Sample records for cardiovascular fitness body

  1. A comparison of the self-concept and body-cathexis of selected high school students of high and low cardiovascular fitness 

    E-print Network

    Crenwelge, Terry Alfred

    1974-01-01

    A COMPARISON OF THE SELF-CONCEPT AND BODY-CATHEXIS OF SELECTED HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF HIGH AND LOW CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS A Thesis by TERRY ALFRED CRENWELGE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Health and Physical Education A COMPARISON OF THE SELF-CONCEPT AND BODY-CATHEXIS OF SELECTED HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF HIGH AND LOW CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS A Thesis by TERRY...

  2. Combined influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index on cardiovascular disease risk factors among 8–18 year old youth: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joey C. Eisenmann; Gregory J. Welk; Eric E. Wickel; Steven N. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Objective . The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors across four cross-tabulated groups of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in 8- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. Methods. The sample included 296 boys and 188 girls (mean age \\/15.7 years) participating in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participants were cross tabulated into

  3. Prospective BMI category change associated with cardiovascular fitness change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of change in body mass index (BMI) percentile score group (from 6th to 8th grade) with change in cardiovascular fitness (CVF), baseline BMI z-score and CVF was tested. 3,998 (92%) children in the HEALTHY trial provided complete data at the beginning of 6th and end of 8th grades. Hei...

  4. Constructing cardiovascular fitness knowledge in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on cardiorespiratory fitness and health. Fourth grade students (N = 616) from 15 randomly sampled urban elementary schools completed 34 cognitive assignments related to the cardiorespiratory physical activities they were engaged in across 10 lessons. Performance on the assignments were analyzed in relation to their knowledge gain measured using a standardized knowledge test. A multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that the cognitive assignments contributed to knowledge gain but the contribution varied assignment by assignment. A multiple regression analysis indicated that students’ assignment performance by lesson contributed positively to their knowledge growth scores. A content analysis based on the constructivist learning framework showed that observing–reasoning assignments contributed the most to knowledge growth. Analytical and analytical–application assignments contributed less than the constructivist theories would predict. PMID:25995702

  5. Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    such as exercise. Most people are aware of the benefits of regular physical activity. The Centers for DiseaseEffects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness Laura L. Ten Eyck1 Children it is well established that exercise aids in the prevention of disease, recent surveys suggest that many

  6. Increases in physical fitness during childhood improve cardiovascular health during adolescence: the Muscatine Study.

    PubMed

    Janz, K F; Dawson, J D; Mahoney, L T

    2002-05-01

    Longitudinal studies from childhood through adolescence have the potential of defining maturational changes in cardiovascular risk factors and may provide insight into the prediction of future cardiovascular disease. We assessed aerobic fitness, muscular strength, vigorous and sedentary activity, maturation, blood pressure, lipids, and body composition in 125 healthy children for a period of five years (mean baseline age, 10.5 years). All subjects were in pre- or early-puberty at baseline. After adjusting for age and gender and considering the confounding effects of growth and maturation, we examined whether changes in fitness and activity during the first four years of our study could predict cardiovascular health outcomes at year-five of our study. Change in muscular strength explained 4 % of the variability in year-five systolic blood pressure. Change in aerobic fitness explained 11 % of year-five total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio and 5 % of year-five low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Changes in aerobic fitness and muscular strength explained 15 % of the variability in year-five adiposity and 15 % of the variability in year-five abdominal adiposity. Childhood health promotion programs that specifically target increases in physical fitness may help to reduce the increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity. PMID:12012257

  7. Cardiovascular program to improve physical fitness in those over 60 years old – pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Minguet, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 50% of 60-year-olds are obese. Obesity is a disease with serious cardiovascular risks. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in Spain is 31.1%. Objectives To improve aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility and balance, and body composition (BC) in persons over 60 years old. Materials and methods A clinical intervention study of 24 participants was carried out over a period of 3 months. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test. Upper-body strength was evaluated with an ad hoc test. Flexibility and balance were evaluated using the Sit and Reach Test and the Stork Balance Stand Test, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken by bioelectrical impedance. Results After 3 months of training, aerobic fitness was improved, as demonstrated by improved test times (pretest 13.04 minutes, posttest 12.13 minutes; P<0.05). Body composition was also improved, but the results were not statistically significant (fat mass pretest 31.58%±5.65%, posttest 30.65%±6.31%; skeletal muscle mass pretest 43.99±9.53 kg, posttest 46.63±10.90 kg). Conclusion Our data show that in subjects over 60 years old, aerobic fitness was improved due to program intervention. However, these results should be treated with caution, because of the limited sample size and the brief time period of this pilot study. A more rigorous study would include a sample of at least 100 participants. PMID:25143714

  8. Fitting Percentage of Body Fat to Simple Body Measurements

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Roger W.

    The dataset, created by Roger W. Johnson of Carleton College, presented in this article, contains body measurements for 252 men and can be used to illustrate multiple regression and to provide practice in model building. Some of these measurements include: body fat, age, weight, height and ten different body circumference measurements. The author shows how to "fit body fat to the other measurement using multiple regression" and provide a easy method to estimating body fat percentage. This is a good example of using regression and also model building.

  9. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Sassen; Gerjo Kok; Herman Schaalma; Henri Kiers; Luc Vanhees

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned

  10. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner.

    PubMed

    Bera, T K; Rajapurkar, M V

    1993-07-01

    Forty male high school students, age 12-15 yrs, participated for a study of yoga in relation to body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power. Ths Ss were placed into two subsets viz., yoga group and control group. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance anaerobic power were measured using standard method. The duration of experiment was one year. The result of ANCOVA revealed that a significant improvement in ideal body weight, body density, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power was observed as a result of yoga training. This study could not show significant change in body fat (midaxillary), skeletal diameters and most of the body circumferences. It was evident that some of the fat-folds (tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, umbilical, thigh and calf) and body circumferences (waist, umbilical and hip) were reduced significantly. PMID:8276501

  11. Correlation between Aerobic Fitness and Body Composition in Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Minasian, Vazgen; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya; Abolhassani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since correlations have been found between body composition and physical activity in different parts of the world, inactivity and poor physical condition likely contributes main factors in childhood obesity. This study was implemented to determine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and body-composition in a group of Iranian middle school students. Methods: In this descriptive study, subjects comprised of 12,946 students (10,531 girls and 2,415 boys aged 11–13 years) in the city of Isfahan. Height, weight, body-fat percent, body mass index, and cardiovascular fitness of the aforesaid students were measured by valid tests. Results: This study showed that fat percentage and aerobic fitness (VO2 max) of girls were 24.73%, and 29.5 (ml/kg/min) and boys19.32% and 36.4 (ml/kg/min) respectively. Results also revealed that there was a negative significant correlation between fat percent and aerobic fitness of boys (r = ?0.81), and girls (r = ?0.77) respectively. Conclusions: To conclude, this study signifies that fat percentage augmentation leads to a decrease in aerobic fitness of children. Thus, fat percentage can be associated with different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular ones.

  12. Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

  13. Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting body/mind…

  14. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  15. Get in on the Action: Cardiovascular Fitness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Notes American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association recommendation that all children have a minimum of aerobic activity three times a week. Provides suggestions for incorporating exercise into early-childhood classrooms, including specific exercises and stretches, and activities to teach children about body mechanics. Includes…

  16. Fitness and Optimal Body Size in Zooplankton Population Michael Lynch

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    Fitness and Optimal Body Size in Zooplankton Population Michael Lynch Ecology, Vol. 58, No. 4. (Jul BODY SIZE IN ZOOPLANKTON MICHAELLYNCH^ Department of Ecology and Behavioral Biology and Limnological of life-histories and for mechanisms of competition in zooplankton populations. Utilizing available data

  17. Serum Neuregulin-1? as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Moondra, Vaibhav; Sarma, Satyam; Buxton, Tracy; Safa, Radwan; Cote, Gregory; Storer, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Sawyer, Douglas B

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Neuregulins (NRG) are growth factors that bind to receptors of the erbB family, and are known to mediate a number of processes involved in diverse tissues. Neuregulin-1? is expressed in skeletal muscle and is activated by exercise. We hypothesized that NRG-1? might circulate in the bloodstream and increase as a consequence of physical activity. A study was conducted in healthy subjects to determine if NRG-1? is immunodetectable in human serum, and if so whether levels relate acutely or chronically to exercise. METHODS Nine healthy men underwent three bouts of exercise of varying degrees of intensity on a bicycle ergometer over a period of three weeks. Cardio-respiratory fitness was determined by measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum was sampled prior to and immediately after each session (up to 30 minutes post) and serum NRG-1? was quantified utilizing an indirect sandwich ELISA assay developed in our lab. RESULTS Across subjects, mean serum NRG-1? levels ranged from 32 ng/mL to 473 ng/mL. Individual subjects showed relatively stable levels during the study period that did not change acutely after exercise. Serum NRG-1? demonstrated a positive correlation with VO2max (r2=0.49, p =.044). CONCLUSIONS These preliminary observations suggest that at least in healthy men, serum NRG-1? is an indicator of cardio-respiratory fitness and does not change acutely with exercise. PMID:20634924

  18. Interactive Information Environment for the controlled practice of physical training to improve cardiovascular fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio G. Guillén; María T. Arredondo; Vicente Traver; Pilar Sala; Marco Romagnoli; Manuel Traver; Alessandro Arduini

    2005-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease. Physical activity protects against the development of CVD and also favorably modifies other risk factors, however a huge part of the population lead a relatively sedentary lifestyle. Virtual trainer (vt) concept is a technological platform for the controlled practice of physical training to achieve better cardiovascular fitness results

  19. Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

  20. Body-fitted harness provides safe and easy component handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. G.; Rothwell, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Body-fitted restraint harness enables workers to safely and conveniently handle critical components during their installation or removal. Since the harness supports the components, the worker is able to maneuver through restricted areas with his hands free. It is easily put on, adjusted, and removed, or comfortably worn without interfering with normal activities.

  1. Effects of heart-rate feedback on estimated cardiovascular fitness in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, N B; Lerew, D R; Santiago, H; Trakowski, J H; Staab, J P

    2000-01-01

    Psychological parameters that are believed to affect estimations of cardiovascular fitness were examined in patients with panic disorder and nonclinical controls. Fifty-four participants [panic disorder patients (n = 27) and age- and sex-matched nonclinical controls (n = 27)] completed a cycle ergometer test and were compared on the basis of estimated VO2 max. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions in which they received heart-rate feedback or no feedback during the test. Patients with panic disorder exhibited lower VO2 max and decreased exercise tolerance (i.e., were more likely to discontinue the test) than nonclinical controls. Furthermore, individuals with high anxiety sensitivity (i.e., a fear of autonomic arousal), but not a panic disorder diagnosis per se, achieved significantly lower VO2 max when provided with heart-rate feedback. Moreover, diagnostic status interacted with levels of anxiety sensitivity to predict VO2 max. Patients with panic disorder display poorer cardiovascular fitness after controlling for anxiety and other factors that underestimate performance during fitness testing. PMID:11091928

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (?6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (?0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-09-29

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  4. Adaptive mesh refinement in curvilinear body-fitted grid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-10-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  5. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  6. An innovative cycling exergame to promote cardiovascular fitness in youth with cerebral palsy: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Knights, Shannon; Graham, Nicholas; Switzer, Lauren; Hernandez, Hamilton; Ye, Zi; Findlay, Briar; Xie, Wen Yan; Wright, Virginia; Fehlings, Darcy

    2014-06-20

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effects of an internet-platform exergame cycling programme on cardiovascular fitness of youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: In this pilot prospective case series, eight youth with bilateral spastic CP, Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level III, completed a six-week exergame programme. Outcomes were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. The primary outcome measure was the GMFCS III-specific shuttle run test (SRT-III). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (HQL) as measured by the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire, six-minute walk test, Wingate arm cranking test and anthropomorphic measurements. Results: There were significant improvements in the SRT-III (t?=?-2.5, p?=?0.04, d?=?0.88) post-intervention. There were no significant changes in secondary outcomes. Conclusion: An exergame cycling programme may lead to improvement in cardiovascular fitness in youth with CP. This study was limited by small sample size and lack of a comparison group. Future research is warranted. PMID:24950349

  7. Trends in Body Fat, Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness Among Male and Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Pribis, Peter; Burtnack, Carol A.; McKenzie, Sonya O.; Thayer, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of physical fitness related to BMI and body fat among university students between 1996 and 2008. The results showed a significant decline in the average fitness levels measured as an estimation of VO2max for male and female students (p < 0.001 for both sexes). The linear trend for BMI by years was not significant for both sexes (p for males = 0.772, p for females = 0.253). On average, in the last 13 years, % body fat was increasing 0.513%/year for males and 0.654%/year for females. There is a significant indirect correlation between the student’s VO2max levels and % body fat, r = ?0.489; p < 0.001 for males; and r = ?0.416, p < 0.001 for females. Approximately 23.9% of the variance in the VO2max levels in males and 17.3% in females can be explained by the variance in % body fat. The results support recent findings that physical fitness among college students is declining and body fatness is increasing. PMID:22253998

  8. Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Duncan S; Thomas, Non E; Baker, Julien S

    2012-02-17

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD. PMID:25170447

  9. The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors and CV risk factors in young Australian men. Methods Thirty five healthy men aged 18–25 years had their blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity, dietary intake and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed. Results Participants were categorised according to the percentage of body fat into two groups: lean and overweight men. There were no between-group differences in the biochemical indicators except that overweight men had lower HDL-C compared to lean men. Both groups had similar mean energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol intake, RMR, physical activity level (PAL) and energy expenditure (EE). Most of the participants (65.7%) had LDL?2.5 mmol/L. Other common individual risk factors were body fat?20% (42.9%), waist circumference?88 cm (28.6%), PAL<1.8 (22.9%) and systolic BP?130 mmHg (20%). The mean number of CV risk factors was lower among men having a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, >12% of the energy intake) regardless of whether they were overweight or lean and did not seem to differ according to the source of MUFA consumed. Conclusions It is a serious concern to observe such a high percentage of CV risk factors in a group of apparently healthy young men. The likelihood of multiple CV risk factors is greater among those with high body fatness and low MUFA intake. Intake of MUFA favorably affects CV risk factors regardless of the source. PMID:23902697

  10. Vitamin D status, body composition, and fitness measures in college-aged students.

    PubMed

    Forney, Laura A; Earnest, Conrad P; Henagan, Tara M; Johnson, Loren E; Castleberry, Todd J; Stewart, Laura K

    2014-03-01

    Low vitamin D, commonly assessed as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), is associated with the development of many age-related chronic diseases. A positive relationship exists between elevated 25OHD and muscle synthesis, strength, power, and decreased body fat in elderly individuals. However, these findings have not been consistently reported in younger healthy populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25OHD and measures of body size, composition, metabolism, and physical fitness in a young physically active population. Thirty-nine subjects (20 men, 19 women; aged 23 ± 0.7 years) reported 6 times for testing. Blood was collected to determine 25OHD. Primary outcomes included the following: body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (dual x-ray absorptiometry); resting metabolic rate; maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); power output (Wingate); and muscular strength (8 repetition maximum for bench press, upright row, and leg extension and flexion exercises). Our analysis included all participants, and subgroup analyses for individuals with suboptimal 25OHD concentration below 35 ng·mL ("low"; n = 20, 25.97 ± 1.97 ng·mL) or equal to and above 35 ng·mL ("high"; n = 19, 44.15 ± 2.17 ng·mL). Twenty subjects in this study had serum levels of 25OHD below 35 ng·mL. There was a significant positive relationship between V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and serum 25OHD and a negative relationship between BMI and serum 25OHD. These data suggest that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent even in a young physically active population in the southern United States and that there was a positive relationship between a measure of cardiovascular fitness and serum 25OHD, and a negative relationship between serum 25OHD and BMI. PMID:23897020

  11. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall Hagins; Wendy Moore; Andrew Rundle

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs

  12. A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

  13. Short-term Effects of a Physical Activity Intervention on Obesity and Cardiovascular Fitness of 12-14-year-old Boy Students

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Minasian, Vazgen; Kelishadi, Roya; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Borojeni, Marjan Momeni; Borghi, Sayed Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some local governments have implemented strategies to increase physical activity as a way to control obesity in children, but in Iranian students few studies have evaluated the effects of such interventions on overweight and obese children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term school-based physical activity on obesity and cardiovascular fitness in 12-14-year-old boy students. Methods: This study showed an intervention effect on some health-related fitness factors in students. A number of 127 boy students aged 12–14 years, in the city of Isfahan, based on preventive plan of inactivity in children at the provincial Health office selected randomly as subjects. Measurement variables include; weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), body-fat percent and aerobic power of subjects measured by valid tests. Results: This study revealed that body-fat percentage of this students changed near to 17.84% (42.25% pretest vs. 34.71% posttest), WHR 0.44%, (0.915 pretest vs. 0.911 posttest), VO2 max changed 8.54% (27.84 pretest vs. 30.22 posttest) whereas BMI was changed 2.61% (26.81 pretest vs. 26.03 posttest). Results also revealed that there were significant differences between fat percent, (P = 0.001) and VO2 max (P = 0.001), but there was no difference between BMI of subjects in pre and posttests (P = 0.452). Conclusions: Findings of this study signify that an implementation of short-term intervention components in the school system may have a beneficial effect on body-fat percentage and cardiovascular fitness of overweight/obese children.

  14. Potential for Cardiovascular Exercise Dosing to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Survivors

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Dave

    2013-05-31

    participated in an Energy Balance Program. One cohort received "usual care" cardiovascular exercise instructions including moderate continuous exercise (MCT) and a second cohort was prescribed cardiovascular exercise dosing in the form of interval training (IT...

  15. Effects of Training and Detraining on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity Patterns, Cardiovascular Variables, and HRQoL after 3 Health-Promotion Interventions in Institutionalized Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Alexandrina; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of different strategies of health on the levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and quality of life (QoL) of the institutionalized elderly. Concurrently studies were made of the effect of detraining on these same variables. In this investigation we carried out a prospective longitudinal study with an experimental design, with 1 year plus 3 months of a detraining period. Methodology. (a) A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics and a QoL scale (MOS SF-36); (b) Functional Fitness Test to assess PF; (c) An MTI Actigraph to evaluate the PA; (d) Biochemical analysis of blood, blood pressure and bio-impedance. The Main Results Indicated That: (i) ST significantly improved strength and body flexibility and AT the aerobic endurance, agility/dynamic balance and lower strength and flexibility; (ii) Implications of detraining were more evident on the PA groups in the lower body flexibility, which is associated with agility/dynamic balance and lower strength in the AT group; (iii) Cardiovascular variables improved significantly especially blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose in the ST and HDL in the AT group; not having undergone significant changes with the detraining. The results of this thesis contribute positively to highlight the importance of PA in the promotion of health, prevention and reduction of CVD risk factors and the improvement of the PF and QoL. PMID:22332008

  16. Physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

    2014-07-01

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children. PMID:25032742

  17. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children. PMID:25032742

  18. Association between aerobic fitness, body composition, and physical activity in 9- and 15-year-olds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorarinn Sveinsson; Sigurbjorn A. Arngrimsson; Erlingur Johannsson

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationship between aerobic fitness, body composition, and physical activity in 9- and 15-year-olds. The 270 participants were randomly selected from 18 primary and secondary schools in Iceland. Aerobic fitness was assessed by a graded exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Body composition was estimated via: logarithm of sum of four skinfolds

  19. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  20. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  1. Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

  2. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and fainting. Various pre-reentry hyperhydration procedures have been utilized to counteract the GRS. Thus, the somewhat decreased central venous pressure and lack of diuresis early in spaceflight suggests mechanisms other than the Gauer-Henry reflex are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts. Inflight hypohydration and hypovolemia are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts.

