITpro. The web-site of the Jean-Marie Mariotti Center is http://www.mariotti.fr.

Tallon-Bosc, I.; Tallon, M.; Thiébaut, E.; Béchet, C.

2007-10-01

400

Quantum Data Fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently (Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)). In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data is a pure quantum state, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

Wiebe, Nathan

2013-03-01

401

Line of Best Fit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When data is displayed with a scatter plot, it is often useful to attempt to represent that data with the equation of a straight line for purposes of predicting values that may not be displayed on the plot. Such a straight line is called the "line of best fit." In this activity, students discover the relationship between the fat grams and the total calories in fast food by graphing the given data, estimate the line of best fit using a strand of spaghetti, calculate the slope of that line, and translate it into an equation. Then, they use that equation to predict information not originally included in the scatter plot.

Roberts, Donna

402

Anti-vibration mounting for clip-fit connection means and vehicle fitted with this mounting  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An anti-vibration mounting comprises first and second rigid frames, which can be joined respectively to two rigid elements to be connected, an elastomer body connecting the two frames to one another and being designed to support a permanent axial load along a first axis, the elastomer body being joined to a sleeve fitted onto a mounting bar belonging to the first frame and extending along a second axis substantially perpendicular to the first axis. The sleeve is retained on the mounting bar by a clip-fit connection.

Mellon; Paul (Grand Rapids, MI); Dehestani; Hamid (Grand Rapids, MI); Alferink; Matt (Midleville, MI); Hamilton; Larmie (Byron Center, MI)

2002-10-15

403

Measurement Specifications for Manufacturers' Prototype Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine information on body measurement specifications for one prototype body used by women's apparel manufacturers-fit models. Specifically, information was examined to determine if fit model measurement specifications had changed since 1986. Measurement specifications need to be revised regularly to accommodate changes in the population's anthropometry. Advertisements for sizes 8 and 10fit models were

Jane E. Workman; Elizabeth S. Lentz

2000-01-01

404

Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

2011-01-01

405

Clinical Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging holds the promise of becoming a key diag- nostic modality in cardiovascular medicine by allowing visualiza- tion of specific targets and pathways that precede or underlie changes in morphology, physiology, and function. As such, mo- lecular imaging aims at detecting precursors or early stages of cardiovascular disease and at monitoring and guiding novel, in- creasingly specific and versatile

Frank M. Bengel

2009-01-01

406

Cardiovascular Effects of Caffeine  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature on the cardiovascular effects of caffeine indicates that moderate caffeine consumption does not cause cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, or an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Caffeine use is often associated with atherogenic behavior, such as cigarette smoking. Failure to take into account covariables for cardiovascular disease could be responsible for commonly held misconceptions about caffeine and heart disease.

Myers, Martin G.

1992-01-01

407

Tabaco y enfermedad cardiovascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco is currently responsible for the death of about 5 million people worldwide each year, being the increase in cardiovascular diseases a substantial part of these deaths. It acts synergistically with other risk factors, so that smokers with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia can have a 20-fold increase in their cardiovascular mortality. Smokers that quit tobacco have a quick decrease in their

VÍCTOR LÓPEZ GARCÍA-ARANDA; JUAN CARLOS; GARCÍA RUBIRA; Víctor López

2004-01-01

408

Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 62 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease and, of these, more than 32 million are female. This translates into an average of 1 in 5 women, making cardiovascular disease the leading killer of women in the U.S., responsible for more than half a million deaths a year. While it has been known for some time

W. L ANE DUVALL

2003-01-01

409

Psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder that affects about 2% to 3% of the adult population. Several reports have demonstrated an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, hypertension, valvular disease and arrhythmia. In this review we analysed the link between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and the possible physiopathologic mechanism of this correlation. PMID:20666273

Vizzardi, Enrico; Raddino, Riccardo; Teli, Melissa; Gorga, Elio; Brambilla, Giulio; Dei Cas, Livio

2010-06-01

410

Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in Children: A Pilot Program of Be a Fit Kid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Be a Fit Kid is a 12-week program aimed at improving physical activity and nutritional habits in children. The physical activity component of the program emphasized cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular strength, and bone development through running, yoga, jumping, and strength exercises. All activities were individualized and noncompetitive. The nutrition component focused on current dietary guidelines that emphasize a diet rich

Jennifer Slawta; Jeff Bentley; Joan Smith; Jessica N. J. Kelly; Lucien Syman-Degler

