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1

Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

1984-01-01

2

A comparison of the self-concept and body-cathexis of selected high school students of high and low cardiovascular fitness  

E-print Network

A COMPARISON OF THE SELF-CONCEPT AND BODY-CATHEXIS OF SELECTED HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF HIGH AND LOW CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS A Thesis by TERRY ALFRED CRENWELGE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... ALFRED CRENWELGE Approved as to style and content by hairman of Committee ) Head f Department Member Member December 1974 ABSTRACT A Comparison of the Self-Concept and Body-Cathexis of Selected High School Students of High and Low Cardiovascular...

Crenwelge, Terry Alfred

1974-01-01

3

Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067

Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

2011-01-01

4

Changes in Physical Fitness Predict Improvements in Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors Independently of Body Weight Loss in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Participating in the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Physical fitness is inversely related to mortality in the general population and in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Here, we present data concerning the relationship between changes in physical fitness and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 606) were enrolled in 22 outpatient diabetes clinics and randomized to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling versus counseling alone for 12 months. Baseline to end-of-study changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and flexibility, as assessed by Vo2max estimation, a 5–8 maximal repetition test, and a hip/trunk flexibility test, respectively, were calculated in the whole cohort, and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS Changes in Vo2max, upper and lower body strength, and flexibility were significantly associated with the variation in the volume of physical activity, HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score, and inversely, HDL cholesterol. Changes in fitness predicted improvements in HbA1c, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, hs-CRP, and CHD risk score, independent of study arm, BMI, and in case of strength, also waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity/exercise-induced increases in fitness, particularly muscular, predict improvements in cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss, thus indicating the need for targeting fitness in these individuals, particularly in subjects who struggle to lose weight. PMID:22399699

Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Mazzitelli, Giulia; Bazuro, Alessandra; Iacobini, Carla; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

5

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness  

E-print Network

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness Laura L. Ten Eyck1 Children with solutions to improve our overall fitness and health. Television com- mercials hawk everything from special diets to exercise equipment as the ideal solution to being healthy. Used properly, many of the products

Cooper, Brenton G.

6

Constructing Cardiovascular Fitness Knowledge in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on…

Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

2014-01-01

7

Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

2002-01-01

8

Snacking, Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness and Television Viewing Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible relationships among snacking, obesity, cardiovascular fitness and television viewing were examined in a group of 54 14-and 15-year old adolescents. Dietary intake was estimated using a 24-hour recall and 2-day food record for which subjects were asked to identify all foods and beverages consumed as either a meal or snack. The three days of intake were analyzed by the

J. D. Anding; K. S. Kubena; A. M. McIntosh

1995-01-01

9

Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ?-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

2013-01-01

10

Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women.  

PubMed

Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. PMID:25210697

Kang, Suh-Jung

2014-08-01

11

Fitting Percentage of Body Fat to Simple Body Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dataset, created by Roger W. Johnson of Carleton College, presented in this article, contains body measurements for 252 men and can be used to illustrate multiple regression and to provide practice in model building. Some of these measurements include: body fat, age, weight, height and ten different body circumference measurements. The author shows how to "fit body fat to the other measurement using multiple regression" and provide a easy method to estimating body fat percentage. This is a good example of using regression and also model building.

Johnson, Roger W.

12

Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner.  

PubMed

Forty male high school students, age 12-15 yrs, participated for a study of yoga in relation to body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power. Ths Ss were placed into two subsets viz., yoga group and control group. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance anaerobic power were measured using standard method. The duration of experiment was one year. The result of ANCOVA revealed that a significant improvement in ideal body weight, body density, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power was observed as a result of yoga training. This study could not show significant change in body fat (midaxillary), skeletal diameters and most of the body circumferences. It was evident that some of the fat-folds (tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, umbilical, thigh and calf) and body circumferences (waist, umbilical and hip) were reduced significantly. PMID:8276501

Bera, T K; Rajapurkar, M V

1993-07-01

13

Cardiovascular Fitness and Cognitive Spatial Learning in Rodents and in Humans.  

PubMed

The association between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive functions in both animals and humans is intensely studied. Research in rodents shows that a higher cardiovascular fitness has beneficial effects on hippocampus-dependent spatial abilities, and the underlying mechanisms were largely teased out. Research into the impact of cardiovascular fitness on spatial learning in humans, however, is more limited, and involves mostly behavioral and imaging studies. Herein, we point out the state of the art in the field of spatial learning and cardiovascular fitness. The differences between the methodologies utilized to study spatial learning in humans and rodents are emphasized along with the neuronal basis of these tasks. Critical gaps in the study of spatial learning in the context of cardiovascular fitness between the two species are discussed. PMID:25227128

Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa; Okun, Eitan

2014-09-16

14

Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity as risk predictors of future atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical fitness and activity status are well-documented risk predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. The purpose\\u000a of this article is to show how cardiorespiratory fitness predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Measurement of\\u000a maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), defined with or without ventilatory gas analysis during exercise testing, can provide a good estimate for cardiorespiratory\\u000a fitness, which is an independent marker of the

Jari A. Laukkanen; Sudhir Kurl; Jukka T. Salonen

2002-01-01

15

Effects of Atenolol Versus Enalapril on Cardiovascular Fitness and Serum Lipids in Physically Active Hypertensive Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal drug regimen for physically active hypertensive patients should not offset exercise-induced improvements in cardiovascular health or fitness. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 39 physically active men with uncomplicated essential hypertension, we compared the effects of atenolol and enalapril on cardiovascular fitness and serum lipids. Drugs (atenolol, 50 or 100 mg once daily; enalapril, 10 or

1997-01-01

16

Cardiovascular Health Promotion—Physical Fitness in the School Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Physical activity is a major lifestyle behavior related to cardiovascular disease. Lack of energy expenditure is considered\\u000a an important contributor to the epidemic of obesity. Schools are an obvious area of interest in health promotion due to their\\u000a centrality in the life of children. Over the course of the school day, physical education, recess, extracurricular activities,\\u000a and classroom activities provide

Marietta Orlowski; James Ebert; Arthur Pickoff

17

Physical Fitness and Body Build of Young Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fitness index (FI), assessed by the Harvard Step Test, and height, weight and body fat (expressed as a percentage of body weight), were determined on young men and young women in Cape Town, South Africa, and in Richmond, Virginia. There was no significant difference in height, surface area, reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) or body fat between the two groups

A. W. SLOAN

1969-01-01

18

Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting body/mind…

Rivkin, Mary S.

2007-01-01

19

Cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to maximal cycle ergometer exercise test in children 6-8 years of age.  

PubMed

We investigated cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to maximal cycle ergometer exercise test in children. The participants were a population sample of 425 children (204 girls, 221 boys) aged 6-8 years. Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured from the beginning of pre-exercise rest to the end of recovery period. We provided reference values for peak workload and changes in HR and SBP during and after maximal exercise test in girls and boys. Girls had a lower cardiovascular fitness, indicated by peak workload per body weight [mean (2 s) 2.7 (0.9) vs. 3.1 (1.0) W · kg(-1), P < 0.001] and lean mass [mean (2 s) 3.5 (0.9) vs. 3.8 (1.0) W · kg(-1), P < 0.001] than boys. Plateau or decline in SBP close to the end of the test was found in about third of children and was considered a normal SBP response. Girls had a slower HR decrease within 2 min after the test than boys [mean (2 s) 53 (18) vs. 59 (22) beats · min(-1), P < 0.001]. The results are useful for physicians and exercise physiologists to evaluate cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to exercise in children and to detect children with low exercise tolerance or abnormal haemodynamic responses to exercise. PMID:24279412

Lintu, Niina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Viitasalo, Anna; Soininen, Sonja; Laitinen, Tomi; Savonen, Kai; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

2014-01-01

20

Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

1986-01-01

21

Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness  

PubMed Central

Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

2010-01-01

22

Future Fit: A Cardiovascular Health Education and Fitness Project in an After-school Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Future Fit was developed to provide a low-cost, heart health education and fitness program that could be incorporated into existing after-school programs. Outcomes of a 12-week demonstration project with elementary students suggest the program can be an effective complement to the education provided within the school setting. (JD)

Connor, Maureen K.; And Others

1986-01-01

23

Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed???20?hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12?months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively measured relative workload, in a population with high physical work demands. Previous intervention studies have lacked robust objective measurements of the relative workload and physical work demands. This study will monitor the relative workload and general physical activity before, during after the intervention, and contribute to the understanding of the previously observed opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity. Trial registration The study is registered as ISRCTN86682076. PMID:22888833

2012-01-01

24

Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

2014-01-01

25

Cardiovascular dynamics associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this investigation was to identify cardiovascular responses associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Eighteen men, ages 29-51 years, were categorized as high (HT) or low (LT) LBNP-tolerant based on a graded presyncopal-limited LBNP exposure criterion of -60 mm Hg relative to ambient pressure. Groups were matched for physical characteristics and pre-LBNP cardiovascular measurements, with the exceptions of greater (p less than 0.05) end-diastolic volume and cardiac output in the HT group. During peak LBNP, cardiac output was similar in both groups, although the HT group displayed a greater heart rate (p less than 0.05). In both groups, venous return appeared to limit cardiac output resulting in decreased arterial pressure. Tolerance to LBNP did not appear solely dependent on the absolute amount of blood pooled in the legs since the HT group demonstrated a greater (p less than 0.05) peak LBNP-induced increase in midthigh-leg volume. Greater tolerance to LBNP was associated with a larger pre-LBNP cardiac output reserve and higher compensatory increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance.

Sather, T. M.; Goldwater, D. J.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.

1986-01-01

26

Physical activity versus cardiorespiratory fitness: two (partly) distinct components of cardiovascular health?  

PubMed

Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) both have inverse relationships to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recent position papers and guidelines have identified the important role of both of these factors in CV health. The benefits of PA and CRF in the prevention of CV disease and risk factors are reviewed. In addition, assessment methodology and utilization in the research and clinical arenas are discussed. Finally, the benefits, methodology, and utilization are compared and contrasted to better understand the two (partly) distinct components and their impact on CV health. PMID:25269066

DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Willis, Benjamin L; Barlow, Carolyn E; Finley, Carrie E; Levine, Benjamin D; Cooper, Kenneth H

2015-01-01

27

Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1995-01-01

28

An innovative cycling exergame to promote cardiovascular fitness in youth with cerebral palsy: A brief report.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effects of an internet-platform exergame cycling programme on cardiovascular fitness of youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: In this pilot prospective case series, eight youth with bilateral spastic CP, Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level III, completed a six-week exergame programme. Outcomes were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. The primary outcome measure was the GMFCS III-specific shuttle run test (SRT-III). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (HQL) as measured by the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire, six-minute walk test, Wingate arm cranking test and anthropomorphic measurements. Results: There were significant improvements in the SRT-III (t?=?-2.5, p?=?0.04, d?=?0.88) post-intervention. There were no significant changes in secondary outcomes. Conclusion: An exergame cycling programme may lead to improvement in cardiovascular fitness in youth with CP. This study was limited by small sample size and lack of a comparison group. Future research is warranted. PMID:24950349

Knights, Shannon; Graham, Nicholas; Switzer, Lauren; Hernandez, Hamilton; Ye, Zi; Findlay, Briar; Xie, Wen Yan; Wright, Virginia; Fehlings, Darcy

2014-06-20

29

Matrix Rigidity-Modulated Cardiovascular Organoid Formation from Embryoid Bodies  

PubMed Central

Stem cell clusters, such as embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells, are extensively studied for creation of multicellular clusters and complex functional tissues. It is common to control phenotypes of ES cells with varying molecular compounds; however, there is still a need to improve the controllability of cell differentiation, and thus, the quality of created tissue. This study demonstrates a simple but effective strategy to promote formation of vascularized cardiac muscle - like tissue in EBs and form contracting cardiovascular organoids by modulating the stiffness of a cell adherent hydrogel. Using collagen-conjugated polyacrylamide hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli, we discovered that cellular organization in a form of vascularized cardiac muscle sheet was maximal on the gel with the stiffness similar to cardiac muscle. We envisage that the results of this study will greatly contribute to better understanding of emergent behavior of stem cells in developmental and regeneration process and will also expedite translation of EB studies to drug-screening device assembly and clinical treatments. PMID:24732893

Shkumatov, Artem; Baek, Kwanghyun; Kong, Hyunjoon

2014-01-01

30

Impact of sex-specific body composition on cardiovascular risk factors: the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of sex-specific distribution of adiposity, particularly emphasizing the independent contribution of waist and hip circumferences relative to body mass index (BMI), on cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese population. Blood pressure and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured in 2510 population-based Chinese subjects. The relative contributions of waist and hip

G. Neil Thomas; Sarah M. McGhee; Mary Schooling; Sai Yin Ho; Karen S. L. Lam; Edward D. Janus; Tai Hing Lam

2006-01-01

31

Vitamin D status, body composition, and fitness measures in college-aged students.  

PubMed

Low vitamin D, commonly assessed as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), is associated with the development of many age-related chronic diseases. A positive relationship exists between elevated 25OHD and muscle synthesis, strength, power, and decreased body fat in elderly individuals. However, these findings have not been consistently reported in younger healthy populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25OHD and measures of body size, composition, metabolism, and physical fitness in a young physically active population. Thirty-nine subjects (20 men, 19 women; aged 23 ± 0.7 years) reported 6 times for testing. Blood was collected to determine 25OHD. Primary outcomes included the following: body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (dual x-ray absorptiometry); resting metabolic rate; maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); power output (Wingate); and muscular strength (8 repetition maximum for bench press, upright row, and leg extension and flexion exercises). Our analysis included all participants, and subgroup analyses for individuals with suboptimal 25OHD concentration below 35 ng·mL ("low"; n = 20, 25.97 ± 1.97 ng·mL) or equal to and above 35 ng·mL ("high"; n = 19, 44.15 ± 2.17 ng·mL). Twenty subjects in this study had serum levels of 25OHD below 35 ng·mL. There was a significant positive relationship between V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and serum 25OHD and a negative relationship between BMI and serum 25OHD. These data suggest that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent even in a young physically active population in the southern United States and that there was a positive relationship between a measure of cardiovascular fitness and serum 25OHD, and a negative relationship between serum 25OHD and BMI. PMID:23897020

Forney, Laura A; Earnest, Conrad P; Henagan, Tara M; Johnson, Loren E; Castleberry, Todd J; Stewart, Laura K

2014-03-01

32

Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults. PMID:24282403

Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-01-01

33

Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P?fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors. PMID:24885417

2014-01-01

34

Strategies to Change Body Shape Among Men and Women Who Attend Fitness Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the association between exercise behaviors, disordered eating, and other behaviors to change body shape among fitness center attendees. The participants were 520 adults (245 men, 275 women) who attended fitness centers. Data were gathered using an anonymous questionnaire. Women who attended fitness centers were generally trying to lose weight and improve fitness; men were generally trying

Marita P. McCabe; Tegan James

2009-01-01

35

Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children. PMID:25032742

Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

2014-01-01

36

Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: An event-related cortical desynchronization study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10?±?2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

2015-03-01

37

The effects of pole walking on arm lymphedema and cardiovascular fitness in women treated for breast cancer: a pilot and feasibility study.  

PubMed

The benefit of exercise for breast cancer-treated women is well documented. However, studies of cardiovascular fitness training for women with breast cancer-related arm lymphedema are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive pole walking on arm lymphedema in women treated for breast cancer. Thirty-five women with unilateral lymphedema were included and twenty-three completed an eight-week exercise intervention consisting of pole walking 3-5 times per week, for 30-60?min, at 70%-80% of their maximum heart rate, preceded by a two-week control period. Measurements of arm lymphedema (water displacement method), body weight, cardiovascular fitness (sub-maximal bicycle ergometer test) and subjective assessments (disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire; heaviness and tightness using a visual analogue scale (VAS); and well-being) were performed before the control period and before and after the exercise intervention. The results indicated a significant reduction in total arm volume of the lymphedema arm (p?=?0.001), in lymphedema absolute volume (p?=?0.014) and lymphedema relative volume (p?=?0.015). Significant decreases of heart rate (p?=?0.004), DASH score (p?=?0.053) and rating of tightness in the arm (p?=?0.043) were found. Positive and negative influences on well-being were reported. The conclusion of this study is that pole walking is feasible for breast cancer-treated women with arm lymphedema. PMID:24175620

Jönsson, Charlotta; Johansson, Karin

2014-05-01

38

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

39

[Influence of body fat and its distribution on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy subjects].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and body fat distribution with known cardiovascular risk factors. Seven hundred eighty two healthy individuals, 634 men and 148 female age 44 +/- 10 years were studied. Multiple stepwise regression models were performed in which cardiovascular risk factors (total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) were considered as the dependent variable and age, sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), subscapular/tricipital skinfold ratio (STR) and percentage of total body fat (%BF), derived from the sum of four skinfolds, as the independent variables. Among anthropometric variables, WC was the principal predictor of total cholesterol and basal blood glucose, WHR was the principal predictor of HDL cholesterol (inverse relationship) and triglycerides; BMI was the principal predictor of systolic and diastolic blood pressure; %BF was the principal predictor of post prandial blood glucose. Performing the same analysis in a subgroup of patients with a BMI between 21 and 24, measures of fat distribution continued to be predictors of cardiovascular risk factors. It is concluded that both total body fat and its distribution are related to cardiovascular risk factors and, in some cases, may have an additive effect and should be measured in preventive medical examinations. PMID:8085075

Bunout, D; Rueda, E; Aicardi, V; Hidalgo, C; Kauffmann, R

1994-02-01

40

Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and fainting. Various pre-reentry hyperhydration procedures have been utilized to counteract the GRS. Thus, the somewhat decreased central venous pressure and lack of diuresis early in spaceflight suggests mechanisms other than the Gauer-Henry reflex are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts. Inflight hypohydration and hypovolemia are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts.

Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

41

Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier

2014-01-01

42

The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.  

PubMed

In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother. PMID:21751481

Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

2011-01-01

43

Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to whole-body cryostimulation in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Over recent years, a considerable increase in the popularity of cryostimulation and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures has occurred both among healthy individuals and in various groups of patients, including those with primary untreated hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of WBC on the functional parameters of cardiovascular system in normotensive and primarily hypertensive individuals. The study included 26 young male volunteers with normal blood pressure range (NormoBP) and 13 with essential arterial hypertension (HyperBP). Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic factor (whole-body cryotherapy/cryostimulation, WBC) at a temperature of approximately -115°C to -125°C for a period of 3 min. The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force® Monitor. Measurements in a supine position and tilt test were performed "before WBC" and "after WBC". Our study revealed that cryogenic temperatures exert strong modulatory effect on the cardiovascular system. Both groups showed adaptive changes of myocardial and vascular parameters in response to rapid cooling of virtually the whole body surface. While the profiles of some of these changes were similar in both the groups, also several considerable intergroup differences were documented. Consequently, the cryostimulation and cryotherapy treatment should be prescribed carefully to individuals who present with cardiovascular failure of any degree. PMID:25108050

Zalewski, Pawel; Buszko, Katarzyna; Zawadka-Kunikowska, Monika; S?omko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Sinski, Maciej; Newton, Julia

2014-10-01

44

Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

1989-01-01

45

The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

46

Is adiposity at normal body weight relevant for cardiovascular disease risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adiposity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in normal weight (NW) individuals.METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the sample of white people, aged from 17 to 60 y from the Québec Family Study and the Heritage Family Study. NW subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg\\/m2 (181 males and 265

S Tanaka; K Togashi; T Rankinen; L Pérusse; AS Leon; DC Rao; JS Skinner; JH Wilmore; C Bouchard; C Bouchard

2002-01-01

47

Occupational relevance and body mass bias in military physical fitness tests.  

PubMed

Recent evidence makes a compelling case that US Army, Navy, and Air Force health-related physical fitness tests penalize larger, not just fatter, service members. As a result, they tend to receive lower scores than their lighter counterparts, the magnitude of which can be explained by biologic scaling laws. Larger personnel, on the other hand, tend to be better performers of work-related fitness tasks such as load carriage, heavy lifting, and materiel handling. This has been explained by empirical evidence that lean body mass and lean body mass to dead mass ratio (dead mass = fat mass and external load to be carried/lifted) are more potent determinants of performance of these military tasks than the fitness test events such as push-ups, sit-ups, or 2-mile-distance run time. Because promotions are based, in part, on fitness test performance, lighter personnel have an advancement advantage, although they tend to be poorer performers on many tests of work-related fitness. Several strategies have been proposed to rectify this incongruence including balanced tests, scaled scores, and correction factors--yet most need large-scale validation. Because nearly all subjects in such research have been men, future investigations should focus on women and elucidate the feasibility of universal physical fitness tests for all that include measures of health- and work-related fitness while imposing no systematic body mass bias. PMID:18614935

Vanderburgh, Paul M

2008-08-01

48

A novel approach for fit analysis of thermal protective clothing using three-dimensional body scanning.  

PubMed

The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30 mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden. PMID:24793820

Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

2014-11-01

49

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Males with Normal Body Weight and High Waist-to-Hip Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Overweight and the distribution of body fat are both associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relation of abdominal body fat distribution to CVD may depend on the degree of obesity.Objective The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular disease risk factor levels in males with high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in the absence of

Eve Pihl; Toivo Jürimäe

2001-01-01

50

Examining the Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Weight Status: Empirical Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Adults in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Meanwhile, obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic. This study aims to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with body mass among adult males and females in Taiwan. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative dataset consisting of 68,175 adults aged 18–60, including 31,743 males and 36,432 females, was used. Several multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status, after controlling for adults' sociodemographic status. Results. A one-unit increase in the BMI lowered the cardiorespiratory fitness score by 0.316 and 0.368 points for adult males and females, respectively. Among adult males, compared to those of normal weight, adult males who were underweight, overweight, or obese had a lower cardiorespiratory fitness score by 1.287, 0.845, and 3.353 points, respectively. Similar results could be found in female samples. Conclusion. The overweight and obese adults had much lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness as compared to their normal weight counterparts. Given the upward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, it is important to help overweight and obese people to become more fit and reach their healthy weight. PMID:25386600

Hung, Tai-Hsiung; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

2014-01-01

51

[Centripetal distribution of body fat, overweight and cardiorespiratory fitness: association with insulin sensitivity and metabolic alterations].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to investigate associations between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and serum lipid-lipoproteins, blood pressure and the index Homa-IR of insulin resistance, adjusting for indicators of overweight and cardiorespiratory fitness. Eighty-nine voluntaries were analyzed (44 men and 45 women). The centripetal distribution of the body fat was analyzed through waist circumference (CC) and the overweight by the body mass index (BMI). The cardiorespiratory fitness was followed by the estimate VO(2)max by test of walking. After adjusted for BMI values were found significant coefficient of correlation between CC and levels of blood pressure and ApoB in men, and between CC and index Homa-IR and triglycerides in women. After adjusted for VO(2)max values were verified significant correlations between CC and ApoB and index Homa-IR in men, and between CC and index Homa-IR in women. In conclusion, depending on the sex, the quantity and distribution of the body fat can present different actions in the insulin resistance and associated dysfunctions. The cardiorespiratory fitness per se seems not to contribute on the minimization of the association between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and the index Homa-IR; but presents a considerable impact on the association between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and the lipid metabolism and the levels of blood pressure, mainly in men. PMID:17221109

da Silva, José Luciano T; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; de Oliveira, Jair Aparecido; Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto

2006-12-01

52

Body composition and self-perceived health and fitness among indoor sports participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines (1) the responses of participants in specific indoor sports to questions regarding their self-perceived health and fitness, and (2) the relation betweeen these responses and body composition. A representative sample of indoor sports participants (n = 4308; 2938 male and 1370 female) from six cities in the United Kingdom responded to a questionnaire concerned with their self-perception

D. A. BRODIE; K. L. LAMB; K. ROBERTS

1988-01-01

53

Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments.  

PubMed

For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

2014-04-01

54

Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

2013-01-01

55

Computed tomography—determined body composition in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in Indian and matched Swedish males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between cardiovascular risk factors, body composition, and tissue distributions were examined in 10 Indian and 10 Swedish males matched by age, height, and weight. The body was divided into 29 compartments by means of a multiscan computed tomography (CT) technique. Fasting glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (TG) were higher in Indians than in Swedes. During the oral glucose tolerance test

Badrul Chowdhury; Helén Lantz; Lars Sjöström

1996-01-01

56

Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

1992-01-01

57

Rat cardiovascular responses to whole body suspension - Head-down and non-head-down tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experiments aimed at examining the versatility of the whole body suspension (WBS) system as a ground-based model for cardiovascular effects of microgravity are described. The first experiment studied heart rate and arterial pressure responses in rats during a 7-day period of head-down tilt (HDT) or nonhead-down tilt (NHDT) and after removal from whole body suspension (WBS). Mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures increased about 20 percent in HDT rats on the fist day, heart rates were elevated about 10 percent. During postsuspension most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. The second experiment evaluated responses to rapid head-up tilt in HDT and NHDT rats. It was observed that, while pulse pressures remained unchanged, MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated in HDT and NHDT rats during head-up tilt after one day of suspension. The WBS rats are considered to be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

1992-01-01

58

Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

1990-01-01

59

Color 3D bodies and judgements of human female attractiveness Kathryn L. Smith, Piers L. Cornelissen, Martin J. Tovee4  

E-print Network

(15­44 years old) who are residing in England and Wales, cardiovascular diseases (such as heart, but is not significantly related to their cardiovascular fitness (a key health measure). Although evolutionary psychology that cardiovascular fitness may be a weak cue, at least in bodies not undergoing cardiovascular exercise. Instead

Cornelissen, Piers

60

Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. Methods Using data collected in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (? 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and ? 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. Results Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p?cardiovascular risk factors, despite associated dietary differences. Given the cross-sectional study design, however, it cannot be concluded that candy consumption does not cause obesity or untoward levels of cardiovascular risk markers. The lack of an association between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors could be due to reduced intake of candy among the overweight due to dieting or a health professional’s recommendations. Additionally, it is important to note that the analysis was based on frequency of candy consumption and not amount of candy consumed. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the lack of associations between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23631725

2013-01-01

61

Anthropometrics, body composition, and aerobic fitness in norwegian home guard personnel.  