  3. Many-body fits of phase-equivalent effective interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Calvin W. [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182-1233 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    In many-body theory, it is often useful to renormalize short-distance, high-momentum components of an interaction via unitary transformations. Such transformations preserve the on-shell physical observables of the two-body system (mostly phase shifts, hence unitarily connected effective interactions are often called phase equivalent) while modifying off-shell T-matrix elements influential in many-body systems. In this paper, I lay out a general and systematic approach for controlling the off-shell behavior of an effective interaction, which can be adjusted to many-body properties, and present an application to trapped fermions at the unitary limit.

  4. Application of the IAP cardiovascular fitness test protocol for Austromars candidate screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasser, E. K.; Goswami, N.; Jantscher, A.; Roessler, A.; Vrecko, K.; Groemer, G.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    2007-10-01

    Rationale: The purpose of our research was to test for cardiovascular stability within 16 Austromars candidates, and to determine hemodynamic variables and hormones in a presyncopal state as evoked by a specific test protocol. Procedures and methods: We used a graded orthostatic stress (GOS) paradigm consisting of head-up tilt (HUT) combined with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to a presyncopal end-point on 15 males and one healthy female. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored and venous blood samples taken. Results: From supine control to presyncope, mean standing time was 12.3 ± 1.2 min, heart rate (HR) increased by 68 ± 12% (p < 0.0001) and thoracic impedance (TI) rose by 12 ± 1% (p < 0.0001), whereas following parameters decreased: stroke volume index (SI) 44 ± 4% (p < 0.0001), systolic pressure (SBP) 26 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), diastolic pressure (DBP) 16 ± 5% (p = 0.004), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 19 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), pulse pressure 41 ± 8% (p = 0.0003) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) 11 ± 5% (p = 0.03). Heart rate and blood pressure variabilities decreased together with pulse pressure. Plasma volume decreased by 11 ± 2% (p = 0.0004). Plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased by 86 ± 16% (p = 0.0001), epinephrine (E) by 460 ± 266% (p = 0.06), cortisol by 10 ± 6% (p = 0.02), plasma renin activity by 147 ± 26% (p = 0.002) and aldosterone by 24 ± 21% (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Our combined HUT- graded LBNP paradigm is useful to study CV regulation and hormonal responses under severe stress conditions.

  5. Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

  6. Association between bone mineralization, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young Australian men.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    The critical age for attainment of peak bone mineralization is however 20-30 yr, but few studies have investigated bone mineralization and its association with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young men. This study aimed to investigate relationships between age, bone mineral measurements, body composition measurements, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in a group of young healthy Australian men. Thirty-five healthy men aged 18-25 yr had anthropometric measures, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed. Bone mineral content was significantly associated with height, body mass and lean mass, and bone mineral density positively correlated with lean mass and body mass. Bone mineral measurements did not correlate with fat mass, percentage of fat mass, or cardiorespiratory fitness level. Age was directly correlated with total body mass, body fat, and percentage of fat mass. Body mineral measurements correlated with lean mass but not with fat mass or with cardiorespiratory fitness in this group of young healthy men. Positive association between body fat and age in such young group suggests that more studies with young men are warranted and may help inform strategies to optimize increase in bone mineral measurements. PMID:25534275

  7. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  8. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  9. The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.

    PubMed

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother. PMID:21751481

  10. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI) centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT) was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:25839035

  11. A Green Tea Extract High in Catechins Reduces Body Fat and Cardiovascular Risks in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonori Nagao; Tadashi Hase; Ichiro Tokimitsu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The body fat reducing effect and reduction of risks for cardiovascular disease by a green tea extract (GTE) high in catechins was investigated in humans with typical lifestyles.Research Methods and Procedures: Japanese women and men with visceral fat-type obesity were recruited for the trial. After a 2-week diet run-in period, a 12-week double-blind parallel multicenter trial was performed, in

  12. Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

  13. Original Research Article Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    , or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. Am. J. Hum

  14. FUNDAMENTACIN Body mix es una modalidad del fitness que se ha creado con el fin de unificar

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    BODY MIX FUNDAMENTACIÓN Body mix es una modalidad del fitness que se ha creado con el fin de unificar disciplinas como body pump, body balance, body combat y body attack. Vamos a definir brevemente en qué consiste cada una de las disciplinas: Body pump es un programa de entrenamiento que destaca por

  15. Sexual selection and the fitness consequences of male body size in the seed beetle Stator limbatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UDO M. SAVALLI; CHARLES W. FOX

    1998-01-01

    We examined sexual selection on male body size in a laboratory population of the seed beetle,Stator limbatus, and the fitness consequences to females of mating with larger males. Large males produced larger ejaculates than small males. Both males and females lost body weight as a consequence of breeding, and large males lost more weight than small males. The amount of

  16. How is a seita fitted to the body?

    PubMed

    Kawahara, M; Namihira, E; Sato, H

    1998-12-01

    A seita is a carrier frame for backpacking used in Nishiki-cho, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. In this mountainous district, people make their living by agriculture and forestry and carry everything on their backs with seita. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the sizes of a body and the dimensions of a seita. This survey was conducted on 30 subjects (mean +/- SD; 68.1 +/- 9.0 years old) at three mountain villages. We measured some anthropometric sizes and seita dimensions and found that the correlation between height and sum of shoulder-lumbar-nuki distance (back length of a seita) and shoulder strap length is significant. In additional surveys, we took photographs with some markers on iliocristale, trochanterion, and so on, when the subjects carried seita in two load conditions. The photographs indicate that the load-supporting points in 16 of 23 subjects were between the iliocristale and trochanterion (i.e., on the sacrum). It is important to note that nobody showed that point above the iliocristale (i.e., on the lumbar vertebra). These data lead to the conclusion that when people in Nishik-icho carry loads with seita, they support loads not on the lumbar vertebrae but on the sacrum, and that they adjust the perimeter consisting of the back part and shoulder strap of the seita. PMID:11579698

  17. Please complete the following questions: Fitness Goals: What would you like to achieve? (i.e.: General overall fitness/ Lifestyle change/ Improve body composition/ Bodybuilding/ Sport

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    : ______ Group Training: ______ Full Asses: ______ Fitness Pkg: ______ Body Fat: ______ Other: ______ Date.e.: General overall fitness/ Lifestyle change/ Improve body composition/ Bodybuilding/ Sport Conditioning not doing physical activity? 4. Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose

  18. Occupational relevance and body mass bias in military physical fitness tests.

    PubMed

    Vanderburgh, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    Recent evidence makes a compelling case that US Army, Navy, and Air Force health-related physical fitness tests penalize larger, not just fatter, service members. As a result, they tend to receive lower scores than their lighter counterparts, the magnitude of which can be explained by biologic scaling laws. Larger personnel, on the other hand, tend to be better performers of work-related fitness tasks such as load carriage, heavy lifting, and materiel handling. This has been explained by empirical evidence that lean body mass and lean body mass to dead mass ratio (dead mass = fat mass and external load to be carried/lifted) are more potent determinants of performance of these military tasks than the fitness test events such as push-ups, sit-ups, or 2-mile-distance run time. Because promotions are based, in part, on fitness test performance, lighter personnel have an advancement advantage, although they tend to be poorer performers on many tests of work-related fitness. Several strategies have been proposed to rectify this incongruence including balanced tests, scaled scores, and correction factors--yet most need large-scale validation. Because nearly all subjects in such research have been men, future investigations should focus on women and elucidate the feasibility of universal physical fitness tests for all that include measures of health- and work-related fitness while imposing no systematic body mass bias. PMID:18614935

  19. A novel approach for fit analysis of thermal protective clothing using three-dimensional body scanning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30 mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden. PMID:24793820

  20. The burden of cardiovascular disease associated with high body mass index in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M Y; Colagiuri, S; Ezzati, M; Woodward, M

    2011-05-01

    Studying obesity in the Asia-Pacific region is difficult because of the diverse ethnic background and different stages of economic and nutrition transition. The burden of cardiovascular disease associated with overweight (defined as body mass index ?25 kg m(-2) ) was previously estimated for countries within the region. However, using the conventional cut-point of 25 kg m(-2) ignores the continuous association between body mass index and cardiovascular disease from approximately 20 kg m(-2) . By estimating the proportion of cardiovascular disease that would be prevented if the theoretical mean body mass index in the population was shifted to 21 kg m(-2) , nationally representative data from 15 countries suggested the population attributable fractions for cardiovascular disease were approximately three times higher than the previous estimates. Coronary heart disease attributable to body mass index other than 21 kg m(-2) ranged from 2% in India to 58% in American Samoa. Similarly, the population attributable fraction for ischaemic stroke ranged from 3% in India to 64% in American Samoa. If cardiovascular risk increases from 21 kg m(-2) applies to all populations, most countries in the region will need to aim towards substantially reducing their current population mean body mass index in order to lower the burden of cardiovascular disease associated with excess weight. PMID:21366838

  1. Fitness and Health CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS FOR PARTICIPANTS OF A UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STAFF WELLNESS PROGRAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK ESSIG; DEAN SINCLAIR; JENNIFER HARE; JENNIFER MOREILLON; DANIEL FUNK

    CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS FOR PARTICIPANTS OF A UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STAFF WELLNESS PROGRAM. Frank Essig, Dean Sinclair, Jennifer Hare, Jennifer Moreillon, Daniel Funk, Ann Marie Swank. JEPonline 2004;7(4):37-43. Reducing the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and enhancing physical fitness are important components of worksite wellness programs. Effective programs have the potential to significantly reduce

  2. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

  3. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  4. Small changes in whole-body corticosterone content affect larval Rana pipiens fitness components

    E-print Network

    Denver, Robert J.

    Small changes in whole-body corticosterone content affect larval Rana pipiens fitness components, and morphology are unknown. In the current study, we exposed pre-metamorphic Rana pipiens tadpoles to moderate. PII: S0016-6480(02)00015-1 #12;(1994) found that treatment of premetamorphic Rana pipiens tadpoles wit

  5. Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and their Relationship to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in African Americans and Non-African Americans With Above-Optimal Blood Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah R. Young; Mikel Aickin; Phillip Brantley; Patricia J. Elmer; David W. Harsham; Abby C. King; Victor J. Stevens

    2005-01-01

    This report describes cross-sectional associations among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary habits, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a large sample (n=810) of African Americans (n=279) and non-African Americans (n=531) with above-optimal blood pressure. Participants in PREMIER, a clinical trial for blood pressure control through lifestyle approaches, underwent baseline assessments to determine physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness category, dietary

  6. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or sedentary individuals. The measurement of energy expenditure across yoga sessions is highly reliable. PMID:18053143

  7. Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments

    PubMed Central

    Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

    2014-01-01

    For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

  8. Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments.

    PubMed

    Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

    2014-04-01

    For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

  9. Correction factors for body mass bias in military physical fitness tests.

    PubMed

    Vanderburgh, Paul M

    2007-07-01

    Recent research findings combined with the theoretical laws of biological similarity make the compelling case that all physical fitness test items for the Army, Air Force, and Navy impose a 15 to 20% physiological bias against heavier, not fatter, men and women. Using the published findings that actual scores of muscle and aerobic endurance scale by body mass raised to the 1/3 power, correction factor tables were developed. This correction factor can be multiplied by one's actual score (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, abdominal crunches, or curl-up repetitions or distance run time) to yield adjusted scores that are free of body mass bias. These adjusted scores eliminate this bias, become better overall indicators of physical fitness relevant to military tasks, are easily applied to the scoring tables used in the present physical fitness tests, and do not reward body fatness. Use of these correction factors should be explored by all military services to contribute to more relevant fitness tests. PMID:17691687

  10. Cardiovascular adaptation during simulated microgravity: lower body negative pressure to counter orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Güell, A; Braak, L; Le Traon, A P; Gharib, C

    1991-04-01

    The cardiovascular function is one of the main functions disturbed by microgravity. It is particularly affected by the astronaut's return to Earth, where one of the symptoms of the cardiovascular adaptation syndrome is orthostatic hypotension; the clinical consequence can be presyncopal state or a syncope. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is intended to stimulate the venous system of the lower limbs. Studies performed in the U.S. have shown that LBNP constitutes an efficient countermeasure, but this approach is impractical because 4 to 6 h/d of application are required. Five volunteers took part in two recent antiorthostatic bed rest experiments for 30 days. In the first experiment, three subjects were submitted to several sessions of LBNP per day and two others were controls; in the second, the LBNP group of the first experiment became control and vice versa. Two orthostatic investigations were performed: 5 d before bed rest; and at the end of the 30-d bed rest period. The results showed that: 1) when the subjects were controls, a high orthostatic hypotension post bed rest with three syncopes and one presyncopal state during the first minutes of the tilt test appeared; 2) when the subjects were submitted to LBNP sessions, no orthostatic hypotension was noted. These two experiments proved the beneficial effects of the LBNP as a countermeasure against orthostatic hypotension. PMID:2031636

  11. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy duration on thermal and cardio-vascular response.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Borut; De Nardi, Massimo; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9±4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5min after and 30min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort. PMID:24802149

  12. Cardiovascular manifestations of anabolic steroids in association with demographic variables in body building athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Piri-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Masoumi, Gholam Reza; Behjati, Mohaddaseh; Paydar, Parva

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common drug abuse among athletes is anabolic steroids which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes of anabolic consumption in body building athletes. Materials and Methods: Totally, 267 male athletes at the range of 20-45 years old with the regular consumption of anabolic steroids for >2 months with at least once weekly. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), and hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured after 10 h of fasting. Data analysis was performed using K2, t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient through SPSS 17. Results: There was a nonsignificant difference between groups regarding HDL, TG, and total cholesterol. There was a significant decrease in the total and categorized LDL and Hct levels in consumers of anabolic steroid versus nonusers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.041, respectively). Results showed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in anabolic steroid users which associates with duration of abuse (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). No significant electrocardiography changes were found within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Increase in SBP or DBP is a common complication of these drugs which can lead serious vascular disorders. The lower LDL cholesterol level might be due to the higher amounts of lipid consumption in these athletes. PMID:25983770

  13. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  14. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. PMID:25269064

  15. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  16. Body mass penalties in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy.

    PubMed

    Vanderburgh, Paul M; Crowder, Todd A

    2006-08-01

    Recent research has empirically documented a consistent penalty against heavier service members for events identical or similar to those in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy. These penalties, which are not related to body fatness, are based on biological scaling models and have a physiological basis. Using hypothetical cases, we quantified the penalties for men, with body mass of 60 vs. 90 kg, and women, 45 vs. 75 kg, to be 15% to 20% for the fitness tests of these three services. Such penalties alone can adversely affect awards and promotions for heavier service members. To deal equitably with these penalties in a practical manner, we offer two recommendations, i.e., (1) implementation of revised fitness tests with balanced events, in which the penalties of one event for heavier service members are balanced by an equal and opposite bias against lighter service members, or (2) development of correction factors that can be multiplied by raw scores to yield adjusted scores free of body mass bias. PMID:16933817

  17. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n?=?322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493 PMID:22554052

  18. Evaluation of body composition and its association with cardio respiratory fitness in south Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that reflects body composition and VO2(max) is an indication of the physical fitness of the subject. There is a paucity of data on t3he age related changes in the body composition parameters and VO2(max), and the association between them in the Indian adolescent population. Hence, the present study was conceived to assess and find the association between these parameters in the students in the age group of 12-17 years. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using estimated VO2(max) from Rockport Walk Fitness Test. We observed that the anthropometric measures were normal for the respective age groups and VO2(max) (mL/kg/min) in all the age groups in both the genders were in superior category according to Heywood classification. We observed higher body fat percentage (BF%) in girls of all the age groups compared to the boys and higher fat free mass (FFM) and VO2(max) in the boys of all age groups when compared to girls. VO2(max) showed a strong correlation with FFM (r = 0.891, P < 0.001) and a weak correlation with BF% (r = -0.322, P < 0.0001). Optimal body composition and CRF can be attributed to the regular structured physical activity of one hour duration daily and the provision of adequate nutrition. FFM can be put forth as a stronger determinant of CRF than BF% in the adolescents. PMID:24968579

  19. Assessment of adipokines relationships with cardiovascular risk markers in relation to body indices in normoglycemic males

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Syed Shahid; A Al Regaeiy, Khlalid; Al Dokhi, Laila

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the phenotypic relationship between obesity indices, resistin, adiponectin and cardiovascular risk markers in normoglycemic healthy individuals. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh. A total of 120 male subjects were selected for the study. All subjects underwent analysis of body composition, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipids, adiponectin, resistin, lipoprotein(a) and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP). Results: Body mass index (BMI) (r=0.326, p < 0.001), body fat mass (BFM) (r=0.377, p < 0.001), body fat percentage (BF%) (r=0.326, p < 0.001), waist hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.402, p < 0.001) and basal Insulin levels (r=0.217, p=0.018) were positively correlated with hsCRP. However, serum adiponectin levels (r=0.189, p=0.0391) were negatively correlated with hsCRP. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non obese subjects (p=0.0551). Keeping hsCRP as dependant variable we observed that WHR, BFM, BF%, BMI and adiponectin were significant predictors in univariate analysis. In multiple regression analysis WHR and adiponectin were independent predictors of hsCRP. Conclusion: Obese individuals have significantly higher levels of hsCRP levels and lower adiponectin levels than non obese subjects. Serum adiponectin levels and WHR are independant predictors of hsCRP levels in normoglycemic subjects. PMID:24353501

  20. The effects of an exercise physiology program on physical fitness variables, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arlette C; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B; Paolercio, Maria A; Van Bemden, Angie L

    2002-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of an exercise physiology program on physical fitness, body satisfaction, and knowledge. A total of 161 students (mean age = 16.5 +/- 0.89 years) of the Coral Gables Senior High School served as the experimental group volunteers, whereas 33 students enrolled in a standard biology course served as the control group (mean age = 15.61 +/- 0.84 years). The experimental group received exercise physiology theory coupled with active aerobic and resistance exercise. Age (p = 0.0001) and lean body mass (p = 0.023) were the only physical characteristics significantly greater in the experimental group at pretesting. An analysis of covariance controlling for pretest values showed better results in the experimental compared with the control group for sit and reach (p = 0.008), step test, recovery heart rate (p = 0.0002), overhead press (p = 0.002), bench press (p = 0.017), leg press (p = 0.012), sit-ups (p = 0.001), body satisfaction (p = 0.0009), and physiology knowledge (p = 0.0001) at posttesting. Findings indicated that a biology curriculum integrated with exercise physiology theory and exercise activities may result in significant improvements in physical fitness, body size satisfaction, and physiology knowledge in high school adolescents. PMID:11991773

  1. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Eling D.; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A.; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. Results: All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg?1 · min?1 (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular stress. Video abstract available for more insights from the authors (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A107). PMID:26050073

  2. Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

  3. Simulation of fluid flow in a body-fitted grid system using the lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Poozesh, Amin

    2013-06-01

    The ability of the interpolation supplemented lattice Boltzmann method (ISLBM) diminishes in simulation of fluid flow around complex geometries and it is nearly impossible to use this method in body-filled grid systems. In this paper, a developed version of the interpolation supplemented lattice Boltzmann method is proposed to remove the limitations of the original ISLBM. Combination of the ISLBM and the Joukowski transformation is the basis of the method. In fact, using the Joukowski transformation, the physical domain with a body-fitted grid system is mapped to the computational domain with a uniform Cartesian grid system such that the conventional ISLBM can be easily applied. The results are compared with those of a Navier-Stokes solver and there is good agreement between these two results. PMID:23848811

  4. Simulation of fluid flow in a body-fitted grid system using the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Poozesh, Amin

    2013-06-01

    The ability of the interpolation supplemented lattice Boltzmann method (ISLBM) diminishes in simulation of fluid flow around complex geometries and it is nearly impossible to use this method in body-filled grid systems. In this paper, a developed version of the interpolation supplemented lattice Boltzmann method is proposed to remove the limitations of the original ISLBM. Combination of the ISLBM and the Joukowski transformation is the basis of the method. In fact, using the Joukowski transformation, the physical domain with a body-fitted grid system is mapped to the computational domain with a uniform Cartesian grid system such that the conventional ISLBM can be easily applied. The results are compared with those of a Navier-Stokes solver and there is good agreement between these two results.