2008-01-01

411

Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

2005-01-01

412

The Theory of Planned Behavior: Predicting Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in African American Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the ability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict African American children's moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. Children ( N = 548, ages 9-12) completed questionnaires assessing the TPB constructs and MVPA and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aero- bic Cardiovascular Endurance

Jeffrey J. Martin; Pamela Hodges Kulinna; Nate McCaughtry; Donetta Cothran; Joe Dake; Gail Fahoome

413

Fitness in contemporary dance: a systematic review.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that dancers are less fit compared to other athletes. However, the majority of studies make their arguments based on data deriving mainly from ballet. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to investigate: a) aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscular strength and body composition characteristics in contemporary dancers of different levels, and b) whether supplementary exercise interventions, in addition to normal dance training, further improves contemporary dance performance. Three databases (Medline, Cochrane and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health research database) were searched to identify publications regarding the main fitness components of contemporary professional and student dancers. At a professional level, it appears that contemporary dancers demonstrate higher maximal oxygen uptake and higher scores in muscular endurance than ballet dancers. However, contemporary dance students are equally fit compared to their ballet counterparts and their body composition is also very similar. Only two studies have investigated the effects of supplementary exercise training on aspects of dance performance. Further research is needed in order to confirm preliminary data, which suggest that the implementation of additional fitness training is beneficial for contemporary dance students to achieve a better performance outcome. PMID:19301219

Angioi, M; Metsios, G S; Metsios, G; Koutedakis, Y; Wyon, M A

2009-03-19

414

Fitness, fatness and survival in elderly populations.  

PubMed

This study examines the relative importance of fitness versus fatness in predicting mortality in elderly populations aged 70 years and over, and whether fitness may account for the 'paradoxical' relationship between better survival and increasing weight. Four thousand community-living Chinese men and women aged 65 years or over were recruited and stratified so that approximately 33% were in each of the age groups: 65-69, 70-74, and 75 or above. Medical history, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, body composition using DEXA, and walking speed were obtained. They were followed up for a mean of 7.0 years to ascertain death. Compared with the high fitness category, those in the moderate and low categories have a 43% and 68% increased risk of mortality at 7 years adjusting for multiple confounders. When mortality risk according to various fatness indicators was examined, only the lowest quartile of BMI, BFI, and FLMR conferred statistically significant increased risk. Fitness categories were significantly associated with all fatness indicators. The finding of fewer people in the high fitness category among the highest quartiles of other fatness indicators suggests that fitness is not the underlying mechanism for the obesity paradox. Within each quartile of fatness indicator, there was a significant trend towards reduced mortality with increasing fitness. In conclusion, the study confirms the beneficial effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on mortality but does not explain the 'obesity paradox'. The findings underscore the importance of maintaining physical fitness through exercise and re-confirm the importance of weight maintenance in reducing mortality risk. PMID:22391688

Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby; Yau, Forrest

2012-03-07

415

Body Mass Index and its Adequacy in Capturing Body Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different types of studies such as metabolic, nutritional and others have extensively used body mass index (BMI) as an indicator of body fat content in human subjects. BMI is also made use to classify different grades of obesity. Its ability to predict fatness as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular disorders is seriously questioned in one of the recent

Muralidhara DV

2008-01-01

416

[Smoking and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Smoking is a major cardiovascular risk factor and smoking cessation is essential in any approach to cardiovascular prevention. Events occurring wthout any threshold of intensity or duration of consumption, smoking is the essential and often isolated factor in the acute coronary events of the young subjects. The mechanisms involved are mainly thrombosis and spasm. Smoking cessation provides a rapid and very important cardiovascular benefit and has the best cost/benefit ratio for cardiovascular prevention. The main objective is an early, total and definitive cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy can be prescribed in patients with coronary artery disease, including immediately after a myocardial infarction. Passive smoking must also be considered as a cardiovascular risk factor and should be avoided by collective and individual measures. PMID:22514985

Thomas, Daniel

2012-03-01

417

Healthy bodies: construction of the body and health in physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be ‘healthy bodies’—for teachers to be ‘appropriate’ physical, fit, healthy and skilful ‘role models’ and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In teachers’ monitoring of students with the intention of regulating health

Louisa Webb; Mikael Quennerstedt; Marie Öhman

2008-01-01

418

Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

2002-01-01

419

Mentoring that Fits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning teachers enter the classroom with diverse backgrounds, training, expectations, and needs. Yet too often, write the authors, induction programs resemble a one-size-fits-all poncho rather than a well-tailored coat. Reviewing the research, the authors write that high-quality mentors, a focus on improving instruction, and allocated time are…

Grossman, Pam; Davis, Emily

2012-01-01

420

Action Plan for Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By completing a short worksheet, physical education students can develop and practice a five-step fitness plan that is appropriate for elementary through college students. The steps include: selecting an appropriate goal and listing costs and benefits, assessing progress, creating a supportive environment, using supportive self-messages, and…

Lottes, Christine R.