PubMed

The Norwegian Home Guard (HG) consists of soldiers and officers who primarily live a civilian life but are typically called in for military training a few days per year. Although full-time soldiers and officers are monitored annually on physical fitness, no such assessments are performed on regular HG personnel. Data on physical fitness of similar forces from other nations are also scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study was to collect reference data on physical fitness in HG personnel. A total of 799 male soldiers and officers from the regular and the rapid reaction HG force participated in this study. Between 13 and 19% of the subjects were obese, according to measured body mass index, waist circumference and estimations of body fat. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated peak oxygen uptake from the 20-m shuttle run test was 50.1 (49.7-50.6) mL·kg·minute. Personnel from the rapid reaction force had a more favorable body composition compared with the regular HG personnel, whereas no differences were found for peak oxygen uptake. The physical demands on HG personnel are not well defined, but we believe that the majority of Norwegian HG soldiers and officers have a sufficient aerobic fitness level to fulfill their planned HG tasks. The gathered data can be used by military leaders to review the ability of the HG to perform expected military tasks, to serve as a future reference material for secular changes in HG fitness level, and for comparison purposes among similar international reserve forces. PMID:24832972

Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

2014-11-01

62

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

2004-01-01

63

Incompressible turbulent flow calculation in body-fitted coordinates using block-implicit finite difference method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block-implicit finite-difference method is used to calculate 3D incompressible turbulent flows in the body-fitted coordinate system. In the numerical discretization the hybrid difference scheme is used to treat Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The iterative solution of velocities and pressure on the flow field is obtained by solving simultaneously the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and continuity equation for each cell. In the

Zeming Hu; Xuechun Chen; Yulin Wu

1991-01-01

64

Body mass penalties in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy.  

PubMed

Recent research has empirically documented a consistent penalty against heavier service members for events identical or similar to those in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy. These penalties, which are not related to body fatness, are based on biological scaling models and have a physiological basis. Using hypothetical cases, we quantified the penalties for men, with body mass of 60 vs. 90 kg, and women, 45 vs. 75 kg, to be 15% to 20% for the fitness tests of these three services. Such penalties alone can adversely affect awards and promotions for heavier service members. To deal equitably with these penalties in a practical manner, we offer two recommendations, i.e., (1) implementation of revised fitness tests with balanced events, in which the penalties of one event for heavier service members are balanced by an equal and opposite bias against lighter service members, or (2) development of correction factors that can be multiplied by raw scores to yield adjusted scores free of body mass bias. PMID:16933817

Vanderburgh, Paul M; Crowder, Todd A

2006-08-01

65

Evaluation of body composition and its association with cardio respiratory fitness in south Indian adolescents.  

PubMed

Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that reflects body composition and VO2(max) is an indication of the physical fitness of the subject. There is a paucity of data on t3he age related changes in the body composition parameters and VO2(max), and the association between them in the Indian adolescent population. Hence, the present study was conceived to assess and find the association between these parameters in the students in the age group of 12-17 years. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using estimated VO2(max) from Rockport Walk Fitness Test. We observed that the anthropometric measures were normal for the respective age groups and VO2(max) (mL/kg/min) in all the age groups in both the genders were in superior category according to Heywood classification. We observed higher body fat percentage (BF%) in girls of all the age groups compared to the boys and higher fat free mass (FFM) and VO2(max) in the boys of all age groups when compared to girls. VO2(max) showed a strong correlation with FFM (r = 0.891, P < 0.001) and a weak correlation with BF% (r = -0.322, P < 0.0001). Optimal body composition and CRF can be attributed to the regular structured physical activity of one hour duration daily and the provision of adequate nutrition. FFM can be put forth as a stronger determinant of CRF than BF% in the adolescents. PMID:24968579

Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

2013-01-01

66

Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

2012-01-01

67

Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.  

PubMed

The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. PMID:25269064

Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

2015-01-01

68

Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training. PMID:24479642

Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

2014-01-01

69

Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

Nerem, R. M.

1973-01-01

70

Cortical regions associated with autonomic cardiovascular regulation during lower body negative pressure in humans  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to determine the cortical structures involved with integrated baroreceptor-mediated modulation of autonomic cardiovascular function in conscious humans independent of changes in arterial blood pressure. We assessed the brain regions associated with lower body negative pressure (LBNP)-induced baroreflex control using functional magnetic resonance imaging with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in eight healthy male volunteer subjects. The levels of LBNP administered were 5, 15 and 35 mmHg. Heart rate (HR; representing the cardiovascular response) and LBNP (representing the baroreceptor activation level) were simultaneously monitored during the scanning period. In addition, estimated central venous pressure (CVP), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity were recorded on a separate session. Random effects analyses (SPM2) were used to evaluate significant (P < 0.05) BOLD signal changes that correlated separately with both LBNP and HR (15- and 35-mmHg versus 5-mmHg LBNP). Compared to baseline, steady-state LBNP at 15 and 35 mmHg decreased CVP (from 7 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mmHg, respectively) and increased MSNA (from 12 ± 1 to 23 ± 3 and 36 ± 4 bursts min?1, respectively, both P < 0.05 versus baseline). Furthermore, steady-state LBNP elevated HR from 54 ± 2 beats min?1 at baseline to 64 ± 2 beats min?1 at 35-mmHg suction. Both mean arterial and pulse pressure were not different between rest and any level of LBNP. Cortical regions demonstrating increased activity that correlated with higher HR and greater LBNP included the right superior posterior insula, frontoparietal cortex and the left cerebellum. Conversely, using the identical statistical paradigm, bilateral anterior insular cortices, the right anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, midbrain and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus showed decreased neural activation. These data corroborate previous investigations highlighting the involved roles of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala in central autonomic cardiovascular control. In addition, we have provided the first evidence for the identification of the cortical network involved specifically with baroreflex-mediated autonomic cardiovascular function in conscious humans. PMID:16150800

Kimmerly, Derek S; O'Leary, Deborah D; Menon, Ravi S; Gati, Joseph S; Shoemaker, J Kevin

2005-01-01

71

[Masculinity, nationhood and a body fit for the Swiss army in 1875].  

PubMed

The article looks at the model of the male body, as it emerged in Switzerland in the second half of the 19th century, an era of military centralization and the establishment of the national state (Nationalstaat). Focusing on different conceptions of fitness for military service, Rychner discusses how masculinity is reduced to physical attributes, and thereby objectified and reified. The context is the prevailing gender discourse which (while reducing women to little more than their bodily functions), positioned men as representatives of general human qualities, such as individuality and autonomy. Against this background and somewhat in opposition to it, for the Swiss republican army and its compulsory military service, the issue of each soldier's free will is a crucial issue - an issue that also informs the various conceptions of military fitness. PMID:11624616

Rychner, M

1999-01-01

72

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as screening tools for cardiovascular risk factors in Guadeloupean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes, important cardiovascular risk factors, are strongly linked to obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are measures of obesity that can be useful in identifying individuals with these risk factors. We assessed which of the two measures is more informative at the population level. The study population included 5,149 consecutive women aged

Lydia Foucan; Jim Hanley; Jacqueline Deloumeaux; Samy Suissa

2002-01-01

73

Non-obese (body mass index < 25 kg\\/m 2) Asian Indians with normal waist circumference have high cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAlthough the prevalence of obesity is not high in Asian Indians, increased prevalence rates of metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular risk factors have been reported. In this study, we evaluated body mass index (BMI), anthropometric measurements, and body fat profiles of obese and non-obese subjects and correlated those values with cardiovascular risk factors.

Naval K Vikram; Ravindra Mohan Pandey; Anoop Misra; Rekha Sharma; J Rama Devi; Nidhi Khanna

2003-01-01

74

Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

Kumar, D.

1980-01-01

75

High intensity interval running enhances measures of physical fitness but not metabolic measures of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, the purpose of this study was to examine whether a high intensity training (HIT) intervention could enhance the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents in a time efficient manner. Methods Participants in the study were adolescent school children (64 boys, 25 girls, 16.7 ± 0.6 years). The intervention group (30 boys, 12 girls) performed three weekly exercise sessions over 7 weeks with each session consisting of either four to six repeats of maximal sprint running within a 20 m area with 30 s recovery. The control group were instructed to continue their normal behaviour. All participants had indices of obesity, blood pressure and nine biochemical risk markers for cardiovascular disease recorded as well as four physical performance measures at baseline and post-intervention. Feedback was provided through informal discussion throughout the intervention period as well as post-intervention focus groups. Statistical differences between and within groups were determined by use of paired samples t-tests and ANCOVA. Results Significant enhancements (P ? 0.05) in vertical jump performance, 10?m sprint speed and cardiorespiratory fitness was evident in the intervention group whereas a significant decrease in both agility and vertical jump performance was evident in the control group. Participants in the intervention group also experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure post-intervention. Limited changes occurred with respect to the biochemical markers although both groups did experience a significant increase in LDL post-intervention whilst the control group experienced a significant decrease in total cholesterol. No apparent differences were evident between groups post intervention for any of the biochemical markers. Feedback indicated that participants endorsed the use of the intervention as an effective means of exercise. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that high intensity exercise interventions may be used in the school setting for adolescents as a means of improving measures of physical fitness. Further investigations involving a larger cohort of participants, taken from different schools, is recommended. Trial registration NCT01027156 PMID:23705968

2013-01-01

76

A QUMOND galactic N-body code - I. Poisson solver and rotation curve fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a new particle-mesh galactic N-body code that uses the full multigrid algorithm for solving the modified Poisson equation of the quasi-linear formulation of modified Newtonian dynamics (QUMOND). A novel approach for handling the boundary conditions using a refinement strategy is implemented and the accuracy of the code is compared with analytical solutions of Kuzmin discs. We then employ the code to compute the predicted rotation curves for a sample of five spiral galaxies from the THINGS sample. We generated static N-body realizations of the galaxies according to their stellar and gaseous surface densities and allowed their distances, mass-to-light ratios (M/L values) and both the stellar and gas scale-heights to vary in order to estimate the best-fitting parameters. We found that NGC 3621, NGC 3521 and DDO 154 are well fitted by MOND using expected values of the distance and M/L. NGC 2403 required a moderately larger M/L than expected and NGC 2903 required a substantially larger value. The surprising result was that the scale-height of the dominant baryonic component was well constrained by the rotation curves: the gas scale-height for DDO 154 and the stellar scale-height for the others. In fact, if the suggested stellar scale-height (one-fifth the stellar scale-length) was used in the case of NGC 3621 and NGC 3521 it would not be possible to produce a good fit to the inner rotation curve. For each of the four stellar dominated galaxies, we calculated the vertical velocity dispersions which we found to be, on the whole, quite typical compared with observed stellar vertical velocity dispersions of face-on spirals. We conclude that modelling the gas scale-heights of the gas-rich dwarf spiral galaxies will be vital in order to make precise conclusions about MOND.

Angus, G. W.; van der Heyden, K. J.; Famaey, B.; Gentile, G.; McGaugh, S. S.; de Blok, W. J. G.

2012-04-01

77

Comparison between several muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness indices with body composition and energy expenditure in obese postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of several muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness indices with body composition and energy expenditure in obese postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study involving 72 obese postmenopausal women (age: 60.0±4.8 years; body mass index: 34.1±3.5 kg/m²). Muscle strength was determined by hand dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry. Muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were expressed in absolute (kg and L/min, respectively) and in relative values (kg/body weight (BW) and kg/lean body mass (LBM) for muscle strength and ml/min/kg BW and ml/min kg LBM for cardiorespiratory fitness). Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric (waist and thigh circumference), physical activity energy expenditure and daily number of steps (SenseWear armband) as well as blood pressure were also assessed. Correlations of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness indices with body composition and energy expenditure showed several similarities, however, several variations were also observed. Furthermore, our results showed that age and waist circumference were the primary independent predictors for the muscle strength indices, explaining 22-37% of the variance and % body fat and age were the primary predictors for the cardiorespiratory fitness indices, explaining 18-40% of the variance. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different methods of expressing muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness may display several variations and similarities with body composition and energy expenditure associations. Therefore, interpretations of relationships between muscle strength and cardiorespiratory indices with body composition and energy expenditure factors should take in account the method used to express them. PMID:22972252

Bellefeuille, P; Robillard, M-E; Ringuet, M-E; Aubertin-Leheudre, M; Karelis, A D

2013-03-01

78

Influence of Hatha yoga on physical activity constraints, physical fitness, and body image of breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer survivors often experience changes in their perception of their bodies following surgical treatment. These changes in body image may increase self-consciousness and perceptions of physical activity constraints and reduce participation in physical activity. While the number of studies examining different types of yoga targeting women with breast cancer has increased, studies thus far have not studied the influence that Hatha yoga has on body image and physical activity constraints. The objective of this study was to explore the changes that occur in breast cancer survivors in terms of body image, perceived constraints, and physical fitness following an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention. This study used a nonrandomized two-group pilot study, comparing an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention with a light exercise group, both designed for women who were at least nine months post-treatment for breast cancer. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in the areas of body image, physical activity constraints, and physical fitness. Findings indicated that quantitatively, yoga participants experienced reductions in physical activity constraints and improvements in lower- and upper-body strength and flexibility, while control participants experienced improvements in abdominal strength and lower-body strength. Qualitative findings support changes in body image, physical activity constraints, and physical fitness for the participants in the yoga group. In conclusion, Hatha yoga may reduce constraints to physical activity and improve fitness in breast cancer survivors. More research is needed to explore the relationship between Hatha yoga and improvements in body image. PMID:22398344

Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene; Shinew, Kimberly J; Hsieh, Pei-Chun

2011-01-01

79

Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

1977-01-01

80

Body cooling attenuates the decrease in maximal oxygen uptake associated with cardiovascular drift during heat stress.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests cardiovascular drift (CV drift) is associated with decreased maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)(max)) during heat stress, but more research manipulating CV drift with subsequent measurement of VO(2)(max) is needed to assess whether this relationship is causal. To assess causation, VO(2)(max) was measured during the same time interval that CV drift occurred (between 15 and 45 min of submaximal exercise under different conditions of body cooling intended to manipulate CV drift). Ten men completed a control graded exercise test (GXT) in 22 degrees C to measure VO(2)(max) then on separate occasions they cycled in 35 degrees C at 60% VO(2)(max) for 15 min (15 max), 45 min with no cooling (NC), and 45 min with fan airflow (FAN) beginning at approximately 18 min into exercise, and each bout was immediately followed by a GXT to measure VO(2)(max) In NC, VO(2)(max) decreased 18%, heart rate (HR) increased 16%, and stroke volume (SV) fell 12% (P < 0.05) from min 15 to min 45. In FAN, VO(2)(max) fell less (5.7%, P < 0.05) , HR rose less (4%, P < 0.05) and SV decreased less (3%, P < 0.05) from 15 to 45 min. The fall in VO(2)(max) associated with CV drift during exercise in a hot environment is attenuated with body cooling via fan airflow. The findings support the notion that a causal link exists between CV drift that occurs during prolonged exercise in a hot environment and a decrease in VO(2)(max). PMID:16896737

Wingo, Jonathan E; Cureton, Kirk J

2006-09-01

81

A computer code for three-dimensional incompressible flows using nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.

Chen, Y. S.

1986-01-01

82

Incompressible turbulent flow calculation in body-fitted coordinates using block-implicit finite difference method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The block-implicit finite-difference method is used to calculate 3D incompressible turbulent flows in the body-fitted coordinate system. In the numerical discretization the hybrid difference scheme is used to treat Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The iterative solution of velocities and pressure on the flow field is obtained by solving simultaneously the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and continuity equation for each cell. In the iterative process the Gauss-Seidel method is used to solve nonlinear algebraic equations. The turbulent flow is simulated by the k-epsilon turbulence modeling in conjunction with Reynolds equations. The turbulent flow of a curved duct with square cross sections is treated in detail.

Hu, Zeming; Chen, Xuechun; Wu, Yulin

83

Predicting metabolic rate across walking speed: one fit for all body sizes?  

PubMed

We formulated a "one-size-fits-all" model that predicts the energy requirements of level human walking from height, weight, and walking speed. Our three-component model theorizes that the energy expended per kilogram per stride is independent of stature at mechanically equivalent walking speeds. We measured steady-state rates of oxygen uptake of 78 subjects who spanned a nearly twofold range of statures (1.07-2.11 m) and sevenfold range of body masses (16-112 kg) at treadmill speeds from 0.4 to 1.9 m/s. We tested the size independence of the model by deriving best-fit equations in the form of the model on four stature groups (n ? 15): short, moderately short, moderately tall, and tall. The mean walking metabolic rates predicted by these four independently derived equations for the same set of reference subjects (n = 16; stature range: 1.30-1.90 m) agreed with one another to within an average of 5.2 ± 3.7% at the four intermediate speeds in our protocol. We next evaluated the model's gross predictive accuracy by dividing our 78 subjects into 39 stature-matched pairs of experimental and validation group subjects. The model best-fit equation derived on the experimental group subjects predicted the walking metabolic rates of the validation group subjects to within an average of 8.1 ± 6.7% (R(2) = 0.90; standard error of estimate = 1.34 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The predictive error of the American College of Sports Medicine equation (18.0 ± 13.1%), which does not include stature as a predictor, was more than twice as large for the same subject group. We conclude that the energy cost of level human walking can be accurately predicted from height, weight, and walking speed. PMID:23928111

Weyand, Peter G; Smith, Bethany R; Schultz, Nicole S; Ludlow, Lindsay W; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

2013-11-01

84

Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

2000-01-01

85

The Effect of a Virtual Reality Exercise Program on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Fatigue in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program (VREP) on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal failure. [Subjects and Methods] A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Forty-six HD patients were divided into exercise (n=23) and control groups (n=23); while waiting for their dialyses, the exercise group followed a VREP, and the control group received only their usual care. The VREP was accomplished using Nintendo’s Wii Fit Plus for 40 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks during the period of May 27 to July 19, 2013. Physical fitness (muscle strength, balance, flexibility), body composition (skeletal muscle mass, body fat rate, arm and leg muscle mass), and fatigue were measured at baseline and after the intervention. [Results] After the VREP, physical fitness and body composition significantly increased, and the level of fatigue significantly decreased in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a VREP improves physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in HD patients. Based on the findings, VREPs should be used as a health promotion programs for HD patients. PMID:25364137

Cho, Hyeyoung; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae

2014-01-01

86

Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

1994-01-01

87

Effects of GH on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Young Men With Abdominal Obesity  

PubMed Central

Context: Visceral adiposity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and decreased GH secretion. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of GH administration in abdominally obese young men on body composition, including liver fat, mitochondrial function, and cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. Design and Participants: This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 abdominally obese men (IGF-1 below the mean, no exclusion based on GH level), 21 to 45 years of age. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated abdominal fat depots, thigh muscle and fat (computed tomography), fat and lean mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), mitochondrial function (dynamic phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy), CV risk markers, carotid intimal-medial thickness, and endothelial function. Results: GH administration resulted in a mean IGF-1 SD score increase from ?1.9 ± 0.08 to ?0.2 ± 0.3 in the GH group and a decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk/extremity fat, intrahepatic lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B/low-density lipoprotein vs placebo after controlling for the increase in weight observed in both groups. There were inverse associations between change in IGF-1 levels and change in VAT, VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk fat, trunk/extremity fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and apolipoprotein B. Mitochondrial function improved in the GH group compared with placebo after controlling for change in glucose. There was no change in thigh fat, muscle mass, intramyocellular lipids, cholesterol, fibrinogen, intimal-medial thickness, or endothelial function. There was no increase in fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c in the GH vs placebo group, although glucose during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test increased slightly. Conclusion: GH replacement in abdominally obese men improves body composition, including liver fat, mitochondrial function, and markers of CV risk. Although fasting glucose was unchanged, a slight increase in 2-hour glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test was noted. PMID:23824419

Gerweck, Anu V.; Lin, Eleanor; Landa, Melissa G.; Torriani, Martin; Schoenfeld, David A.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Miller, Karen K.

2013-01-01

88

Effects of lupin-enriched foods on body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Regular consumption of diets with increased protein or fibre intakes may benefit body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient high in protein and fibre.Objective:To investigate the effects of a lupin-enriched diet, during and following energy restriction, on body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals.Design:Participants (n=131) were

R Belski; T A Mori; I B Puddey; S Sipsas; R J Woodman; T R Ackland; L J Beilin; E R Dove; N B Carlyon; V Jayaseena; J M Hodgson

2011-01-01

89

Sexual Dimorphism in Body Fat Distribution and Risk for Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased over the past decade along with the cardiovascular and other health risks\\u000a it encompasses. Adipose tissue, which is distributed in the abdominal viscera, carries a greater risk for cardiovascular disorders\\u000a than adipose tissue subcutaneously. There is a sex difference in the regional fat distribution. Women have more subcutaneous\\u000a fat, whereas men have more

Thekkethil P. Nedungadi; Deborah J. Clegg

2009-01-01

90

Joint effect of insulin signalling genes on cardiovascular events and on whole body and endothelial insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Objective Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share a common soil. We investigated the combined role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting insulin signaling (ENPP1 K121Q, rs1044498; IRS1 G972R, rs1801278; TRIB3 Q84R, rs2295490) on CVD, age at myocardial infarction (MI), in vivo insulin sensitivity and in vitro insulin-stimulated nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Design and Setting 1. We first studied, incident cardiovascular events (a composite endpoint comprising myocardial infarction -MI-, stroke and cardiovascular death) in 733 patients (2,186 person-years, 175 events). 2. In a replication attempt, age at MI was tested in 331 individuals. 3. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was assessed in 829 individuals with fasting glucose < 126 mg/dl. 4. NOS activity was measured in 40 strains of human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results 1. Risk variants jointly predicted cardiovascular events (HR=1.181; p=0.0009) and, when added to clinical risk factors, significantly improved survival C-statistics; they also allowed a significantly correct reclassification (by net reclassification index) in the whole sample (135/733 individuals) and, even more, in obese patients (116/204 individuals). 2. Risk variants were jointly associated with age at MI (p=0.006). 3. A significant association was also observed with ISI (p=0.02). 4. Finally, risk variants were jointly associated with insulin-stimulated NOS activity in HUVECs (p=0.009). Conclusions Insulin signaling genes variants jointly affect cardiovascular disease, very likely by promoting whole body and endothelium-specific insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to address whether their genotyping help identify very high-risk patients who need specific and/or more aggressive preventive strategies. PMID:23107043

Bacci, Simonetta; Prudente, Sabrina; Copetti, Massimiliano; Spoto, Belinda; Rizza, Stefano; Baratta, Roberto; Di Pietro, Natalia; Morini, Eleonora; Di Paola, Rosa; Testa, Alessandra; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Mercuri, Luana; Di Silvestre, Sara; Lauro, Renato; Malatino, Lorenzo; Consoli, Agostino; Pellegrini, Fabio; Pandolfi, Assunta; Frittitta, Lucia; Zoccali, Carmine; Federici, Massimo; Doria, Alessandro; Trischitta, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

91

Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Vänttinen, T, Blomqvist, M, Nyman, K, and Häkkinen, K. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3342-3351, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 10.8 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 13), 12.7 ± 0.2-year-old (n = 14), and 14.7 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 12) Finnish regional youth soccer players during a 2-year monitoring period and to compare physical fitness characteristics of soccer players with those of age-matched controls (10.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 13; 14.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 10) not participating in soccer. Body composition was measured in terms of height, weight, muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body weight of trunk, legs, and arms. Hormonal status was monitored by concentrations of serum testosterone and cortisol. Physical fitness was measured in terms of sprinting speed, agility, isometric maximal strength (leg extensors, abdominal, back, grip), explosive strength, and endurance. Age-related development was detected in all other measured variables except in the percentage of body fat. The results showed that the physical fitness of regional soccer players was better than that of the control groups in all age groups, especially in cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.01-0.001) and in agility (p < 0.01-0.001). In conclusion, playing in a regional level soccer team seems to provide training adaptation, which is beyond normal development and which in all likelihood leads to positive health effects over a prolonged period of time. PMID:21921822

Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

2011-12-01

92

Depicting the Sporting Body: The Intersection of Gender, Race and Disability in Women's Sport\\/Fitness Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the relationship between images of sport, disability, gender and race in four U.S. women's sport\\/fitness magazines. According to a view of feminism that sees it as addressing all oppressions, these magazines should provide an empowering space for all women, including women with a disability. Rejection of ableism signifies a rejection of the male body standard in sport,

Marie Hardin; Susan Lynn; Kristie Walsdorf

93

The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

2010-01-01

94

Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

95

Radiation dose associated with renal failure mortality: a potential pathway to partially explain increased cardiovascular disease mortality observed after whole-body irradiation.  

PubMed

Whole-body and thoracic ionizing radiation exposure are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In atomic bomb survivors, radiation dose is also associated with increased hypertension incidence, suggesting that radiation dose may be associated with chronic renal failure (CRF), thus explaining part of the mechanism for increased CVD. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association of radiation dose with various definitions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. A secondary analysis was performed using a subsample for whom self-reported information on hypertension and diabetes, the two biggest risk factors for CRF, had been collected. We found a significant association between radiation dose and only our broadest definition of CRF among the full cohort. A quadratic dose excess relative risk model [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.091 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.198)] fit minimally better than a linear model. Within the subsample, association was also observed only with the broadest CRF definition [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.15 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.32)]. Adjustment for hypertension and diabetes improved model fit but did not substantially change the ERR/Gy(2) estimate, which was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.35). We found a significant quadratic dose relationship between radiation dose and possible chronic renal disease mortality that is similar in shape to that observed between radiation and incidence of hypertension in this population. Our results suggest that renal dysfunction could be part of the mechanism causing increased CVD risk after whole-body irradiation, a hypothesis that deserves further study. PMID:22149958

Adams, Michael Jacob; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Akahoshi, Masazumi

2012-02-01

96

Physical Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protective effects of physical activity and fitness on cardiovascular health have clearly been shown among normally developed children. However, data are currently lacking pertaining to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fitness measures, body composition, and…

Schott, Nadja; Alof, Verena; Hultsch, Daniela; Meermann, Dagmar

2007-01-01

97

Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

2012-01-01

98

Body fat measured by a near-infrared interactance device as a predictor of cardiovascular events: the FINRISK'92 cohort.  