  5. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation. PMID:25520668

  6. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

  7. Increased Dietary Protein and Combined High Intensity Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Improves Body Fat Distribution and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Arciero; Christopher L. Gentile; Roger Martin-Pressman; Michael J. Ormsbee; Meghan Everett; Lauren Zwicky; Christine A. Steele

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body com- position and disease risk in overweight\\/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: 1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a bal- anced diet (RC+BD, 40%

  8. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate\\/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate\\/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manny Noakes; Paul R Foster; Jennifer B Keogh; Anthony P James; John C Mamo; Peter M Clifton

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Eighty

  9. Association of Body Mass Index with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Chou, Yi-Chang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Li, Chung-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and expanded CVD mortality in the elderly. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Annual physical examination program for the elderly from 2006 to 2010. Participants We included 77,541 Taipei residents aged ?65 years (39,365 men and 38,176 women). Measurements BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5), normal weight (18.5?BMI<25), overweight (25?BMI<30), grade 1 obesity (30?BMI<35), or grade 2–3 obesity (BMI?35). Mortality was ascertained by national death files. Results Underweight (hazard ratios [HRs] of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 1.92, 1.74, and 1.77, respectively), grade 2–3 obesity (HRs: 1.59, 2.36, and 2.22, respectively), older age, male sex, smoking, and high fasting blood sugar were significant predictors of mortality. Meanwhile, being married/cohabitating, higher education, alcohol consumption, more regular exercise, and high total cholesterol were inversely associated with mortality. Multivariate stratified subgroup analyses verified smokers (HRs of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 3.25, 10.71, and 7.86, respectively, for grade 2–3 obesity), the high triglyceride group (HRs: 5.82, 10.99, and 14.22, respectively for underweight), and patients with 3–4 factors related to metabolic syndrome (HRs: 4.86, 12.72, and 11.42, respectively, for underweight) were associated with mortality. Conclusion The associations of BMI with all-cause, CVD, expanded CVD mortality in the elderly are represented by U-shaped curves, suggesting unilateral promotions or interventions in weight reduction in the elderly may be inappropriate. Heterogeneous effects of grades 1 and 2–3 obesity on mortality were observed and should be treated as different levels of obesity. PMID:25014070

  10. Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

  11. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

  12. Combining Template Matching and Model Fitting for Human Body Segmentation and Tracking with Applications to Sports Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao-Jie Li; Shou-Xun Lin; Yong-Dong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a This paper present a method for extracting and automatic tracking of human body using template matching and human body model\\u000a fitting for specific activity. The method includes training and testing stages. For training, the body shapes are manually\\u000a segmented from image sequences as templates and are clustered. The 2D joint locations of each cluster center are labeled and\\u000a the dynamical

  13. Effects of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Body Composition and Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk after Definitive Therapy for Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Lin, E; Wexler, TL; Nachtigall, L; Tritos, N; Swearingen, B; Hemphill, L; Loeffler, J; Biller, BMK; Klibanski, A; Miller, KK

    2012-01-01

    Background Both growth hormone (GH) excess and GH deficiency are associated with body composition and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in patients with pituitary disorders. However, the effects of developing GH deficiency after definitive treatment of acromegaly are largely unknown. Objective To determine whether development of GH deficiency after definitive therapy for acromegaly is associated with increased visceral adiposity and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk compared to GH sufficiency after definitive therapy for acromegaly. Design Cross-sectional Patients We studied three groups of subjects, all with a history of acromegaly (n=76): subjects with subsequent GH deficiency (GHD; n=31), subjects with subsequent GH sufficiency (GHS; n=25), and subjects with active acromegaly (AA; n=20). No study subjects were receiving somatostatin analogues, dopamine agonists or hGH. Measurements Body composition (by DXA), abdominal adipose tissue depots (by cross-sectional CT), total body water (by bioimpedance analysis) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Fasting morning serum was collected for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipids and lipoprotein levels. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Results Abdominal visceral adipose tissue, total adipose tissue, and total body fat were higher in subjects with GHD than GHS or AA (p < 0.05). Subcutaneous abdominal fat was higher, and fibrinogen and IMT were lower in GHD (but not GHS) than AA (p < 0.05). Patients with GHD had the highest hsCRP, followed by GHS, and hsCRP was lowest in AA (p < 0.05). Fasting glucose, 120-minute glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and percent total body water were lower in GHD and GHS than AA (p < 0.05). Triglycerides were higher in GHS than AA (p < 0.05). Lean body mass, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL were comparable among groups. Conclusions Development of GHD after definitive treatment of acromegaly may adversely affect body composition and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk but does not appear to adversely affect glucose homeostasis, lipids and lipoproteins, or other cardiovascular risk markers. PMID:22315983

  14. Changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profile, and body composition at high altitude in two different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Vats, Praveen; Ray, Koushik; Majumadar, Dhurjati; Amitabh; Joseph, Duraisamy Arul; Bayen, Susovon; Akunov, Almaz; Sarbaev, Akpav; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-03-01

    High altitude (HA) presents inhospitable environmental conditions that adversely affects human physiology and metabolism. Changes in physiological functions are reported during high altitude exposure, but the changes vary with physical state, culture habits, geographical locations, and genetic variation of individual. The present study was carried out to explore the variation in acclimatization pattern of two different ethnic groups in relation to cardiovascular functions, lipid profile and body composition. The study was carried out on 30 human volunteers (20 Indian and 10 Kyrgyz) initially at Bishkek for basal recording and on day 3, 7, 14, and 21 of high altitude (3200 m) induction and again on day 3 of de-induction. On altitude exposure significant decrease in body weight was observed both in Indian (day 14, p<0.001) and Kyrgyz (day 3, p<0.01) subjects. Decreased levels of total body water, extra cellular and intra cellular body water were also observed in both the groups. Significant reduction in body mass index (p<0.01), fat free mass (p<0.01), body cell mass (p<0.01) and body volume (p<0.01) was also observed in Kyrgyz subjects, whereas in Indian subjects the changes were not significant in these variables on high altitude exposure. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly on day 3 (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) of induction in Indian subjects; whereas in Kyrgyz significant increase was observed on day 14 (p<0.05) in both the cases. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly on day 7 of HA exposure in both the groups. Results indicate that the Indian and Kyrgyz groups report differently, in relation to changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profiles, and body composition, when exposed to HA. The difference observed in acclimatization pattern in the two groups may be due to ethnic/genetic variation of two populations. PMID:23537260

  15. A computer code for three-dimensional incompressible flows using nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. S.

    1986-01-01

    In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.

  16. Acrolein Inhalation Alters Arterial Blood Gases and Triggers Carotid Body Mediated Cardiovascular Responses in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. While the mechanisms accounting for these effects are unclear, several epidemiological studies have reported decreases in oxygen ...

  17. Predicting metabolic rate across walking speed: one fit for all body sizes?

    PubMed

    Weyand, Peter G; Smith, Bethany R; Schultz, Nicole S; Ludlow, Lindsay W; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2013-11-01

    We formulated a "one-size-fits-all" model that predicts the energy requirements of level human walking from height, weight, and walking speed. Our three-component model theorizes that the energy expended per kilogram per stride is independent of stature at mechanically equivalent walking speeds. We measured steady-state rates of oxygen uptake of 78 subjects who spanned a nearly twofold range of statures (1.07-2.11 m) and sevenfold range of body masses (16-112 kg) at treadmill speeds from 0.4 to 1.9 m/s. We tested the size independence of the model by deriving best-fit equations in the form of the model on four stature groups (n ? 15): short, moderately short, moderately tall, and tall. The mean walking metabolic rates predicted by these four independently derived equations for the same set of reference subjects (n = 16; stature range: 1.30-1.90 m) agreed with one another to within an average of 5.2 ± 3.7% at the four intermediate speeds in our protocol. We next evaluated the model's gross predictive accuracy by dividing our 78 subjects into 39 stature-matched pairs of experimental and validation group subjects. The model best-fit equation derived on the experimental group subjects predicted the walking metabolic rates of the validation group subjects to within an average of 8.1 ± 6.7% (R(2) = 0.90; standard error of estimate = 1.34 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The predictive error of the American College of Sports Medicine equation (18.0 ± 13.1%), which does not include stature as a predictor, was more than twice as large for the same subject group. We conclude that the energy cost of level human walking can be accurately predicted from height, weight, and walking speed. PMID:23928111

  18. A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age?=?4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (?1.2%, p?body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: ?0.74 seconds, p?body composition and physical fitness. Program efficacy should be tested in a randomized trial. Trial registration ChiCTR-ONRC-14004143. PMID:24886119

  19. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-12-01

    Vänttinen, T, Blomqvist, M, Nyman, K, and Häkkinen, K. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3342-3351, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 10.8 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 13), 12.7 ± 0.2-year-old (n = 14), and 14.7 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 12) Finnish regional youth soccer players during a 2-year monitoring period and to compare physical fitness characteristics of soccer players with those of age-matched controls (10.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 13; 14.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 10) not participating in soccer. Body composition was measured in terms of height, weight, muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body weight of trunk, legs, and arms. Hormonal status was monitored by concentrations of serum testosterone and cortisol. Physical fitness was measured in terms of sprinting speed, agility, isometric maximal strength (leg extensors, abdominal, back, grip), explosive strength, and endurance. Age-related development was detected in all other measured variables except in the percentage of body fat. The results showed that the physical fitness of regional soccer players was better than that of the control groups in all age groups, especially in cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.01-0.001) and in agility (p < 0.01-0.001). In conclusion, playing in a regional level soccer team seems to provide training adaptation, which is beyond normal development and which in all likelihood leads to positive health effects over a prolonged period of time. PMID:21921822

  20. Performance comparison among children fitted with myoelectric and body-powered hands.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, J E; Berger, N

    1993-04-01

    Seventy-six children with unilateral below-elbow amputation were fitted in random sequence with a myoelectric (MYO) and a body-powered (BP) prosthetic hand of identical size, shape, and glove color. Subjects ranged from six to 17 years, nine months and included 67 children with congenital limb deficiency and nine who sustained traumatic amputation. After training, each child wore each hand for three months. On the form board test requiring only prosthetic use, subjects took 13.7% longer with the MYO and committed more errors with the MYO, specifically in dropping objects and delaying their grasp and release. Object displacement, the most common error, occurred nearly as often with BP as MYO. MYO was minimally faster on a test of ten practical activities designed for bimanual prehension. Card playing was 39.8% faster with BP, whereas donning socks, cutting paper, and bandage application were 27.8%, 12.5%, and 10.9% faster with MYO. Performance with both hands was rated as decidedly poorer than normal quality. No major clinically important differences were found in the comparison of performance. PMID:8466418

  1. Depicting the Sporting Body: The Intersection of Gender, Race and Disability in Women's Sport\\/Fitness Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Hardin; Susan Lynn; Kristie Walsdorf

    This research examines the relationship between images of sport, disability, gender and race in four U.S. women's sport\\/fitness magazines. According to a view of feminism that sees it as addressing all oppressions, these magazines should provide an empowering space for all women, including women with a disability. Rejection of ableism signifies a rejection of the male body standard in sport,

  2. Body fat measured by a near-infrared interactance device as a predictor of cardiovascular events: the FINRISK'92 cohort.

    PubMed

    Pajunen, Pia; Jousilahti, Pekka; Borodulin, Katja; Harald, Kennet; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated how body fat percentage, measured by a portable near-infrared interactance (NIR) device predicts cardiovascular (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events in a prospective population-based survey. The study population consisted of 2,842 men and 3,196 women, who participated in the FINRISK'92 survey. Obesity was assessed with BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage measured with an NIR. Mean length of follow-up was 9 years and 3 months. In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for men, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR as well as body fat percentage were predictors of a CVD event when adjusted for age and for major risk factors. Hazard ratio (HR) per 1 s.d. was 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.48) for body fat percentage, 1.30 (1.16-1.46) for BMI, and 1.31 (1.16-1.50) for waist circumference. Among women, the body fat lost its predictive power in a fully adjusted model. Body fat percentage, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR were predictors of a CHD event both among men and women, whereas body fat percentage did not predict ischemic stroke among either gender. We observed that body fat percentage measured by an NIR device was a significant predictor of CVD and CHD events among men and women, but in our population-based survey, it did not provide any additional predictive power over and above the simpler measures, such as BMI or WHR. PMID:20966903

  3. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

  4. Physical Fitness of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A 13-Year Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low…

  5. The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO{sub 2} max in white, black and Mexican Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Egwuogu, Heartley [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shendell, Derek G. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-School of Public Health (and EOHSI), 683 Hoes Lane West, 3rd Floor, P.O. Box 9, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: shendedg@umdnj.edu; Okosun, Ike S. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goodfellow, Lynda [School of Health Professions, College of Health and Human Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO{sub 2} max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO{sub 2} max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO{sub 2} max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation.

  6. Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael R.; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 ± 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. PMID:20798764

  7. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority. PMID:25007417

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in children with obesity, hypertension and diabetes: lipoprotein(a) levels and body mass index correlate with family history of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Glowinska; Miroslawa Urban; Alicja Koput

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the study were to compare atherosclerosis risk factors in obese, hypertensive and diabetic children with positive and negative family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to find which of the new atherosclerosis risk factors may be of clinical value in predicting future cardiovascular events. A total of 285 children and adolescents were divided into groups: obese,

  9. Measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children from Two Commonly Used Field Tests After Accounting for Body Fatness and Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Kimber, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8–13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5–7% of the variance. PMID:25031676

  10. Resultant clothing insulation: a function of body movement, posture, wind, clothing fit and ensemble thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. HAVENITH; R. HEUS; W. A. LOTENS

    1990-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of sitting, walking at two speeds and three wind speeds on the insulation value of three clothing ensembles were determined on four subjects (two with loose clothing fit and two with tight clothing fit). Subjects were wrapped in synthetic foil before dressing in order to avoid sweat evaporation and so increase the accuracy of the

  11. Body mass and individual fitness in female ungulates: bigger is not always better.

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, J M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Delorme, D; Jorgenson, J

    2000-01-01

    In female vertebrates, differences in fitness often correspond to differences in phenotypic quality, suggesting that larger females have greater fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from variation in life span and/or variation in yearly reproductive success, but no study has yet assessed the relationships between the components of fitness and phenotypic quality while controlling for life span. We tried to fill this gap using data from long-term monitoring (23 years) of marked roe deer and bighorn sheep, two ungulates with very different life histories. In both species, we found a strong positive relationship between an adult female's mass and her probability of reaching old age: over the long term, bigger is indeed better for ungulate females. On the other hand, we found no evidence in either species that heavier females had higher fitness when differences in life span were accounted for: over the short term, bigger is not necessarily better. Our results indicate that, while broad differences in phenotypic quality affect individual fitness, when differences in life span are accounted for phenotypic quality has no residual effect on fitness. Therefore, within a given range of phenotypic quality, bigger is not always better, for reasons which may differ between species. PMID:10737404

  12. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  13. Observational study of regional aortic size referenced to body size: production of a cardiovascular magnetic resonance nomogram

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is regarded as the gold standard for clinical assessment of the aorta, but normal dimensions are usually referenced to echocardiographic and computed tomography data and no large CMR normal reference range exists. As a result we aimed to 1) produce a normal CMR reference range of aortic diameters and 2) investigate the relationship between regional aortic size and body surface area (BSA) in a large group of healthy subjects with no vascular risk factors. Methods 447 subjects (208 male, aged 19–70 years) without identifiable cardiac risk factors (BMI range 15.7–52.6 kg/m2) underwent CMR at 1.5 T to determine aortic diameter at three levels: the ascending aorta (Ao) and proximal descending aorta (PDA) at the level of the pulmonary artery, and the abdominal aorta (DDA), at a level 12 cm distal to the PDA. In addition, 201 of these subjects had aortic root imaging, allowing for measurements at the level of the aortic valve annulus (AV), aortic sinuses and sinotubular junction (STJ). Results Normal diameters (mean ±2 SD) were; AV annulus male(?) 24.4?±?5.4, female (?) 21.0?±?3.6 mm, aortic sinus?32.4?±?7.7, ?27.6?±?5.8 mm, ST-junction ?25.0?±?7.4, ?21.8?±?5.4 mm, Ao ?26.7?±?7.7, ?25.5?±?7.4 mm, PDA ?20.6?±?5.6, +18.9?±?4.0 mm, DDA ?17.6?±?5.1, ?16.4?±?4.0 mm. Aortic root and thoracic aortic diameters increased at all levels measured with BSA. No gender difference was seen in the degree of dilatation with increasing BSA (p?>?0.5 for all analyses). Conclusion Across both genders, increasing body size is characterized by a modest degree of aortic dilatation, even in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24447690

  14. Physical activity in relation to aerobic fitness and body fat in 14- to 15-year-old boys and girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Ekelund; Eric Poortvliet; Andreas Nilsson; Agneta Yngve; Anders Holmberg; Michael Sjöström

    2001-01-01

    .   The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of the relationship between different variables of physical activity\\u000a and aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescent boys and girls. Activity energy expenditure (AEE), time spent in a sedentary\\u000a state, and time spent engaged in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ?50% peak oxygen uptake, \\u000a ) were assessed by

  15. Body mass index trajectories and predictors among 3rd to 12th graders using growth curve mixture modeling the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao T Duong

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examined body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories and the effects of gender, ethnicity, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) on BMI growth trajectories among 3rd to 12th graders (9-18 years of age). Growth curve model analysis was performed using data from The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study. The study population included 2909 students who

  16. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  17. Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features. PMID:24023949

  18. Numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for arbitrary bodies using boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Walker, R. L.; Shanks, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    A method of automatic body-fitted curvilinear coordinate generation is described and used to construct a finite-difference solution of the full incompressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the unsteady laminar viscous flow arbitrary two-dimensional airfoils or any other two-dimensional body. A method of controlling the spacing of the coordinate lines encircling the body is developed in order to treat high Reynolds number flows, since the coordinate lines must concentrate near the surface to a greater degree as the Reynolds number increases. Multiple airfoils and submerged hydrofoils are treated as illustrative examples. The solution shows good agreement with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semi-infinite flat plate.