1997-01-01

421

Langley Fitness Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and ...

1993-01-01

422

Wheel of Fitness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun activity for any size group, early elementary learners complete physical challenges while playing a game. Learners add new challenges to the "wheel of fitness" that they want to try. During this activity, learners practice their counting skills and discover new ways to get moving. This lesson plan includes extensions, questions to ask learners, and a sample wheel.

Houston, Children'S M.

2007-01-01

423

Talking Sport and Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

2012-01-01

424

Directory of Fitness Certifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the need for certification of fitness instructors in the aerobic dance/dance-exercise industry and presents results of a survey of 18 agencies that certify instructors. Survey data has been compiled and published. An excerpt is included which lists organizations, training, certification and renewal procedures, publications,…

Parks, Janet B.

1990-01-01

425

Goodness of Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the fit between social work education and practice in health care. A random sample of NASW members identifying with health care (N = 179) responded to a mail survey about the utility of core knowledge and roles that we had identified by reviewing seven commonly used health care social work texts. Quantitative data revealed knowledge and roles

Laura Bronstein; Pamela Kovacs; Alex Vega

2007-01-01

426

Progressive Human Skeleton Fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper proposes a method,to fit a skeleton or stick- model to a blob to determine the pose of a person in an image. The input is a binary image representing the sil- houette of a person and the ouput is a stick-model co- herent with the pose of the person in this image. A torso model is first

J Er Ome Vignola

427

Senior Women's Fitness Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the special exercise needs of older, overweight women and the effects of gentle progressive exercise on physical fitness and psychological parameters, we recruited 30 sedentary women aged 60 to 72 years old to participate in an 11-week-long exercise study. The women were assigned to either a low-impact aerobic dance exercise class (N = 20) who exercised for 1

Patricia A. Gillett

1993-01-01

428

Fit for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

Vail, Kathleen

1999-01-01

429

Insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness in a population-based sample of 380 young healthy Caucasians. Analysis of the impact of gender, body fat, physical fitness, and life-style factors.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are traits that are both genetically and environmentally determined. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of the insulin sensitivity index (Si), the acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness (Sg) in young healthy Caucasians and to estimate the relative impact of anthropometric and environmental determinants on these variables. METHODS: The material included 380 unrelated Caucasian subjects (18-32 yr) with measurement of Si, Sg and insulin secretion during a combined intravenous glucose (0.3 grams/kg body weight) and tolbutamide (3 mg/kg body weight) tolerance test. RESULTS: The distributions of Si and acute insulin response were skewed to the right, whereas the distribution of Sg was Gaussian distributed. Sg was 15% higher in women compared with men (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, body mass index, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives were the most important determinants of Si. Approximately one-third of the variation of Si could be explained by these factors. Compared with individuals in the upper four-fifths of the distribution of Si, subjects with Si in the lowest fifth had higher waist circumference, higher blood pressure, lower VO2max, and lower glucose tolerance and fasting dyslipidemia and dysfibrinolysis. Only 10% of the variation in acute insulin response could be explained by measured determinants. CONCLUSION: Estimates of body fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives explain about one-third of the variation in Si in a population-based sample of young healthy Caucasians.

Clausen, J O; Borch-Johnsen, K; Ibsen, H; Bergman, R N; Hougaard, P; Winther, K; Pedersen, O

1996-01-01

430

Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fitness levels of American youth have shown a marked decline in the last decade, according to recent studies. To determine whether such a tendency persists for entering college students, the authors evaluated 115 male and 143 female students for performance on the following fitness-related variables: (1) maximal oxygen consumption (estimated from Astrand cycling protocol), (2) body composition (skin-fold techniques), (3)

Edgar F. Pierce; Susan W. Butterworth; Tracey D. Lynn; Jackie OShea; Warren G. Hammer

1992-01-01

431

Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

1992-01-01

432

Personal fitness takes work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is important to eat healthy foods and exercise regularly to keep your body maintained. Eating disorders and diet pill or steroid addictions should be avoided or treated if they do develop because they are not healthy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-28