PubMed

We evaluated how body fat percentage, measured by a portable near-infrared interactance (NIR) device predicts cardiovascular (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events in a prospective population-based survey. The study population consisted of 2,842 men and 3,196 women, who participated in the FINRISK'92 survey. Obesity was assessed with BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage measured with an NIR. Mean length of follow-up was 9 years and 3 months. In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for men, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR as well as body fat percentage were predictors of a CVD event when adjusted for age and for major risk factors. Hazard ratio (HR) per 1 s.d. was 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.48) for body fat percentage, 1.30 (1.16-1.46) for BMI, and 1.31 (1.16-1.50) for waist circumference. Among women, the body fat lost its predictive power in a fully adjusted model. Body fat percentage, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR were predictors of a CHD event both among men and women, whereas body fat percentage did not predict ischemic stroke among either gender. We observed that body fat percentage measured by an NIR device was a significant predictor of CVD and CHD events among men and women, but in our population-based survey, it did not provide any additional predictive power over and above the simpler measures, such as BMI or WHR. PMID:20966903

Pajunen, Pia; Jousilahti, Pekka; Borodulin, Katja; Harald, Kennet; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko

2011-04-01

99

Waist Hip Ratio and Body Mass Index as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The role of obesity as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly understood. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) is less influenced by muscle and bone mass than body mass index (BMI). We compared WHR and BMI as risk factors for cardiac events (myocardial infarction, fatal coronary disease) in persons with CKD. Study Design Cohort Study. Setting and Participants Persons with CKD, defined as a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 60 mL/min/1.73m2, drawn from two community studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study. Predictor Waist to Hip Ratio, Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index. Outcomes and Measurements Myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. Results Among 1,669 participants with CKD, mean age was 70.3 years and 56% were women. Mean WHR was 0.97 ± 0.08 in men and 0.90 ± 0.07 in women; mean BMI was 27.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2. Over a mean of 9.3 years of follow-up, there were 334 cardiac events. In multivariable adjusted Cox models the highest WHR group (n=386) was associated with an increased risk of cardiac events compared with the lowest WHR group [HR (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.01–1.83]. Obesity defined by BMI >30 kg/m2 (n= 381) was not associated with cardiac events [HR (95% CI) = 0.86 (0.62–1.20)] in comparison to participants with normal BMI. The results with waist circumference were similar to those with BMI. Limitations Absence of a gold standard for measurement of visceral fat. Conclusions WHR, but not BMI, is associated with cardiac events in persons with CKD. Relying exclusively on BMI may underestimate the importance of obesity as a cardiovascular disease risk factor in persons with CKD. PMID:18514990

Elsayed, Essam F; Tighiouart, Hocine; Weiner, Daniel E; Griffith, John; Salem, Deeb; Levey, Andrew S; Sarnak, Mark J

2008-01-01

100

Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity.  

PubMed

Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children's fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants' performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance. PMID:25031676

Hamlin, Michael J; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

2014-03-27

101

The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO{sub 2} max in white, black and Mexican Americans  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO{sub 2} max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO{sub 2} max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO{sub 2} max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation.

Egwuogu, Heartley [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shendell, Derek G. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-School of Public Health (and EOHSI), 683 Hoes Lane West, 3rd Floor, P.O. Box 9, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: shendedg@umdnj.edu; Okosun, Ike S. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goodfellow, Lynda [School of Health Professions, College of Health and Human Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2009-04-15

102

A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate cut-off points of waist circumference, body mass index and waist to hip ratio with respect to their ability to predict other individual and multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors.DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional surveys.SUBJECTS: A total of 9913 men and women aged 18–74, selected using health insurance registries from five Canadian provinces.MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric measures, other cardiovascular risk factors, receiver

CJ Dobbelsteyn; G Flowerdew

2001-01-01

103

Body mass and individual fitness in female ungulates: bigger is not always better.  

PubMed Central

In female vertebrates, differences in fitness often correspond to differences in phenotypic quality, suggesting that larger females have greater fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from variation in life span and/or variation in yearly reproductive success, but no study has yet assessed the relationships between the components of fitness and phenotypic quality while controlling for life span. We tried to fill this gap using data from long-term monitoring (23 years) of marked roe deer and bighorn sheep, two ungulates with very different life histories. In both species, we found a strong positive relationship between an adult female's mass and her probability of reaching old age: over the long term, bigger is indeed better for ungulate females. On the other hand, we found no evidence in either species that heavier females had higher fitness when differences in life span were accounted for: over the short term, bigger is not necessarily better. Our results indicate that, while broad differences in phenotypic quality affect individual fitness, when differences in life span are accounted for phenotypic quality has no residual effect on fitness. Therefore, within a given range of phenotypic quality, bigger is not always better, for reasons which may differ between species. PMID:10737404

Gaillard, J M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Delorme, D; Jorgenson, J

2000-01-01

104

Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

2001-01-01

105

Objectification in Fitness Centers: Self-Objectification, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Aerobic Instructors and Aerobic Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate self-objectification, its theoretical consequences, and its relationship to reasons for exercise within a fitness center environment. Sixty female aerobic instructors and 97 female aerobic participants, who ranged in age from 18 to 45 years, completed questionnaire measures of self-objectification, reasons for exercise, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating. Increased self-objectification (and self-surveillance) was related to

Ivanka Prichard; Marika Tiggemann

2005-01-01

106

Too Fat to Fit through the Door: First Evidence for Disturbed Body-Scaled Action in Anorexia Nervosa during Locomotion  

PubMed Central

To date, research on the disturbed experience of body size in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) mainly focused on the conscious perceptual level (i.e. body image). Here we investigated whether these disturbances extend to body schema: an unconscious, action-related representation of the body. AN patients (n?=?19) and healthy controls (HC; n?=?20) were compared on body-scaled action. Participants walked through door-like openings varying in width while performing a diversion task. AN patients and HC differed in the largest opening width for which they started rotating their shoulders to fit through. AN patients started rotating for openings 40% wider than their own shoulders, while HC started rotating for apertures only 25% wider than their shoulders. The results imply abnormalities in AN even at the level of the unconscious, action oriented body schema. Body representation disturbances in AN are thus more pervasive than previously assumed: They do not only affect (conscious) cognition and perception, but (unconscious) actions as well. PMID:23734207

Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Dijkerman, H. Chris; Uzunbajakau, Siarhei A.; van Elburg, Annemarie; Postma, Albert

2013-01-01

107

Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults  

PubMed Central

The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults.

Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

2013-01-01

108

In Fitness and in Health: Crafting Bodies in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses ethnographic data from a U.S. eating disorders treatment program to examine how medical and psychiatric practitioners actively craft the types of bodies they claim merely to describe, diagnose, and normalize, producing very real, socially located, embodied effects by acting as if these bodies preexist both socialization and medicalization.…

Gremillion, Helen

2002-01-01

109

Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.  

PubMed

Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

2014-01-01

110

Numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for arbitrary bodies using boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of automatic body-fitted curvilinear coordinate generation is described and used to construct a finite-difference solution of the full incompressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the unsteady laminar viscous flow arbitrary two-dimensional airfoils or any other two-dimensional body. A method of controlling the spacing of the coordinate lines encircling the body is developed in order to treat high Reynolds number flows, since the coordinate lines must concentrate near the surface to a greater degree as the Reynolds number increases. Multiple airfoils and submerged hydrofoils are treated as illustrative examples. The solution shows good agreement with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semi-infinite flat plate.

Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Walker, R. L.; Shanks, S. P.

1975-01-01

111

Secular trends in the aerobic fitness test performance and body mass index of Korean children and adolescents (1968-2000).  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that the aerobic fitness performance of children is declining, at least in developed countries. To see if there was evidence of similar trends in a non-Western country, this study analysed data on 6-18-year-old Koreans tested between 1968 and 2000 using distance runs ranging from 600 to 1200 m. All existing data on the results of children's aerobic fitness tests in Korea were collated. In addition to six individual studies, very large datasets were available from the Korean Ministries of Education, and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Data on a total of 22,127,265 6-18-year-old children were available in the form of group means and standard deviations. Data were collated for each age x sex x test group, and performances were expressed as percentages of the fitted values for the year 1992 to standardise across tests, ages and sexes. All age x sex x test groups were then combined, and curves were fitted using weighted regression. A two-linear segment model best described the pattern of change (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). There was a relatively slow decline (0.26 % per year) in the aerobic performance of Korean children between 1968 and 1984. After 1984, however, there was a steep decline in performance, averaging 0.80 % per year. The rate of decline was greater in boys, younger children and children from outside the capital Seoul. Changes in running performance showed a similar pattern to changes in estimated body mass index. Compared to other countries, there has been a sharp decline in Korean children's performance on tests of aerobic fitness, which has been concurrent with increases in estimated body mass index. PMID:17024618

Tomkinson, G R; Olds, T S; Kang, S J; Kim, D Y

2007-04-01

112

Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

113

A tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk of individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH): design of the PRO-FIT randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Because of a high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH), early prevention of cardiovascular disease is important for health gain and cost reduction. This project focuses on the development and evaluation of an innovative intervention aiming to reduce CVD risk by promoting a healthy lifestyle among people with FH. Methods This project is designed as a randomised controlled trial in which individuals with FH will be assigned randomly to a control or intervention group. In the intervention group (n = 200), participants will receive a personalized intervention which is a combination of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling by a lifestyle coach. The control group (n = 200) will receive care as usual. Primary outcomes are biological indicators of CVD risk: systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, waist circumference and lipids (triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol). Secondary outcomes are: healthy lifestyle behaviour (with regard to smoking, physical activity, dietary pattern and compliance to statin therapy) and psychological correlates and determinants of healthy lifestyle behaviour (knowledge, attitude, risk perception, social influence, self-efficacy, cues to action, intention and autonomy). Measurement will take place at baseline, and at 3 and 12 months after randomisation. Additionally, a throughout process-evaluation will be conducted to assess and monitor intervention implementation during the trial. Discussion Results of the PRO-FIT project will provide information about the effects and implementation of a healthy lifestyle intervention for individuals with FH. Our experiences with this intervention will be indicative about the suitability, feasibility and benefits of this approach for future interventions in other high-risk groups, such as Familial Combined Hypercholesterolemia (FCH) and diabetes. Trial registration number NTR1899 PMID:20156339

2010-01-01

114

Observational study of regional aortic size referenced to body size: production of a cardiovascular magnetic resonance nomogram  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is regarded as the gold standard for clinical assessment of the aorta, but normal dimensions are usually referenced to echocardiographic and computed tomography data and no large CMR normal reference range exists. As a result we aimed to 1) produce a normal CMR reference range of aortic diameters and 2) investigate the relationship between regional aortic size and body surface area (BSA) in a large group of healthy subjects with no vascular risk factors. Methods 447 subjects (208 male, aged 19–70 years) without identifiable cardiac risk factors (BMI range 15.7–52.6 kg/m2) underwent CMR at 1.5 T to determine aortic diameter at three levels: the ascending aorta (Ao) and proximal descending aorta (PDA) at the level of the pulmonary artery, and the abdominal aorta (DDA), at a level 12 cm distal to the PDA. In addition, 201 of these subjects had aortic root imaging, allowing for measurements at the level of the aortic valve annulus (AV), aortic sinuses and sinotubular junction (STJ). Results Normal diameters (mean ±2 SD) were; AV annulus male(?) 24.4?±?5.4, female (?) 21.0?±?3.6 mm, aortic sinus?32.4?±?7.7, ?27.6?±?5.8 mm, ST-junction ?25.0?±?7.4, ?21.8?±?5.4 mm, Ao ?26.7?±?7.7, ?25.5?±?7.4 mm, PDA ?20.6?±?5.6, +18.9?±?4.0 mm, DDA ?17.6?±?5.1, ?16.4?±?4.0 mm. Aortic root and thoracic aortic diameters increased at all levels measured with BSA. No gender difference was seen in the degree of dilatation with increasing BSA (p?>?0.5 for all analyses). Conclusion Across both genders, increasing body size is characterized by a modest degree of aortic dilatation, even in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24447690

2014-01-01

115

A healthy brain in a healthy body: brain network correlates of physical and mental fitness.  

PubMed

A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely understood. By applying mathematical concepts from 'network theory', insights in the organization and dynamics of brain functioning can be obtained. We test the hypothesis that neural network organization mediates the association between cardio respiratory fitness (i.e. VO? max) and cognitive functioning. A healthy cohort was studied (n?=?219, 113 women, age range 41-44 years). Subjects underwent resting-state eyes-closed magneto-encephalography (MEG). Five artifact-free epochs were analyzed and averaged in six frequency bands (delta-gamma). The phase lag index (PLI) was used as a measure of functional connectivity between all sensors. Modularity analysis was performed, and both within and between-module connectivity of each sensor was calculated. Subjects underwent a maximum oxygen uptake (VO? max) measurement as an indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. All subjects were tested with a commonly used Dutch intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was related to VO? max. In addition, VO? max was negatively associated with upper alpha and beta band modularity. Particularly increased intermodular connectivity in the beta band was associated with higher VO? max and IQ, further indicating a benefit of more global network integration as opposed to local connections. Within-module connectivity showed a spatially varied pattern of correlation, while average connectivity did not show significant results. Mediation analysis was not significant. The occurrence of less modularity in the resting-state is associated with better cardio respiratory fitness, while having increased intermodular connectivity, as opposed to within-module connections, is related to better physical and mental fitness. PMID:24498438

Douw, Linda; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dijk, Bob W; Stam, Cornelis J; Twisk, Jos W R

2014-01-01

116

Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features. PMID:24023949

Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

2013-01-01

117

"Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.  

PubMed

Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility. PMID:23746610

Hutson, David J

2013-08-01

118

Using Situs for Flexible and Rigid-Body Fitting of Multiresolution Single-Molecule Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wedescribe here a set of multiresolution visualization and docking procedures that we refer to as the Situs package. The package was developed to provide an efficient and robust method for the fitting of atomic structures into low-resolution data. The current release was optimized specifically for the visualization and docking of single molecules. A novel 3D graphics viewer, volslice3d, was developed

Willy Wriggers; Stefan Birmanns

2001-01-01

119

The relationship between body mass index and physical fitness in adolescent and adult male team handball players.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) and selected physical fitness variables in male handball players. In addition, we investigated whether this relationship is age-dependent, i.e., whether a higher BMI has the same implications for physical fitness in adolescents as in adult players. Therefore, adolescent (n = 57, aged 14.9 +/- 1.4 yr) and adult (n = 39, 26.6 +/- 5.7 yr) participants performed a series of anthropometric and physical fitness measures. In adolescent players, BMI was inversely related with countermovement jump (r = -0.26, P < 0.05), mean power during a 30-s Bosco test (r = -0.30, P < 0.001) and handgrip muscle strength (r = -0.52, P < 0.001). Further, BMI was in direct relationship with fatigue index of the Wingate anaerobic test (r = 0.29, P < 0.05). Correspondingly lower and non-significant correlations were found in adult players. Also, in the latter players, there was an inverse association between BMI and maximal anaerobic power during the force-velocity test (r = -0.34, P < 0.05). The present findings indicate that elevated BMI is more strongly inversely related to physical fitness in adolescent compared to adult team handball players. PMID:24968574

Nikolaidis, P T; Ingebrigtsen, J

2013-01-01

120

The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary students  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary school students. For the purpose of this study, 20 obese elementary students were selected as subjects. The subjects were then divided into two groups: the swimming group (n= 10) and the control group (n= 10). The subjects were asked to exercise for 60 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 12 weeks with an exercise intensity of 50–70% HRmax. The following results were achieved: first, in terms of body composition, both body fat percentage and fat-free mass showed significant differences within the swimming group. There were also significant differences again in the posttest of difference between the two groups. Second, in terms of changes in physical fitness, there were, again, no significant changes in muscular strength between the two groups. However, muscular endurance, flexibility, and cardiopulmonary endurance showed significant differences in the swimming group’s test for difference within groups. Significant differences in both groups for the posttest of differences between groups were also seen. Third, in terms of vascular compliance, there was a significant increase in the right leg for the swimming groups’ test of difference within groups, as well as in the posttest of difference between groups. PMID:25061599

Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

2014-01-01

121

Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore Cydia pomonella  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.). In our first set of experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (1) body size is heritable and (2) parental body size mediates egg production and offspring survival. Midparent-offspring regression analyses revealed that body mass is highly heritable for females and moderately heritable for males. The contribution of fathers to estimates of additive genetic variance was slightly greater than for mothers. Egg production increased with mean parental size, but offspring survival rates were equivalent. Based on this result, we tested two additional hypotheses in a second set of experiments: (3) male size moderates female egg production and egg fertility and (4) egg production, egg fertility, and offspring survival rate are influenced by female mating opportunities. Females paired with large males produced more eggs and a higher proportion of fertile eggs than females paired with small males. Females with multiple mating opportunities produced more fertile eggs than females paired with a single male. However, egg production and offspring survival rates were unaffected by the number of mating opportunities. Our experiments demonstrate that body mass is heritable in C. pomonella and that size phenotypes may mediate fecundity but not fitness. We conclude that male size can influence egg production and fertility, but female mate choice also plays a role in determining egg fertility.

Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J.

2012-06-01

122

Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability) is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation

Nobuhiro Watanabe; John Reece; Barbara I Polus

2007-01-01

123

Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter as surrogates of body fat distribution in the elderly: their relation with cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and other indicators of body fat distribution with cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in the elderly.SUBJECTS: One-hundred and forty-six women aged from 67 to 78 y with a body mass index (BMI) ranging from 18.7 to 50.6 kg\\/m2 and 83 men aged between 67 and 78 y with BMI ranging

E Turcato; O Bosello; V Di Francesco; TB Harris; E Zoico; L Bissoli; E Fracassi; M Zamboni

2000-01-01

124

Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting beach-chair body position for induction of anesthesia  

PubMed Central

The sitting beach-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining beach-chair position. Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting beach-chair (n = 15) or with the beach-chair tilted backwards to a reclining beach-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting beach-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous hemodynamic variables were recorded by photoplethysmography and frontal cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) by near infrared spectroscopy. Significant differences were only observed immediately after the induction when patients induced in a reclining beach-chair position had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) (35 ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared to the sitting beach-chair position indicate more stable hemodynamics with the clinical implication that anesthesia should not be induced with the patient in the sitting position. PMID:24904427

Larsen, Søren L.; Lyngeraa, Tobias S.; Maschmann, Christian P.; Van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

2014-01-01

125

Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

2014-01-01

126

Relations of Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use to Body Mass Index and Selected Biomarkers for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with biomarkers for glucose dysregulation and inflammation, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Methods. Postmenopausal women were recruited into the Women’s Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998, and data were collected at regular intervals through 2005. We used multiple linear regression models to examine whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with BMI, waist circumference, and biomarkers. Results. Analysis of data from 71?809 women who completed all relevant baseline and year 3 assessments showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were significantly associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. Among 1950 women, elevated depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased insulin levels and measures of insulin resistance. Analyses of baseline data from 2242 women showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with higher C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions. Monitoring body habitus and other biomarkers among women with elevated depression symptoms or taking antidepressant medication may be prudent to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23763394

Balasubramanian, Raji; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Hébert, James R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Culver, Annie L.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Beck, James; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Zorn, Martha; Liu, Simin

2013-01-01

127

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to lower body negative pressure in type 2 diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In diabetic patients, vascular disease and autonomic dysfunction might compromise cerebral autoregulation and contribute to orthostatic intolerance. The aim of our study was to determine whether impaired cerebral autoregulation contributes to orthostatic intolerance during lower body negative pressure in diabetic patients.Thirteen patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes were studied. We continuously recorded RR-interval, mean blood pressure and mean middle cerebral

Harald Marthol; Udo Zikeli; Clive Martin Brown; Marcin Tutaj; Max Josef Hilz

2007-01-01

128

Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

1994-01-01

129

Concurrent improvements in cardiorespiratory and muscle fitness in response to total body recumbent stepping in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A group of 26 sedentary adults [mean age 48.4 (SD 6.4) years] were allocated randomly into either a non-exercising control\\u000a group (CON, n=9) or an exercise group (EX, n=17) that trained 3 days a week for 12 weeks using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS). Training intensity and duration\\u000a progressed from 50% of heart rate reserve maximum (HRRmax) for 20 min to 75% HRRmax for 40 min.

C. J. Hass; L. Garzarella; D. V. de Hoyos; D. P. Connaughton; M. L. Pollock

2001-01-01

130

Whole-body vibration training increases physical fitness measures without alteration of inflammatory markers in older adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated in older adults whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in significant increases of physical fitness measures without alterations in markers of inflammation. Sixteen volunteers completed a WBV programme 3 d.wk(-1) during 9 weeks. The programme consisted of lower and upper-body unloaded static and dynamic exercises. Training improved significantly several tests which evaluate physical fitness, such as 30-s chair stand, arm curl or chair sit and reach test. There was a significant increase in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) between pre- and post-training conditions. Muscle power values, reached at 20, 40 and 60% MVIC, were also significantly greater after training. However, mRNA or protein levels for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-10 did not significantly differ from basal values. Our data confirm the usefulness of WBV training for counteracting the loss of muscle strength associated with sarcopenia in older adults and show that WBV training could be a safe training method which induces no inflammatory effects. PMID:24237186

Cristi, Carlos; Collado, Pilar S; Márquez, Sara; Garatachea, Nuria; Cuevas, María J

2014-01-01

131

One size fits all? Race, gender and body mass index among U.S. adults.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the extent to which factors presumed to be correlated with body mass index (BMI) vary across four race- and gender-specific groups. Data were drawn from the American Changing Lives Survey to estimate separate multivariate regression models for the total study sample that included African-American males, Caucasian males, African-American females and Caucasian females. The dependant variable of interest was BMI. Independent variables included age, human capital variables, relationship and support measures, health status and behavior measures, and stress and outlook measures. Results from the pooled model indicated that BMI was associated with a number of factors such as employment status, chronic illness, financial strain and religiosity. However, race- and gender-specific regression models revealed that predictors of BMI varied considerably for African-American men, Caucasian men, African-American women and Caucasian women. In other words, these models disentangled important correlations not observed in the pooled model. These findings suggest that addressing racial disparities in body weight-related outcomes requires health practitioners to modify obesity prevention and treatment efforts to incorporate a broader array of factors inherent to specific racial and gender populations. PMID:17987919

Bruce, Marino A.; Sims, Mario; Miller, Stephania; Elliott, Vanessa; Ladipo, Marian

2007-01-01

132

Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health. PMID:22236166

2012-01-01

133

The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

1994-01-01

134

The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

2008-01-01

135

Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart…

Schmidt, Sharon

136

Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1994-01-01

137

Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation  

PubMed Central

The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a “size-advantage” hypothesis – that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition – that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density – as well as local density of just reproductive individuals – was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had – in the following growing season – a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a ‘reproductive-economy-advantage’ – that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring – and hence transmitting genes to future generations – despite intense and persistent (cross-generational) crowding/competition from near neighbors. Selection for the latter is expected to favor relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size and hence – as a tradeoff – relatively small (not large) potential body size. PMID:24772274

Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

2014-01-01

138

Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

2004-01-01

139

Maternal Diet-induced Obesity Programs Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Adult Male Mouse Offspring Independent of Current Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet–induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the ?1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring. PMID:25051449

Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

2014-01-01

140

21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary...manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular diagnostic, surgical, and...

2014-04-01

141

21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary...manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular diagnostic, surgical, and...

2013-04-01

142

A whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine if a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance-training circuit using only body-weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9±3.2 y; 167.6±6.4 cm; 65.0±15.2 kg) were assigned to either: 1) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n=17); or 2) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance-training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n=17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a VO2peak test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. Following training, VO2peak improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p=0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p=0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p=0.027) and 3.2% (p=0.006) respectively and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p=0.025) and 5.1% (p=0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1-RM improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p=0.011) and 8.3% (p=0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p<0.001) and 10.2% (p=0.004) respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p=0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p=0.006) 1-RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pre-training 1-RM for back (10.0%; p=0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; P=0.056) vs CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based, whole-body aerobic resistance-training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment, compared to a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise. PMID:25486302

Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

2014-12-01

143

Understanding the Independent and Joint Associations of the Home and Workplace Built Environments on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20–88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000–2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group–level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

Hoehner, Christine M.; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Schootman, Mario

2013-01-01

144

Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

2005-01-01

145

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults,

Siobhan T O'Dwyer; Nicola W Burton; Nancy A Pachana; Wendy J Brown

2007-01-01

146

Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

2012-01-01

147

Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

Kravik, Stein E.

1989-01-01

148

Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to provide a clear, accurate, public health message to the many groups now using AS for performance and image enhancement. PMID:22229259

Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

2012-02-01

149

Endurance, explosive power, and muscle strength in relation to body mass index and physical fitness in greek children aged 7-10 years.  

PubMed

We aimed to model endurance, explosive power, and muscle strength in relation to body mass index (BMI) and physical-fitness tests in Greek children aged 7-10 years old. In the present large epidemiological study, anthropometric measurements and physical-fitness tests (i.e., multistage shuttle run, vertical jump, standing long jump, small ball throw and 30-m sprint) from 141,169 children were analyzed. Age- and sex-specific normative values for physical fitness tests were expressed as tabulated percentiles using the LMS statistical method. The correlation coefficients between BMI and performances were negative and significant for both sexes (p < .01) in all physical-fitness tests. The only exception was a positive correlation between ball throw and BMI (p < .01). Only 2.9% and 4.0% of boys and girls respectively, passed the upper quartiles in all tests. The performance in speed may serve as a predictive factor explaining, at least in part, the performance in aerobic endurance and explosive power in children aged 7-10 years. The presented population-based data for physical-fitness tests revealed that only a small percentage of these children are in the upper quartiles in all tests. Furthermore, the data suggests that speed performance can be used to predict physical fitness. PMID:23877385

Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Arnaoutis, Giannis; Sidossis, Labros S

2013-08-01

150

Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ? 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED. PMID:22470294

Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W.; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2012-01-01

151

Body composition, fitness, and metabolic health during strength and endurance training and their combination in middle-aged and older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study adaptations in body composition, physical fitness and metabolic health were examined during 21 weeks of endurance\\u000a and\\/or strength training in 39- to 64-year-old healthy women. Subjects (n = 62) were randomized into endurance training (E), strength training (S), combined strength and endurance training (SE),\\u000a or control groups (C). S and E trained 2 and SE 2 + 2 times in a week.