  19. Body Mass Index, Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Hospitalization for Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Rosengren; Ingmar Skoog; Deborah Gustafson; Lars Wilhelmsen

    2005-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that risk factors commonly associated with coronary disease, stroke, and other vascular disorders also predict de- mentia. We investigated the longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and risk of hospital discharge or death certificate diag- nosis of dementia. Methods: A total

  20. Relationship of changes in maximal and submaximal aerobic fitness to changes in cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus risk factors with endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, J H; Green, J S; Stanforth, P R; Gagnon, J; Rankinen, T; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Bouchard, C

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and submaximal markers of aerobic fitness and changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) consequent to a 20-week endurance training program. The 502 participants in this study were healthy and previously sedentary men (n = 250) and women (n = 252) of varying age (17 to 65 years) and race (blacks n = 142; whites n = 360) who had completed the HERITAGE Family Study testing and training protocol. Following baseline measurements, participants trained on cycle ergometers 3 days/week for a total of 60 exercise sessions starting at the heart rate (HR) associated with 55% of VO2 max for 30 minutes/session. This was progressively increased to the HR associated with 75% of VO2 max for 50 minutes/session, which was maintained during the last 6 weeks. VO2 max, heart rate at 50 W, power output at 60% of VO2 max, lipids and lipoproteins, resting blood pressure, body composition including abdominal fat (computed tomography [CT] scan), and blood glucose and insulin at rest and at peak following an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were determined both before and after training. Following training, there were significant increases in VO2 max (16%) and the power output at 60% of VO2 max and a significant decrease in HR at 50 W. These changes in markers of aerobic fitness were significantly correlated only to the changes in the body composition variables and the lipids and lipoproteins. Further, there was considerable individual variation in response for all variables studied. Finally, when risk factor data were analyzed by quartile of change in VO2 max, there were few significant relationships. It is concluded that there is a significant relationship between changes in markers of aerobic fitness and changes in several risk factors for CVD and NIDDM. However, the magnitude of these relationships is small. PMID:11699041

  1. Social inequalities in body weight and physical activity: exploring the role of fitness centers.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions ofexclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this relation. Using publicly available data and guided by Bourdieu's theory of habitus, we classified fitness centers in Calgary, Canada, on three dimensions of exclusivity (economic, social, and appearance). We found that, although some highly exclusive centers exist, most demonstrated low exclusivity based on our dimensions. An overall contribution of centers to inequalities appears to be limited; however, caution is warranted in light of cutbacks to municipal budgets that can have an impact on publicly funded facilities. PMID:22428416

  2. Body mass, cardiovascular risk and metabolic characteristics of young persons presenting for mental healthcare in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; GeHue, Jeanne; Whitwell, Bradley G; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young people presenting for mental healthcare. Design Cross-sectional assessments of body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Setting Two primary-care based sites in Sydney, Australia for young people in the early stages of mental disorders. Participants A clinical sample of young people (12–30?years) with mental health problems. Outcome measures Daily smoking rates, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate. Results Of 1005 young people who had their BMI determined (62% female; 19.0±3.5?years), three quarters (739/1005) also had BP recordings and one-third (298/1005) had blood sampling. Clinically, 775 were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories (anxious-depression: n=541; mania-fatigue, n=104; developmental-psychotic n=130). The profile of BMI categories approximated that of the comparable segments of the Australian population. Older age, lower levels of social functioning and higher systolic BP were all associated with high BMI. In a subset (n=129), current use of any psychotropic medication was associated (p<0.05) with increased BMI. Almost one-third of cases were current daily smokers (compared to population rate of 11%). Males had a higher proportion of raised glucose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to females (9.3% and 34.1% vs 2.1% and 5.9%, respectively). Overall, there was no relationship between BMI and fasting glucose but significant relationships with triglycerides and HDL were noted. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between diagnostic subgroup and metabolic profiles. Conclusions Daily smoking rates are increased among young people presenting for mental healthcare. However, these young people do not demonstrate adverse cardiometabolic profiles. The high levels of smoking, and association of BMI with adverse social circumstances, suggest that risk factors for chronic disease are already present and likely to be compounded by medication and social disadvantage. PMID:25818274

  3. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  4. Increased regional deformation of the left ventricle in normal children with increased body mass index: implications for future cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Black, David; Bryant, Jen; Peebles, Charles; Davies, Lucy; Inskip, Hazel; Godfrey, Keith; Vettukattil, Joseph; Hanson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the developing world. The effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system include changes in systolic and diastolic function. More recently obesity has been linked with impairment of longitudinal myocardial deformation properties in children. We sought to determine the effect of increased body mass index (BMI) on cardiac deformation in a group of children taking part in the population-based Southampton Women's Survey to detect early cardiovascular changes associated with increasing BMI before established obesity. Sixty-eight children at a mean age of 9.4 years old underwent assessment of longitudinal myocardial deformation in the basal septal segment of the left ventricle (LV) using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Parameters of afterload and preload, which may influence deformation, were determined from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. BMI was determined from the child's height and weight at the time of echocardiogram. Greater pediatric BMI was associated with greater longitudinal myocardial deformation or strain in the basal septal segment of the LV (? = 1.6, p < 0.001); however, this was not related to contractility or strain rate in this part of the heart (? = 0.001, p = 0.92). The end-diastolic volume of the LV increased with increasing BMI (? = 3.93, p < 0.01). In young children, regional deformation in the LV increases with increasing BMI, whilst normal contractility is maintained. This effect may be explained by the increased preload of the LV associated with increased somatic growth. The long-term implications of this altered physiology need to be followed-up. PMID:23989614

  5. A Healthy Brain in a Healthy Body: Brain Network Correlates of Physical and Mental Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Douw, Linda; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dijk, Bob W.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.

    2014-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely understood. By applying mathematical concepts from ‘network theory’, insights in the organization and dynamics of brain functioning can be obtained. We test the hypothesis that neural network organization mediates the association between cardio respiratory fitness (i.e. VO2 max) and cognitive functioning. A healthy cohort was studied (n?=?219, 113 women, age range 41–44 years). Subjects underwent resting-state eyes-closed magneto-encephalography (MEG). Five artifact-free epochs were analyzed and averaged in six frequency bands (delta-gamma). The phase lag index (PLI) was used as a measure of functional connectivity between all sensors. Modularity analysis was performed, and both within and between-module connectivity of each sensor was calculated. Subjects underwent a maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) measurement as an indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. All subjects were tested with a commonly used Dutch intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was related to VO2 max. In addition, VO2 max was negatively associated with upper alpha and beta band modularity. Particularly increased intermodular connectivity in the beta band was associated with higher VO2 max and IQ, further indicating a benefit of more global network integration as opposed to local connections. Within-module connectivity showed a spatially varied pattern of correlation, while average connectivity did not show significant results. Mediation analysis was not significant. The occurrence of less modularity in the resting-state is associated with better cardio respiratory fitness, while having increased intermodular connectivity, as opposed to within-module connections, is related to better physical and mental fitness. PMID:24498438

  6. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore Cydia pomonella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J.

    2012-06-01

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.). In our first set of experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (1) body size is heritable and (2) parental body size mediates egg production and offspring survival. Midparent-offspring regression analyses revealed that body mass is highly heritable for females and moderately heritable for males. The contribution of fathers to estimates of additive genetic variance was slightly greater than for mothers. Egg production increased with mean parental size, but offspring survival rates were equivalent. Based on this result, we tested two additional hypotheses in a second set of experiments: (3) male size moderates female egg production and egg fertility and (4) egg production, egg fertility, and offspring survival rate are influenced by female mating opportunities. Females paired with large males produced more eggs and a higher proportion of fertile eggs than females paired with small males. Females with multiple mating opportunities produced more fertile eggs than females paired with a single male. However, egg production and offspring survival rates were unaffected by the number of mating opportunities. Our experiments demonstrate that body mass is heritable in C. pomonella and that size phenotypes may mediate fecundity but not fitness. We conclude that male size can influence egg production and fertility, but female mate choice also plays a role in determining egg fertility.

  7. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity.

  8. "Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.

    PubMed

    Hutson, David J

    2013-08-01

    Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility. PMID:23746610

  9. Cardiovascular autonomic responses to hyperinsulinemia in young adult males of normal and low body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, S; Tinku, T; Raj, Tony; Kurpad, A V; Vaz, M

    2011-04-26

    Acute hyperinsulinemia increases sympathetic nervous system activity, it is unclear if individuals of low body mass index (BMI) have different responses from those of normal BMI. Approximately 30% of adults in India have a low BMI and are likely to become hyperinsulinemic as they transition to better nutritional planes. We evaluated whether individuals of low BMI had different autonomic nervous responses to acute hyperinsulinemia as compared with individuals of normal BMI. 51 young men were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI. All subjects underwent anthropometry, physical activity levels and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC). Lead II ECG and beat to beat blood pressure were recorded during the HEC. Basal insulin level and steady state plasma insulin values during HEC were significantly higher in the normal BMI. Insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal rates during the HEC were significantly higher in the low BMI group. LF-RR power (nu) increased and HF-RR power (nu) decreased with hyperinsulinemia, resulting in a significant increase in LF/HF ratio but with no between-group differences. There was a significant increase in low frequency systolic blood pressure variability and a significant reduction in baroreflex sensitivity in both the groups with hyperinsulinemia. However, there were no between-group differences in the magnitude of these responses. The present study indicates that insulin mediated activation of the autonomic nervous system was comparable between low and normal BMI groups in spite of differences in insulin sensitivity and body composition and suggests that insulin mediated autonomic nervous activation is affected by other factors. PMID:21233027

  10. Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sharon

    Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart…

  11. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  12. Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  13. Relation of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study1-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Freedman; Henry S Kahn; Zuguo Mei; Laurence M Grummer-Strawn; William H Dietz; Sathanur R Srinivasan; Gerald S Berenson

    Background: Several investigators have concluded that the waist- to-height ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular dis- ease risk factors than is the body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Objectives: We examined the relation of the BMI-for-age z score and waist-to-height ratio to risk factors (lipids, fasting insulin, and blood pressures). We also compared the abilities of these 2 indexes

  14. One size fits all? Race, gender and body mass index among U.S. adults.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.; Sims, Mario; Miller, Stephania; Elliott, Vanessa; Ladipo, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which factors presumed to be correlated with body mass index (BMI) vary across four race- and gender-specific groups. Data were drawn from the American Changing Lives Survey to estimate separate multivariate regression models for the total study sample that included African-American males, Caucasian males, African-American females and Caucasian females. The dependant variable of interest was BMI. Independent variables included age, human capital variables, relationship and support measures, health status and behavior measures, and stress and outlook measures. Results from the pooled model indicated that BMI was associated with a number of factors such as employment status, chronic illness, financial strain and religiosity. However, race- and gender-specific regression models revealed that predictors of BMI varied considerably for African-American men, Caucasian men, African-American women and Caucasian women. In other words, these models disentangled important correlations not observed in the pooled model. These findings suggest that addressing racial disparities in body weight-related outcomes requires health practitioners to modify obesity prevention and treatment efforts to incorporate a broader array of factors inherent to specific racial and gender populations. PMID:17987919

  15. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    Myers, TR, Schneider, MG, Schmale, MS, and Hazell, TJ. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1592-1600, 2015-This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 ± 3.2 years; 167.6 ± 6.4 cm; 65.0 ± 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise. PMID:25486302

  16. Intelligence tests with higher g-loadings show higher correlations with body symmetry: Evidence for a general fitness factor mediated by developmental stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Prokosch; Ronald A. Yeo; Geoffrey F. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a “general fitness factor.” If so, then intellectual tests with higher g-loadings should show higher correlations with a composite measure of body symmetry.

  17. Intelligence tests with higher g-loadings show higher correlations with body symmetry: Evidence for a general fitness factor mediated by developmental stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Prokosch; Ronald A. Yeo; Geoffrey F. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a bgeneral fitness factor.Q If so, then intellectual tests with higher g-loadings should show higher correlations with a composite measure of body symmetry.

  18. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  19. Ensembled artificial neural networks to predict the fitness score for body composition analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. R. Cui; M. F. Abbod; Q. Liu; Jiann-Shing Shieh; T. Y. Chao; C. Y. Hsieh; Y. C. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  To predict the nutrition and health status of staff and students in Yuan Ze University and select the influential variables\\u000a from the total body composition variables, which should have similar predictive ability with the whole factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Spontaneous and voluntary physical examination.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Sanitary & Health Care Section of Yuan Ze University in Taiwan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  1227 staff and students.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  With the help of

  20. Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

    2004-01-01

    In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

  1. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 – 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 – 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument “Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool” or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Results Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p?fitness and BMI, supporting the use of holistic interventions to address childhood obesity. PMID:24969618

  2. Maternal Diet-induced Obesity Programs Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Adult Male Mouse Offspring Independent of Current Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet–induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the ?1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring. PMID:25051449

  3. Maternal diet-induced obesity programs cardiovascular dysfunction in adult male mouse offspring independent of current body weight.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Heather L; Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the ?1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring. PMID:25051449

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Have Larger Impact on Endothelial Function in Self-Reported Healthy Women than Men in the HUNT3 Fitness Study

    PubMed Central

    Skaug, Eli-Anne; Madssen, Erik; Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have larger effects on the development of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. A recent study in self-reported healthy subjects demonstrated a marked gender difference in endothelial dysfunction that may be an important precursor of manifest cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors is different in self-reported healthy women compared to self-reported healthy men. Methods and Results Associations between endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, FMD, of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound), anthropometric variables, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood pressure, serum lipids, blood glucose and a questionnaire on general health and lifestyle including smoking status were studied by logistic and linear regression in 2 528 women and 2 211 men aged 20–89 years, free from self-reported cardiovascular disease. In women with hyperglycemia, endothelial dysfunction (FMD ?0%) occurred twice as frequently as in male counterparts. The presence of the metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and low VO2peak increased the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction more in women than in men. Conclusion Endothelial dysfunction is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors in self-reported healthy women than in self-reported healthy men. This finding could explain why the metabolic syndrome, and especially hyperglycemia, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and a worse prognosis in women. PMID:24991924

  5. Effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal profile and muscle damage indices.

    PubMed

    Portal, Shawn; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Halevy, Orna; Zadik, Zvi

    2010-07-01

    There is a huge market for ergogenic supplements for athletes. However, only a few products have been proven to have ergogenic effects and to be effective at improving muscle strength and body composition. One such supplement is beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). Derived from the amino acid leucine and its keto acid alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), HMB has been well documented as an oral ergogenic supplement commonly used by athletes. Several studies have shown that combining exercise training with HMB supplementation leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and there is some anecdotal evidence of aerobic improvement. However, HMB supplementation has been found to be effective mainly for untrained individuals. While previous reviews have emphasized three main pathways for HMB's mode of action: 1) enhancement of sarcolemmal integrity via cytosolic cholesterol, 2) inhibition of protein degradation via proteasomes, and 3) increased protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, more recent studies have suggested additional possible mechanisms for its physiological effects. These include decreased cell apoptosis and enhanced cell survival, increased proliferation, differentiation and fusion via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and enhanced IGF-I transcription. These are described here, and hormonal interactions are discussed, along with HMB dosage and safety issues. PMID:20857835

  6. Independent Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Vigorous Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index on Clinical Gallbladder Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Incident self-reported physician-diagnosed clinical gallbladder disease was compared to BMI, body dimensions, physical activity (km/day run) and cardiorespiratory fitness (10 km race speed, meters per second [m/s]) in 29,110 male and 11,953 female runners. Methods Physician-diagnosed gallbladder disease was reported by 166 men (0.57%) and 112 women (0.94%) during (mean ± SD) 7.74 ± 1.84 and 7.42 ± 2.10 years of follow-up, respectively. Results There was a progressive increase in age-adjusted risk with increasing BMI that accelerated sharply above 27.5 kg/m2. Even among ostensibly healthy-weight women, the age-adjusted risk was significantly greater above 22.5 kg/m2 vis-à-vis the leanest women (P = 0.04). Age-adjusted risk declined with increasing fitness in both sexes. Compared to the least fit men and women, men who ran faster than 4.75 m/s had 83% lower risk (75% lower when adjusted for km/day and BMI) and women who ran faster than 4 m/s had 93% lower risk (85% lower adjusted for km/day and BMI). The fittest men (?4.75 m/s) were at significantly less risk than men who ran <3.25 m/s (P <0.003) and between 3.25 and 3.75 m/s (P = 0.03), and the fittest women (?4 m/s) were at significantly less risk than those who ran <2.8 m/s (P < 0.0001), between 2.8 and 3.2 (P = 0.0004), 3.2 and 3.6 (P = 0.002), and 3.6 and 4.0 m/s (P = 0.005). Adjustment for BMI accounted for more of the risk reduction associated with fitness in women than men. The risk for clinical gallbladder disease was also significantly related to usual running distance (men: P = 0.01; females: P = 0.008), which was attributable to the leanness of the longer-distance runners. Conclusion Clinical gallbladder disease risk was (a) concordantly related to BMI, (b) inversely related to usual running distance, and (c) inversely related to cardiorespiratory fitness independent of physical activity levels. PMID:18637096

  7. Influence of maternal pre-pregnancy body composition and diet during early-mid pregnancy on cardiovascular function and nephron number in juvenile sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, G. S.; Gardner, D.S.; Dandrea, J.; Langley-Evans, S.C.; Pearce, S.; Kurlak, L. O.; Walker, R. M.; Seetho, I.W.; Keisler, D. H.; Ramsay, M.M.; Stephenson, T.; Symonds, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The prenatal diet can program an individual’s cardiovascular system towards later higher resting blood pressure (BP) and kidney dysfunction but the extent to which these programmed responses are directly determined by the timing of maternal nutritional manipulation is unknown. In this study we examined whether maternal nutrient restriction targeted over the period of maximal placental growth i.e. 28-80 d gestation resulted in altered BP or kidney development in the juvenile offspring. This was undertaken in 6-month-old sheep born to mothers fed control (100-150% recommended metabolisable energy (ME) intake for that stage of gestation) or nutrient-restricted (NR; 50%; n 6) diets between 28-80 d gestation. Controls were additionally grouped according to normal (C; ?3, n 7) or low body condition score (LBCS; ?2, n 6) thereby enabling us to examine the effect of maternal body composition on later cardiovascular function. From day 80 to term (?147 d) all sheep were fed to 100% ME. Offspring were weaned at 12 weeks and pasture-reared until 6 months of age when cardiovascular function was determined. Both LBCS and NR sheep tended to have lower resting systolic (C, 85 (SEM 2); LBCS, 77 (SEM 3); NR, 77 (SEM 3) mmHg) and diastolic BP relative to controls. Total nephron count was markedly lower in both LBCS and NR relative to controls (LBCS, 59 (SEM 6); NR, 56 (SEM 12) %). Our data suggest maternal body composition around conception is as important as the level of nutrient intake during early pregnancy in programming later cardiovascular health. PMID:16351771

  8. ASSESSING IMPACTS OF TIME USE ON CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RELATION TO

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    ASSESSING IMPACTS OF TIME USE ON CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RELATION TO RISK FOR OBESITY's cardiovascular fitness, obesity, and insulin resistance ¤ Assess adiposity by BMI ¤ Measure cardiovascular fitness (CVF) with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test ¤ Collect fasted