433

Memory Allocation with Lazy Fits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic memory allocation is an important part of modern pro- gramming languages. It is important that it be done fast without wasting too much memory. Memory allocation using lazy fits is introduced, where pointer increments, which is very fast, is used as the primary allocation method and where conventional fits such as best fit or first fit are used as

Yoo C. Chung; Soo-Mook Moon

2000-01-01

434

Memory allocation with lazy fits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic memory allocation is an important part of modern programming languages. It is important that it be done fast without wasting too much memory. Memory allocation using lazy fits is introduced, where pointer increments, which is very fast, is used as the primary allocation method and where conventional fits such as best fit or first fit are used as backup.

Yoo C. Chung; Soo-Mook Moon

2001-01-01

435

Fitting the phenomenological MSSM  

SciTech Connect

We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C. [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Quevedo, Fernando [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); CERN, PH-TH, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2010-05-01

436

Visceral adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In adults visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been shown to be more highly correlated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than are other measures of adiposity such as subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), percent body fat (%BF), or total body fat mass (TFM). We examined the relations between these measures of fatness and CV risk factors in obese children.Study design:

Scott Owens; Bernard Gutin; Michael Ferguson; Jerry Allison; Warren Karp; Ngoc-Anh Le

1998-01-01

437

The Role of Sport/Fitness and Eating Disorders: Cosmetic Fitness from Starvation to Steroids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The incidence of eating disorders is much higher among children and young adults involved in sport and fitness activities. When weight loss is followed by excessive exercise, certain biological and social reinforcers become evident. This is also followed by a diminished appetite, increased narcissistic investment in the body, and an elevated…

Moriarty, Dick; And Others

438

Cardiovascular Software Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directory compiled by the Computer Applications Committee of the American College of Cardiology(ACC), is the first edition of a source of information of software for cardiovascular medicine. The scope of the Directory is broad, including software repr...

1988-01-01

439

Cardiovascular Surgery. Guideline Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines adopted by the Health Systems Agency of Southwestern Pennsylvania to facilitate the development of a community-oriented system of quality cardiovascular surgery are presented. Using the guidelines, subarea planning councils, in collaboration wi...

1976-01-01

440

Radiology Lab 2: Cardiovascular  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to concepts important in cardiovascular imaging of normal anatomy, including angiographic techniques and cross-sectional methods.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: NormalRadiograph type: angiogram

Shaffer, Kitt

2010-02-24

441

Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

1986-01-01

442

Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

2005-06-22

443

Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)|

Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

1986-01-01

444

Cardiovascular Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... dedicated to improving the survival and quality of life for people with cardiovascular disease through research and ... Total Occlusion and Left Main Summit Feb 27-Mar 1, 2014 The Marriott Marquis Hotel New York, ...

445

The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a systematic review of studies published in or after 2000  

PubMed Central

Background Not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, obesity increases the risk for several health disorders. In turn, many factors including genetic variations and environmental influences (e.g. physical activity) increase the risk of obesity. For instance, 25 to 40 percent of people inherit a predisposition for a high body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize current cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents and to identify mediator and moderator effects by evaluating the interaction between these three parameters. Methods The electronic academic databases PubMed, SportDiscus, WEB OF KNOWLEDGE and Ovid were searched for studies on physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents aged 11 to 19 years (cross-sectional studies) and in adolescents up to 23 years old (longitudinal studies) published in English in or after 2000. Results Twelve cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies were included. Only four studies analyzed the interaction among physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents and reported inconsistent results. All other studies analyzed the relationship between either physical activity and overweight, or between fitness and overweight. Overweight—here including obesity—was inversely related to physical activity. Similarly, all studies reported inverse relations between physical fitness and overweight. Mediator and moderator effects were detected in the interrelationship of BMI, fitness and physical activity. Overall, a distinction of excessive body weight as cause or effect of low levels of physical activity and fitness is lacking. Conclusions The small number of studies on the interrelationship of BMI, fitness and physical activity emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies that would reveal 1) the causality between physical activity and overweight / fitness and overweight and 2) the causal interrelationships among overweight, physical activity and fitness. These results must be carefully interpreted given the lack of distinction between self-reported and objective physical activity and that studies analyzing the metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease were not considered. The importance of physical activity or fitness in predicting overweight remains unknown.

2013-01-01