Elina Sillanpää; David E. Laaksonen; Arja Häkkinen; Laura Karavirta; Benjamin Jensen; William J. Kraemer; Kai Nyman; Keijo Häkkinen

2009-01-01

152

A Meta-Analytic Review of the Youth Fit For Life Intervention for Effects on Body Mass Index in 5- to 12-year-old Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analytic review of 16 studies of the Youth Fit For Life obesity prevention intervention found an overall significant body mass index (BMI) reduction effect (r=.07) in the intended 5- to 12-year-old age range. Possible moderation of effects on BMI by participants' age, ethnicity, gender, intervention administration format, and publication status was tested. Only ethnicity was found to be a

James J. Annesi; C. Nathan Marti; Eric Stice

2010-01-01

153

Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity  

PubMed Central

Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fábio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2011-01-01

154

One Size Does Not Fit All, Or How I Learned to Stop Dieting and Love the Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oppressiveness of current ideals concerning female body size and shape in Euro-American culture has been well documented. Prevalent ideals of thinness are physiologically difficult for many women to achieve, and available techniques for reducing are greater health risks than fatness. Yet the number of women who attempt to reduce their bodies continues to increase. This essay analyzes America's obsession

Elizabeth Arveda Kissling

1991-01-01

155

Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring's weight and cardiovascular performance at ~7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high-fructose (HF) corn syrup or maintenance chow (5% fat; low-fat, no-fructose (LF)). Dams were subdivided into no ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at killing (55±0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by killing. Males had greater MAP than females (P=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (P<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (P<0.05) and diet (P<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (P=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

Schenewerk, Angela L; Ramírez, Francisco Í; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

2014-01-01

156

Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring’s weight and cardiovascular performance at ?7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten’s medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 ± 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (p<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (p<0.05) and diet (p<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (p=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramírez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

2013-01-01

157

Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.  

PubMed

Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

2014-05-01

158

Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MusS) has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of MusS in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. MusS has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension (HTN) and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of HTN, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training (RT) are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival. PMID:22885613

Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2012-01-01

159

Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

1992-01-01

160

Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk of first-onset cardiovascular disease. Methods We used individual records from 58 cohorts to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) per 1 SD higher baseline values (4·56 kg/m2 higher BMI, 12·6 cm higher waist circumference, and 0·083 higher waist-to-hip ratio) and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification. Serial adiposity assessments were used to calculate regression dilution ratios. Results Individual records were available for 221?934 people in 17 countries (14?297 incident cardiovascular disease outcomes; 1·87 million person-years at risk). Serial adiposity assessments were made in up to 63?821 people (mean interval 5·7 years [SD 3·9]). In people with BMI of 20 kg/m2 or higher, HRs for cardiovascular disease were 1·23 (95% CI 1·17–1·29) with BMI, 1·27 (1·20–1·33) with waist circumference, and 1·25 (1·19–1·31) with waist-to-hip ratio, after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. After further adjustment for baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total and HDL cholesterol, corresponding HRs were 1·07 (1·03–1·11) with BMI, 1·10 (1·05–1·14) with waist circumference, and 1·12 (1·08–1·15) with waist-to-hip ratio. Addition of information on BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio to a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model containing conventional risk factors did not importantly improve risk discrimination (C-index changes of ?0·0001, ?0·0001, and 0·0008, respectively), nor classification of participants to categories of predicted 10-year risk (net reclassification improvement ?0·19%, ?0·05%, and ?0·05%, respectively). Findings were similar when adiposity measures were considered in combination. Reproducibility was greater for BMI (regression dilution ratio 0·95, 95% CI 0·93–0·97) than for waist circumference (0·86, 0·83–0·89) or waist-to-hip ratio (0·63, 0·57–0·70). Interpretation BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, whether assessed singly or in combination, do not importantly improve cardiovascular disease risk prediction in people in developed countries when additional information is available for systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and lipids. Funding British Heart Foundation and UK Medical Research Council. PMID:21397319

The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration

2011-01-01

161

Use of numerically generated body-fitted coordinate systems for solution of the Navier-Stokes equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that can treat the unsteady laminar flow about bodies of arbitrary shape, such as two-dimensional airfoils, multiple airfoils, and submerged hydrofoils, as naturally as it can deal with the flow about simple bodies. The solution is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. The curvilinear coordinates are generated as the solution of two elliptical partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, one coordinate being specified to be constant on each of the boundaries, and a distribution of the other being specified along the boundaries. The solution compares excellently with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semiinfinite flat plate.

Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Thames, F. C.; Shanks, S. P.

1975-01-01

162

TOMCAT - A code for numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for automatic generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems, where the transformed coordinates are solutions of an elliptic differential system in the physical plane, and where the coordinate lines are coincident with all boundaries of a general multiply-connected, two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies, and is described along with a suitable computer code for implementing the method. Any partial differential system can be solved on the boundary-fitted coordinate system by appropriate transformations. The transformed equations are approximated by finite differences and solved numerically in the transformed plane. All computations, whether for generating coordinate system or then solving the transformed equations, can be done on a rectangular field with square mesh with no interpolation required on the boundaries. The physical boundaries may even be time-dependent.

Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

1977-01-01

163

Certain peculiarities of the functioning of the cardiovascular system in bedrest conditions during horizontal and antiorthostatic body positions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adequate modeling of physiological reactions inherent to the state of weightlessness has become a matter of particular urgency in space medicine. This modeling is necessary for studying the phenomenology and degree of disorders, prognostication of the crew's health, and developing the various preventive measures employed in space flights. A comparison is made of the physiological effects brought about by bed rest in a horizontal and antiorthostatic body position. A study is done of the influence of brief antiorthostatic hypokinesia, simulating the acute period of adaptation to weightlessness, on circulation and on a number of involved analytical systems. The basic model accepted is antiorthostatic hypokinesia with a body position declination angle of 4 deg (head lower than feet). The experiment's duration is dictated by the objectives of the research.

1978-01-01

164

Numerical Simulation of Shock-Induced Combustion Past Blunt Bodies Using Shock-Fitting Technique. Appendix A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

1994-01-01

165

Body mass index and risk of perioperative cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in 34,744 Danish patients undergoing hip or knee replacement  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis in the lower limb, yet the cardiovascular risks associated with obesity in hip or knee replacement surgery are unknown. We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE: ischemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) or the risk of all-cause mortality in a nationwide Danish cohort of patients who underwent primary hip or knee replacement surgery. Methods Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 34,744 patients aged ? 20 years who underwent elective primary hip or knee replacement surgery between 2005 and 2011. We used multivariable Cox regression models to calculate the 30-day risks of MACE and mortality associated with 5 BMI groups (underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24 kg/m2), overweight (25–29 kg/m2), obese 1 (30–34 kg/m2), and obese 2 (? 35 kg/m2)). Results In total, 232 patients (0.7%) had a MACE and 111 (0.3%) died. Compared with overweight, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.4–3.3), 1.3 (0.95–1.8), 1.6 (1.1–2.2), and 1.0 (0.6–1.9) for underweight, normal weight, obese 1, and obese 2 regarding MACE. Regarding mortality, the corresponding HRs were 7.0 (2.8–15), 2.0 (1.2–3.2), 1.5 (0.9–2.7), and 1.9 (0.9–4.2). Cubic splines suggested a significant U-shaped relationship between BMI and risks with nadir around 27–28. Interpretation In an unselected cohort of patients undergoing elective primary hip or knee replacement surgery, U-shaped risks of perioperative MACE and mortality were found in relation to BMI. Patients within the extreme ranges of BMI may warrant further attention. PMID:24954493

Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars; Jensen, Per Føge; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Andersson, Charlotte

2014-01-01

166

Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.  

PubMed

Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

2013-01-01

167

The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-?. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

2014-01-01

168

Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees  

PubMed Central

Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance. PMID:21992535

2011-01-01

169

Body composition and physical fitness of female volleyball and basketball players of the Japan inter-high school championship teams.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the body composition (underwater weighing) and cardiorespiratory function (VO(2)max and O(2)debt max measured by the treadmill exercise test) in 12 members of the women's volleyball team (mean age 17.4 years) and 11 members of the women's basketball team (mean age 17.6 years) that won the championship in the Japan Inter-high School Meeting. We also examined differences in the physical abilities between the members of the top teams of different events. The following results were obtained. (1) The mean values of the height and body weight were 168.7+/-5.89 cm and 59.7+/-5.73 kg in the volleyball players and 166.5+/-7.87 cm and 58.8+/-6.85 kg in the basketball players. (2) The mean %Fat was 18.4+/-3.29% in the volleyball players and 15.7+/-5.05% in the basketball players, and was similar to the reported values in elite adult players. (3) The mean VO(2)max was 2.78+/-0.32 L x min(-1) (46.5+/-2.90 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) in the volleyball players and 3.32+/-0.31 L x min(-1) (56.7+/-4.17 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) in the basketball players, and was similar to the reported values in elite adult players. (4) The mean O(2)debt max was 6.18+/-1.15 L (103.2+/-12.40 ml x kg(-1)) in the volleyball players and 7.92+/-1.80 L (134.3+/-23.24 ml x kg(-1)) in the basketball players. These values were 2.6 times and 3.3 times as high as the average values in high school students in general. (5) No significant difference was observed in any measured item of the physique, skinfold thickness, or body composition between the volleyball players and basketball players. (6) The VO(2)max and O(2)debt max were 22% and 28% higher in the basketball players than in the volleyball players. From these results, the female volleyball players and basketball players evaluated in this study had the physical abilities needed to win the championship in the Japan Inter-high School Meets, i.e. a large FFM and excellent aerobic and anaerobic work capacities. Also, basketball appears to require higher aerobic and anaerobic work capacities than volleyball. PMID:12939535

Tsunawake, Noriaki; Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Muraki, Satoshi; Minowa, Kengo; Yukawa, Koichi

2003-07-01

170

Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study  

PubMed Central

Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies. PMID:24761982

2014-01-01

171

Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004.  

PubMed

There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diet quality in adults 19 years and older (n = 15,023) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Covariate-adjusted means ± SE and prevalence rates were determined for candy consumption groups. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. A total of 21.8%, 12.9%, and 10.9% of adults consumed total, chocolate, and sugar candy, respectively. Mean daily per capita intake of total, chocolate, and sugar candy was 9.0 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 g, respectively; intake in consumers was 38.3 ± 1.0, 39.9 ± 1.1, and 28.9 ± 1.3 g, respectively. Energy (9973 ± 92 vs 9027 ± 50 kJ; P < .0001), saturated fatty acid (27.9 ± 0.26 vs 26.9 ± 0.18 g; P = .0058), and added sugar (25.7 ± 0.42 vs 21.1 ± 0.41 g; P < .0001) intake were higher in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Body mass index (27.7 ± 0.15 vs 28.2 ± 0.12 kg/m(2); P = .0092), waist circumference (92.3 ± 0.34 vs 96.5 ± 0.29 cm; P = .0051), and C-reactive protein (0.40 ± 0.01 vs 0.43 ± 0.01 mg/dL; P = .0487) levels were lower in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Candy consumers had a 14% decreased risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = .0466); chocolate consumers had a 19% decreased risk of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0364) and a 15% reduced risk of MetS (P = .0453). Results suggest that the current level of candy consumption was not associated with health risks. PMID:21419316

O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

2011-02-01

172

Contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness to the obesity paradox.  

PubMed

Until recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been overlooked as a potential modifier of the inverse association between obesity and mortality (the so-called obesity paradox), observed in patients with known or suspected cardiovascular (CV) disease. Evidence from five observational cohort studies of 30,104 patients (87% male) with CV disease indicates that CRF significantly alters the obesity paradox. There is general agreement across studies that the obesity paradox persists among patients with low CRF, regardless of whether adiposity is assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, or percentage body fat. However, among patients with high CRF, risk of all-cause mortality is lowest for the overweight category in some, but not all, studies, suggesting that higher levels of fitness may modify the relationship between body fatness and survival in patients manifesting an obesity paradox. Further study is needed to better characterize the joint contribution of CRF and obesity on mortality in diverse populations. PMID:24438735

McAuley, Paul A; Beavers, Kristen M

2014-01-01

173

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. Results In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. Conclusions We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive abilities of waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference on the metabolic disease. PMID:22905246

Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, María-Isabel; Arós, Fernando; Wärnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Díaz-López, Andrés; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

2012-01-01

174

A Small-scale Cross-sectional Study for the Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Relation to Body Composition and Morphometric Characters in Fishermen of Araku Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The people residing in coastal areas of Visakhapatnam are mostly engaged in fishery, which is always been a physically demanding job, and numerous factors have direct or indirect impact on the health of fishermen; but, the data about their physical fitness or health status is quite scanty. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness pattern, as well as morphometric characters, which may be influenced by their occupation. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 25 young fishermen (mean age of 22.8 ± 1.92 years) were randomly selected from Araku valley of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh and compared with 25 subjects who were randomly selected from college students (mean age of 21.9 ± 2.25 years) of Kolkata, West Bengal. Some physical and physiological fitness variables including height, weight, body mass index, body surface area, physical fitness index, anaerobic power, and energy expenditure were measured along with their morphometric characters. Results: Analysis of data indicated a significant difference in blood pressure, physical fitness index, energy expenditure, body fat percent and anaerobic power among fishermen compared to controls. However, there were no changes in morphometric characters between the two groups. Conclusions: Findings of this small-scale population-based study indicated that health and physical fitness of young fishermen is under the influence of both occupational workload and nutritional status, as found by body composition and morphometric characters. PMID:24932386

Sengupta, Pallav

2014-01-01

175

Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1?±?2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2?±?3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P?body mass index (P?body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P?fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24303918

Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2015-02-01

176

Men's Fitness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It seems that people in the United States are going through a new and renewed commitment to getting back in shape, and there are a variety of helpful online resources to make this a viable possibility for millions of Americans. This particular site (sponsored by a number of fitness-related publications) brings together information on a host of timely topics, including weight loss, healthy eating, building muscle mass, and seasonal training suggestions. The homepage contains links on such topics as diminishing cellulite and eating organic, and also contains a number of online calculators. These calculators can help individuals determine their body mass index, their weight loss potential, and their ideal weight. The site also has an area where visitors can sign up to receive any number of free electronic newsletters from some of the magazines that sponsor the site.

177

Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk  

E-print Network

to assess the association between physical activity levels and relative weight, weight gain and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five population-based samples at different stages of economic development. Twenty-five hundred young adults, ages 25...

Luke, Amy; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Schoeller, Dale A; Dugas, Lara R; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Shoham, David; Cooper, Richard S; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf; Steyn, Nelia

2011-12-14

178

Tea and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

179

Having a Ball with Fitness Balls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

McNulty, Betty

2011-01-01

180

Effects of Poly-Bioactive Compounds on Lipid Profile and Body Weight in a Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Population with Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Multicenter Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

A dietary supplement (AP, Armolipid Plus) that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of AP, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations and other CVD biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of six Spanish hospitals Hospital Virgen del Rocío (Sevilla); Hospital San Jorge (Huesca); Hospital San Pedro (Logroño); Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid), Hospital la Fe (Valencia) and Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus) as recruiting and coordinating center. 102 participants (mean age ± SD; 50.91±11.61; 32 men) with low CVD, with mild-to-moderately elevated LDL-c (between 3.35 mmol/L and 4.88 mmol/L) without hypolipemic therapy were randomized in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, multicenter trial commencing January 2012 and ending December 2012. Among the exclusion criteria were any concomitant chronic disease, triglycerides (TG) >3.97 mmol/L, pregnant or lactating, and history of CVD. At 12 weeks, compared to placebo, AP reduced LDL-c by ?6.9%, apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 by ?6.6% and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio by ?5.5%, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio by ?8.6%, while increasing ApoA1 by +2.5% (p<0.05). AP consumption was associated with modest mean weight loss of ?0.93 kg (95%CI: -1.74 to -0.12; P?=?0.02) compared with control group while dietary composition remained unchanged in the AP group. The AP product was well tolerated. In conclusion, AP, combined with dietary recommendations, reduced LDL-c levels as well as total cholesterol/HDL-c and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while increasing Apo A1, all of which are improvements in CVD risk indicators. AP is a product which could benefit patients having moderate hyperlipidemia and excess body weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01562080 PMID:25084280

Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-M; Puzo, José; Calabuig, José-Ramón; Brea, Angel; Pedret, Anna; Moriña, David; Villar, José; Millán, Jesús; Anguera, Anna

2014-01-01

181

Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Diabetes Prevention Program within African-American Churches: The Fit Body and Soul Study  

PubMed Central

Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster- randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12-weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination. PMID:23354313

Williams, Lovoria B.; Sattin, Richard W.; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T.; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M. Kaye; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Freeman, Arin; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

2013-01-01

182

Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

2014-01-01

183

Women's occupations, energy expenditure, and cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular risk factors and energy expenditure of women from occupations that differ by physical activity level and socioeconomic level. Participants included 171 women randomly selected from employee lists at 10 employment sites. Measures included blood pressure, body mass index, levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a submaximal aerobic fitness test on a bicycle ergometer, and a 12-month retrospective self-report of occupational, leisure time, and household energy expenditure. Women in active occupations had lower total cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol than women in sedentary occupations. Women with higher occupational energy expenditure scores had higher HDL cholesterol and lower total cholesterol than women with lower occupational energy scores. Findings suggest that cardiovascular benefits, particularly for lipid profiles, may be derived from even small increases in occupational physical activity. The workplace may offer an environment for initiating policies to facilitate increased physical activity among women. PMID:10326992

Wilbur, J; Naftzger-Kang, L; Miller, A M; Chandler, P; Montgomery, A

1999-04-01

184

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

185

North York Fall Norms for Boys and Girls Age 12-14 for: CAHPER Tests; Measures of Aerobic Fitness; Peak Flow; Muscle Strength; Percent Body Fat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests are described that were given to 1,000 students randomly selected at grade 7-9 levels with an equal representation from both sexes. Participants were selected from two junior high schools in North York for a study comparing students in a regular physical education program to those in a program to develop cardiovascular endurance. The first…

Thompson, Patricia

186

The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

Hooker, John C.

1991-01-01

187

HIV and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

188

The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. ?-Hydroxy-?-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g/day) supplementation on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic/catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators in elite, national team level adolescent volleyball players (13.5-18 years, 14 males, 14 females, Tanner stage 4-5) during the first 7 weeks of the training season. HMB led to a significant greater increase in FFM by skinfold thickness (56.4 ± 10.2 to 56.3 ± 8.6 vs. 59.3 ± 11.3 to 61.6 ± 11.3 kg in the control and HMB group, respectively, p < 0.001). HMB led to a significant greater increase in both dominant and non-dominant knee flexion isokinetic force/FFM, measured at fast (180°/sec) and slow (60°/sec) angle speeds, but had no significant effect on knee extension and elbow flexion and extension. HMB led to a significant greater increase in peak and mean anaerobic power determined by the Wingate anaerobic test (peak power: 15.5 ± 1.6 to 16.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.4 ± 1.6 to 17.2 ± 1.2 watts/FFM, mean power: 10.6 ± 0.9 to 10.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.7 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 1.0 watts/FFM in control and HMB group, respectively, p < 0.01), with no effect on fatigue index. HMB had no significant effect on aerobic fitness or on anabolic (growth hormone, IGF-I, testosterone), catabolic (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist). HMB supplementation was associated with greater increases in muscle mass, muscle strength and anaerobic properties with no effect on aerobic capacity suggesting some advantage for its use in elite adolescent volleyball players during the initial phases of the training season. These effects were not accompanied by hormonal and inflammatory mediator changes. PMID:21327797

Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Pilz-Burstein, Ruty; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Cooper, Dan M; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

2011-09-01

189

Cardiovascular Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

190

Cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a major, growing, worldwide problem. It is important that individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease can be effectively identified and appropriately stratified according to risk. This review examines what we understand by the term risk, traditional and novel risk factors, clinical scoring systems, and the use of risk for informing prescribing decisions. Many different cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. Established, traditional factors such as ageing are powerful predictors of adverse outcome, and in the case of hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. Numerous novel biomarkers have also been described, such as inflammatory and genetic markers. These have yet to be shown to be of value in improving risk prediction, but may represent potential therapeutic targets and facilitate more targeted use of existing therapies. Risk factors have been incorporated into several cardiovascular disease prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham equation, SCORE and QRISK. These have relatively poor predictive power, and uncertainties remain with regards to aspects such as choice of equation, different risk thresholds and the roles of relative risk, lifetime risk and reversible factors in identifying and treating at-risk individuals. Nonetheless, such scores provide objective and transparent means of quantifying risk and their integration into therapeutic guidelines enables equitable and cost-effective distribution of health service resources and improves the consistency and quality of clinical decision making. PMID:22348281

Payne, Rupert A

2012-01-01

191

Cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is a major, growing, worldwide problem. It is important that individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease can be effectively identified and appropriately stratified according to risk. This review examines what we understand by the term risk, traditional and novel risk factors, clinical scoring systems, and the use of risk for informing prescribing decisions. Many different cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. Established, traditional factors such as ageing are powerful predictors of adverse outcome, and in the case of hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. Numerous novel biomarkers have also been described, such as inflammatory and genetic markers. These have yet to be shown to be of value in improving risk prediction, but may represent potential therapeutic targets and facilitate more targeted use of existing therapies. Risk factors have been incorporated into several cardiovascular disease prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham equation, SCORE and QRISK. These have relatively poor predictive power, and uncertainties remain with regards to aspects such as choice of equation, different risk thresholds and the roles of relative risk, lifetime risk and reversible factors in identifying and treating at-risk individuals. Nonetheless, such scores provide objective and transparent means of quantifying risk and their integration into therapeutic guidelines enables equitable and cost-effective distribution of health service resources and improves the consistency and quality of clinical decision making. PMID:22348281

Payne, Rupert A

2012-09-01

192

Exploring the impact of a pedometer on body composition and physical fitness in a cohort of u.s. Military medical students: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Military medical professionals play a central role in preventing and treating obesity among America's warriors through training, medical care, and their personal example. Unfortunately, medical students in both undergraduate and graduate settings often experience declines in physical fitness. Pedometry has been demonstrated as one means of promoting fitness with 10,000 steps/day generally accepted as a key benchmark. With this in mind, we used pedometry as an incentive during the preclinical years to encourage students to adopt a more active lifestyle. Findings suggest that participants that consistently report meeting the 10,000 steps/day maintained or improved their aerobic fitness. PMID:25562853

Lystrup, Robert; West, Gordon F; Ward, Matthew; Hall, Jennifer; Stephens, Mark

2015-01-01

193

Ames Fitness Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

Pratt, Randy

1993-01-01

194

[Dietary habits and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. They are the main cause of death in industrialized countries, while the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease is increasing in less developed countries. The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are cigarette smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Obesity has been recorded in 10%-25% of the population, indicating that poor or inappropriate diet is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy dietary habits including place and way of taking meals, number of daily meals and excessive salt intake from processed foods also contribute to body mass gain. In the present study, dietary habits were assessed in cardiovascular patients versus control group by use of Dietary Habits Questionnaire. Study results showed a statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of inappropriate eating habits in cardiovascular patients (lower number of daily meals, more often skipping breakfast and having dinner) than in control group. In conclusion, many lifestyle and individual behavior modifications are needed in most patients with or at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20649073

Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelini?, Jagoda; Bergovec, Mijo; Ruzi?, Alen; Persi?, Viktor

2010-05-01

195

The Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy on Whole-Body Physical Fitness and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation In Vivo in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients – An Observational Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background In the United Kingdom, patients with locally advanced rectal cancer routinely receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. However, the effects of this on physical fitness are unclear. This pilot study is aimed to investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on objectively measured in vivo muscle mitochondrial function and whole-body physical fitness. Methods We prospectively studied 12 patients with rectal cancer who completed standardized neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, recruited from a large tertiary cancer centre, between October 2012 and July 2013. All patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy quadriceps muscle exercise-recovery study before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Data were analysed and reported blind to patient identity and clinical course. Primary variables of interest were the two physical fitness measures; oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold and oxygen uptake at Peak exercise (ml.kg?1.min?1), and the post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (min?1), a measure of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo. Results Median age was 67 years (IQR 64–75). Differences (95%CI) in all three primary variables were significantly negative post-NACRT: Oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold ?2.4 ml.kg?1.min?1 (?3.8, ?0.9), p?=?0.004; Oxygen uptake at Peak ?4.0 ml.kg?1.min?1 (?6.8, ?1.1), p?=?0.011; and post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant ?0.34 min?1 (?0.51, ?0.17), p<0.001. Conclusion The significant decrease in both whole-body physical fitness and in vivo muscle mitochondrial function raises the possibility that muscle mitochondrial mechanisms, no doubt multifactorial, may be important in deterioration of physical fitness following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This may have implications for targeted interventions to improve physical fitness pre-surgery. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01859442 PMID:25478898

West, Malcolm A.; Loughney, Lisa; Lythgoe, Daniel; Barben, Christopher P.; Adams, Valerie L.; Bimson, William E.; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Jack, Sandy; Kemp, Graham J.

2014-01-01

196

Olive oil and the cardiovascular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet which is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. In spite of this, data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points

Mar ´ õa-Isabel Covas

2007-01-01

197

Cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac societies recommend the intake of 1 g\\/day of the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment after a myocardial infarction, prevention of sudden death, and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. These recommendations are based on a body of scientific evidence that encompasses literally thousands of publications. Of four large scale

Clemens von Schacky; William S. Harris

2007-01-01

198

Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation  

E-print Network

Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Student Research Fellowships Inspiring the Physician Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular medical Provides medical Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research

Bushman, Frederic

199

The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

1992-01-01

200

Augmented limb blood flow during neurovascular stress in physically fit women.  

PubMed

The study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies cardiovascular responses by normotensive men and women during the Stroop color-word interference test. Independent of age and an estimate of body fatness, fitness level was positively related (R² ?=?.39 and .51) to increases in limb blood flow and vascular conductance, coherent with cardiac-vagal withdrawal and a decrease in heart period, among women but not men. Fitness was unrelated to changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The augmented hemodynamic responses among fitter women were not consistent with passive vasodilation via withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone. The results encourage further gender comparisons testing whether fitness augments limb blood flow during mental stress by neurohumoral and flow-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms or by increased cardiac output. PMID:23802906

Dishman, Rod K; Jackson, Erica M; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ray, Chester A

2013-09-01

201

Ideal cardiovascular health in young adult populations from the United States, Finland, and Australia and its association with cIMT: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goals for cardiovascular disease prevention were set by the American Heart Association in 2010 for the concept of cardiovascular health. Ideal cardiovascular health is defined by senen cardiovascular health metrics: blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity on ...