  9. Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

  10. Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

    2014-04-01

    The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a "size-advantage" hypothesis - that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition - that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density - as well as local density of just reproductive individuals - was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had - in the following growing season - a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a 'reproductive-economy-advantage' - that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring - and hence transmitting genes to future generations - despite intense and persistent (cross-generational) crowding/competition from near neighbors. Selection for the latter is expected to favor relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size and hence - as a tradeoff - relatively small (not large) potential body size. PMID:24772274

  11. Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

    2014-01-01

    The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a “size-advantage” hypothesis – that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition – that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density – as well as local density of just reproductive individuals – was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had – in the following growing season – a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a ‘reproductive-economy-advantage’ – that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring – and hence transmitting genes to future generations – despite intense and persistent (cross-generational) crowding/competition from near neighbors. Selection for the latter is expected to favor relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size and hence – as a tradeoff – relatively small (not large) potential body size. PMID:24772274

  12. Impact of Whole-Body Vibration Training Versus Fitness Training on Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Men: A 1Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Bogaerts; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Walter Coudyzer; Steven Boonen; Sabine M. P. Verschueren

    2007-01-01

    Background. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 1-year whole-body vibration (WBV) training on isometric and explosive muscle strength and muscle mass in community-dwelling men older than 60 years. Methods. Muscle characteristics of the WBV group (n ¼31, 67.3 6 0.7 years) were compared with those of a fitness (FIT) group (n ¼ 30, 67.4 6 0.8 years) and

  13. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  14. The influence of a 1-year programme of brisk walking on endurance fitness and body composition in previously sedentary men aged 42–59 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Stensel; K. Brooke-Wavell; A. E. Hardman; P. R. M. Jones; N. G. Norgan

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the influence of a 1-year brisk walking programme on endurance fitness and the amount and distribution of body fat in a group of formerly sedentary men. Seventy-two males, aged 42–59 years, body mass index 25.2 (0.3) kg·m–2 [mean (SEM)], were randomly allocated to either a walking group (n = 48) or control group (n = 24). Brisk

  15. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  16. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  17. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  18. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huxley, R; Mendis, S; Zheleznyakov, E; Reddy, S; Chan, J

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have become a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries as they are causally related to a wide spectrum of chronic diseases including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, uncertainty regarding the most appropriate means by which to define excess body weight remains. Traditionally, body mass index (BMI) has been the most widely used method by which to determine the prevalence of overweight in, and across, populations as well as an individual's level of risk. However, in recent years, measures of central obesity, principally waist circumference and the waist:hip ratio and to a lesser extent the waist:height ratio, which more accurately describe the distribution of body fat compared with BMI, have been suggested to be more closely associated with subsequent morbidity and mortality. There is also uncertainty about how these measures perform across diverse ethnic groups; earlier, most of the evidence regarding the relationships between excess weight and risk has been derived chiefly from Caucasian populations, and hence, it remains unclear whether the relationships are consistent in non-Caucasian populations. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to provide an overview of the current evidence-base focusing predominantly on three main questions: (1) Which, if any, of the commonly used anthropometric measures to define excess weight is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk? (2) Which of the anthropometric measures is a better discriminator of risk? and (3) Are there any notable differences in the strength and nature of these associations across diverse ethnic groups? PMID:19654593

  19. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training. PMID:24276303

  20. Body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among members of an urban community fitness center: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Bennett, Gary G; Sorensen, Glorian; Kaphingst, Karen M; O'Neil, Amy E; McInnis, Kyle

    2007-01-01

    Background Development of effective behavioral interventions to promote weight control and physical activity among diverse, underserved populations is a public health priority. Community focused wellness organizations, such as YMCAs, could provide a unique channel with which to reach such populations. This study assessed health behaviors and related characteristics of members of an urban YMCA facility. Methods We surveyed 135 randomly selected members of an urban YMCA facility in Massachusetts to examine self-reported (1) physical activity, (2) dietary behaviors, (3) body mass index, and (4) correlates of behavior change among short-term (i.e., one year or less) and long-term (i.e., more than one year) members. Chi-square tests were used to assess bivariate associations between variables, and multivariate linear regression models were fit to examine correlates of health behaviors and weight status. Results Eighty-nine percent of short-term and 94% of long-term members reported meeting current physical activity recommendations. Only 24% of short-term and 19% of long-term members met fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations, however, and more than half were overweight or obese. Length of membership was not significantly related to weight status, dietary behaviors, or physical activity. Most respondents were interested in changing health behaviors, in the preparation stage of change, and had high levels of self-efficacy to change behaviors. Short-term members had less education (p = 0.02), lower household incomes (p = 0.02), and were less likely to identify as white (p = 0.005) than long-term members. In multivariate models, females had lower BMI than males (p = 0.003) and reported less physical activity (p = 0.008). Physical activity was also inversely associated with age (p = 0.0004) and education (p = 0.02). Conclusion Rates of overweight/obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption suggested that there is a need for a weight control intervention among members of an urban community YMCA. Membership in such a community wellness facility alone might not be sufficient to help members maintain a healthy weight. The data indicate that YMCA members are interested in making changes in their dietary and physical activity behaviors. Targeting newer YMCA members might be an effective way of reaching underserved populations. These data will help inform the development of a weight control intervention tailored to this setting. PMID:17655750

  1. Chronic Pain, Body Mass Index and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Tests of Moderation, Unique and Shared Relationships in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W.; Quartana, Phillip J.; Bruehl, Stephen; Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Appelhans, Bradley; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The current study examined whether persistent bodily pain was related to cardiovascular disease risk factors, whether these effects were moderated by body mass index (BMI), and, if not, whether chronic pain accounted for unique variance in CVD risk factors. Participants were women (N=2135) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. A High Pain Frequency variable (high pain in 0 through 4 assessments) was coded to reflect the frequency of high levels of bodily pain across the first 3 years of the study. Six CVD risk factors and BMI were measured at follow-up year 3. High Pain Frequency and BMI were correlated significantly with risk factors, although effects for the former were small. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed High Pain Frequency × BMI interactions for 5 of 6 CVD risk factors. Dissecting the interactions revealed a similar pattern across 4 risk factors: for women with normal BMI, there was a “dose-response” in which increasing frequency of high pain revealed increasingly worse CVD risk factor levels, whereas for women with obese BMI, high pain frequency was unrelated to risk factors. For obese women, increasing frequency of high pain was associated with higher blood glucose. Although BMI is a well-established CVD risk factor, evaluation of CVD risk level may be improved by considering the incidence of persistent pain, particularly in normal weight women (BMI<25kg/m2) lower BMI. PMID:25427423

  2. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

  3. Interactive Cardiovascular System Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The cardiovascular portion of the InnerBody website is a road map to the human cardiovascular system. It displays all of the main veins and arteries of the human body allowing the user to click on various parts of body and dozens of links to the many different systems appear. Users can hover over the links to discover what each part is named, or click on the link to be brought to a thorough definition and description of the selected system. Users may also �zoom in� on certain parts to view more detail. In addition to the interactive �map,� InnerBody also has images and descriptions about common issues that arise within the cardiovascular system.

  4. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  5. Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

    2009-01-01

    A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in…

  6. One Size Does Not Fit All, Or How I Learned to Stop Dieting and Love the Body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Arveda Kissling

    1991-01-01

    The oppressiveness of current ideals concerning female body size and shape in Euro-American culture has been well documented. Prevalent ideals of thinness are physiologically difficult for many women to achieve, and available techniques for reducing are greater health risks than fatness. Yet the number of women who attempt to reduce their bodies continues to increase. This essay analyzes America's obsession

  7. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manny Noakes; Jennifer B Keogh; Paul R Foster; Peter M Clifton

    Background: Limited evidence suggests that a higher ratio of pro- tein to carbohydrate during weight loss has metabolic advantages. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of a diet with a high ratio of protein to carbohydrate during weight loss on body composition, cardiovascular disease risk, nutritional status, and markers of bone turnover and renal function in overweight women.

  8. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.)....

  9. Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Bernard; Harris, Ryan A.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2011-01-01

    There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n = 242) and (ii) that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths. PMID:22007244

  10. Certain peculiarities of the functioning of the cardiovascular system in bedrest conditions during horizontal and antiorthostatic body positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The adequate modeling of physiological reactions inherent to the state of weightlessness has become a matter of particular urgency in space medicine. This modeling is necessary for studying the phenomenology and degree of disorders, prognostication of the crew's health, and developing the various preventive measures employed in space flights. A comparison is made of the physiological effects brought about by bed rest in a horizontal and antiorthostatic body position. A study is done of the influence of brief antiorthostatic hypokinesia, simulating the acute period of adaptation to weightlessness, on circulation and on a number of involved analytical systems. The basic model accepted is antiorthostatic hypokinesia with a body position declination angle of 4 deg (head lower than feet). The experiment's duration is dictated by the objectives of the research.

  11. Body mass index and risk of perioperative cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in 34,744 Danish patients undergoing hip or knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars; Jensen, Per Føge; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Andersson, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis in the lower limb, yet the cardiovascular risks associated with obesity in hip or knee replacement surgery are unknown. We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE: ischemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) or the risk of all-cause mortality in a nationwide Danish cohort of patients who underwent primary hip or knee replacement surgery. Methods Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 34,744 patients aged ? 20 years who underwent elective primary hip or knee replacement surgery between 2005 and 2011. We used multivariable Cox regression models to calculate the 30-day risks of MACE and mortality associated with 5 BMI groups (underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24 kg/m2), overweight (25–29 kg/m2), obese 1 (30–34 kg/m2), and obese 2 (? 35 kg/m2)). Results In total, 232 patients (0.7%) had a MACE and 111 (0.3%) died. Compared with overweight, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.4–3.3), 1.3 (0.95–1.8), 1.6 (1.1–2.2), and 1.0 (0.6–1.9) for underweight, normal weight, obese 1, and obese 2 regarding MACE. Regarding mortality, the corresponding HRs were 7.0 (2.8–15), 2.0 (1.2–3.2), 1.5 (0.9–2.7), and 1.9 (0.9–4.2). Cubic splines suggested a significant U-shaped relationship between BMI and risks with nadir around 27–28. Interpretation In an unselected cohort of patients undergoing elective primary hip or knee replacement surgery, U-shaped risks of perioperative MACE and mortality were found in relation to BMI. Patients within the extreme ranges of BMI may warrant further attention. PMID:24954493

  12. The median preoptic nucleus: front and centre for the regulation of body fluid, sodium, temperature, sleep and cardiovascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    McKinley, M J; Yao, S T; Uschakov, A; McAllen, R M; Rundgren, M; Martelli, D

    2015-05-01

    Located in the midline anterior wall of the third cerebral ventricle (i.e. the lamina terminalis), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) receives a unique set of afferent neural inputs from fore-, mid- and hindbrain. These afferent connections enable it to receive neural signals related to several important aspects of homeostasis. Included in these afferent projections are (i) neural inputs from two adjacent circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, that respond to hypertonicity, circulating angiotensin II or other humoural factors, (ii) signals from cutaneous warm and cold receptors that are relayed to MnPO, respectively, via different subnuclei in the lateral parabrachial nucleus and (iii) input from the medulla associated with baroreceptor and vagal afferents. These afferent signals reach appropriate neurones within the MnPO that enable relevant neural outputs, both excitatory and inhibitory, to be activated or inhibited. The efferent neural pathways that proceed from the MnPO terminate on (i) neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to regulate vasopressin release, while polysynaptic pathways from MnPO to cortical sites may drive thirst and water intake, (ii) thermoregulatory pathways to the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and medullary raphé to regulate shivering, brown adipose tissue and skin vasoconstriction, (iii) parvocellular neurones in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that drive autonomic pathways influencing cardiovascular function. As well, (iv) other efferent pathways from the MnPO to sites in the ventrolateral pre-optic nucleus, perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamic area and midbrain influence sleep mechanisms. PMID:25753944

  13. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  14. Use of numerically generated body-fitted coordinate systems for solution of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Thames, F. C.; Shanks, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that can treat the unsteady laminar flow about bodies of arbitrary shape, such as two-dimensional airfoils, multiple airfoils, and submerged hydrofoils, as naturally as it can deal with the flow about simple bodies. The solution is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. The curvilinear coordinates are generated as the solution of two elliptical partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, one coordinate being specified to be constant on each of the boundaries, and a distribution of the other being specified along the boundaries. The solution compares excellently with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semiinfinite flat plate.

  15. Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance. PMID:21992535

  16. Numerical Simulation of Shock-Induced Combustion Past Blunt Bodies Using Shock-Fitting Technique. Appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  17. Effect of consuming salad and yogurt as preload on body weight management and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Karimi, Golgis; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Few investigations reported the reductive effect of preload consuming on energy intake. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of consuming a mix of low glycaemic index foods such as vegetable salad, yogurt and water before or with meal on anthropometric measures and cardio vascular diseases (CVD) risks. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 25 men and 35 women were recruited to consume similar amounts of macronutrients within a hypocaloric diet for 3 months. Although subjects in the preload group consumed preload 15 min before the main meal, subjects in the control group consumed them with meal. The results showed that body weight, waist circumference, triglyceride, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure decreased in more amount in the preload group ( - 7.8 ± 0.5%, - 2.7 ± 0.2%, - 5.7 ± 1.1%, - 3.1 ± 0.53% and - 4.4 ± 0.4%, respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Fasting blood sugar and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly only in the preload group. Consuming vegetable salad, yogurt and water as preload leads to greater changes in anthropometric measures and CVD risks. PMID:23249429

  18. Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies. PMID:24761982

  19. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (?1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (?1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (?1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (?1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups. PMID:23113042

  20. Changes in Ponderal Index and Body Mass Index across Childhood and Their Associations with Fat Mass and Cardiovascular Risk Factors at Age 15

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura D. Howe; Kate Tilling; Li Benfield; Jennifer Logue; Naveed Sattar; Andy R. Ness; George Davey Smith; Debbie A. Lawlor; Adrian V. Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundLittle is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and\\/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in

  1. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System: Clinical Science and Cardiovascular Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-07-01

    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure. These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and heart failure, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs. PMID:26139859

  2. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  3. Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity has increased in societies of all socio-cultural backgrounds. To date, guidelines set forward to prevent obesity have universally emphasized optimal levels of physical activity. However there are few empirical data to support the assertion that low levels of energy expenditure in activity is a causal factor in the current obesity epidemic are very limited. Methods/Design The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) is a cohort study designed to assess the association between physical activity levels and relative weight, weight gain and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five population-based samples at different stages of economic development. Twenty-five hundred young adults, ages 25-45, were enrolled in the study; 500 from sites in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. At baseline, physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometry and a questionnaire in all participants and by doubly labeled water in a subsample of 75 per site. We assessed dietary intake using two separate 24-hour recalls, body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and health history, social and economic indicators by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples collected for measurement of lipids, glucose, insulin and adipokines. Full examination including physical activity using accelerometry, anthropometric data and fasting glucose will take place at 12 and 24 months. The distribution of the main variables and the associations between physical activity, independent of energy intake, glucose metabolism and anthropometric measures will be assessed using cross-section and longitudinal analysis within and between sites. Discussion METS will provide insight on the relative contribution of physical activity and diet to excess weight, age-related weight gain and incident glucose impairment in five populations' samples of young adults at different stages of economic development. These data should be useful for the development of empirically-based public health policy aimed at the prevention of obesity and associated chronic diseases. PMID:22168992

  4. Documentation of program COORDC to generate and coordinate system for 3D corners with or without fillet using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program COORDC generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for corner geometry with or without corner fillets. It is assumed that at any given xi, x remains constant; consequently the only variation is in y and z. It is also assumed that for all xi's in the physical plane the coordinate system in y-z plane is similar. This enables solution of coordinate system for one particular xi = 1 (x for xi = 1 is arbitrarily chosen to be 0.0) and the solution for all other xi plane can be easily specified once the coordinates in the physical plane on the line 1 or = to xi or = to IMAX, eta = 1, zeta = 1 are specified.

  5. Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437 PMID:17915035

  6. A Small-scale Cross-sectional Study for the Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Relation to Body Composition and Morphometric Characters in Fishermen of Araku Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2014-01-01

    Background: The people residing in coastal areas of Visakhapatnam are mostly engaged in fishery, which is always been a physically demanding job, and numerous factors have direct or indirect impact on the health of fishermen; but, the data about their physical fitness or health status is quite scanty. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness pattern, as well as morphometric characters, which may be influenced by their occupation. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 25 young fishermen (mean age of 22.8 ± 1.92 years) were randomly selected from Araku valley of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh and compared with 25 subjects who were randomly selected from college students (mean age of 21.9 ± 2.25 years) of Kolkata, West Bengal. Some physical and physiological fitness variables including height, weight, body mass index, body surface area, physical fitness index, anaerobic power, and energy expenditure were measured along with their morphometric characters. Results: Analysis of data indicated a significant difference in blood pressure, physical fitness index, energy expenditure, body fat percent and anaerobic power among fishermen compared to controls. However, there were no changes in morphometric characters between the two groups. Conclusions: Findings of this small-scale population-based study indicated that health and physical fitness of young fishermen is under the influence of both occupational workload and nutritional status, as found by body composition and morphometric characters. PMID:24932386

  7. Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    1 Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements o Have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 or greater Fever program, participants will receive o One Group Training Session and one Group Challenge a week Personal Training session #12;2 Circle one: Fitness Fever or Fitness Fever 2.0 Name Local Address Apt

  8. Men's Fitness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It seems that people in the United States are going through a new and renewed commitment to getting back in shape, and there are a variety of helpful online resources to make this a viable possibility for millions of Americans. This particular site (sponsored by a number of fitness-related publications) brings together information on a host of timely topics, including weight loss, healthy eating, building muscle mass, and seasonal training suggestions. The homepage contains links on such topics as diminishing cellulite and eating organic, and also contains a number of online calculators. These calculators can help individuals determine their body mass index, their weight loss potential, and their ideal weight. The site also has an area where visitors can sign up to receive any number of free electronic newsletters from some of the magazines that sponsor the site.

  9. Cigarette smoking and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Brunette, Mary F; McElvery, Raleigh; Naslund, John A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    This study explored cigarette smoking, health status, and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention. Baseline data from two studies of the In SHAPE fitness intervention were combined. A total of 341 overweight or obese adults with serious mental illness were assessed on smoking, interest in quitting, cardiovascular fitness, lipids, body mass index, readiness to change diet, and psychiatric symptoms. Thirty-six percent (n = 122) of participants were categorized as current smokers. The majority of smokers (84%) were interested in quitting. Smokers were more likely to be younger, male, and less educated than non-smokers. Smokers had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and were less ready to reduce dietary fat, after adjusting for age, gender, and education. Findings highlight the potential to address both fitness and smoking to reduce cardiovascular risk in individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:26034872

  10. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  11. The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

  12. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

  13. Body mass index in a large cohort of patients assigned to age decades between <20 and ?80 years: Relationship with cardiovascular morbidity and medication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dzien; H. Winner; E. Theurl; C. Dzien-Bischinger; Monika Lechleitner

    Objective  There is an ongoing debate about the relationship between obesity and morbidity in the elderly, the clinical relevance of\\u000a overweight and obesity in older patients and the need or harms of treatment. The main purpose of our study was to investigate\\u000a whether a higher BMI is associated with a worse cardiovascular risk in all age groups, especially in the older

  14. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  15. Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Diabetes Prevention Program within African-American Churches: The Fit Body and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lovoria B.; Sattin, Richard W.; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T.; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M. Kaye; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Freeman, Arin; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster- randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12-weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination. PMID:23354313

  16. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  17. Potential energy surface fitting by a statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares method for the many-body potential: Method and application to N{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Jason D.; Doraiswamy, Sriram; Candler, Graham V., E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu, E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G., E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu, E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Theory Center, and Supercomputing Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Fitting potential energy surfaces to analytic forms is an important first step for efficient molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we present an improved version of the local interpolating moving least squares method (L-IMLS) for such fitting. Our method has three key improvements. First, pairwise interactions are modeled separately from many-body interactions. Second, permutational invariance is incorporated in the basis functions, using permutationally invariant polynomials in Morse variables, and in the weight functions. Third, computational cost is reduced by statistical localization, in which we statistically correlate the cutoff radius with data point density. We motivate our discussion in this paper with a review of global and local least-squares-based fitting methods in one dimension. Then, we develop our method in six dimensions, and we note that it allows the analytic evaluation of gradients, a feature that is important for molecular dynamics. The approach, which we call statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares fitting of the many-body potential (SL-PI-L-IMLS-MP, or, more simply, L-IMLS-G2), is used to fit a potential energy surface to an electronic structure dataset for N{sub 4}. We discuss its performance on the dataset and give directions for further research, including applications to trajectory calculations.

  18. The effect of a worksite based walking programme on cardiovascular risk in previously sedentary civil servants [NCT00284479

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie H Murphy; Elaine M Murtagh; Colin AG Boreham; Lesley G Hare; Alan M Nevill

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of Europeans do not meet the recommendations for 30 mins of physical activity 5 times per week. Whether lower frequency, moderate intensity exercise alters cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has received little attention. This study examined the effects of 45 minutes self-paced walking, 2 d· wk-1 on aerobic fitness, blood pressure (BP), body composition, lipids and C-Reactive

  19. [Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics].

    PubMed

    Scibona, Paula; Angriman, Federico; Simonovich, Ventura; Heller, Martina M; Belloso, Waldo H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical practice takes into account information based on population studies and benefits observed in large populations or cohorts. However, individual patients present great differences in both toxicity and clinical efficacy that can be explained by variations in adherence, unknown drug to drug interactions and genetic variability. The latter seems to explain from 20% up to 95% of patient to patient variability. Treating patients with cardiovascular disorders faces the clinician with the challenge to include genomic analysis into daily practice. There are several examples within cardiovascular disease of treatments that can vary in toxicity or clinical usefulness based on genetic changes. One of the main factors affecting the efficacy of Clopidogrel is the phenotype associated with polymorphisms in the gene CYP 2C9. Furthermore, regarding oral anticoagulants, changes in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play an important role in changing the clinical response to anticoagulation. When analyzing statin treatment, one of their main toxicities (myopathy) can be predicted by the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. The potential for prediction of toxicity and clinical efficacy from the use of genetic analysis warrants further studies aiming towards its inclusion in daily clinical practice. PMID:24636047

  20. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  1. The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

    1992-01-01

    Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

  2. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  3. Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

  4. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Gonzales, J; Levin, S; Barnard, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting. Subjects/methods: Employees from 10 sites of a major US company with body mass index ?25?kg/m2 and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were randomized to either follow a low-fat vegan diet, with weekly group support and work cafeteria options available, or make no diet changes for 18 weeks. Dietary intake, body weight, plasma lipid concentrations, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were determined at baseline and 18 weeks. Results: Mean body weight fell 2.9?kg and 0.06?kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fell 8.0 and 8.1?mg/dl in the intervention group and 0.01 and 0.9?mg/dl in the control group (P<0.01). HbA1C fell 0.6 percentage point and 0.08 percentage point in the intervention and control group, respectively (P<0.01). Among study completers, mean changes in body weight were ?4.3?kg and ?0.08?kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Total and LDL cholesterol fell 13.7 and 13.0?mg/dl in the intervention group and 1.3 and 1.7?mg/dl in the control group (P<0.001). HbA1C levels decreased 0.7 percentage point and 0.1 percentage point in the intervention and control group, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions: An 18-week dietary intervention using a low-fat plant-based diet in a corporate setting improves body weight, plasma lipids, and, in individuals with diabetes, glycemic control. PMID:23695207

  5. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  6. Hermaphrodite sex role preferences: the role of partner body size, mating history and female fitness in the sea slug Chelidonura sandrana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Anthes; Annika Putz; Nico K. Michiels

    2006-01-01

    Costs and benefits associated with matings and the effects of mating frequency on fitness commonly differ between the sexes. As a result, outcrossing simultaneous hermaphrodites may prefer to copulate in the more rewarding sex role, generating conflicts over sperm donation and sperm receipt between mates. Because recent sex role preference models remain controversial, we contrast here some of their assumptions

  7. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  8. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  9. Autonomic cardiovascular regulation in obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Laederach-Hofmann; L Mussgay

    2000-01-01

    Obese persons suffer from an increased mortality risk supposedly due to cardiovascular disorders related to either continuously lowered parasympathetic or altered sympa- thetic activation. Our cross-sectional correlation study establishes the relationship between obesity and autonomic regulation as well as salivary cortisol levels. Three patient cohorts were sampled, covering ranges of body mass index (BMI) of 27-32 (n=17), 33-39 (n=13) and

  10. Promoting healthy lifestyles in children: a pilot program of be a fit kid.

    PubMed

    Slawta, Jennifer; Bentley, Jeff; Smith, Joan; Kelly, Jessica; Syman-Degler, Lucien

    2008-07-01

    Be a Fit Kid is a 12-week program aimed at improving physical activity and nutritional habits in children. The physical activity component of the program emphasized cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular strength, and bone development through running, yoga, jumping, and strength exercises. All activities were individualized and noncompetitive. The nutrition component focused on current dietary guidelines that emphasize a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, unsaturated fats, and whole grains, and low in saturated fat and sugar. Following the 12-week intervention, significant improvements were observed in body composition, fitness, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, and in those who participated 75% of the time, significant reductions in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed. Findings from the pilot trial suggest that health promotion programs can be well received by children and may favorably alter overweight and the development of adult lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:16803930

  11. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  12. Tobacco and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Prajeena; Pant, Sadip; Rodriguez, Alexis Phillip; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco consumption has been inextricably intertwined with society and its evolution. At one time, centuries ago, thought to be a sign of refinement and nobility, fortunately, this perception has been changing worldwide. Currently, this change in perception has been so dramatic that laws are enacted to limit tobacco exposure through second-hand smokers. Countless studies continue to emerge on tobacco's healthcare toll to the point that we now consider indisputable facts that smokers have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, among many others. However, there are other less well-known emerging facts that still require close attention such as the effect on the immune and hematopoietic systems. Tobacco smoke is injurious to all major organs in our bodies. With over 30 known carcinogens, it should not be surprising that it affects all aspects of human health. In this chapter, we will focus on the effects of tobacco on cardiovascular health. PMID:25225032

  13. Determining Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Elementary School Children: Developing a Healthy Heart Score

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kate E.; Warburton, Darren E.R.; McKay, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. We aimed to 1) determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2) create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years) were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC), high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL) and triglycerides (TG). Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2). The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2)) compared with girls (8 (2.1), p < 0.01). A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor. Key pointsThere was a high incidence of elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Canadian elementary school children.Physical fitness and physical activity levels were particularly low.In this cohort, boys had increased levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with age-matched girls. PMID:24149236

  14. CARDIOVASCULAR AND METABOLIC RESPONSES TO WALKING WITH AND WITHOUT LEG BLOOD FLOW REDUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayao Ozaki; Keiko Kusuhara; Yoshiaki Sato; William F. Brechue; Futoshi Ogita

    Low-intensity walking with leg blood flow reduction has been shown to elicit a significant increase in skeletal muscle size and strength, and may also improve cardiovascular fitness. However, the cardiovascular and respiratory response to walking with blood flow reduction has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular and metabolic responses during a graded maximum

  15. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  16. Pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation and posttransplant cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B Young; Hans-Hellmut Neumayer; Robert D Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Modern immunosuppression has expanded access to kidney transplantation by limiting the risk of rejection. However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the principal cause of death with a functioning graft, threatening the long-term survival of transplant recipients. The article reviews the leading risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity both before and after kidney transplantation. Evidence linking poor renal function to CVD is discussed.

  17. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson

    2002-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

  18. Group Fitness Schedule Summer (1) 2014

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Group Fitness Schedule Summer (1) 2014 IUPUI Campus Recreation Aqua Zumba: Splash your way with traditional aquatic fitness disciplines, Aqua Zumba blends it all together into workout that's cardio-conditioning, body-toning, and most of all, exhilarating beyond belief. Deep Aqua Fitness: Deep Water Aqua is a non

  19. Size, temperature, and fitness: three rules

    E-print Network

    Huey, Raymond B.

    Size, temperature, and fitness: three rules Joel G. Kingsolver 1 * and Raymond B. Huey 2 1 temperature with fitness have complex relationships for ectotherms, but three general patterns are known. Bigger is better: Larger body size is frequently associated with greater fitness within populations

  20. Sports and Fitness Spencer Reynolds, Program Director

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    1 Sports and Fitness Spencer Reynolds, Program Director OVERVIEW The goal of the Sports and Fitness program is to elevate the level of knowledge of its members in matters of the body, sports, and living of fitness and sports interest are welcome and encouraged. There will be three main focuses of the program

  1. Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Gladys Block; Michael H. Humphreys; Joel D. Kopple

    2003-01-01

    Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated

  2. Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics: On the way toward individually tailored drug therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winfried Siffert

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics: On the way to individually tailored drug therapy. G proteins are important mediators of hormone action in all cells of the human body. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in genes encoding G protein subunits are expected to have a marked influence upon cell activation and cardiovascular responses to hormones and drugs. The 825T allele of a common C825T polymorphism in

  3. Cardiovascular Responses to Dreamed Physical Exercise During REM Lucid Dreaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Erlacher; Michael Schredl

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated intriguing psychophysiological correspondences when lucid dreamers carried out specific tasks during lucid dreams (e.g., eye movements and EMG activities). But only a few studies have investigated cardiovascular changes during dreamed physical activities. This study tests the hypothesis that physical activity (performing squats) carried out in a lucid dream increases cardiovascular parameters in the sleeping body. Therefore,

  4. Associations of Insulin Resistance With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Inflammatory Cytokines in Normal-Weight Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Chantal A.; Burgos, Ximena; Ellis, Carla J.; Zubia, Raul Y.; Ontiveros, Diana; Reyes, Hector; Lozano, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of markers of insulin resistance with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventy-one normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) Hispanic women (age, 20–39 years) participated in a fasting blood draw for glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; a glucose tolerance test; anthropometric and blood pressure measurements; body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and measurements of cardiorespiratory fitness via Vo2max and daily physical activity by accelerometer. RESULTS Six percent of participants had impaired fasting glucose, 14% had impaired glucose tolerance, and 48% had at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting insulin were positively correlated with glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and were negatively correlated with adiponectin (P < 0.05). The 2-h insulin was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. HOMA-IR and fasting insulin remained significantly and positively related to glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure after adjustment for body composition. The relationships between markers of insulin resistance and adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were attenuated after adjustment for body composition. CONCLUSIONS Surrogate markers of insulin resistance were associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. Our findings suggest that HOMA-IR, fasting, and 2-h insulin may be important clinical markers for identifying young, normal-weight, Hispanic women who may be at risk for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our findings show the importance of early screening for prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:23275356

  5. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shashi K

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC) wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one’s strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

  6. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.

  7. The Cardiovascular Physiology of Sports and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Opondo, Mildred A; Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities. This article reviews the basic principles of exercise physiology, cardiovascular adaptations unique to the "athlete's heart," and the utility of exercise testing in athletes. PMID:26100417

  8. Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

  9. Adiponectin and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Medhavi Jogi; Mandeep Bajaj

    Adiponectin, an adipocytokine secreted by adipose tissue, enhances insulin sensitivity and inhibits vascular inflammation.\\u000a Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and other cardiovascular\\u000a complications. Furthermore, enhancing adiponectin concentrations by lifestyle changes or pharmacological therapy can have\\u000a cardiovascular-protective effects. In this chapter, we review the association between adiponectin and cardiovascular disease\\u000a and discuss treatment strategies to ameliorate

  10. Imaging in Cardiovascular Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Schäfers; Klaus Tiemann; Michael Kuhlmann; Lars Stegger; Klaus Schäfers; Sven Hermann

    \\u000a Despite enormous investment into cardiovascular research on all levels worldwide, cardiovascular events such as myocardial\\u000a infarction, heart failure, tachyarrhythmia or stroke remain the major causes for death and inability in all developed countries.\\u000a Conventional clinical cardiovascular imaging nowadays provides high-resolution visualization of the morphology of vessels\\u000a and the myocardium. To translate the available patient imaging technologies into animals, especially mice

  11. Cardiovascular drug development: is it dead or just hibernating?

    PubMed

    Fordyce, Christopher B; Roe, Matthew T; Ahmad, Tariq; Libby, Peter; Borer, Jeffrey S; Hiatt, William R; Bristow, Michael R; Packer, Milton; Wasserman, Scott M; Braunstein, Ned; Pitt, Bertram; DeMets, David L; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Armstrong, Paul W; Berkowitz, Scott D; Scott, Rob; Prats, Jayne; Galis, Zorina S; Stockbridge, Norman; Peterson, Eric D; Califf, Robert M

    2015-04-21

    Despite the global burden of cardiovascular disease, investment in cardiovascular drug development has stagnated over the past 2 decades, with relative underinvestment compared with other therapeutic areas. The reasons for this trend are multifactorial, but of primary concern is the high cost of conducting cardiovascular outcome trials in the current regulatory environment that demands a direct assessment of risks and benefits, using clinically-evident cardiovascular endpoints. To work toward consensus on improving the environment for cardiovascular drug development, stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory bodies, and government agencies convened for a think tank meeting in July 2014 in Washington, DC. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the meeting and aims to delineate the current adverse trends in cardiovascular drug development, understand the key issues that underlie these trends within the context of a recognized need for a rigorous regulatory review process, and provide potential solutions to the problems identified. PMID:25881939

  12. A Survey Assessment of Florida's Fit To Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    This study examined the impact of a Florida State Department of Education project entitled Fit to Achieve--a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary school children. Of the teachers implementing the program, 24 elementary physical educators and 134 elementary classroom teachers responded to a survey that asked for information on…

  13. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  14. Measures of Cardiovascular Health and Physical Function after an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in a Patient Fifteen Days Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Angela A.; Mattlage, Anna E.; Ashenden, Abigail L.; Rippee, Michael A.; Billinger, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case Study Background: Changes in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness post-stroke severely impact an individual’s quality of life. The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate whether a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise program would improve cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance measures in a participant following discharge from acute stroke rehabilitation. The participant is a 58 year-old female who experienced an ischemic stroke 15 days prior to beginning the exercise intervention. Case Description: The participant was provided a supervised 8-week exercise intervention on a Total Body Recumbent Stepper (TBRS). The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week; the first 4 weeks the participant exercised at a moderate intensity of 50–59% heart rate reserve (HRR) calculated from the baseline exercise test; the last 4 weeks the intensity was increased to 60–69% HRR. Exercise duration began at 20 minutes with the goal of reaching 30 minutes of continuous exercise at a specified workload. Outcomes: Following 8-weeks of intervention, the participant showed improvement in cardiovascular measures including: resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR), VO2 peak, and the maximum distance walked (6-MWT). Conclusion: The use of a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise intervention may be effective for participants in the sub-acute phase of stroke recovery in order to improve cardiovascular health and physical function. PMID:24772455

  15. Aromatherapy for sports and fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Sharma; Tilak R Meena

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the use of aromatherapy for achieving excellence in sports and fitness. Aromatherapy is the science of holistic approach for taking care of the body and mind using pleasant smelling of botanical oils. It has been extensively studied and found to be one of the fastest growing areas of alternative medicine. There have been numerous studies showing different

  16. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  17. Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L ANE DUVALL

    2003-01-01

    Almost 62 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease and, of these, more than 32 million are female. This translates into an average of 1 in 5 women, making cardiovascular disease the leading killer of women in the U.S., responsible for more than half a million deaths a year. While it has been known for some time

  18. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  19. Effects of nordic walking compared to conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Rogers, Nicole L; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day(-1) (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week(-1) (NW and CW) or 2 day·week(-1) (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key PointsNordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults.Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not.Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking.Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

  20. Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day?1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week?1 (NW and CW) or 2 day·week?1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

  1. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Fitness Independent of Metformin in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    RYNDERS, COREY; WELTMAN, ARTHUR; DELGIORNO, CHARLES; BALAGOPAL, PRABHAKARAN; DAMASO, LIGEIA; KILLEN, KELLEIGH; MAURAS, NELLY

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obesity in adolescence increases the risk for early adult cardiovascular disease. We recently showed that 6 months of diet, exercise, and metformin resulted in reductions in adiposity and that diet/exercise alone reduced proinflammatory factors and intrahepatic fat in pubertal children with uncomplicated obesity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) after 6 months of structured diet and exercise (DE) or DE plus metformin are related to the previously observed changes in adiposity, markers of inflammation, and intrahepatic fat. Methods Sixteen obese pubertal adolescents between the ages of 10 and 17 were randomized into a structured lifestyle program consisting of DE or DE plus metformin. Subjects performed aerobic and resistance exercise 3 d·wk?1, 30 min per session. Cycle ergometer maximal oxygen consumption (V?O2max), body composition, blood markers (glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, interleukin-6, hsCRP), and intrahepatic fat were measured at baseline and 6 months. Results In the cohort, as whole-body weight decreased by 4.0% (P = 0.009), body mass index decreased by 4.9% (P = 0.003), percent body fat decreased by 8.8% (P < 0.001), and V?O2max improved in 10 of 16 subjects. The addition of metformin provided no further effect on body composition, CRF, or inflammatory factors. More favorable changes in adiposity, adiponectin, and a trend toward blood glucose and interleukin-6 concentrations (P = 0.07) were observed in subjects who increased V?O2max at 6 months (n = 10) compared with no change in these variables in those who did not improve V?O2max. Conclusions Metformin did not provide benefits above lifestyle modification for improving CRF in obese adolescents. Improvements in V?O2max seem to be associated with more favorable metabolic outcomes. PMID:22015710

  2. Cardiorespiratory endurance in relation to body mass in Polish rural children: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, E; Kali?ska, K; Bogda?ski, P; Sobieska, M

    2015-06-01

    Physical fitness is generally viewed as having morphological, muscular, motor, cardiovascular and metabolic components. Cardiorespiratory fitness describes the capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to carry out prolonged strenuous exercise. It is often considered as the most important indicator of health status. The place of residence is seen as a factor that may influence the feasibility of physically active lifestyles, and thus shaping cardiorespiratory fitness. The study group consisted of 121 children aged 10-16 years, including 60 girls and 61 boys. All of the children lived in rural areas. The investigated group was divided according to age and sex; body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. All children performed the Cooper's run test and the Ruffier's test. The analysis of BMI for the nutritional status of children in relation to the entire study group demonstrated that 81 children had normal weight, 20 children were overweight and 11 were obese, while 9 children were underweight. The studied group of children showed on average very good and good performance in the Cooper's test, regardless of body weight, whereas the results of the Ruffier's test showed merely weak or medium cardiorespiratory endurance, which was even worse in overweight or obese children. PMID:25736079