202

CARDIOVASCULAR Editor, Nature  

E-print Network

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Editor, Nature Philip Campbell Insights Publisher Sarah Greaves Publishing Imaging of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease J. Sanz & Z. A. Fayad Cover illustration The human heart is increasing in the developing world. Cardiovascular disease usually stems from vascular dysfunction

Cai, Long

203

Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body

Rimmer, James H.

204

Fitness Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners partner up to complete several physical exercises and assess their starting fitness level. Over the course of 6 weeks, learners practice the activities and record their improvement. This is a simple way to get young learners interested in practicing fitness. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. They can also keep track of their progress in all of the Kinetic City activities, and compare their progress to other participants worldwide.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

2009-01-01

205

Ethnic Differences in Body Composition and Other Markers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Study in Matched Haitian and White Subjects from Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: People of African descent may be at greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) compared with whites. We examined the associations among MS markers, body composition, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in black Haitians and in white subjects living in Quebec, Canada.Research Methods and Procedures: Forty randomly selected Haitians were matched with 40 white subjects for age, sex, and BMI.

Marie-Claude Désilets; Dominique Garrel; Charles Couillard; Angelo Tremblay; Jean-Pierre Després; Claude Bouchard; Hélène Delisle

2006-01-01

206

Multimodality Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Technology  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a new discipline that integrates scientific advances in both functional imaging and molecular probes to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the cardiovascular system. These advances are driven by in vivo imaging of molecular processes in animals, usually small animals, and are rapidly moving toward clinical applications. Molecular imaging has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The 2 key components of all molecular imaging systems are the molecular contrast agents and the imaging system providing spatial and temporal localization of these agents within the body. They must deliver images with the appropriate sensitivity and specificity to drive clinical applications. As work in molecular contrast agents matures and highly sensitive and specific probes are developed, these systems will provide the imaging technologies required for translation into clinical tools. This is the promise of molecular medicine. PMID:20457794

O’Donnell, Matthew; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Strauss, H. William; Tanaka, Atsushi; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Guttman, Michael A.; Garcia, Ernest V.

2010-01-01

207

Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

1997-01-01

208

Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

2013-03-01

209

Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity  

PubMed Central

Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

2013-01-01

210

Promoting healthy lifestyles in children: a pilot program of be a fit kid.  

PubMed

Be a Fit Kid is a 12-week program aimed at improving physical activity and nutritional habits in children. The physical activity component of the program emphasized cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular strength, and bone development through running, yoga, jumping, and strength exercises. All activities were individualized and noncompetitive. The nutrition component focused on current dietary guidelines that emphasize a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, unsaturated fats, and whole grains, and low in saturated fat and sugar. Following the 12-week intervention, significant improvements were observed in body composition, fitness, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, and in those who participated 75% of the time, significant reductions in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed. Findings from the pilot trial suggest that health promotion programs can be well received by children and may favorably alter overweight and the development of adult lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:16803930

Slawta, Jennifer; Bentley, Jeff; Smith, Joan; Kelly, Jessica; Syman-Degler, Lucien

2008-07-01

211

The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. ?-Hydroxy-?-Methylbutyric acid\\u000a (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults.\\u000a In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g\\/day) supplementation\\u000a on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic\\/catabolic hormones and inflammatory

Shawn Portal; Zvi Zadik; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Ruty Pilz-Burstein; Dana Adler-Portal; Yoav Meckel; Dan M. Cooper; Alon Eliakim; Dan Nemet

212

Boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for solution of partial differential equations on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multi-connected two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. No restrictions are placed on the shape of the boundaries, which may even be time-dependent, and the approach is not restricted in principle to two dimensions. With this procedure the numerical solution of a partial differential system may be done on a fixed rectangular field with a square mesh with no interpolation required regardless of the shape of the physical boundaries, regardless of the spacing of the curvilinear coordinate lines in the physical field, and regardless of the movement of the coordinate system in the physical plane. A number of examples of coordinate systems and application thereof to the solution of partial differential equations are given. The FORTRAN computer program and instructions for use are included.

Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

1977-01-01

213

Tobacco and Cardiovascular Health.  

PubMed

Tobacco consumption has been inextricably intertwined with society and its evolution. At one time, centuries ago, thought to be a sign of refinement and nobility, fortunately, this perception has been changing worldwide. Currently, this change in perception has been so dramatic that laws are enacted to limit tobacco exposure through second-hand smokers. Countless studies continue to emerge on tobacco's healthcare toll to the point that we now consider indisputable facts that smokers have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, among many others. However, there are other less well-known emerging facts that still require close attention such as the effect on the immune and hematopoietic systems. Tobacco smoke is injurious to all major organs in our bodies. With over 30 known carcinogens, it should not be surprising that it affects all aspects of human health. In this chapter, we will focus on the effects of tobacco on cardiovascular health. PMID:25225032

Mainali, Prajeena; Pant, Sadip; Rodriguez, Alexis Phillip; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mehta, Jawahar L

2014-09-16

214

Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.  

PubMed

The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

2009-01-01

215

Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

2014-09-01

216

Associations between Fatness, Fitness, IGF and IMT among Obese Korean Male Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between obesity, fitness levels and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors, and to identify the correlation between of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in Korean adolescents. Methods A total of 225 high school males with a mean age of 16.96±0.23 years participated in this study, and their fatness and fitness levels, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IMT were measured. Results The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly higher in the most obese group than in the other two groups (tertiles). Muscular and cardiopulmonary fitness were negatively associated with weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, body fat, waist circumference (WC), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and IMT. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were correlated with WC, hip circumference (HC), fasting glucose, TG, HDL-C, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. IMT levels were significantly associated with weight, BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, percent body fat, WC, HC, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusion There was a significant association between increased obesity and decreased fitness and HOMA-IR, IGF, and IMT among adolescents. PMID:22247904

Kim, Eun Sung; Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Eun Seok; Jekal, Yoonsuk

2011-01-01

217

Aerobic Fitness: What Are We Measuring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic fitness depends upon the components of oxygen delivery and the oxidative mechanisms of the exercising muscle. Peak oxygen uptake is recognised as the best single criterion of aerobic fitness but it is strongly correlated with body size. Methods of controlling for body size are discussed and it is demonstrated how inappropriate use of ratio scaling has clouded our understanding

N. Armstrong; J. Welsman

2007-01-01

218

Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6?months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4?kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to ?6.9?kg on low-carbohydrate and ?5.8?kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) ?1.1?kg (?2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) ?0.49?mmol/L (?0.70 to ?0.28), p<0.001 and ?0.34?mmol/L (?0.57 to ?0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (?0.57 (?0.83, ?0.32), p<0.001 and ?0.05 (?0.09, ?0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516. PMID:24500611

Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

2014-01-01

219

Sports and Fitness Spencer Reynolds, Program Director  

E-print Network

periodicals on fitness, health and sports. These presentations will have basic themes that will cycle every1 Sports and Fitness Spencer Reynolds, Program Director OVERVIEW The goal of the Sports and Fitness program is to elevate the level of knowledge of its members in matters of the body, sports, and living

Hayden, Nancy J.

220

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Heart diseases and stroke are ...

221

Understanding cardiovascular disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular disease is the broad term for problems with the heart and blood vessels. These problems are often ... and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that can lead to other problems, such as ...

222

Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Medicine ------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

E-print Network

methods, and novel therapeutic measures of various cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, heart of cardiovascular diseases ·Imaging techniques (echocardiography, MRI, CT, RI, NOGA) in cardiovas- cular diseases polymorphisms and risk factors in cardiovascular disease ·Differentiation of smooth muscle cells

Miyashita, Yasushi

223

UK Centre for Cardiovascular  

E-print Network

of cardiovascular disease and diabetes to improve human life It is an important team effort between the UniversityT AGAINST hEART DISEASE 7 #12;CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND DIAbETES IS A GLObAL ChALLENGE Diabetes-centre imaging trials. Our work showing the superiority of MRI for diagnosing cardiovascular disease has

Berzins, M.

224

Sixth Annual Cardiovascular  

E-print Network

Feinberg School of Medicine EarthphotoscourtesyofNASA #12;CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE is still the leading cause cardiovascular disease as their major health problem and thus fail to partner with their healthcare providers in cardiovascular disease. Recognition of these differences requires communication of this information to women

MacIver, Malcolm A.

225

Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular  

E-print Network

Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular Pressure Transduction in Analog VLSI John Lazzaro pressure used in a neural control system in the cardiovascular system. The chip computes the representation as a first step to understanding the neural computation of cardiovascular control; we hope to apply

Lazzaro, John

226

FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR  

E-print Network

FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR SCIENCE SPON S ORED BY LOCATION/TIME Li Ka Shing Center for Learning at 11:45 a.m. TUESDAy, SEpTEmbER 11, 2012 Raising HDL: Will it Work to Prevent Cardiovascular Events-14, 2012 CVI AnnuAl MeMber retreAt Robert Harrington, MD Stanford University Cardiovascular Clinical

Puglisi, Joseph

227

Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease: results from the consortium on health and ageing network of cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES).  

PubMed

Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which may lead to a biased estimation of risk. Using four cohorts from CHANCES which had repeated measures in participants 50 years and older, multivariate time-dependent Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and CRP with all-cause mortality and CVD. Being overweight (?25-<30 kg/m(2)) or moderately obese (?30-<35) tended to be associated with a lower risk of mortality compared to normal (?18.5-<25): ESTHER, HR (95 % CI) 0.69 (0.58-0.82) and 0.78 (0.63-0.97); Rotterdam, 0.86 (0.79-0.94) and 0.80 (0.72-0.89). A similar relationship was found, but only for overweight in Glostrup, HR (95 % CI) 0.88 (0.76-1.02); and moderately obese in Tromsø, HR (95 % CI) 0.79 (0.62-1.01). Associations were not evident between repeated measures of BMI and CVD. Conversely, increasing CRP concentrations, measured on more than one occasion, were associated with an increasing risk of mortality and CVD. Being overweight or moderately obese is associated with a lower risk of mortality, while CRP, independent of BMI, is positively associated with mortality and CVD risk. If inflammation links CRP and BMI, they may participate in distinct/independent pathways. Accounting for independent changes in risk factors over time may be crucial for unveiling their effects on mortality and disease morbidity. PMID:25421782

O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Wilsgaard, Tom; Siganos, Galatios; Kavousi, Maryam; Hughes, Maria; Müezzinler, Aysel; Holleczek, Bernd; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kee, Frank

2014-12-01

228

Cardiovascular Biology of the Incretin System  

PubMed Central

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and exerts direct and indirect actions on the cardiovascular system. GLP-1 and its related incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a key determinant of incretin bioactivity. Two classes of medications that enhance incretin action, GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We review herein the cardiovascular biology of GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, including direct and indirect effects on cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, adipocytes, the control of blood pressure and postprandial lipoprotein secretion. Both GLP-1R activation and DPP-4 inhibition exert multiple cardioprotective actions in preclinical models of cardiovascular dysfunction, and short term studies in human subjects appear to demonstrate modest yet beneficial actions on cardiac function in subjects with ischemic heart disease. Incretin-based agents control body weight, improve glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia, decrease blood pressure, inhibit the secretion of intestinal chylomicrons, and reduce inflammation in preclinical studies. Nevertheless, there is limited information on the cardiovascular actions of these agents in patients with diabetes and established cardiovascular disease. Hence, a more complete understanding of the cardiovascular risk:benefit ratio of incretin-based therapies will require completion of long term cardiovascular outcome studies currently underway in patients with T2DM. PMID:22323472

Ussher, John R.; Drucker, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

229

Cardiovascular benefits of exercise.  

PubMed

Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460-377 BC) wrote "in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise." Plato (427-347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129-217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

Agarwal, Shashi K

2012-01-01

230

[Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].  

PubMed

The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

Picciotto, D

2010-01-01

231

Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage.  

PubMed

This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the possible moderator effect of SDC. Data on 544 children were collected and analysed (130 SDC, 414 non-SDC, mean age = 8.0 ± 0.7). Physical fitness was measured with tests for cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Academic performance was evaluated using scores on mathematics, spelling and reading. SDC did not differ on physical fitness, compared with non-SDC, but scored significantly lower on academic performance. In the total group, multilevel analysis showed positive associations between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics (? = 0.23), and between cardiovascular fitness and spelling (? = 0.16), but not with reading. No associations were found between muscular fitness and academic performance. A significant interaction effect between SDC and cardiovascular fitness was found for spelling. To conclude, results showed a specific link between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics, regardless of socioeconomic status. SDC did moderate the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and spelling. PMID:25092881

de Greeff, J W; Hartman, E; Mullender-Wijnsma, M J; Bosker, R J; Doolaard, S; Visscher, C

2014-10-01

232

Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal failure. Patients with chronic kidney disease have significant CVD, and carry a high cardiovascular burden by the time they commence renal replacement therapy (RRT). The severity of CVD that has been observed in dialysis patients lead to a growing body of research examining the pathogenesis

Majd I. Jaradat; Bruce A. Molitoris

2002-01-01

233

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated

Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Gladys Block; Michael H. Humphreys; Joel D. Kopple

2003-01-01

234

Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to summarize the latest developments with regard to physical fitness and several health outcomes in young people. The literature reviewed suggests that (1) cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with total and abdominal adiposity; (2) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness are shown to be associated with established and emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors; (3) improvements in muscular fitness

F B Ortega; J R Ruiz; M J Castillo; M Sjöström

2008-01-01

235

The interdependence between cardiovascular calcifications in different arterial beds and vascular risk factors in patients at high cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Objective: The objective was to explore the interdependence between cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular calcifications on the cardiac valves and in multiple vascular beds in the chest and abdomen in a high-risk population. Methods: 276 participants of the SMART study who received a CT scan of the chest and abdominal region within one year were evaluated for the presence of cardiovascular calcifications throughout the body. Cardiovascular calcifications were manually scored in the coronary arteries, the aorta, the supra aortic vessels, the infra aortic vessels, the aortic valve, the renal arteries and the splenic artery. The following clinical risk factors of cardiovascular disease were included in principal component analysis, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of atherosclerosis. Results: Principal component analysis yielded three uncorrelated components. The first consisted of cardiovascular calcifications and cIMT (variance = 35.4%), the second contained BMI and glucose (variance = 11.1%), and the third component consisted of systolic blood pressure and cholesterol (variance = 9.0%). Combined these three components explained 56% of the total variance within the dataset. Strong associations were observed among vascular calcifications and cIMT, whereas the association between clinical risk factors and cardiovascular calcifications was weak. Conclusion: The results suggest a single systemic nature of cardiovascular calcifications throughout the body that do not cluster with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25485737

Takx, Richard A P; Zanen, Pieter; Leiner, Tim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Jong, Pim A

2014-11-29

236

Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.

Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell

1991-01-01

237

Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

1996-01-01

238

Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept  

PubMed Central

In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

Costa, James T.

2013-01-01

239

Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

2003-01-01

240

Cardiovascular-Respiratory HUT Model including Optimal Control and Comparison to LBNP models  

E-print Network

Cardiovascular-Respiratory HUT Model including Optimal Control and Comparison to LBNP models Martin on the cardiovascular system when the body is in the upright position as compared to the supine position. This report introduces a model of the cardiovascular and respiratory system which is used to simulate orthostatic stress

Batzel, Jerry

241

Social distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors: change among men in England 1984–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate change in the social distribution of some of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease in men in England during a period when inequality in cardiovascular disease mortality widenedDESIGNAge standardised comparison of the social distribution of seven known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (body mass index, waist to hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, consumption of fresh

M Bartley; R Fitzpatrick; D Firth; M Marmot

2000-01-01

242

Obesity and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

Jokinen, E

2015-03-01

243

Introduction to the Human Body  

MedlinePLUS

... most complex of the component units of the human body. A system is an organization of varying numbers and kinds ... perform complex functions for the body. Ten major systems compose the human body: Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive ...

244

Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students  

PubMed Central

Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (Mage?=?12.3?±?0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR?=?2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p?fitness and weight status were independently and combined related to academic achievement in seventh-grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born. PMID:25001376

2014-01-01

245

Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day?1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week?1 (NW and CW) or 2 day·week?1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

2013-01-01

246

Cardiovascular Diseases (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Diseases Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Heart Disease and Dental Treatment Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) High Blood ... it is a current list. Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Periodontal disease can affect your overall health. Over time, it ...

247

Sponsored by: Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute  

E-print Network

Prentice Women's Hospital, Chicago IL The Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute's Center for Vascular Disease and limitations of imaging techniques in various cardiovascular diseases. #12;TARGET AUDIENCE This continuingSponsored by: Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute of Northwestern Memorial Hospital Northwestern

248

Postdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology Job Description A postdoctoral position is available at Colorado State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences; Center for Cardiovascular and physiological roles of new components of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of cardiovascular

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

249

Geochemistry and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiencies or excesses in the content or availability of trace elements in rocks and soils, or in water flowing through them, is hypothesized as a possible cause of certain chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Geographic distribution of cardiovascular diseases is often associated with geochemical differences. This trend is particularly evident in the United States and in Europe, with higher rates

R. Masironi; J. R. Todd; P. Elwood; D. B. R. Poole

1979-01-01

250

Androgens and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, cardiovascular disease will continue causing most human deaths for the foreseeable future. The consistent gen- der gap in life span of approximately 5.6 yr in all advanced economies must derive from gender differences in age- specific cardiovascular death rates, which rise steeply in par- allel for both genders but 5-10 yr earlier in men. The lack of inflection point

PETER Y. LIU; ALISON K. DEATH; DAVID J. HANDELSMAN

2003-01-01

251

Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

Bauer, Dan

1981-01-01

252

Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

2010-01-01

253

DIAGNOSIS NUMBER OF CASES CARDIOVASCULAR  

E-print Network

DIAGNOSIS NUMBER OF CASES CARDIOVASCULAR Cardiovascular disease .........................................................36 Crop Disorder.....................................................12 Digestive Disease/Plant/worms...........................14 Liver disease ......................................................14 Liver tumor

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

254

A Cardiovascular Mathematical Model of Graded Head-Up Tilt  

PubMed Central

A lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system has been developed and optimized using experimental data obtained from 13 healthy subjects during graded head-up tilt (HUT) from the supine position to . The model includes descriptions of the left and right heart, direct ventricular interaction through the septum and pericardium, the systemic and pulmonary circulations, nonlinear pressure volume relationship of the lower body compartment, arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, as well as autoregulatory mechanisms. A number of important features, including the separate effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, and autoregulation in the lower body, as well as diastolic ventricular interaction through the pericardium have been included and tested for their significance. Furthermore, the individual effect of parameter associated with heart failure, including LV and RV contractility, baseline systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, total blood volume, LV diastolic stiffness and reflex gain on HUT response have also been investigated. Our fitted model compares favorably with our experimental measurements and published literature at a range of tilt angles, in terms of both global and regional hemodynamic variables. Compared to the normal condition, a simulated congestive heart failure condition produced a blunted response to HUT with regards to the percentage changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, end diastolic volume and effector response (i.e., heart contractility, venous unstressed volume, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate) with progressive tilting. PMID:24204817

Lim, Einly; Chan, Gregory S. H.; Dokos, Socrates; Ng, Siew C.; Latif, Lydia A.; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Karunanithi, Mohan; Lovell, Nigel H.

2013-01-01

255

Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to exercise-induced changes in artery function. We pooled data from our laboratories involving 182 subjects who underwent supervised, large-muscle group, endurance-type exercise training interventions with pre-/posttraining measures of flow-mediated dilation (FMD%) to assess artery function. All studies adopted an identical FMD protocol (5-min ischemia, distal cuff inflation), contemporary echo-Doppler methodology, and observer-independent automated analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors contributing to changes in FMD%. We found that cardiopulmonary fitness improved, and weight, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased after training, while FMD% increased in 76% of subjects (P < 0.001). Training-induced increase in FMD% was predicted by lower body weight (? = -0.212), lower baseline FMD% (? = -0.469), lower training frequency (? = -0.256), and longer training duration (? = 0.367) (combined: P < 0.001, r = 0.63). With the exception of a modest correlation with total cholesterol (r = -0.243, P < 0.01), changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly related to changes in FMD% (P > 0.05). In conclusion, we found that, while some subjects do not demonstrate increases following exercise training, improvement in FMD% is present in those with lower pretraining body weight and endothelial function. Moreover, exercise training-induced change in FMD% did not correlate with changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that some cardioprotective effects of exercise training are independent of improvement in risk factors. PMID:24947027

Green, Daniel J; Eijsvogels, Thijs; Bouts, Yvette M; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Scholten, Ralph R; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Pugh, Christopher J A; Sprung, Victoria S; Schreuder, Tim; Jones, Helen; Cable, Tim; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

2014-08-15

256

Lower serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults  

PubMed Central

Lower levels of serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap have been associated with insulin resistance and hypertension in the general population. Whether these associations extend to other cardiovascular disease risk factors is unknown. To clarify this, we examined the association of serum bicarbonate and anion gap with cardiorespiratory fitness in 2714 adults aged 20–49 years in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.6 mEq/L and the mean anion gap was 10.26 mEq/L, with fitness determined by submaximal exercise testing. After multivariable adjustment, gender, length of fasting, soft drink consumption, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphate, and hemoglobin were independently associated with both the serum bicarbonate and the anion gap. Low fitness was most prevalent among those in the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate or highest quartile of anion gap. After multivariable adjustment, a one standard deviation higher serum bicarbonate or anion gap was associated with an odds ratio for low fitness of 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.91) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.48), respectively. The association of bicarbonate with fitness may be mediated by differences in lean body mass. Thus, lower levels of serum bicarbonate and higher levels of anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in adults aged 20–49 years in the general population. PMID:22297677

Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

2012-01-01

257

The link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are common age-related conditions associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and disability. Traditionally, these two conditions were considered unrelated and their coexistence was attributed to independent age-related processes. However, an increasing body of biological and epidemiological evidence has provided support for a link between the two conditions that cannot be explained by age alone. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between osteoporosis and CVD including: 1) shared risk factors, 2) common pathophysiological mechanisms, 3) common genetic factors, or 4) a causal association. This review highlights the epidemiologic literature on the association of bone density with cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and subclinical measures of atherosclerosis. It also summarizes the different potential mechanisms involved in the link between osteoporosis and CVD. PMID:22460842

Farhat, Ghada N.; Cauley, Jane A.

2008-01-01

258

Assistant, Associate & Full Professor in Cardiovascular Imaging Division of Cardiovascular Medicine  

E-print Network

in Cardiovascular Disease (or eligible), and advanced certification or training in cardiovascular imaging is highlyAssistant, Associate & Full Professor in Cardiovascular Imaging Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine The Cardiovascular Medicine Division and the Cardiovascular Institute at Stanford

Quake, Stephen R.

259

Introduction: Cardiovascular physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

2007-03-01

260

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2  

E-print Network

a world-class education, and conduct cutting- edge cardiovascular research. As heart disease remains into improved tools for cardiovascular disease detection, prevention and treatment. In late 2012, Dr. Robert CStanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 2013­2014 #12;Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2

Kay, Mark A.

261

Fitness Landscapes and Evolvability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop techniques based on evolvability statistics of the fitness land- scape surrounding sampled solutions. Averaging the measures over a sample of equal fitness solutions allows us to build up fitness evolvability portraits of the fitness land- scape, which we show can be used to compare both the ruggedness and neutrality in a set of tunably rugged

Tom Smith; Phil Husbands; Paul J. Layzell; Michael O'shea

2002-01-01

262

Webster Pool Fitness Center  

E-print Network

Archbold/ Flanagan Webster Pool (Archbold) Women's Building Goldstein Fitness Center Marion Fitness Center Brockway Fitness Center Marshall Square Mall Fitness Center Tennity Ice Skating Pavilion Ernie Davis Hall Fitness Center 6:30am- 11:30pm 7:00- 9:30am, 11:30am- 2:30pm 5:00pm- 11:30pm 7:00am- 2:00am

Mather, Patrick T.

263

Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

1986-01-01

264

Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

2005-06-22

265

2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging  

E-print Network

2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging Nuclear Medicine David Weinreb 14895 dbweinreb@ Pediatric Radiology Body Imaging 1st yr. Neuroradiology NCI Body Mammography Sonya Edwards 14904 14909 laxpati@ Michael Kim 14961 mjjkim@ Vascular and Interventional Radiology Charles Kosydar 14908

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

266

"Shapes for Kids!" Life Fitness for Grades 5 through 12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an exercise program for children. "Shapes for Kids," takes the same 30-minute approach at the Curves workout for women. The program is set up using 20 stations, which rotate upper-body work, abdominal exercises, lower-body work, and cardiovascular exercises. Some stations combine more than one component. Children change…

Talley, Julie Stiles

2004-01-01

267

Exercise, Fitness, and Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults: The “Selective Improvement” and “Cardiovascular Fitness” Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Although basic research has uncovered biological mechanisms by which exercise could maintain and enhance adult brain health,\\u000a experimental human studies with older adults have produced equivocal results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose\\u000a   This randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the hypotheses that (a) the effects of exercise training on the performance\\u000a of neurocognitive tasks in older adults is selective, influencing mainly tasks with

Ann L. Smiley-Oyen; Kristin A. Lowry; Sara J. Francois; Marian L. Kohut; Panteleimon Ekkekakis

2008-01-01

268

Smoking Cessation Program with Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in Sedentary Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Several cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers sensitive to tobacco exposure have been identified, but how tobacco use cessation impacts them is less clear. We sought to investigate the effects of a smoking cessation program with an exercise intervention on CVD biomarkers in sedentary women. Methods This is a cohort study on a subsample of a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) (exercise setting: home vs. facility; level of exercise counseling: prescription only vs. prescription and adherence counseling) conducted January 2004 through December 2007. The analyses were completed in October 2010. In the greater Boston area, 130 sedentary female smokers aged 19–55 completed a 15-week program. All participants received nicotine replacement therapy (transdermal patch) and brief behavioral counseling for 12 weeks. They all received an exercise prescription on a moderate intensity level. All exercise interventions lasted for 15 weeks, from 3 weeks precessation until 12 weeks postcessation. Main outcome measures were selected CVD biomarkers hypothesized to be affected by smoking cessation or exercise measured at baseline and 12 weeks postcessation. Results Independent of tobacco abstinence, improvement was seen in inflammation (white blood cells [WBC]), prothrombotic factor (red blood cells [RBC]), and cardiovascular fitness level (maximum oxygen consumption [Vo2max]). This suggests that even if complete abstinence is not achieved, reduction in tobacco exposure and increase in exercise can improve the cardiovascular risk profile. A significant decrease was seen for total cholesterol and the total cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C): ratio only among the abstainers. The heart rate was reduced among all participants, but this decrease was more profound among abstainers. A significant weight gain and body mass index (BMI) increase were observed among abstainers and those who relapsed. We also found an increase in hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c), although significant only when the groups were combined. Conclusions A smoking cessation intervention including exercise reduced tobacco-induced cardiovascular damage selectively within 3 months. PMID:21675876

Goodwin, Amy; Miesmaa, Petra; Dupuis, Elizabeth A.; Kinnunen, Taru

2011-01-01

269

Obesity in the cardiovascular continuum.  

PubMed

A higher prevalence of coronary heart disease, cardiac and overall mortality is associated with obesity. The development of obesity appears in different adaptations in the morphology of cardiac structure and function. Obesity causes eccentric hypertrophy and changes in diastolic function of left ventricle. A systolic on diastolic heart dysfunction results from the breakdown of compensatory pace to raised wall stress and dilatation of chambers. Obesity does not possess primary cause and effect relationship with cardiovascular disease, such as LDL cholesterol. It is regarded as a means of facilitating factors such as hypertension, diabetes or cigarette smoking. Adipose tissue in this manner works as the hormone generating tissue, secreting various peptides and secondary messengers and inflammatory cytokines. Pharmacotherapy can be a useful component in the global fight against obesity. Besides repeating re-evaluations of weight loosing drug treatment with respect to efficiency or safety for continuous use, one must not underappreciate the pretreatment risk-assessments and expected benefits of treatment, along with impact on the patient's quality of life and motivation. Pharmacotherapy of obesity is reserved for obese people with body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2 but also in individuals with BMI 27 .0 and 29 .9 kg/m2 and obesity related comorbidities as obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although connections between obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are acknowledged for over dozen of years, there is still a lack of scientific research into the field and it is a challenge for future studies. PMID:22950957

Persic, Viktor

2013-05-01

270

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

271

Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

Tapio, Soile

272

Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

2001-01-01

273

Melatonin in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

This editorial refers to "Cardiovascular effects of melatonin receptor agonists". The hormone melatonin is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland, retina, several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Based on the data available, the last 18 years indicate that melatonin influences multiple factors of the cardiovascular function. Multiple evidences reveal that the rhythmicity of melatonin has a crucial role in a variety of cardiovascular pathophysiological processes including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and possibly as an antilipidemic function. Melatonin receptors receive and transduce melatonin's message to influence daily and seasonal rhythms of physiology. The melatonin message is translated through the interaction between the melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) and its coupling to G proteins, which are potential therapeutic targets in disorders ranging from insomnia, circadian sleep disorders, depression and cardiovascular diseases. Based on the data available, melatonin seems to have cardioprotective properties via its direct free radical scavenger activity. Melatonin efficiently interacts with several reactive oxygen species (receptor-independent actions). Collectively, these protective actions of melatonin may have potential clinical applicability for individuals with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22916801

Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto

2012-11-01

274

Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of 35 years engaged in regular and intensive EE. PMID:24408890

Predel, Hans-Georg

2014-11-21

275

SEGMENTATION AND FITTING USING  

E-print Network

examples. Example: Owls and Rats In a study area, there are g different species of rat. A rat of the l how to generalize our line fitting techniques to handle curve fitting problems in section 17.3. Finally, we discuss methods for determining how many elements (lines, curves, segments, etc.) to fit

Keren, Daniel

276

Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory muscle function in the obese population.  

PubMed

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the most important health metrics in apparently healthy individuals, those at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and virtually all patient populations. In addition to CRF, a host of other variables obtained from aerobic exercise testing provides clinically valuable information. Individuals classified as obese (i.e. a body mass index ?30 kg/m(2)) have varying degrees of CV, pulmonary and skeletal muscle dysfunction that impact CRF and other key aerobic exercise testing variables. Moreover, there is now evidence indicating inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle function, even in the absence of interstitial lung disease, is potentially compromised as a result of obesity. When obesity-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction is present, it has the potential to contribute to the limitations in CRF. The current review will discuss aerobic exercise testing and the assessment of respiratory muscle function in the obese population. PMID:24438738

Arena, Ross; Cahalin, Lawrence P

2014-01-01

277

Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Aging  

PubMed Central

Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (e.g. renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics and exercise training. PMID:22499901

Dai, Dao-Fu; Ungvari, Zoltan

2013-01-01

278

Mitochondria and cardiovascular aging.  

PubMed

Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and in cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity, and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (eg, renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics, and exercise training. PMID:22499901

Dai, Dao-Fu; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Ungvari, Zoltan

2012-04-13

279

Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness.…

Getchell, Bud

280

Nanomedicine and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine has become an important tool in the imaging and therapy of numerous diseases. This is due, in large part, to the ability to generate multifunctional nanoagents bearing combinations of targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic moieties, allowing for the tailoring of the properties of the synthesized nanomaterials. With respect to cardiovascular disease and its sequelae, nanomedicine has the potential to detect and treat some of the leading causes of death and disability in the developed world, including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. As such, this review focuses on some of the most poignant examples of the utility of nanomedicine in the detection and treatment of cardiovascular disease that have been recently reported. PMID:20369034

McCarthy, Jason R.

2010-01-01

281

Hyperuricemia and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

There is an increasing prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia worldwide. Gout confers a significant individual and social burden and is increasingly recognized as a prevalent chronic disease state requiring appropriate long-term management. Gout and hyperuricemia appear to be independent risk factors for incident hypertension, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Multiple epidemiologic studies confirm an association between hyperuricemia and "cardiometabolic disease". We review the evidence stating the relationship between hyperuricemia and the development of comorbid conditions contributing to cardiovascular risk and disease. PMID:24554489

Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Di Giacomantonio, Anna Vittoria; Di Giosia, Paolo; Ferri, Claudio

2014-12-01

282

Body Image  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-01-02

283

Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

1977-01-01

284

Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.  

PubMed

Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage. PMID:25581946

Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

2014-01-01

285

In situ repair of a failed compression fitting  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

1985-08-05

286

Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health. PMID:25476191

Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-12-01

287

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

288

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

289

Cardiovascular Actions of Neurotrophins  

PubMed Central

Neurotrophins were christened in consideration of their actions on the nervous system and, for a long time, they were the exclusive interest of neuroscientists. However, more recently, this family of proteins has been shown to possess essential cardiovascular functions. During cardiovascular development, neurotrophins and their receptors are essential factors in the formation of the heart and critical regulator of vascular development. Postnatally, neurotrophins control the survival of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes and regulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Recent studies suggest the capacity of neurotrophins, via their tropomyosin-kinase receptors, to promote therapeutic neovascularization in animal models of hindlimb ischemia. Conversely, the neurotrophin low-affinity p75NTR receptor induces apoptosis of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and impairs angiogenesis. Finally, nerve growth factor looks particularly promising in treating microvascular complications of diabetes or reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarcted heart. These seminal discoveries have fuelled basic and translational research and thus opened a new field of investigation in cardiovascular medicine and therapeutics. Here, we review recent progress on the molecular signaling and roles played by neurotrophins in cardiovascular development, function, and pathology, and we discuss therapeutic potential of strategies based on neurotrophin manipulation. PMID:19126759

CAPORALI, ANDREA; EMANUELI, COSTANZA

2010-01-01

290

CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE FELLOWSHIP PROCEDURE TRACKING FORM  

E-print Network

1 CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE FELLOWSHIP PROCEDURE TRACKING FORM Please complete and return this form: Date of Original Certification: _________________ Expiration: ______________ CARDIOVASCULAR PROCEDURES

Ford, James

291

[Cardiovascular system and aging].  

PubMed

Aging is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Age-related morphologic changes in large resistance vessels include an intima-media-thickening and increased deposition of matrix substance, ultimately leading to a reduced compliance and an increased stiffness of the vessels. Aging of the heart is mainly characterized by an increase of the left ventricular mass in relation to the chamber volume and a decrease of diastolic function. There is some controversy in regard to the question if these changes in the vessel wall are the consequence of aging or if a decrease in physical activity is a major contributor of this process. With age the cardiovascular profile is changing. Whereas smoking is less prominent, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus are more often encountered. Primary and secondary prevention through cardiovascular risk factor management is also very important in the aging population due to the increased risk of acute vascular complications with age. Preventive measures have to include life style factor interventions as well as optimized drug therapy. There is no scientific evidence that vascular aging can be prevented by administration of supplements such as antioxidant vitamins. Aspirin is effective for cardiovascular prevention up to a higher age. Betablockers and ACE-inhibitors are generally underused in older patients after myocardial infarctions. Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular complications up to an age of 80 years. Myocardial infarction in elderly patients is often characterized by atypical symptoms and may be even silent. Interventional therapy in elderly patients is as successful as in younger patients but has an increased complication rate. Ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients leads to significant improvements of physical capacity, well-being and quality of life and may help to prevent social isolation. PMID:16405288

Saner, H

2005-12-01

292

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

A commonly-assumed paradigm holds that the primary genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease resides within the DNA sequence of our genes. This paradigm can be challenged. For example, how do sequence changes in the non-coding region of the genome influence phenotype? Why are all diseases not shared between identical twins? Part of the answer lies in the fact that the environment or exogenous stimuli clearly influence disease susceptibility, but it was unclear in the past how these effects were signalled to the static DNA code. Epigenetics is providing a newer perspective on these issues. Epigenetics refers to chromatin-based mechanisms important in the regulation of gene expression that do not involve changes to the DNA sequence per se. The field can be broadly categorized into three areas: DNA base modifications (including cytosine methylation and cytosine hydroxymethylation), post-translational modifications of histone proteins, and RNA-based mechanisms that operate in the nucleus. Cardiovascular disease pathways are now being approached from the epigenetic perspective, including those associated with atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, ischemia-reperfusion damage, and the cardiovascular response to hypoxia and shear stress, among many others. With increasing interest and expanding partnerships in the field, we can expect new insights to emerge from epigenetic perspectives of cardiovascular health. This paper reviews the principles governing epigenetic regulation, discusses their presently-understood importance in cardiovascular disease, and considers the growing significance we are likely to attribute to epigenetic contributions in the future, as they provide new mechanistic insights and a host of novel clinical applications. PMID:23261320

Webster, Andrew L H; Yan, Matthew Shu-Ching; Marsden, Philip A

2013-01-01

293

Fitness and evolutionary explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent philosophical discussions have failed to clarify the roles of the concept fitness in evolutionary theory. Neither the\\u000a propensity interpretation of fitness nor the construal of fitness as a primitive theoretical term succeed in explicating the\\u000a empirical content and explanatory power of the theory of natural selection. By appealing to the structure of simple mathematical\\u000a models of natural selection, we

Henry C. Byerly; Richard E. Michod

1991-01-01

294

Leak test fitting  

DOEpatents

A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

Pickett, Patrick T. (Kettering, OH)

1981-01-01

295

In situ repair of a failed compression fitting  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

Wolbert, Ronald R. (McKees Rocks, PA); Jandrasits, Walter G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01

296

The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

2014-01-01

297

Effects of horizontal body casting on the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term horizontal body position on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate. Six male rhesus monkeys (6.2-9.4 kg) were given bolus injections of 4.0 microgram/kg, phenylephrine during each of the following conditions: awake, anesthetized (10 mg/kg ketamine HCl), and after beta-blockade (1 mg/kg propranolol HCl) before, 7, 14, and 28 days after being placed in a horizontal body cast. R-R interval vs. systolic arterial pressure was plotted, and the slope was determined by least-squares-fit linear regression. Baroreceptor slope was significantly reduced by 7 days of horizontal body position and remained attenuated throughout the 28-day restraint period both before and after beta-receptor blockade. These data are consistent with the thesis that prolonged exposure to a zero-gravity environment impairs autonomic reflex regulation of the cardiovascular system.

Billman, G. E.; Dickey, D. T.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

1982-01-01

298

Programming for Physical Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical fitness is an ongoing process and should be included in planned instruction throughout the year. Options are presented for scheduling fitness activities during the school year, within a motor skill unit, and within an individual lesson plan. A sample yearly plan and lesson plan are included. (IAH)

Petray, Clayre; And Others

1989-01-01

299

Outfitting Campus Fitness Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how universities and colleges, both private and public, are including fitness centers as ways of increasing their student enrollment levels. Comments are provided on school experiences in fitness-center design, equipment purchasing, and maintenance and operating-costs issues. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

300

Uncertainty propagation: Curve fitting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn a sample-variance curve fitting method that can be used to determine whether a set of experimental data appears to have been generated by a model. This method is based on minimizing the reduced chi-squared value. This video includes a reminder to inspect normalized residuals before reporting fitted parameters.

2013-06-21

301

Women and Physical Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the promotion of health, sports, and physical fitness are pervasive themes as well as part of federal U.S. policy, women lag behind their male counterparts in the areas of health and physical fitness. And, although there is a general trend toward increased participation of women in sports and physical activity across a life span, a large number of women

Diana J. Cunningham; Janet A. Ohles

2000-01-01

302

Fun & Fitness with Balloons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

2010-01-01

303

A mathematic model of a cardiovascular system regulated by the baroreflex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic, nonlinear, lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system coupled with a baroreflex model is presented. The cardiovascular system in the model consists of the left heart (ventricle) and systemic load and is represented by a fourth order nonlinear time-varying differential equation. The baroreflex is an important internal feedback mechanism in the body whose function is to regulate and

Shaohui Chen; A. Ferreira; M. A. Simaan; J. F. Antaki

2006-01-01

304

Ethiopian cardiovascular studies  

PubMed Central

No large series of patients with cardiovascular disease has yet been reported from Ethiopia, where only limited means for investigation are at present available. The authors therefore studied the types of heart disease detected by mass miniature radiography in a largely self-selected population at the Addis Ababa Tuberculosis Centre, and examined the value of this method of cardiac case-finding. Rheumatic heart disease occurred in 34.8% of patients, but syphilitic aortitis, hypertension, “cardiomyopathy” and tuberculous pericarditis were also common. Endomyocardial fibrosis was not seen; this may be a further significant fact in the search for its cause. Mass miniature radiography is valuable for detecting symptomatic patients with the cardiovascular diseases mentioned above. The technique described in this paper could be used in other developing countries as it uses a single method of screening for 2 groups of diseases. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5306099

Parry, E. H. O.; Gordon, C. G. I.

1968-01-01

305

Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

1976-01-01

306

Increase of circulating BDNF levels and its relation to improvement of physical fitness following 12 weeks of combined exercise in chronic patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant of neurotrophins in the brain, is known to be responsible for maintenance of neurons has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of a combined exercise program on circulating BDNF expression and the relationship between BDNF and improvements in physical fitness. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia participated in the exercise intervention, three nonconsecutive days per week for 12 weeks. The resistance exercise program used the elastic band for eight different exercises for 25 min, and the aerobic exercise consisted of moderate walking for 25 min. After the training program, there were positive improvements in body composition and blood pressure. Also, there was significant improvement in leg strength, cardiovascular fitness, balance, and jump. Serum BDNF values had significantly increased following the combined exercise program. The elevation in serum BDNF concentrations correlated significantly with improvements in cardiovascular fitness and leg strength. These results suggest that exercise induced modulation of BDNF may play an important role in developing non-pharmacological treatment for chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, these preliminary results serve to generate further hypothesis and facilitate the planning the exercise training program and management of participants. PMID:25446461

Kim, Hee-jae; Song, Bong-kil; So, Byunghun; Lee, On; Song, Wook; Kim, Yeonsoo

2014-12-30

307

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes has been shown to be increasing at a rapid rate in the United States. There estimates of 23.6 million individuals with diabetes with 1.6 million new cases being diagnosed annually. [1] Diabetes has long been known as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Experts indicate 38% of patients admitted to the hospital are diabetic.[2] Therefore one

Barbara “Bobbi” Leeper; Dl Mcgee

1979-01-01

308

Alcohol and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol in moderation is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men and women. New evidence suggests\\u000a that this association, described in over 70 epidemiologic studies, is causal and can be explained, in part, by alcohol’s beneficial\\u000a effects on serum lipids and clotting factors. Recently, the inverse association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease\\u000a also has been reported

Eric Rimm

2000-01-01

309

The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Findings A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n?=?322; aged 10–14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p?=?0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people. PMID:24694082

2014-01-01

310

Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

2005-01-01

311

A PHYSICIAN FITNESS PROGRAM: ENHANCING THE PHYSICIAN AS AN "EXERCISE" ROLE MODEL FOR PATIENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physically active physicians are more apt to counsel patients about exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a physician fitness program on resident physician cardiovascular fitness, physical activity behavior/stage of change, and physical activity counseling behavior/attit...

312

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

313

Limitations of inclusive fitness  

PubMed Central

Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

2013-01-01

314

Cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities--a review.  

PubMed

Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels have been found in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), which puts them at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. The aims of this review were to update previous reviews about (a) the cardiorespiratory fitness levels and their determinants in individuals with ID, and (b) the validity and reliability of cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with ID. We searched the databases of Pubmed and Embase for relevant studies, resulting in 31 included articles. These studies mainly included younger participants with mild to moderate ID. Results confirmed previous findings of low cardiorespiratory fitness levels in individuals with ID. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels of children and adolescents with ID are already low, with further decline with increasing age. Furthermore, females have lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels than males. Physical inactivity and chronotropic incompetence are most likely to contribute to low cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Peak cardiorespiratory fitness levels of individuals with ID can be assessed with maximal treadmill protocols, after allowing for familiarization sessions. Although, predicting maximal oxygen uptake from field tests is problematic, field tests have been found valid and reliable as indicators of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:23892875

Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

2013-10-01

315

Mayo Clinic: Fitness Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic offers a wide range of outreach services for the general public, including websites providing basic information about cancer, smoking cessation techniques, and others. Their online Fitness Center website will be a real boon to anyone who is looking to pick up some basic fitness awareness, learn about strength training, or read up on sports nutrition. First-time visitors can start by reading through the "Fitness Basics" area, which answers common questions like "Why exercise?" and also provides information on getting warmed up before exercising. Visitors can also sign up for the Mayo Clinic's free e-newsletter, "Housecall".

316

Cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Snakes have provided useful vertebrate models for understanding circulatory adaptation to gravity, attributable to their elongate body shape and evolutionary diversificaton in terms of ecology and behavior. Recently we have studied cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravic acceleration forces produced acutely in the head-to-tail direction (+Gz) on a short-arm centrifuge. Snakes were held in a nearly straight position within a horizontal plastic tube and subjected to a linear force gradient during acceleration. Carotid blood flow provided an integrated measure of cardiovascular performance. Thus, cardiovascular tolerance of snakes to stepwise increments of Gz was measured as the caudal Gz force at which carotid blood flow ceased. Tolerance to increasing Gz varies according to adaptive evolutionary history inferred from the ecology and behavior of species. With respect to data for six species we investigated, multiple regression analysis demonstrates that Gz tolerance correlates with gravitational habitat, independently of body length. Relative to aquatic and non-climbing species, carotid blood flow is better maintained in arboreal or scansorial species, which tolerate hypergravic forces of +2 to +3.5 Gz. Additionally, semi-arboreal rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) exhibit plasticity of responses to long-term, intermittent +1.5 Gz stress. Compared to non-acclimated controls, acclimated snakes show greater increases of heart rate during head-up tilt or acceleration, greater sensitivity of arterial pressure to circulating catecholamines, higher blood levels of prostaglandin ratios favorable to maintenance of arterial blood pressure, and medial hypertrophy in major arteries and veins. As in other vertebrates, Gz tolerance of snakes is enhanced by acclimation, high arterial pressure, comparatively large blood volume, and body movements. Vascular studies of snakes suggest the importance to acclimation of local responses involving vascular tissue, in addition to centrally mediated responses to fluid shifts.

Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Rosenberg, H. I.

1997-01-01

317

Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Prepubertal Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Intra-abdominal fat has been identified as being the most clinically relevant type of fat in humans. Therefore, an assessment of body-fat distribution could possibly identify subjects with the highest risk of adverse lipid profile and hypertension. Few data on the relationship between body-fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors are available in children, especially before puberty.Research Methods and Procedures: This

Claudio Maffeis; Angelo Pietrobelli; Alessandra Grezzani; Silvia Provera; Luciano Tatò

2001-01-01

318

Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

2009-01-01

319

Too Old to Benefit from Sports? The Cardiovascular Effects of Exercise Training in Elderly Subjects Treated for Isolated Systolic Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypertension in the elderly is commonly characterized by an elevation of pulse pressure. With regard to advanced arteriosclerosis and limited physical fitness, doubt was casted whether elderly patients still achieve relevant cardiovascular benefits by physical exercise. The present work examines the impact of pulse pressure as a footprint of vascular ageing on cardiovascular benefits of endurance training in elderly

Timm H. Westhoff; Nadine Franke; Sven Schmidt; Katja Vallbracht-Israng; Romy Meissner; Havva Yildirim; Peter Schlattmann; Walter Zidek; Fernando Dimeo; Markus van der Giet

2007-01-01

320

Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.  

PubMed

The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber. PMID:22872372

Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

2012-12-01

321

Cardiovascular determinants of life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases rises with aging and is one of the main causes of mortality in western countries.\\u000a In view of the progressively aging population, there is an urge for a better understanding of age-associated cardiovascular\\u000a diseases and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include unhealthy diet, diabetes,\\u000a obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity,

Yi Shi; Giovanni G. Camici; Thomas F. Lüscher

2010-01-01

322

Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

2014-09-01

323

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2011-09-01

324

Assistant, Associate & Full Professor in Cardiovascular Imaging Division of Cardiovascular Medicine  

E-print Network

degree and are board certified (or eligible) in Cardiovascular Disease or Radiology. AdvancedAssistant, Associate & Full Professor in Cardiovascular Imaging Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine The Cardiovascular Institute and the Departments of Medicine and Radiology at Stanford

Quake, Stephen R.

325

[Medical flight certification of civil pilots with cardiovascular pathologies].  

PubMed

Comprehensive examination of civil pilots including the clinical-physiological and mental tests was performed with the purpose to improve the system of expert evaluation of health and fight fitness of pilots with cardiovascular pathologies. Mental tests consisted of an MMPI modification, the standard multifactor personality test, portrait choice (adapted Szondi's eight inclinations test), and predictive drawing tests of the unconscious. Type of personality of the persons with cardiovascular pathologies were characterized in terms of individual traits, social behavior, thinking type, stress reaction, protective tactics, and form of deadaptation. Persons with a variety of premorbid cardiovascular pathologies (essential hypertension, atherosclerosis, and neurocirculatory dystonia) reveal specific traits that should be taken into consideration in the process of medical flight certification. PMID:17193979

Krapivnitskaia, T A

2006-01-01

326

Cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours in elementary school-age Inuvialuit and Gwich’in children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours in Aboriginal children from the Beaufort-Delta region (Northwest Territories). METHODS: A total of 91 elementary school-age children underwent a cross-sectional assessment of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and aerobic fitness. Healthy living knowledge and behaviours, including frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) and dietary intake, were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 49.5% of children were obese/overweight and 31.9% had elevated blood pressure. The percentages having one, two or three cardiovascular risk factor(s) were 64.4%, 42.2% and 15.6%, respectively, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Overall, the students obtained higher mean scores in the areas of healthy PA, body image, self-esteem and nutritious beverage knowledge (89%, 85%, 79% and 71% of the maximum scores, respectively). The lowest scores were in nutritious food consumption and healthy PA frequency (46% and 56% of the maximum scores, respectively). On average, children consumed 2.7 L of sugar-sweetened beverages weekly and <2 servings of fruits or vegetables daily. Children spent approximately 2 h per day watching television, playing games or using a computer. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for community-based approaches to address the high rates of obesity and related cardiovascular risk factors among these Aboriginal children. Given the disconnect between healthy living knowledge and behaviour, it is important that future treatment programs address other barriers faced by Aboriginal populations living in rural and remote regions, including the high cost and limited access to high-quality nutritious foods and beverages, and limited access to indoor recreational programs over the long winter season. PMID:24855429

Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Nguyen, Duc; Smith, Jane

2014-01-01

327

3D Clothing Fitting Based on the Geometric Feature Matching Zhong Li 1, 2, 3  

E-print Network

design (GCAD). During the fitting process, the match between the clothing and body models is still3D Clothing Fitting Based on the Geometric Feature Matching Zhong Li 1, 2, 3 , Xiaogang Jin 2 The 3D clothing fitting on a body model is an important research topic in the garment computer aided

O'Brien, James F.

328

[Stress and cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been studied intensely since the 1950s. Results on stress as a risk factor for CVD have been inconsistent, but mainly positive. The risk is mediated through lifestyle, but more direct physiological mechanisms (e.g. autonomous nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are also found. Personality and general coping resources influence stress-appraisal, stress-coping and stress-response. Future studies should integrate stress as a cause (stressor), as a subjective reaction (perception), and as a physiological reaction in the same longitudinal studies with repeated measures. PMID:22277363

Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Jørgensen, Torben

2012-01-23

329

Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.  

PubMed

The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic.The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body's "metabolic programming". Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood.The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. PMID:23259704

Guardamagna, Ornella; Abello, Francesca; Cagliero, Paola; Lughetti, Lorenzo

2012-01-01

330

Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

2014-01-01

331

Rules, culture, and fitness  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

Baum, William M.

1995-01-01

332

Adaptation and inclusive fitness.  