  3. 2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging

    E-print Network

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging Nuclear Medicine David Weinreb 14895 dbweinreb@ Pediatric Radiology Body Imaging 1st yr. Neuroradiology NCI Body Mammography Sonya Edwards 14904 14909 laxpati@ Michael Kim 14961 mjjkim@ Vascular and Interventional Radiology Charles Kosydar 14908

  4. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  5. FITNESS INSTRUCTOR -Personal Training -

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    FITNESS INSTRUCTOR TRAINING - Personal Training - Joseph Agnew, Fitness Coordinator Website: joseph.agnew@unlv.edu srwc.unlv.edu 702-774-7126 702-774-7100 UNLV Campus Recreational Services Fitness Instructor Training (F.I.T.) course combines lecture & practical appli- cation to cover the basics of personal fitness

  6. Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

    2005-06-22

    The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

  7. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  8. Interventional Cardiovascular MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milind Y. Desai; Albert C. Lardo; Joao A. C. Lima

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the Western world and the incidence is projected to increase\\u000a in the future (1). Traditionally, X-ray techniques have been the mainstay in terms of imaging modality for diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular\\u000a procedures. However, there are inherent limitations to this technology including inability to perform three-dimensional imaging,\\u000a poor soft tissue

  9. Fit-testing for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Brickman, C P

    1999-01-01

    When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect respirator fit, such as facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight. PMID:9891408

  10. Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

  11. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Peter L; Wedderkopp, Niels; Møller, Niels C; Andersen, Lars B; Bai, Charlotte N; Froberg, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade). Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed development of social inequalities in the absolute prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness underline the need for broad preventive efforts targeting children of low socioeconomic status in early childhood. PMID:16441892

  12. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePLUS

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  13. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  14. Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

  15. Relationships between physical fitness, physical activity, smoking and metabolic and mental health parameters in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Scheewe, Thomas; De Herdt, Amber; Sweers, Kim; Knapen, Jan; van Winkel, Ruud; De Hert, Marc

    2013-05-15

    Low physical fitness has been recognised as a prominent behavioural risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. No studies have systematically assessed physical fitness compared with a matched health control group in patients with schizophrenia. Eighty patients with schizophrenia and 40 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers were included. All participants performed an Eurofit test battery and filled out the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients additionally had a fasting metabolic laboratory screening and were assessed for psychiatric symptoms. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significant differences from controls in whole body balance, explosive leg muscle strength, abdominal muscular endurance, and running speed. Inactive patients scored worse on most Eurofit items than patients walking for at least 30min per day. Low physical fitness was associated with illness duration, smoking, the presence of MetS and more severe negative, depressive and cognitive symptoms. Less physically active patients who smoke and suffer from high levels of negative, depressive and/or cognitive symptoms might benefit from specific rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. PMID:23051886

  16. Cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Onwuanyi, Anekwe E.; Clarke, Aubrey; Vanderbush, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Although mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has been declining, it remains the leading cause of death among urban U.S. blacks. McCord and Freeman reported CVD as the major contributor to excess mortality in Central Harlem. However the disease-specific CVD mortality was not assessed. Thus, it was unclear what the distribution of specific CVDs was in Central Harlem and their contribution to excess mortality. We reviewed the vital statistics records of New York City (NYC) Department of Health for 1990 and identified all cases in which the cause of death was coded as cardiovascular (International Classification of Diseases-ICD, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393-398, 401-404, 410, 411, 414-417, 420-438 and 440-444). The total and disease-specific CVD mortality for NYC and Central Harlem were calculated using the appropriate 1990 census data as the denominator. Central Harlem residents aged between 25-64 years were at least twice as likely to die from cardiovascular causes, compared to NYC residents. Hypertension-related deaths, ICD codes 401 (essential hypertension), 402 (hypertensive heart disease), 403 (hypertensive renal disease), and 404 (hypertensive heart and renal disease), were the major cause of excess death for men and women in Central Harlem. These findings show the importance of hypertension as the main determinant of the excess cardiovascular mortality in urban blacks and suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular death in blacks residing in Central Harlem. PMID:14717470

  17. Nutrition and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Berciano, Silvia; Ordovás, José M

    2014-09-01

    A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies. PMID:25172070

  18. [Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. An anamnestic guideline].

    PubMed

    Dalla Pozza, R

    2013-04-01

    Being overweight in childhood causes several cardiovascular risk factors which in turn contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Being overweight itself represents a risk factor, but also contributes to an increased prevalence of arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, cardiovascular prevention should be included in the management of obese children. Most of all, therapy of adiposity should be performed, as weight reduction and increased fitness represent protective factors. Moreover, a detailed cardiovascular workup and therapy of secondary vascular disease must also be performed. Subclinical changes at the level of the endothelium may be diagnosed using modern imaging techniques such as the measurement of the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery. In general, the overweight child should be considered as a future patient with vascular disease! The following article focuses on the prevalence, diagnostics and therapeutic options in the cardiovascular management of overweight children. PMID:23529592

  19. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  20. It's Your Choice: A Program for Cardiovascular Health. Teaching Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, Shirley Holder

    This publication is designed to help high school students develop a lifestyle that promotes cardiovascular and overall health; activities are intended to promote total health and wellness. The handbook is composed of a curriculum guide and classroom materials, and is designed to fit into a comprehensive health education program. Multidisciplinary…

  1. Anti-aging therapy through fitness enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Garzón, Manuel J; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Gutiérrez, Ángel

    2006-01-01

    Physical exercise is proposed as a highly effective means of treating and preventing the main causes of morbidity and mortality – most of which are associated with aging – in industrialized countries. Low physical fitness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and all-causes morbidity and mortality; indeed, it is even a predictor of these problems. When properly measured, the assessment of physical fitness can be a highly valuable indicator of health and life expectancy and, therefore, should be performed routinely in the clinical setting. Individually adapted training programs could be prescribed based on fitness assessment results and an adequate knowledge of patient lifestyle and daily physical activity. Such training programs would allow people to develop their maximum physical potential, improve their physical and mental health, and attenuate the negative consequences of aging. PMID:18046873

  2. Men's consumption of fitness and exercise: An exploration of motivations for exercise and fitness involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Lynne Jakubauskas

    2010-01-01

    Individuals in the U.S. have become increasingly involved in fitness and exercise within the last decade. As health of Americans decreases due to unhealthy diets and stresses of family and career coupled with society's obsession with attractiveness and physical appearance, more individuals are turning to exercise and fitness to get healthy and enhance the physical appearance of the body (Bordo,

  3. [Nutrition and cardiovascular mortality].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella

    2006-08-13

    About 17 million persons die in cardiovascular disease yearly in the world. Most part of this disease can be prevented by the elimination of primary risk factors, thus by the abolishment of unhealthy nutrition, physical inactivity and by the absence of smoking. The cost-effective national program, as well as the life style with decreasing individual risk factors can give a trend to decrease the cardiovascular mortality. Individually the usual blood pressure and cholesterol control, the inhibition of obesity and the life style without smoking are able to decrease the organic changes, which produce the lethal consequences of this disease. The different kinds of diets can significantly influence the development of human diseases. The Western diet has atherogenic effect, increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The Mediterranean diet beneficially influences the life expectancy at birth. The Far-East Japanese diet could specially be important from the viewpoint of nutrition, because the longest life expectancy at birth and the smallest cardiovascular mortality can be found there. The quality nutrition factors (vitamins, vitamin like materials, polyphenols in wine and fruit juices, trace elements, omega-3 fatty acids) play an important role in the decreasing of oxidative stress and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:16981422

  4. Cardiovascular Actions of Neurotrophins

    PubMed Central

    CAPORALI, ANDREA; EMANUELI, COSTANZA

    2010-01-01

    Neurotrophins were christened in consideration of their actions on the nervous system and, for a long time, they were the exclusive interest of neuroscientists. However, more recently, this family of proteins has been shown to possess essential cardiovascular functions. During cardiovascular development, neurotrophins and their receptors are essential factors in the formation of the heart and critical regulator of vascular development. Postnatally, neurotrophins control the survival of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes and regulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Recent studies suggest the capacity of neurotrophins, via their tropomyosin-kinase receptors, to promote therapeutic neovascularization in animal models of hindlimb ischemia. Conversely, the neurotrophin low-affinity p75NTR receptor induces apoptosis of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and impairs angiogenesis. Finally, nerve growth factor looks particularly promising in treating microvascular complications of diabetes or reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarcted heart. These seminal discoveries have fuelled basic and translational research and thus opened a new field of investigation in cardiovascular medicine and therapeutics. Here, we review recent progress on the molecular signaling and roles played by neurotrophins in cardiovascular development, function, and pathology, and we discuss therapeutic potential of strategies based on neurotrophin manipulation. PMID:19126759

  5. Cardiovascular Health, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Baman, Timir S.; Gupta, Sanjaya; Day, Sharlene M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: An athlete’s health may be endangered if he or she continues to compete after diagnosis of certain cardiovascular conditions. The most worrisome risk is sudden cardiac death; the annual rate in US athletes is 1 in 50 000 to 200 000. Evidence Acquisition: Part 2 of this review highlights the current guidelines and controversies surrounding compatibility of participation with a variety of cardiac conditions in competitive and recreational athletics. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications from 1984 to the April 2009. Results: The guidelines published by the American College of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology provide a framework for safe competitive and recreational sports participation in athletes with a broad spectrum of inherited and acquired cardiovascular disorders. These guidelines are necessarily conservative because it is not currently possible to individualize risk prediction. Few data are available in many areas, particularly in the noncompetitive arena or in older athletes. Conclusions: Published national guidelines are currently the foundation governing return-to-play decisions in athletes with cardiovascular conditions. Further studies are needed to refine risk stratification algorithms to allow athletes with cardiovascular conditions to reap the health benefits of regular exercise and sports participation without undue risk. PMID:23015920

  6. Cardiovascular Effects Of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1992-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum presents study of effects of weightlessness and simulations upon cardiovascular systems of humans and animals. Reviews research up to year 1987 in United States and Soviet space programs on such topics as physiological changes induced by weightlessness in outer space and by subsequent return to Earth gravity and also reviews deconditioning effects of prolonged bed rest on ground.

  7. Tomatoes and Cardiovascular Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joye K. Willcox; George L. Catignani; Sheryl Lazarus

    2003-01-01

    Diet is believed to play a complex role in the development of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the Western world. Tomatoes, the second most produced and consumed vegetable nationwide, are a rich source of lycopene, beta-carotene, folate, potassium, vitamin C, flavonoids, and vitamin E. The processing of tomatoes may significantly affect the bioavailability of these nutrients. Homogenization,

  8. Optimal prehospital cardiovascular care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane H. Brice; Terence Valenzuela; Joseph P. Ornato; Robert A. Swor; Jerry Overton; Ronald G. Pirrallo; James Dunford; Robert M. Domeier

    2001-01-01

    Optimal prehospital cardiovascular care may improve the morbidity and mortality associated with acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) that begin in the community. Reducing the time delays from AMI symptom onset to intervention begins with maximizing effective patient education to reduce patient delay in recognizing symptoms and seeking assistance. Transportation delays can be minimized by appropriate use of 911 systems and improving

  9. Cardiovascular sequelae of tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Rempher, Kenneth J

    2006-03-01

    Smoking is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been implicated in sudden cardiac death. Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity, and smoking are the leading contributors to poor cardiovascular health. This article reviews the cardiovascular pathology inherent with smoking and provide insight to help develop an appropriate plan of care. PMID:16546004

  10. Body Image

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-01-02

    Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

  11. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (?50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  12. Heart rate variability in smokers, sedentary and aerobically fit individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dympna Gallagher; Thomas Terenzi; Ronald de Meersman

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that certain lifestyles may affect cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms, heart rate variability (HRV) among three age-matched groups with different lifestyles (smoking, sedentary and aerobically fit) were compared. Heart rate variability was defined as the difference in heart rate during inhalation vs. exhalation. Heart rate was obtained from normal RR intervals, using a continuous electrocardiogram recording, while subjects

  13. Transgenerational Epigenetics: The Role of Maternal Effects in Cardiovascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Dao H.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics, the study of non-genetic transfer of information from one generation to the next, has gained much attention in the past few decades due to the fact that, in many instances, epigenetic processes outweigh direct genetic processes in the manifestation of aberrant phenotypes across several generations. Maternal effects, or the influences of maternal environment, phenotype, and/or genotype on offsprings’ phenotypes, independently of the offsprings’ genotypes, are a subcategory of transgenerational epigenetics. Due to the intimate role of the mother during early development in animals, there is much interest in investigating the means by which maternal effects can shape the individual. Maternal effects are responsible for cellular organization, determination of the body axis, initiation and maturation of organ systems, and physiological performance of a wide variety of species and biological systems. The cardiovascular system is the first to become functional and can significantly influence the development of other organ systems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the role of maternal effects in cardiovascular development, and to understand its impact on adult cardiovascular health. Topics to be addressed include: (1) how and when do maternal effects change the developmental trajectory of the cardiovascular system to permanently alter the adult’s cardiovascular phenotype, (2) what molecular mechanisms have been associated with maternally induced cardiovascular phenotypes, and (3) what are the evolutionary implications of maternally mediated changes in cardiovascular phenotype? PMID:24813463

  14. Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getchell, Bud

    The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness.…

  15. Health-Related Measures of Children's Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes health-related physical fitness measurement procedures for children, emphasizing field measures. Health-related physical fitness encompasses cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. The article presents several issues pertinent to research on health-related fitness testing. (SM)

  16. Fitness: My Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    Fitness: My Muscles Posted under Health Guides . Updated 22 May 2014. +Related Content Fitness is fun! It’s a great way to ... with your own health care provider. M y Muscles Understanding the names and locations of your muscles ...

  17. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  18. Getting Fit Before Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnancy > Getting fit before pregnancy Get ready for pregnancy Having a healthy baby starts well before pregnancy. ... been added to your dashboard . Getting fit before pregnancy If you're thinking about pregnancy, or if ...

  19. The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  20. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases through sport and physical activity : A question of intensity?].

    PubMed

    Wernhart, S; Dinic, M; Pressler, A; Halle, M

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. A sedentary lifestyle accounts for 9% of premature mortality and creates a substantial health economic burden. Measurement of physical activity in daily practice refers to metabolic equivalent tasks and assessment of cardiopulmonary fitness to measurements of peak oxygen uptake during ergometry, which can be used to classify an individual's physical activity and maximum exercise capacity. Physical activity is a multifunctional intervention tool in prevention, which exerts its effects on multiple biochemical pathways, in contrast to conventional drug therapy. These changes reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Moderate physical exercise reduces blood pressure, improves insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia, improves body composition and enhances weight reduction. Exercise of higher intensity seems to have superior effects compared to moderate intensity training; however, the training volume also seems to be important, as negative effects of long-term intensive training have been reported, e.g. atrial fibrillation or coronary sclerosis. Overall, exercise training has a major role in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease but seems to have a maximum threshold for benefit, which may be exceeded by some individuals. PMID:25804555

  1. Faithful Fitness Flips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D Smith

    2010-01-01

    Faithful Fitness Flips is perfect for the home school family. Hundreds of ready-made activities, designed without the need for specialized equipment, make physicalEducation simple and fun. Each week offers a spiritual Fitness Tip that brings God’s perspective on fitness. Just flip the pages and get your students moving!

  2. Sudomotor Function as a Tool for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Level Evaluation: Comparison with Maximal Exercise Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Raisanen, Anu; Eklund, Jyrki; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = ?0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and ?0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions. PMID:24886754

  3. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  4. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

    1985-08-05

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  5. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters’ fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

  6. Pharmacogenomics and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established critical pathways and specific loci modulating therapeutic responses to commonly used drugs such as clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins. In addition, genomic approaches have defined mechanisms and genetic variants underlying important toxicities with these and other drugs. These findings have not only resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described to date might be deployed in clinical decision making. PMID:23689943

  7. Oxidative stress in polycystic ovary syndrome and its contribution to the risk of cardiovascular disease? 1 1 ?Abbreviations: ADA, Am Diabetes Association; AUC, area under curve; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DHEAS, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; FG, Ferriman-Gallwey; GSH, reduced glutathione; GSH-Px, glutathione peroxidase; HDL, high density lipoprotein; H 2O 2, hydrogen peroxide; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; ISI, insulin sensitivity index; LDL, low density lipoprotein; LPO, Lipid peroxidation; MDA, malondialdehyde; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome; RIA, radioimmunoassay; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; SOD, superoxide dismutase; TBA, thiobarbituric acid; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tevfik Sabuncu; Hüseyin Vural; Müge Harma; Mehmet Harma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To determine oxidant and antioxidant status in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its contribution to the risk of cardiovascular disease.Design and methods: 27 women with PCOS were compared with regard to oxidant and antioxidant status with 18 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy. Oxidant status was evaluated by determination of erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, while antioxidant

  8. Thiazolidinediones and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Chilton; Elaine Chiquette

    2005-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones hold promise for reducing cardiovascular events and human atherosclerosis. Similar to statins and angiotensin-converting\\u000a enzyme inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic actions\\u000a in the vessel wall. A number of clinical trials in subjects with or without diabetes have shown that thiazolidinedione therapy\\u000a can reduce in-stent restenosis and delay progression of atherosclerosis measured by carotid

  9. Phytoestrogens and Cardiovascular Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky Y. K. Man; Susan W. S. Leung; Hwee Teoh; Adrian Quan; Wendy Keung; Mary Y. K. Lee

    \\u000a Dietary intake of phytoestrogens has been associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disorders including coronary\\u000a heart disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Phytoestrogens have long been found to be structurally similar to the female\\u000a sex hormone, 17ß-estradiol, and have a wide range of estrogenic effects. Like 17ß-estradiol, phytoestrogens such as genistein\\u000a have been suggested to exert its cardioprotective actions through

  10. Dartmouth College/Cigna Fitness Benefit If you have CIGNA benefits, we've got a healthy

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Dartmouth College/Cigna Fitness Benefit If you have CIGNA benefits, we've got a healthy incentive or exercise class fees. What kind of Fitness Facility Membership Qualifies? Start exercising your option fitness facilities (with an array of cardiovascular and strength-training exercise equipment) as well

  11. An Important, Common, and Easily Treatable Cardiovascular Risk Factor?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Lee; James H. O'Keefe; David Bell; Donald D. Hensrud; Michael F. Holick

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition, present in approximately 30% to 50% of the general popula- tion. A growing body of data suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may adversely affect cardiovascular health. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and can predispose to hyperten- sion and left ventricular hypertrophy. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in

  12. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, Ronald R. (McKees Rocks, PA); Jandrasits, Walter G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  13. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

  14. [Altitude and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    A stay at high altitude exposes an individual to various environmental changes (cold, exercise, isolation) but the most stressful for the body is hypoxia. However, the cardiovascular system yields some efficient mechanisms of acclimatization to oxygen lack. Hypoxia activates the adrenergic system and induces a tachycardia that decreases during a prolonged stay at altitude. The desensitization of the adrenergic system leads to a decrease in maximal heart rate and a protection of the myocardium against an energy disequilibrium that could be potentially harmful for the heart. Hypoxia induces a peripheral vasodilation and a pulmonary vasoconstriction, leading to few changes in systemic blood pressure and an increase in pulmonary blood pressure (PHT) that can contribute to a high altitude pulmonary edema. Advice to a cardiac patient who plans to go to high altitude should take into account that all diseases aggravated by increased adrenergic activity or associated with a PHT or a hypoxemia (right-to-left shunt) will be aggravated at high altitude. As altitude increases, a patient with a coronary disease will present an ischemic threshold for a lower power output during an EKG exercise test. The only test allowing predicting the tolerance to high altitude is the hypoxia exercise test realized at 30% of maxVO(2)and at an equivalent altitude of 4,800m. PMID:22421600