PubMed

Inclusive fitness theory captures how individuals can influence the transmission of their genes to future generations by influencing either their own reproductive success or that of related individuals. This framework is frequently used for studying the way in which natural selection leads to organisms being adapted to their environments. A number of recent papers have criticised this approach, suggesting that inclusive fitness is just one of many possible mathematical methods for modelling when traits will be favoured by natural selection, and that it leads to errors, such as overemphasising the role of common ancestry relative to other mechanisms that could lead to individuals being genetically related. Here, we argue that these suggested problems arise from a misunderstanding of two fundamental points: first, inclusive fitness is more than just a mathematical 'accounting method' - it is the answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise; second, there is something special about relatedness caused by common ancestry, in contrast with the other mechanisms that may lead to individuals being genetically related, because it unites the interests of genes across the genome, allowing complex, multigenic adaptations to evolve. The critiques of inclusive fitness theory have provided neither an equally valid answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise, nor an alternative process to unite the interest of genes. Consequently, inclusive fitness remains the most general theory for explaining adaptation. PMID:23845249

West, Stuart A; Gardner, Andy

2013-07-01

333

Cardiovascular medication: improving adherence  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adherence to medication is generally defined as the extent to which people take medications as prescribed by their healthcare providers. It can be assessed in many ways (e.g., by self-reporting, pill counting, direct observation, electronic monitoring, or by pharmacy records). This review reports effects of intervention on adherence to cardiovascular medications however adherence has been measured. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to improve adherence to long-term medication for cardiovascular disease in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 39 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: patient health education; prescriber education; prompting mechanisms; reminder packaging (calendar [blister] packs; multi-dose pill boxes); and simplified dosing.

2009-01-01

334

Cardiovascular medication: improving adherence  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adherence to medication is generally defined as the extent to which people take medications as prescribed by their healthcare providers. It can be assessed in many ways (e.g., by self-reporting, pill counting, direct observation, electronic monitoring, or by pharmacy records). This review reports effects of intervention on adherence to cardiovascular medications however adherence has been measured. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to improve adherence to long-term medication for cardiovascular disease in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 39 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: patient health education, prescriber education, prompting mechanisms, reminder packaging (calendar [blister] packs, multi-dose pill boxes), and simplified dosing. PMID:21481286

2011-01-01

335

Optimization in Cardiovascular Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid mechanics plays a key role in the development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Advances in imaging methods and patient-specific modeling now reveal increasingly detailed information about blood flow patterns in health and disease. Building on these tools, there is now an opportunity to couple blood flow simulation with optimization algorithms to improve the design of surgeries and devices, incorporating more information about the flow physics in the design process to augment current medical knowledge. In doing so, a major challenge is the need for efficient optimization tools that are appropriate for unsteady fluid mechanics problems, particularly for the optimization of complex patient-specific models in the presence of uncertainty. This article reviews the state of the art in optimization tools for virtual surgery, device design, and model parameter identification in cardiovascular flow and mechanobiology applications. In particular, it reviews trade-offs between traditional gradient-based methods and derivative-free approaches, as well as the need to incorporate uncertainties. Key future challenges are outlined, which extend to the incorporation of biological response and the customization of surgeries and devices for individual patients.

Marsden, Alison L.

2014-01-01

336

[Phytotherapy in cardiovascular medicine].  

PubMed

There is widespread use of herbal medicine in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. The discussion about the benefit of these drugs is still controversial because of lack of scientific evidence. Ginkgo biloba, Crataegus and Garlic are often recommended substances for patients with cardiovascular diseases. For these substances there is a lot of data available from experimental and clinical studies, unfortunately not always adhering to the criteria of evidence based medicine. Extracts from ginkgo biloba contain several active constituents, mainly flavonoids and terpens, which have antioxidative properties and an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation by inhibiting platelet activation factor PAF. Ginkgo is mainly used in vascular dementia and peripheral vascular disease. Garlic shows a modest lipid-lowering effect in the same range as a low-cholesterol diet. Effect on blood pressure seems to be at best minor. Crataegus is often used in patients with heart failure because of its positive inotropic effect. Additionally, crataegus acts as an antiarrhythmic substance by prolonging refractory period of the action potential. PMID:12125179

Zbinden, S; Seiler, Ch

2002-06-01

337

Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

2006-01-01

338

14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.311 Section 67.311 Aeronautics...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a third-class airman...

2013-01-01

339

14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.311 Section 67.311 Aeronautics...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a third-class airman...

2014-01-01

340

14 CFR 67.111 - Cardiovascular.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.111 Section 67.111 Aeronautics...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.111 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a first-class airman...

2013-01-01

341

14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.211 Section 67.211 Aeronautics...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a second-class medical...

2013-01-01

342

Cardiovascular Research Institute Application for Membership  

E-print Network

Cardiovascular Research Institute Application for Membership Mission of the CVRI · establish a nationally and internationally recognized center of excellence for the study of cardiovascular and cellular biology to clinical application) and innovation among cardiovascular investigators · develop

Finley Jr., Russell L.

343

14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.211 Section 67.211 Aeronautics...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a second-class medical...

2014-01-01

344

Cardiovascular Technology Program Needs Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990/91, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Cardiovascular Technology program. Fifty-two local hospitals were surveyed to gather information on the employment demand, employment benefits and career preparation requirements for cardiovascular technologists (CVTs), yielding a 62% response…

Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

345

Geochemistry, soils and cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The hypothesis is presented that deficiencies or excesses in the content or availability of trace elements in rocks and soils, or in water flowing through them, may be a possible cause of certain chronic diseases, including cardiovascular ones. The geographic distribution of cardiovascular diseases is often associated with geochemical differences. This trend is particulalry evident in the United States

R. Masironi

1987-01-01

346

Cardiovascular involvement in relapsing polychondritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relapsing polychondritis is an inflammatory disease that characteristically involves cartilagenous tissues. Cardiovascular involvement is a fairly common complication and the second most frequent cause of mortality in this disease. The case of a man with a progressive cardiac involvement, aortic incompetence, mitral regurgitation, and finally complete atrioventricular block offered the opportunity of reviewing the cardiovascular complications in relapsing polychondritis. The

Attilio Del Rosso; Nunzia Rosa Petix; Mauro Pratesi; Alessandro Bini

1997-01-01

347

Personal Fitness Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help you create a personal fitness plan that is right for you. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle can help you feel your best and prevent the onset of certain diseases. At the conclusion of this activity, you will: Understand the health benefits of physical activity. Be able to describe three types of exercise. Create a custom plan based on your own preferences. The first step in creating your personal fitness plan is to understand why one is important to have and to maintain. Read ...

Cross, Mrs.

2005-11-26

348

Line of Best Fit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When data is displayed with a scatter plot, it is often useful to attempt to represent that data with the equation of a straight line for purposes of predicting values that may not be displayed on the plot. Such a straight line is called the "line of best fit." In this activity, students discover the relationship between the fat grams and the total calories in fast food by graphing the given data, estimate the line of best fit using a strand of spaghetti, calculate the slope of that line, and translate it into an equation. Then, they use that equation to predict information not originally included in the scatter plot.

2012-08-13

349

Fitness, fatness and survival in elderly populations.  

PubMed

This study examines the relative importance of fitness versus fatness in predicting mortality in elderly populations aged 70 years and over, and whether fitness may account for the 'paradoxical' relationship between better survival and increasing weight. Four thousand community-living Chinese men and women aged 65 years or over were recruited and stratified so that approximately 33% were in each of the age groups: 65-69, 70-74, and 75 or above. Medical history, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, body composition using DEXA, and walking speed were obtained. They were followed up for a mean of 7.0 years to ascertain death. Compared with the high fitness category, those in the moderate and low categories have a 43% and 68% increased risk of mortality at 7 years adjusting for multiple confounders. When mortality risk according to various fatness indicators was examined, only the lowest quartile of BMI, BFI, and FLMR conferred statistically significant increased risk. Fitness categories were significantly associated with all fatness indicators. The finding of fewer people in the high fitness category among the highest quartiles of other fatness indicators suggests that fitness is not the underlying mechanism for the obesity paradox. Within each quartile of fatness indicator, there was a significant trend towards reduced mortality with increasing fitness. In conclusion, the study confirms the beneficial effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on mortality but does not explain the 'obesity paradox'. The findings underscore the importance of maintaining physical fitness through exercise and re-confirm the importance of weight maintenance in reducing mortality risk. PMID:22391688

Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby; Yau, Forrest

2013-06-01

350

Cardiovascular Response During Submaximal Underwater Treadmill Exercise in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Methods Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. Results SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Conclusion Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25379492

Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae

2014-01-01

351

Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidence-Based Review  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays a significant role in many aspects of healthcare worldwide, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review describes some of the challenges of CAM in terms of scientific research. Biologically-based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies, whole medical systems, and energy medicine are reviewed in detail with regard to cardiovascular risk factors and mediation or modulation of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. CAM use among patients with CVD is prevalent and in many instances provides positive and significant effects, with biologically-based and mind-body therapies being the most commonly used treatment modalities. More rigorous research to determine the precise physiologic effects and long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with CAM usage, as well as more open lines of communication between patients and physicians regarding CAM use, is essential when determining optimal treatment plans. PMID:23710229

Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

2013-01-01

352

Cardiovascular Risk in the Vietnamese Community  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................15 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................16Cardiovascular Risk in the Vietnamese Community Formative Research from Houston, Texas U ...........................................................17 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

Bandettini, Peter A.

353

Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................13 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................13Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community Formative Research from Lowell, Massachusetts U ...........................................................14 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

Bandettini, Peter A.

354

Cardiovascular Risk in the Filipino Community  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................12 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................12Cardiovascular Risk in the Filipino Community Formative Research from Daly City and San Francisco ...........................................................13 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

Bandettini, Peter A.

355

Not only cardiovascular, but also coordinative exercise increases hippocampal volume in older adults  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular activity has been shown to be positively associated with gray and white matter volume of, amongst others, frontal and temporal brain regions in older adults. This is particularly true for the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays an important role in learning and memory, and whose decline has been related to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In the current study, we were interested in whether not only cardiovascular activity but also other types of physical activity, i.e., coordination training, were also positively associated with the volume of the hippocampus in older adults. For this purpose we first collected cross-sectional data on “metabolic fitness” (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength) and “motor fitness” (e.g., balance, movement speed, fine coordination). Second, we performed a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Results revealed that motor fitness but not metabolic fitness was associated with hippocampal volume. After the 12-month intervention period, both, cardiovascular and coordination training led to increases in hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest that a high motor fitness level as well as different types of physical activity were beneficial to diminish age-related hippocampal volume shrinkage or even increase hippocampal volume. PMID:25165446

Niemann, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

2014-01-01

356

Manual for physical fitness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

Coleman, A. E.

1981-01-01

357

Senior Women's Fitness Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the special exercise needs of older, overweight women and the effects of gentle progressive exercise on physical fitness and psychological parameters, we recruited 30 sedentary women aged 60 to 72 years old to participate in an 11-week-long exercise study. The women were assigned to either a low-impact aerobic dance exercise class (N = 20) who exercised for 1

Patricia A. Gillett

1993-01-01

358

Talking Sport and Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

2012-01-01

359

Physical Fitness Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of a program designed to enhance self concept, reduce muscular tension and alleviate feelings of helplessness and depression was presented. Results indicated that physical fitness training alone may be as effective as relaxation on the aforementioned variables. Additionally, a combination of both treatments may not be as effective as either single treatment programs. Suggestions are given as to

Frank A. De Piano; Linda C. De Piano; Wayne Carter; Richard L. Wanlass

1984-01-01

360

Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

2002-01-01

361

Fit for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

Vail, Kathleen

1999-01-01

362

Measuring Your Fitness Progress  

MedlinePLUS

... you’re becoming more fit, such as increased energy, greater ability to perform daily tasks, or even an improved outlook on life. VISIT www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life l Read more about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise ...

363

Benefits of physical exercise intervention on fitness of individuals with Down syndrome: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials.  

PubMed

This study systematically reviewed the impact of physical exercise interventions on physical fitness for individuals with Down syndrome. Articles published in English were searched from five major electronic databases, namely, CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro from inception until April 2013. These studies were screened through predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were then extracted and synthesized from the studies included. Meta-analyses were carried out where appropriate. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies, five studies were found to have high quality research methodology according to the PEDro scale. Varying exercise programs were used and four different fitness outcomes were evaluated: (i) balance, (ii) muscle strength and endurance, (iii) cardiovascular fitness, and (iv) body composition. Exercise interventions led to moderate to high effects on improving muscular strength and balance ((Equation is included in full-text article.)=0.74-1.10) whereas other outcomes showed less conclusive or limited positive evidence. Trends in the results suggest that exercise interventions improve muscular strength and balance. Suggestions for future research include follow-ups to the intervention to examine the longitudinal effects of exercise as well as controlling for confounding factors such as participants' compliance rate and severity levels of Down syndrome to enhance the effectiveness of the interventions. PMID:23778328

Li, Chunxiao; Chen, Shihui; Meng How, Yew; Zhang, Anthony L

2013-09-01

364

Semaphorins in cardiovascular medicine.  

PubMed

During organogenesis, patterning is primarily achieved by the combined actions of morphogens. Among these, semaphorins represent a general system for establishing the appropriate wiring architecture of biological nets. Originally discovered as evolutionarily conserved steering molecules for developing axons, subsequent studies on semaphorins expanded their functions to the cardiovascular and immune systems. Semaphorins participate in cardiac organogenesis and control physiological vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, which result from a balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. These signals are altered in several diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of semaphorins in vascular biology, emphasizing the mechanisms by which these molecules control vascular patterning and lymphangiogenesis, as well as in genetically inherited and degenerative vascular diseases. PMID:25154329

Corà, Davide; Astanina, Elena; Giraudo, Enrico; Bussolino, Federico

2014-10-01

365

Cardiovascular involvement in leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular involvement was studied in 50 patients with serologically proved leptospirosis. Twelve (24%) patients had dyspnoea and 18 (36%) had transient hypotension during the illness. None of them had cardiac enlargement, development of new murmur or pericardial rub. Various electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 70 percent of patients. Atrial fibrillation was the most common major arrhythmia (14%). Conduction system abnormalities were seen in 36 percent of patients. T-wave changes were observed in 30 percent of patients. Left ventricular function as assessed by echocardiography and Doppler examination was normal. Three (6%) patients died due to renal failure. In conclusion, even though ECG abnormalities were frequently seen in leptospirosis, there was no data to support associated left ventricular dysfunction. Dyspnoea and hypotension occurring in patients of leptospirosis must be due to a noncardiac mechanism. PMID:9062020

Rajiv, C; Manjuran, R J; Sudhayakumar, N; Haneef, M

1996-01-01

366

Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.  

PubMed

Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes. PMID:25620633

Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

2015-02-01

367

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance artefacts  

PubMed Central

The multitude of applications offered by CMR make it an increasing popular modality to study the heart and the surrounding vessels. Nevertheless the anatomical complexity of the chest, together with cardiac and respiratory motion, and the fast flowing blood, present many challenges which can possibly translate into imaging artefacts. The literature is wide in terms of papers describing specific MR artefacts in great technical detail. In this review we attempt to summarise, in a language accessible to a clinical readership, some of the most common artefacts found in CMR applications. It begins with an introduction of the most common pulse sequences, and imaging techniques, followed by a brief section on typical cardiovascular applications. This leads to the main section on common CMR artefacts with examples, a short description of the mechanisms behind them, and possible solutions. PMID:23697969

2013-01-01

368

The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine how fetal growth is related to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. DESIGN--A follow up study of men born during 1907-24 whose birth weights, head circumferences, and other body measurements were recorded at birth. SETTING--Sheffield, England. SUBJECTS--1586 Men born in the Jessop Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Standardised mortality ratios for cardiovascular disease fell from

D J Barker; C Osmond; S J Simmonds; G A Wield

1993-01-01

369

Fitting fragility functions 1 Fitting Fragility Functions to  

E-print Network

Fitting fragility functions 1 Fitting Fragility Functions to Structural Analysis Data Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation 1. Introduction This appendix describes a statistical procedure for fitting fragility Incremental Dynamic Analysis). In such a case, the most popular current method for fragility function fitting

Baker, Jack W.

370

The Role of Sport/Fitness and Eating Disorders: Cosmetic Fitness from Starvation to Steroids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of eating disorders is much higher among children and young adults involved in sport and fitness activities. When weight loss is followed by excessive exercise, certain biological and social reinforcers become evident. This is also followed by a diminished appetite, increased narcissistic investment in the body, and an elevated…

Moriarty, Dick; And Others

371

Reintrepreting the cardiovascular system as a mechanical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of the different physiological systems is very useful as a pedagogical tool, allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms and the functions of the processes. The observation of the physiological phenomena through mechanical simulators represents a great asset. Furthermore, the development of these simulators allows reinterpreting physiological systems, with the advantage of using the same transducers and sensors that are commonly used in diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular procedures for the monitoring of system' parameters. The cardiovascular system is one of the most important systems of the human body and has been the target of several biomedical studies. The present work describes a mechanical simulation of the cardiovascular system, in particularly, the systemic circulation, which can be described in terms of its hemodynamic variables. From the mechanical process and parameters, physiological system's behavior was reproduced, as accurately as possible.

Lemos, Diogo; Machado, José; Minas, Graça; Soares, Filomena; Barros, Carla; Leão, Celina Pinto

2013-10-01

372

Risk of cardiovascular diseases in seafarers.  

PubMed

Seafarers experience a lot of job-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the healthy-worker effect due to the biennial pre-employment examination and the periodical medical fitness tests, a (slightly) elevated risk for CVD among seafarers is assumed compared to the reference population ashore. In seafaring, the most important, influenceable risk factors for CVD refer to the ship-specific stress situation, the malnutrition and the lack of exercises on board. Furthermore, the prognosis of acute severe CVD often depends on the measures taken in the first few hours after occurrence of the symptoms. Owing to the lack of health professionals on board and the limited treatment options of events at sea, effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation is often delayed and the outcome of cardiac events is worse compared to that ashore. PMID:25231325

Oldenburg, Marcus

2014-01-01

373

Fitness and employee productivity.  

PubMed

What should management consider when deciding whether to sponsor a company fitness program? This article gives pragmatic answers to the business community as well as outlining critical avenues for future research for both academics and corporations. Understanding the nature of the commitment is a prerequisite for success. Whether the program should be short term and serve as a catalyst for future individual efforts, or a long-term commitment, is a question which must be considered. Decisions of this type are partially dependent on what criteria are used to evaluate success. As measurements of employee productivity are very subjective or non-existent, absenteeism and turnover are potential yardsticks. Details of employee programs must also address the issue of participation as well as the frequency, intensity and duration. Future research must separate the effect of the fitness improvement from the benfits derived from just being in a program. The measurement of productivity and the long-term effect of fitness programs, especially short-term programs, are also areas for future work. PMID:540412

Howard, J; Mikalachki, A

1979-09-01

374

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids are endogenous bioactive lipid mediators present both in the brain and various peripheral tissues, which exert their biological effects via interaction with specific G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 and CB2. Pathological overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in various forms of shock and heart failure may contribute to the underlying pathology and cardiodepressive state by the activation of the cardiovascular CB1 receptors. Furthermore, tonic activation of CB1 receptors by endocannabinoids has also been implicated in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes, such as plasma lipid alterations, abdominal obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and insulin and leptin resistance. In contrast, activation of CB2 receptors in immune cells exerts various immunomodulatory effects, and the CB2 receptors in endothelial and inflammatory cells appear to limit the endothelial inflammatory response, chemotaxis, and inflammatory cell adhesion and activation in atherosclerosis and reperfusion injury. Here, we will overview the cardiovascular actions of endocannabinoids and the growing body of evidence implicating the dysregulation of the ECS in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the therapeutic potential of the modulation of the ECS by selective agonists/antagonists in various cardiovascular disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, ranging from myocardial infarction and heart failure to atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:19357846

2009-01-01

375

Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: is the evidence solid?  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency, prevalent in 30-50% of adults in developed countries, is largely due to inadequate cutaneous production that results from decreased exposure to sunlight, and to a lesser degree from low dietary intake of vitamin D. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) <20 ng/mL indicate vitamin D deficiency and levels >30 ng/mL are considered optimal. While the endocrine functions of vitamin D related to bone metabolism and mineral ion homoeostasis have been extensively studied, robust epidemiological evidence also suggests a close association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental studies have demonstrated novel actions of vitamin D metabolites on cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Low 25-OH D levels are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin system activation. Despite a large body of experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, a causal relationship remains to be established. Moreover, the cardiovascular benefits of normalizing 25-OH D levels in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism have not been established, and questions of an epiphenomenon where vitamin D status merely reflects a classic risk burden have been raised. Randomized trials of vitamin D replacement employing cardiovascular endpoints will provide much needed evidence for determining its role in cardiovascular protection. PMID:23751422

Al Mheid, Ibhar; Patel, Riyaz S; Tangpricha, Vin; Quyyumi, Arshed A

2013-12-01

376

Nonlinear Curve-Fitting Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear optimization algorithm helps in finding best-fit curve. Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, interactive curve-fitting routine based on description of quadratic expansion of X(sup 2) statistic. Utilizes nonlinear optimization algorithm calculating best statistically weighted values of parameters of fitting function and X(sup 2) minimized. Provides user with such statistical information as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters producing highest degree of correlation between experimental data and mathematical model. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Everhart, Joel L.; Badavi, Forooz F.

1989-01-01

377

Cardiovascular Research The University of Birmingham  

E-print Network

systemic cardiovascular and respiratory homeostasis in health and disease. The group consists of basic in diseases of metabolism including diabetes and metabolic syndrome; the impact upon cardiovascular regulationCardiovascular Research The University of Birmingham #12;2 Cardiovascular Sciences in Birmingham

Birmingham, University of

378

Cardiovascular & Respiratory Modeling, Analysis & Control  

E-print Network

Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems: Modeling, Analysis & Control J. J. Batzel, F. Kappel, D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1.7.3 Sensitivity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2 Respiratory Modeling 45 2.1 Respiratory Control Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.1.1 General features of respiration

Batzel, Jerry

379

The body as art.  

PubMed

For millennia people have altered the appearance of their bodies with cosmetics, jewellery, tattoos, piercings, and other surgical procedures. It would appear that they wish to conform to a perceived 'ideal body', although the actual appearance of such a body is subject to temporal, cultural and geographical change. In contemporary society the media are largely responsible for providing the yardsticks against which individual body shape is measured. Today the desired form is generally young, slim, tanned and blemish-free. Sadly, dissatisfaction with body image can be the source of great unhappiness and may even lead to suicide. Interested scholars have debated the meaning of beauty for centuries but it seems that every human society has its own standards. At the simplest it would appear that youth and symmetry are the most highly prized ingredients. There is no doubt that those who fit the conventional standards of attractiveness are treated better by society. Individuals have an inalienable right to their own body appearance, and to alter it as they see fit, however such modifications may not always be in their own best interests. Practitioners of cosmetic procedures must be alert to clients with histories of weight fluctuation, unrealistic body image, or low self-esteem. Psychological disorders may present with dysmorphophobic symptoms. Doctors providing cosmetic services need to be adept at diagnosing psychological illness. PMID:17147524

Barker, D J; Barker, M J

2002-07-01

380

The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

381

Resting Energy Expenditure, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of our study was to determine whether energy expenditure modified by increasing body mass over the wide range of body mass index (BMI) was related to insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary intakes. Subjects and Methods: A population of 87 obese non-diabetic outpatients was analyzed prospectively. Indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, serial assessment of nutritional intake

D. A. de Luis; R. Aller; O. Izaola; M. Gonzalez Sagrado; R. Conde

2005-01-01

382

[Cardiovascular rehabilitation today].  

PubMed

The authors submit a clearly-arranged article summarizing the contemporary situation in cardiorehabilitation. They explain the term "cardiorehabilitation" as well as to whom it is assigned and who should put it in practise. It contains facts gathered from analysis of numerous randomized studies executed worldwide on thousands of patients. Benefits for various groups of patients are emphasized. The positive effect of cardiorehabilitation is proved by decrease of both morbidity and mortality, total as well as cardiovascular. The physical condition of patients, their weight, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycaemia and sensitivity to insuline, fibrinolytical activity are favourably influenced by cardiorehabilitation. It was observed that the ectopic activity of myocardium decreases, anginose attacks are reduced and that the consumption of oxygen after excercise rises. Among the other benefits may be counted lower occurrence of tumorous diseases, improved quality of life and minimalisation of depressions. There is given evidence that the risks of cardiorehabilitation are often overvalued. Positive effect of this treatment is proven, as well as the effect of the pharmacological or cathetrisation and surgical treatments. PMID:19227952

Karel, I; Skalická, H

2009-01-01

383

Health and Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for physical activity to maintain good health is emphasized in this book. Regular exercise and a balanced diet are regarded as being of prime importance. The nutritional and caloric values of various diets are discussed in relation to their energy producing potential as well as their effect on body weight. Photographs, charts, and line…

Astrand, Per Olaf

384

Getting Fit Before Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... improving their strength and ability. These activities include: Push-ups Sit-ups Lifting weights or using weight machines ... your own body weight by doing activities like push-ups, pull-ups or sit-ups. What if you ...

385

Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides structural and functional cardiovascular information with excellent soft tissue contrast. Real-time MRI can guide transcatheter cardiovascular interventions in large animal models, and may prove superior to x-ray and adjunct modalities for peripheral vascular, structural heart and cardiac electrophysiology applications. We describe technical considerations, pre-clinical work and early clinical studies in this emerging field. PMID:17662914

Raman, Venkatesh K.; Lederman, Robert J.

2008-01-01

386

Forgotten cardiovascular diseases in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the global burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by low and middle income countries. Unfortunately, many\\u000a of these regions are still grappling with poverty and infection-related cardiovascular diseases, such as endomyocardial fibrosis,\\u000a tuberculous pericarditis and rheumatic heart disease. In addition, Africa has its unique diseases that occur more commonly\\u000a in Africans as peripartum cardiomyopathy or, almost uniquely

Karen Sliwa; Ana Olga Mocumbi

2010-01-01

387

Cardiovascular physiology in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

1991-01-01

388

A fitness screening model for increasing fitness assessment and research experiences in undergraduate exercise science students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students analyze and present original data they have collected, and hence have a cultivated sense of curiosity about the data, student learning is enhanced. It is often difficult to provide students an opportunity to practice their skills, use their knowledge, and gain research experiences during a typical course laboratory. This article describes a model of an out-of-classroom experience during which undergraduate exercise science students provide a free health and fitness screening to the campus community. Although some evidence of the effectiveness of this experience is presented, this is not a detailed evaluation of either the service or learning benefits of the fitness screening. Working in small learning groups in the classroom, students develop hypotheses about the health and fitness of the population to be screened. Then, as part of the health and fitness screening, participants are evaluated for muscular strength, aerobic fitness, body composition, blood pressure, physical activity, and blood cholesterol levels. Students then analyze the data collected during the screening, accept or reject their hypotheses based on statistical analyses of the data, and make in-class presentations of their findings. This learning experience has been used successfully to illustrate the levels of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lack of physical fitness in the campus community as well as provide an opportunity for students to use statistical procedures to analyze data. It has also provided students with an opportunity to practice fitness assessment and interpersonal skills that will enhance their future careers.

PhD Gregory A. Brown (University of Nebraska, Kearney Department of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Leisure Studies); Frank Lynott (The University of Nebraska Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Leisure Studies); Kate A Heelan (The University of Nebraska Health, Physical Eduction, Recreation, and Leisure Studies)

2008-06-25

389

Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army  

PubMed Central

The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

2009-01-01

390

DIFFERENCES IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PM EXPOSURE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE STROKE-PRONE (SHSP) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT BODY: Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM), notably in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand the mechanisms of PM...

391

Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

2003-01-01

392

Effects of combined female sex hormone replacement therapy on body fat percentage and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy for patients with cardiovascular disease and for postmenopausal women with\\u000a associated cardiovascular risks is currently under wide investigation. Among the cardiovascular risks are those related to\\u000a body fat percentage and distribution. The present study undertook to investigate the effects of combined hormone replacement\\u000a therapy on body fat percentage and distribution in postmenopausal women. Data

Tuncay Delibasi; Dilek Berker; Yusuf Aydin; Tevfik Pinar; Mustafa Ozbek

2006-01-01

393

The human cardiovascular system during space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of the work is to analyze and to summarize the data of investigations into human hemodynamics performed over 20 years aboard orbital stations Salyut-7 and Mir with participation of 26 cosmonauts on space flights (SF) from 8 to 438 days in duration. The ultrasonic techniques and occlusive plethysmography demonstrated dynamics of changes in the cardiovascular system during SF of various durations. The parameters of general hemodynamics, the pumping function of the heart and arterial circulation in the brain remained stable in all the space flights; however, there were alterations in peripheral circulation associated with blood redistribution and hypovolemie in microgravity. The anti-gravity distribution of the vascular tone decayed gradually as unneeded. The most considerable changes were observed in leg vessels, equally in arteries (decrease in resistance) and veins (increase in maximum capacity). The lower body negative pressure test (LBNP) revealed deterioration of the gravity-dependent reactions that changed for the worse as SF duration extended. The cardiovascular deconditioning showed itself as loss of descent acceleration tolerance and orthostatic instability in the postflight period.

Grigoriev, A. I.; Kotovskaya, A. R.; Fomina, G. A.

2011-05-01

394

Educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among Finns  

PubMed Central

Background The high educated live longer and healthier lives when compared to the low educated. Physical fitness as a health indicator reflects the level of physical activity along with other health-influencing factors such as obesity, smoking, chronic diseases and individual training effects. Studies support that self-rated physical fitness correlates with objectively measured physical fitness well. However, the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness are not known. Methods Our aim was to study educational differences in self-rated physical fitness in Finnish population. The data were collected in 2007 for a cross-sectional population based National FINRISK Study. The analyzed data included 2722 men and 3108 women aged 25 to 74 years. Statistical method was ordinal logistic regression. Results Longer educational career was associated with better self-rated physical fitness. The educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were largely explained by health behavior. Leisure-time physical activity explained fully and body mass index partly the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among men. The combination of body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking explained the differences fully among men and partly among women. Leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activities, body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking together explained all educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among both genders. Conclusions Although educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were found, they were explained by health behavior related factors. Leisure-time physical activity offered the strongest single explanation for the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness. Thus, possibilities for leisure-time physical activity should be increased especially among the low educated. PMID:23433081

2013-01-01

395

Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

2015-01-01

396

Ultrasonography for the Evaluation of Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral fat accumulation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical evaluation of visceral fat is limited because of the lack of reliable and low-cost methods. To assess the correlation between ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of visceral fat, 101 obese women, age 50.567.7 years with a body mass index of 39.265.4 kg\\/m2, were submitted to ultrasonograph and

Fernando F. Ribeiro-Filho; Alessandra N. Faria; Sérgio Ajzen; Artur B. Ribeiro; Maria Teresa Zanella; Sandra R. G. Ferreira

397

Macronutrients, Weight Control, and Cardiovascular Health: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some years, there has been interest in exploring the effects of high-fat and high-protein diets on the control of body\\u000a weight. More recently, less extreme dieting paradigms have been studied, with a focus on the use of increased plant food components.\\u000a This article reviews these diets from the standpoint of potential therapeutic use in cardiovascular risk reduction. We conducted

David J. A. Jenkins; Arash Mirrahimi; Tri H. Nguyen; Shahad Abdulnour; Korbua Srichaikul; Leanne Shamrakov; Ambika Dewan; John L. Sievenpiper; Cyril W. C. Kendall

2010-01-01

398

Firefighter fitness: improving performance and preventing injuries and fatalities.  

PubMed

Firefighting is dangerous work. Each year, approximately 80,000 firefighters are injured and about 100 firefighters lose their lives in the line of duty. Firefighters face multiple dangers in the course of their work; they encounter toxic fumes, dangerous products of combustion, high radiant heat loads, and a chaotic work environment. Despite the myriad dangers, the leading cause of line-of-duty death among firefighters is sudden cardiac event, accounting for approximately 45% of duty deaths. Firefighting requires high levels of aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity, and muscular strength and endurance; however, data suggest that many firefighters do not possess high aerobic or anaerobic capacity. Furthermore, many firefighters are overweight and have one or more modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The safety of the public and the health and safety of firefighters would be enhanced if firefighters followed well-designed fitness programs to improve overall health and fitness. PMID:21623308

Smith, Denise L

2011-01-01

399

Physiological response to whole-body vibration in athletes and sedentary subjects.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new exercise method, with good acceptance among sedentary subjects. The metabolic response to WBV has not been well documented. Three groups of male subjects, inactive (SED), endurance (END) and strength trained (SPRINT) underwent a session of side-alternating WBV composed of three 3-min exercises (isometric half-squat, dynamic squat, dynamic squat with added load), and repeated at three frequencies (20, 26 and 32 Hz). VO(2), heart rate and Borg scale were monitored. Twenty-seven healthy young subjects (10 SED, 8 SPRINT and 9 END) were included. When expressed in % of their maximal value recorded in a treadmill test, both the peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) attained during WBV were greatest in the SED, compared to the other two groups (VO(2): 59.3 % in SED vs 50.8 % in SPRINT and 48.0 % in END, p<0.01; HR 82.7 % in SED vs 80.4 % in SPRINT and 72.4 % in END, p<0.05). In conclusions, the heart rate and metabolic response to WBV differs according to fitness level and type, exercise type and vibration frequency. In SED, WBV can elicit sufficient cardiovascular response to benefit overall fitness and thus be a potentially useful modality for the reduction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25157652

Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B

2014-12-23

400

The measurement of cardiac output and related cardiovascular parameters in the Javelina (Tayassu tajacu)  

E-print Network

Cardiovascular Recordings Obtained from the Javelina. 30 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There is a continuing search in the scientific community for new animal species to serve as models for study of the normal functions and disease processes of the human body.... The mean, standard de~iation (S. D. ) and standard error of the mean (S. E. ) were determined for each cardiovascular parameter measured. S'Khohn-Hite Band Pass Filter, Model 330N, Cambridge, Mass. 18 CHAPTER IV RESULTS The 5 javelinas made...

Schilling, Paul Wesley

2012-06-07

401

Vegetarian Dietary Patterns as a Means to Achieve Reduction in Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are uncommon in people consuming vegetarian and vegan diets. Vegetarian and vegan\\u000a dietary patterns tend to result in lower body weight and better nutritional profiles than conventional healthy eating patterns\\u000a and have been shown to be an effective tool for management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk. The consistency of\\u000a observed beneficial outcomes with

Amy Joy Lanou; Barbara Svenson

2010-01-01

402

Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

Williams, Paul T.

2001-12-01

403

Cardiovascular risk and atherosclerosis prevention.  

PubMed

Until recently, coronary artery disease (CAD) was the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Its remarkable decline can be attributed to our knowledge of the major risk factors identified by several studies resulting in better prevention and treatment. Of the major risk factors, the ratio of apolipoprotein (apo) B/apo A1 followed by smoking, diabetes, and hypertension are the most important. A number of risk scores for men and women are now available to estimate the likelihood of development of CAD. However, because of the risk of CAD differs in various populations, some of the algorithms are more appropriate for some countries but not suitable for others. These risk assessment algorithms differ in the parameters they use. All the risk scores have some limitations such as different study populations; the age of the study is also different, and number of points awarded for age categories also differs among the various algorithms. In an effort to further improve the risk prediction, a number of biomarkers have been studied. In addition to plasma lipids, a lot of interest has focused on apo measurements; particularly of apo B. Another valuable biomarker is lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. Lp(a) is not only atherogenic as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) but also prothrombotic, and several studies indicate that Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for CAD. The lipid profile provides a framework for appropriate management. This includes therapeutic lifestyle changes and medications. Lifestyle interventions are the cornerstone of CAD prevention strategies and are the first step in risk factor management. Of particular importance are smoking cessation, achievement and maintenance of ideal body weight, regular exercise, reduction in the intake of saturated fat and sugars, and decreasing level of stress. Of medications, lipid-lowering, anti-hypertensive, and anti-coagulant can be effectively used. The current strategies for risk assessment and prevention have been very successful contributing to the more than 50% decrease in CAD mortality over the last 20 years. Thus, in Canada, cardiovascular disease is no longer the leading cause of death. PMID:22502868

Frohlich, Jiri; Al-Sarraf, Ahmad

2013-01-01

404

Fitting Pulsar Wind Tori  

E-print Network

CXO imaging has shown that equatorial tori, often with polar jets, are very common in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). These structures are interesting both for what they reveal about the relativistic wind itself and for the (nearly) model-independent measurement of the neutron star spin orientation they provide. The later is a particularly valuable probe of pulsar emission models and of neutron star physics.We describe here a procedure for fitting simple 3-D torus models to the X-ray data which provides robust estimates of the geometric parameters. An application to 6 PWN tori gives orientations, PWN shock scales and post-shock wind speeds along with statistical errors. We illustrate the use of these data by commenting on the implications for kick physics and for high energy beaming models.

C. -Y. Ng; Roger W. Romani

2003-10-06

405

SE-FIT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation, computational diagnostic tools, and crash-handling capabilities to sustain extensive computations. SE-FIT performance is enabled by its so-called file-layer mechanism. During the early stages of SE-FIT development, it became necessary to modify the original SE code to enable capabilities required for an enhanced and synchronized communication. To this end, a file-layer was created that serves as a command buffer to ensure a continuous and sequential execution of commands sent from the front-end to SE. It also establishes a proper means for handling crashes. The file layer logs input commands and SE output; it also supports user interruption requests, back and forward operation (i.e. undo and redo), and others. It especially enables the batch mode computation of a series of equilibrium surfaces and the searching of critical parameter values in studying the stability of capillary surfaces. In this way, the modified SE significantly extends the capabilities of the original SE.

Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

2012-01-01

406

A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

2013-09-01

407

A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.  

PubMed

The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7?±?1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ?5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (?4 beat/min and ?5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (?5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations. PMID:23161271

Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

2013-09-01

408

Cannabis Use: Signal of Increasing Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. Methods and Results In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis?related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger?like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Conclusions Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people. PMID:24760961

Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre?Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

2014-01-01

409

Statement of Fitness for Work  

E-print Network

Statement of Fitness for Work ­ the fit note explained This guide explains what you should do when your health affects your ability to work. It replaces the sick note. The main difference is that the fit note allows your doctor to advise you on how you may be able to return to work. Work can

Davies, Christopher

410

Quantification of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Nonobese and Obese Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background: The quantification and interpretation of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in obesity is important for adequately assessing cardiovascular conditioning, underlying comorbidities, and properly evaluating disease risk. We retrospectively compared peak oxygen uptake (V?o2peak) (ie, CRF) in absolute terms, and relative terms (% predicted) using three currently suggested prediction equations (Equations R, W, and G). Methods: There were 19 nonobese and 66 obese participants. Subjects underwent hydrostatic weighing and incremental cycling to exhaustion. Subject characteristics were analyzed by independent t test, and % predicted V?o2peak by a two-way analysis of variance (group and equation) with repeated measures on one factor (equation). Results: V?o2peak (L/min) was not different between nonobese and obese adults (2.35 ± 0.80 [SD] vs 2.39 ± 0.68 L/min). V?o2peak was higher (P < .02) relative to body mass and lean body mass in the nonobese (34 ± 8 mL/min/kg vs 22 ± 5 mL/min/kg, 42 ± 9 mL/min/lean body mass vs 37 ± 6 mL/min/lean body mass). Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed as % predicted was not different in the nonobese and obese (91% ± 17% predicted vs 95% ± 15% predicted) using Equation R, while using Equation W and G, CRF was lower (P < .05) but within normal limits in the obese (94 ± 15 vs 87 ± 11; 101% ± 17% predicted vs 90% ± 12% predicted, respectively), depending somewhat on sex. Conclusions: Traditional methods of reporting V?o2peak do not allow adequate assessment and quantification of CRF in obese adults. Predicted V?o2peak does allow a normalized evaluation of CRF in the obese, although care must be taken in selecting the most appropriate prediction equation, especially in women. In general, otherwise healthy obese are not grossly deconditioned as is commonly believed, although CRF may be slightly higher in nonobese subjects depending on the uniqueness of the prediction equation. PMID:21940772

Lorenzo, Santiago

2012-01-01

411

A Study of VO2 Max and Body Fat Percentage in Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aerobic capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and athletic fitness. Body fat percentage affects VO2 max and thus the cardiovascular status of the athletes. The present study was undertaken to assess the VO2 max and body fat percentage in athletes. The secondary objective of the study was to study the relationship between VO2 max and body fat percentage. Materials and Methods: Twenty five female athletes of age group 17-22years were selected for the study. VO2 max was determined by Queen’s college step test and body fat percentage by skin fold calipers. The VO2 max and body fat percentage were determined in non athletes of same age group for comparison. The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Observation and Results: The mean VO2 max in athletic group was 39.62 ± 2.80 ml/kg/min. In non-athletic group, VO2 max was 23.54 ± 3.26 ml/kg/min. The mean body fat percentage in athletes was 24.11 ± 1.83% and in non-athletes it was 29.31 ± 3.86%.The difference in VO2 max and body fat percentage was statistically significant in our study. The VO2 max and body fat percentage in both the groups showed negative correlation by Pearson test but, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed a statistically significant higher VO2 max in female athletes. The study showed a negative correlation between VO2 max and body fat percentage but was not statistically significant. PMID:25653935

Bute, Smita S; Deshmukh, P.R

2014-01-01

412

A shock-capturing scheme for body-fitted meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite-difference scheme based on flux difference splitting is presented for the solution of the two-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics in a generalized coordinate system. The scheme is based on numerical characteristic decomposition and solves locally linearized Riemann problems using upwind differencing. The decomposition is for a generalized coordinate system and a convex equation of state. This ensures good

P. Glaister

1988-01-01

413

[Experimental models of cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals), or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered. PMID:17416033

Gil Hernández, A; Ramírez Tortosa, M C; Aguilera García, M C; Mesa García, M D

2007-01-01

414

The Construction of a Motor Fitness Test Battery for Boys in the Lower Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to construct a scientifically designed evaluative instrument to assess the motor fitness of boys in the primary grades, 30 test items purported to measure muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, power, speed, agility, flexibility, and balance were administered to an incidental sample of 238 boys ages 6 to 9 years.…

DiNucci, James M.; Shore, John Roger

415

Pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular drug therapy  

PubMed Central

In developed countries cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death. Cardiovascular drugs such as platelet aggregation inhibitors, oral anticoagulants, antihypertensives and cholesterol lowering drugs are abundantly prescribed to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. Notable interindividual variation exists in the response to these pharmacotherapeutic interventions, which can be partially explained by factors such as gender, age, diet, concomitant drug use and environmental factors. Notwithstanding, a great part of this variability remains unknown. To a smaller or larger extent, genetic variability may contribute to the variability in response to these cardiovascular drugs. This review gives an overview of pharmacogenetic studies of genes that were reported to be associated with four commonly prescribed drugs/drug classes (platelet aggregation inhibitors, coumarins, antihypertensives and statins) and were studied at least 2 times with a similar outcome measure. In the field of cardiovascular drug therapy, polymorphisms in candidate genes such as the cycloxygenase-1, vitamin K reductase complex subunit 1, CYP2C9, alpha adducin and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase have received a great amount of interest in the pharmacogenetics of aspirin, coumarins, antihypertensives and statins respectively. However, only variations in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 have consistently been associated with drug response (coumarins) and have clinical implications. Clinical trials should provide evidence for the effectiveness of genotyping before this procedure will be a part of every day anticoagulant therapy. In spite of the tremendous amount of publications in this field, there is no reason to advocate for genetic testing for any other drugs cardiovascular drug therapy yet. Current approaches in pharmacogenetic research do not seem to lead to results that meet our expectations of individualized medicine. Therefore, new approaches are needed addressing issues and challenges such as the number of SNPs studied, study power, study design and application of new statistical methods in (pharmaco-)genetic analysis. PMID:22461099

Peters, Bas J.M.; Klungel, Olaf H.; de Boer, Anthonius; Ch. Stricker, Bruno H.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

2009-01-01

416

Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

2010-01-01

417

Cardiovascular manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a retrospective study, 40 patients with ankylosing spondylitis were assessed for extraspinal manifestations. Cardiovascular\\u000a complications were found in 17 patients (42.5%)?5(12.5%) had aortic insufficiency, 3 (7.5%) had atrioventricular block and\\u000a 5 (12.5%) had bundle branch block. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was diagnosed in one case and short PR syndrome in another.\\u000a Cardiovascular complications were more common in patients with longer disease

S. Sukenik; A. Pras; D. Buskila; A. Katz; Y. Snir; J. Horowitz

1987-01-01

418

Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial  

PubMed Central

Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results. PMID:23857219

Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Joaquín

2013-01-01

419

Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the cardiovascular system. Two groups of exposed operators (49 broadcasting (BC) station and 61 TV station operators) and a control group of 110 radiorelay station operators, matched by sex and age, with similar job characteristics except for the radiofrequency EMR were studied. The EMR exposure was assessed and the time-weighted average (TWA) was calculated. The cardiovascular risk factors arterial pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease were followed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in the two exposed groups. It was found that the radiofrequency EMR exposure was associated with greater chance of becoming hypertensive and dyslipidemic. The stepwise multiple regression equations showed that the SBP and TWA predicted the high TC and high LDL-C, while the TC, age and abdominal obesity were predictors for high SBP and DBP. In conclusion, our data show that the radiofrequency EMR contributes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:16503299

Vangelova, Katia; Deyanov, Christo; Israel, Mishel

2006-03-01

420

Body Hair  

MedlinePLUS

Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you will likely see new hair growing in your pubic area , under your arms, and ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

421

Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.  

PubMed

Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

2014-12-01

422

Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

2015-01-01

423

Evaluating body condition in small mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body condition (energy reserves) can have important fitness consequences. Measuring condition of live ani- mals is typically done by regressing body mass on measures of body size and using the residuals as an index of condi- tion. The validity of this condition index was evaluated by determining whether it reflected measured fat content of five species of small mammals (yellow-pine

A. I. Schulte-Hostedde; J. S. Millar; G. J. Hickling

2001-01-01

424

TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

Freeman, Mark

1993-01-01

425

Evaluation of respirator fit training by quantitative fit testing  

E-print Network

protected with a given respi- rator, and to select the best fitting respirator available . In all fit tests us1ng a challenge aerosol to detect facepiece leakage, the respirator must be equipped with air purify1ng cartridges that eff1- ciently remove... the aerosol from the amb1ent air. Oualitative Fit Tests In a qualitative fit test (OLFT), the respirator wearer is nor- mallyy exposed to an 1 rr 1 tant smoke or an odorous vapor . If the test subject cannot detect penetration of the test agent...

Chute, Daniel Otis

2012-06-07

426

NuFit: nutrition and fitness CBPR program evaluation.  

PubMed

The present study combines community-based participatory research (CBPR) and peer education to create NuFit, a nutrition and fitness curriculum, adapted by community and student peer leaders for Latino and African-American high-school students in Chicago. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the NuFit curriculum to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nutrition and fitness for minority and adolescent student populations. The NuFit curriculum improved students' short-term self-reported behaviors and attitudes around nutrition and fitness. The NuFit curriculum shows promise as one mechanism to help prevent and combat childhood obesity by fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors during the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Involvement of and collaboration between community stakeholders and youth appeared to increase the likelihood of NuFit's cultural relevance and sustainability. More work is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of NuFit. PMID:24702662

McKinney, Chelsea; Bishop, Virginia; Cabrera, Kathy; Medina, Roxane; Takawira, Desire; Donate, Nilmari; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guevara, Beti

2014-01-01

427

Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

2009-01-01

428

Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

Rindge, David

2009-02-01

429

Down syndrome: a cardiovascular perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skilful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and thyroid-related cardiac impairment in patients with Down syndrome will be discussed.

J. C. Vis; M. G. J. Duffels; M. M. Winter; M. E. Weijerman; J. M. Cobben; S. A. Huisman; B. J. M. Mulder

2009-01-01

430

Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. METHODS: The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS) were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. RESULTS: Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent

Binh Chiem; Victoria Nguyen; Phillis L Wu; Celine M Ko; Lee Ann Cruz; Georgia Robins Sadler

2006-01-01

431

Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.  

PubMed

The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed. PMID:21465906

Hooper, T; Mellor, A

2011-03-01

432

Bioengineering and the cardiovascular system  

PubMed Central

The development of the modern era of bioengineering and the advances in our understanding of the cardiovascular system have been intertwined over the past one-half century. This is true of bioengineering as an area for research in universities. Bioengineering is ultimately the beginning of a new engineering discipline, as well as a new discipline in the medical device industry. PMID:24688999

Nerem, Robert M

2013-01-01

433

Bile Acids Regulate Cardiovascular Function  

PubMed Central

Research over the last decade has uncovered roles for bile acids (BAs) that extend beyond their traditional functions in regulating lipid digestion and cholesterol metabolism. BAs are now recognized as signaling molecules that interact with both plasma membrane and nuclear receptors. Emerging evidence indicates that by interacting with these receptors BAs regulate their own synthesis, glucose and energy homeostasis, and other important physiological events. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the actions of BAs on cardiovascular function. In the heart and the systemic circulation, BAs interact with plasma membrane G-protein coupled receptors, e.g. TGR5 and muscarinic receptors, and nuclear receptors, e.g. the farnesoid (FXR) and pregnane (PXR) xenobiotic receptors. BA receptors are expressed in cardiovascular tissue, however, the mechanisms underlying BA-mediated regulation of cardiovascular function remain poorly understood. BAs reduce heart rate by regulating channel conductance and calcium dynamics in sino-atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, and regulate vascular tone via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. End-stage-liver disease, obstructive jaundice and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are prominent conditions in which elevated serum BAs alter vascular dynamics. This review focuses on BAs as newly-recognized signaling molecules that modulate cardiovascular function. PMID:21707953

Khurana, Sandeep; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Pallone, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

434

Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21403831

Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begoña; Mallavia, Beñat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

2011-01-01

435

Protein Glutathionylation in Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

The perturbation of thiol-disulfide homeostasis is an important consequence of many diseases, with redox signals implicated in several physio-pathological processes. A prevalent form of cysteine modification is the reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides with glutathione (S-glutathionylation). The abundance of glutathione in cells and the ready conversion of sulfenic acids to S-glutathione mixed disulfides supports the reversible protein S-glutathionylation as a common feature of redox signal transduction, able to regulate the activities of several redox sensitive proteins. In particular, protein S-glutathionylation is emerging as a critical signaling mechanism in cardiovascular diseases, because it regulates numerous physiological processes involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, including myocyte contraction, oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, vasodilation, glycolytic metabolism and response to insulin. Thus, perturbations in protein glutathionylation status may contribute to the etiology of many cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. Various reports show the importance of oxidative cysteine modifications in modulating cardiovascular function. In this review, we illustrate tools and strategies to monitor protein S-glutathionylation and describe the proteins so far identified as glutathionylated in myocardial contraction, hypertrophy and inflammation. PMID:24141185

Pastore, Anna; Piemonte, Fiorella

2013-01-01

436

Chronotherapeutics in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Chronotherapy addresses the concept that drug delivery can be timed in accordancewith the body's natural biologic rhythms. The development of drug delivery has evolved from the immediate-release systems that required frequent dosing to once-a-day delivery systems that were homeostatic. Now, investigators aere developing new delivery systems that mirror the biologic variations seen in most physiologic and pathologic functions. Using blood pressure as a model, a classic circadian chronbotherapy is one in which drug delivery peaks during the morning hours (to mirror the morning peak in blood pressure) and dissipates during the hours of sleep (because blood pressure normally nadirs during this period) and in which the rate of rise in the drug's plasma level is initially rapid (to mirror the rapid rate of increase in blood pressure that begins before arousal of a patient and is accentuated by their arising). In the future, drug delivery systems utilizing chronobiologic principles may have an important place in clinical practice. PMID:10212332

Glasser

1998-02-01

437

Relationship of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 with cardiovascular disease in older community-dwelling women  

PubMed Central

Objective Although fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, the relationship between FGF23 and cardiovascular disease has not been well characterized in the general population. The aim of the study was to determine whether serum FGF23 is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in older community-dwelling women. Design and methods A cross-sectional design was used to examine the relationship between serum FGF23 and cardiovascular disease. The subjects consisted of a population-based sample of 659 women, aged 70–79 years, who participated in the Women’s Health and Aging Studies in Baltimore, Maryland. Prevalent cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease) was assessed through diagnostic algorithms and physician adjudication. Results Of the 659 women, 185 (28.1%) had cardiovascular disease. Median (25th, 75th percentile) intact serum FGF23 was 34.6 (25.2, 46.2) pg/mL. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the lowest, middle, and highest tertile of serum FGF23 was 22.6%, 24.9%, and 36.7%, respectively (P = 0.002). Serum log FGF23 was associated with cardiovascular disease (Odds Ratio per 1 SD increase = 1.23, 95% Confidence Interval 1.17, 1.30; P <0.0001) in a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for age, race, smoking, education, body mass index, cognition, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and renal function. Conclusion Elevated serum FGF23 concentrations are independently associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease in older community-dwelling women. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potentia