  15. Cardiovascular determinants of life span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Shi; Giovanni G. Camici; Thomas F. Lüscher

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases rises with aging and is one of the main causes of mortality in western countries.\\u000a In view of the progressively aging population, there is an urge for a better understanding of age-associated cardiovascular\\u000a diseases and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include unhealthy diet, diabetes,\\u000a obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity,

  16. Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander G. Logan; T. Douglas Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death in North America. To improve outcomes, it will likely be necessary\\u000a to identify new potentially treatable conditions. Sleep apnea affects approximately 50% of patients with cardiovascular disease\\u000a and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Continuous positive airway pressure is currently the treatment of choice\\u000a and has many short-term favorable effects. The

  17. Endocannabinoids and cardiovascular prevention: real progress?

    PubMed

    Nodari, Savina; Manerba, Alessandra; Metra, Marco; Dei Cas, Livio

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to increase and represents one of the principal causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. After the discovery of a specific receptor of the psychoactive principle of marijuana, the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, several studies have demonstrated the role of this system in the control of food intake and energy balance and its overactivity in obesity. Recent studies with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant have demonstrated favorable effects such as a reduction in body weight and waist circumference and an improvement in metabolic factors (cholesterol, triglycerides, glycemia etc). Therefore, the antagonism of the endocannabinoid (EC) system, if recent data can be confirmed, could be a new treatment target for high risk overweight or obese patients. Obesity is a growing problem that has epidemic proportions worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of premature death (1-3). Individuals with a central deposition of fats have elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (including stroke, heart failure and myocardial infarction) and, because of a growing prevalence not only in adults but also in adolescents, it was reclassified in AHA guidelines as a "major modifiable risk factor" for coronary heart disease (4, 5). Although first choice therapy in obesity is based on correcting lifestyle (diet and physical activity) in patients with abdominal obesity and high cardiovascular risk and diabetes, often it is necessary to use drugs which reduce the risks. The EC system represents a new target for weight control and the improvement of lipid and glycemic metabolism (6, 7). PMID:21977272

  18. Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

    2014-09-01

    Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

  19. [Sleep rhythm and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Maemura, Koji

    2012-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem in general adult population. Recent evidence suggests the link between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and several sleep disturbances including sleep apnea syndrome, insomnia and periodic limb movements during sleep. Sleep duration may affect the cardiovascular outcome. Shift work also may increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Normalization of sleep rhythm has a potential to be a therapeutic target of ischemic heart diseases, although further study is required to evaluate the preventive effect on cardiovascular events. Here we describe the current understandings regarding the roles of sleep disorders during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events. PMID:22844804

  20. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Csányi, Gábor; Miller, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine. PMID:24722571

  1. Marcus Hutter -1 -Fitness Uniform Selection Fitness Uniform Selection to

    E-print Network

    Hutter, Marcus

    Marcus Hutter - 1 - Fitness Uniform Selection Fitness Uniform Selection to Preserve Genetic;Marcus Hutter - 2 - Fitness Uniform Selection Contents · Optimization with Evolutionary algorithms · Problem: Local Optima & Selection Pressure · Fitness Uniform Selection Strategy (FUSS) · Properties

  2. Stress task specific impairments of cardiovascular functioning in obese participants.

    PubMed

    Burch, Ashley E; Allen, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    The role that excess adipose tissue plays in chronic inflammation gives rise to its importance as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular dysfunction. Operationalizing chronic stress as obesity, we sought to explore the relationship between obesity, perceived stress and cardiovascular reactivity and recovery from laboratory stressors. Cardiovascular function was assessed using blood pressure and heart rate. Two stress tasks (mental arithmetic and cold pressor) were employed to examine potential differences between type of stress and cardiovascular response. Body mass index (BMI) was able to predict dysfunction in both cardiovascular reactivity and recovery. Participants with a higher BMI exhibited blunted systolic blood pressure and heart rate reactivity to the mental arithmetic task. In contrast, BMI has an incongruent effect on blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor task that is dependent on the level of perceived stress. This suggests that in some instances the effect of BMI on cardiovascular response to acute stress may be moderated by perceived stress. Further, we found greater adiposity was related to delayed heart rate recovery following both stress tasks. PMID:25017962

  3. 22—COMFORT AND FIT IN 100% COTTON-DENIM JEANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Crowther

    1985-01-01

    Recent market research suggests a continued preference for 100% cotton denim in classic-cut jeans as opposed to cotton with Elastane, either because the textile ‘improves’ the body contour or because the product is generally cheaper than its stretch counterpart. Meanwhile, the less-yielding textile has necessarily to fit the full variety of body proportions within a given size and meet body

  4. CRP in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahir Karakas; Wolfgang Koenig

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In primary prevention, traditional risk factors are a useful\\u000a first step in determining who is at cardiovascular\\u000a risk, however, it has been noted that a considerable\\u000a number of those at risk cannot be identified on the basis\\u000a of traditional risk factors alone. Among blood biomarkers,\\u000a C-reactive protein (CRP), measured by\\u000a high-sensitivity assays (hsCRP), has received widespread\\u000a interest and a

  5. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

  6. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  7. Uncertainty propagation: Curve fitting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-21

    Students will learn a sample-variance curve fitting method that can be used to determine whether a set of experimental data appears to have been generated by a model. This method is based on minimizing the reduced chi-squared value. This video includes a reminder to inspect normalized residuals before reporting fitted parameters.

  8. Fitness in Disguise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Neil F.; Germain, Jenna

    2008-01-01

    Physical fitness activities are often viewed as monotonous and tedious, so they fail to motivate students to become more physically active. This tedium could be relieved by using a "learning as play" strategy, widely used in other academic disciplines. This article describes how to incorporate fitness into a variety of games so that students do…

  9. Equality of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoyer, Jesse O.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has been a personal trainer for the past ten years, recently realized that all fitness centers are not equal. In February, he was able to participate in the grand opening of the Center for Independent Living of Central PA (CILCP), a fitness center that is designed to accommodate persons with disabilities living in the Central…

  10. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Gary Peter

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1980's fitness craze is wearing off and adults are again becoming "couch potatoes," this trend does not justify expansion of high school compulsory physical education requirements. To encourage commitment to lifetime physical fitness, the Phoenix (Arizona) Union High School District offers students private showers, relaxed uniform…

  11. Throughout the years, our fashions have changed as we've admired different body shapes to fit different styles. The Victorian era called for tiny waists and big busts with the corset look, the 1920's

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    , just to name a few. And then somehow we entered this skinny craze. Girls of all ages are desperate of refreshing; we are now seeing the value of being strong... Strong is the new skinny. Think about the new. Strong is the new skinny. Take pride in your body and work hard to make it athletic. There is a sweet

  12. Shadow boxer: a physically interactive fitness game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Höysniemi; Anne Aula; Petra Auvinen; Jaana Hännikäinen; Perttu Hämäläinen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype implementation of a physically interactive fitness game called Shadow Boxer. The game is controlled by body movements and it utilizes a web camera to detect the player's movements. A user study was conducted to study the playability and the effectiveness of the game as an exercising method. The results showed that playing the game significantly

  13. Cardiovascular medication: improving adherence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to medication is generally defined as the extent to which people take medications as prescribed by their healthcare providers. It can be assessed in many ways (e.g., by self-reporting, pill counting, direct observation, electronic monitoring, or by pharmacy records). This review reports effects of intervention on adherence to cardiovascular medications however adherence has been measured. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to improve adherence to long-term medication for cardiovascular disease in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 39 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: patient health education, prescriber education, prompting mechanisms, reminder packaging (calendar [blister] packs, multi-dose pill boxes), and simplified dosing. PMID:21481286

  14. Cardiovascular medication: improving adherence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to medication is generally defined as the extent to which people take medications as prescribed by their healthcare providers. It can be assessed in many ways (e.g., by self-reporting, pill counting, direct observation, electronic monitoring, or by pharmacy records). This review reports effects of intervention on adherence to cardiovascular medications however adherence has been measured. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to improve adherence to long-term medication for cardiovascular disease in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 39 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: patient health education; prescriber education; prompting mechanisms; reminder packaging (calendar [blister] packs; multi-dose pill boxes); and simplified dosing.

  15. Exact Modeling of Cardiovascular System Using Lumped Method

    E-print Network

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Firoozabadi, Bahar; Hassani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Electrical analogy (Lumped method) is an easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments.

  16. Effect of endogenous sulfur dioxide in regulating cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingzhu; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Holmberg, Lukas; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-09-01

    In the middle of the 1980s, nitric oxide received extensive attention because of its significant effects in life science. Then, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide were discovered to be gasotransmitters playing important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. As a common air pollutant, sulfur dioxide (SO?) can cause great harm to the human body by producing free radicals, which causes oxidative damage to various organs. Recently, endogenous SO2 was found to be produced in the cardiovascular system and might be a bioactive molecule regulating the physiological activities including cardiovascular oxidative stress. PMID:24718903

  17. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Richard; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. To achieve this goal, a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life. Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) node within the heart itself. In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences, the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute. Heart rate and cardiac output, however, must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions. In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues, the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system, hormones, and other factors. Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system, but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system. PMID:25914789

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays a significant role in many aspects of healthcare worldwide, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review describes some of the challenges of CAM in terms of scientific research. Biologically-based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies, whole medical systems, and energy medicine are reviewed in detail with regard to cardiovascular risk factors and mediation or modulation of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. CAM use among patients with CVD is prevalent and in many instances provides positive and significant effects, with biologically-based and mind-body therapies being the most commonly used treatment modalities. More rigorous research to determine the precise physiologic effects and long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with CAM usage, as well as more open lines of communication between patients and physicians regarding CAM use, is essential when determining optimal treatment plans. PMID:23710229

  19. Cardiovascular Malformations Among Preterm Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty Tanner; Nilofer Sabrine; Christopher Wren

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Preterm birth and cardiovas- cular malformations are the 2 most common causes of neonatal and infant death, but there are no published population-based reports on the relationship between them. We undertook this study to determine the preva- lence and spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in a preterm population, the prevalence of prematurity among infants with cardiovascular malformations, and the influence

  20. Postdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    or ancestry, sex, gender, disability, veteran status, genetic information, sexual orientation, or genderPostdoctoral Fellow Neural Cardiovascular Physiology Job Description A postdoctoral position and physiological roles of new components of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of cardiovascular

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in centenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Galioto; Ligia J. Dominguez; Antonella Pineo; Anna Ferlisi; Ernesto Putignano; Mario Belvedere; Giuseppe Costanza; Mario Barbagallo

    Several studies have shown that centenarians have better cardiovascular risk profiles compared to younger old people. Some reports have revealed that cardiovascular diseases (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, angina and\\/or myocardial infarction) are less common in cente- narians respect to 70 and 80 years old persons. In order to explain this evidence, there is a growing number of hypothesis that consider a

  2. Cardiovascular involvement in relapsing polychondritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attilio Del Rosso; Nunzia Rosa Petix; Mauro Pratesi; Alessandro Bini

    1997-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is an inflammatory disease that characteristically involves cartilagenous tissues. Cardiovascular involvement is a fairly common complication and the second most frequent cause of mortality in this disease. The case of a man with a progressive cardiac involvement, aortic incompetence, mitral regurgitation, and finally complete atrioventricular block offered the opportunity of reviewing the cardiovascular complications in relapsing polychondritis. The

  3. The Cardiovascular Curriculum Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, R. C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The National Heart and Blood Vessel Research and Demonstration Center has developed a program called the Cardiovascular Curriculum Education Project, designed for secondary school students, which consists of self-instructional education units on cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. Describes its three major components and method of…

  4. Cardiovascular Response During Submaximal Underwater Treadmill Exercise in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Methods Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. Results SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Conclusion Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25379492

  5. Physical fitness and exercise training of individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Fernhall, B

    1993-04-01

    Recent social policies have focused on reentering persons with mental retardation (MR) into the work force and the mainstream of society. However, as individuals with MR age, their rate of institutionalization greatly outweighs that of the general population as well as children with MR. Health care organizations have expressed serious concern about the impact of an aging population with disabilities, particularly the cost associated with institutionalization. Considering that cardiovascular disorders are more common in population with than without MR, and that physical fitness has been directly related to work productivity among individuals with MR, physical fitness and exercise training have important implications for this population. Yet, available data suggest that individuals with MR have low levels of physical fitness, a higher incidence of obesity, and may respond differently to exercise training than persons without MR. This paper reviews current knowledge of physical fitness status, impact of exercise testing and training, and identifies differences between populations with and without MR, with special emphasis on trends associated with aging. This review is limited to three physical fitness components: obesity, cardiovascular fitness, and muscular strength and endurance, as these components have been shown to impact health and well-being, and are related to work performance of persons with MR. Suggestions for future research are also provided. PMID:8479298

  6. 3D Clothing Fitting Based on the Geometric Feature Matching Zhong Li 1, 2, 3

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    3D Clothing Fitting Based on the Geometric Feature Matching Zhong Li 1, 2, 3 , Xiaogang Jin 2 The 3D clothing fitting on a body model is an important research topic in the garment computer aided design (GCAD). During the fitting process, the match between the clothing and body models is still

  7. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    .....................................................................................13 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................13Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community Formative Research from Lowell, Massachusetts U ...........................................................14 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

  9. Not only cardiovascular, but also coordinative exercise increases hippocampal volume in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular activity has been shown to be positively associated with gray and white matter volume of, amongst others, frontal and temporal brain regions in older adults. This is particularly true for the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays an important role in learning and memory, and whose decline has been related to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In the current study, we were interested in whether not only cardiovascular activity but also other types of physical activity, i.e., coordination training, were also positively associated with the volume of the hippocampus in older adults. For this purpose we first collected cross-sectional data on “metabolic fitness” (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength) and “motor fitness” (e.g., balance, movement speed, fine coordination). Second, we performed a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Results revealed that motor fitness but not metabolic fitness was associated with hippocampal volume. After the 12-month intervention period, both, cardiovascular and coordination training led to increases in hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest that a high motor fitness level as well as different types of physical activity were beneficial to diminish age-related hippocampal volume shrinkage or even increase hippocampal volume. PMID:25165446

  10. Mayo Clinic: Fitness Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Mayo Clinic offers a wide range of outreach services for the general public, including websites providing basic information about cancer, smoking cessation techniques, and others. Their online Fitness Center website will be a real boon to anyone who is looking to pick up some basic fitness awareness, learn about strength training, or read up on sports nutrition. First-time visitors can start by reading through the "Fitness Basics" area, which answers common questions like "Why exercise?" and also provides information on getting warmed up before exercising. Visitors can also sign up for the Mayo Clinic's free e-newsletter, "Housecall".

  11. The Clinical and Nonclinical Values of Nonexercise Estimation of Cardiovascular Endurance in Young Asymptomatic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shqair, Dana M.; Khabour, Omar F.; Alawneh, Khaldoon; Nazzal, Mahmoud I.; Keewan, Esraa F.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise testing is associated with barriers prevent using cardiovascular (CV) endurance (CVE) measure frequently. A recent nonexercise model (NM) is alleged to estimate CVE without exercise. This study examined CVE relationships, using the NM model, with measures of obesity, physical fitness (PF), blood glucose and lipid, and circulation in 188 asymptomatic young (18–40 years) adults. Estimated CVE correlated favorably with measures of PF (r = 0.4 ? 0.5) including handgrip strength, distance in 6 munities walking test, and shoulder press, and leg extension strengths, obesity (r = 0.2 ? 0.7) including % body fat, body water content, fat mass, muscle mass, BMI, waist and hip circumferences and waist/hip ratio, and circulation (r = 0.2 ? 0.3) including blood pressures, blood flow, vascular resistance, and blood (r = 0.2 ? 0.5) profile including glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides. Additionally, differences (P < 0.05) in examined measures were found between the high, average, and low estimated CVE groups. Obviously the majority of these measures are CV disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome components. These results enhance the NM scientific value, and thus, can be further used in clinical and nonclinical settings. PMID:22606068

  12. The clinical and nonclinical values of nonexercise estimation of cardiovascular endurance in young asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Shqair, Dana M; Khabour, Omar F; Alawneh, Khaldoon; Nazzal, Mahmoud I; Keewan, Esraa F

    2012-01-01

    Exercise testing is associated with barriers prevent using cardiovascular (CV) endurance (CVE) measure frequently. A recent nonexercise model (NM) is alleged to estimate CVE without exercise. This study examined CVE relationships, using the NM model, with measures of obesity, physical fitness (PF), blood glucose and lipid, and circulation in 188 asymptomatic young (18-40 years) adults. Estimated CVE correlated favorably with measures of PF (r = 0.4 - 0.5) including handgrip strength, distance in 6 munities walking test, and shoulder press, and leg extension strengths, obesity (r = 0.2 - 0.7) including % body fat, body water content, fat mass, muscle mass, BMI, waist and hip circumferences and waist/hip ratio, and circulation (r = 0.2 - 0.3) including blood pressures, blood flow, vascular resistance, and blood (r = 0.2 - 0.5) profile including glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides. Additionally, differences (P < 0.05) in examined measures were found between the high, average, and low estimated CVE groups. Obviously the majority of these measures are CV disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome components. These results enhance the NM scientific value, and thus, can be further used in clinical and nonclinical settings. PMID:22606068

  13. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance artefacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The multitude of applications offered by CMR make it an increasing popular modality to study the heart and the surrounding vessels. Nevertheless the anatomical complexity of the chest, together with cardiac and respiratory motion, and the fast flowing blood, present many challenges which can possibly translate into imaging artefacts. The literature is wide in terms of papers describing specific MR artefacts in great technical detail. In this review we attempt to summarise, in a language accessible to a clinical readership, some of the most common artefacts found in CMR applications. It begins with an introduction of the most common pulse sequences, and imaging techniques, followed by a brief section on typical cardiovascular applications. This leads to the main section on common CMR artefacts with examples, a short description of the mechanisms behind them, and possible solutions. PMID:23697969

  14. Fitness and Cholesterol Levels

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cholesterol levels. Researchers included more than 11,400 men from 20 to 90 years of age who ... treadmill test and they underwent additional blood tests. Men with lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness developed high ...

  15. A Firm Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Larry W.; Parks, Cindy; Mauro, Hazel

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to choose classroom furniture that complements the teaching methodology and fits classroom configurations and needs. Highlights purchasing considerations beyond quality, price, and service. These include standardizing the products being purchased, fabric selection, and aesthetic appearance. (GR)

  16. The universal Higgs fit

    E-print Network

    Pier Paolo Giardino; Kristjan Kannike; Isabella Masina; Martti Raidal; Alessandro Strumia

    2014-08-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, invisible Higgs decay into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining $M_h = 125.0 \\pm 1.8$ GeV.

  17. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  18. Exponentially fitted symplectic integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, T. E.; Vigo-Aguiar, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for constructing efficient symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian problems is introduced. This procedure is based on the combination of the exponential fitting technique and symplecticness conditions. Based on this procedure, a simple modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic exponentially fitted method is developed. We give explicitly the symplecticness conditions for the modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström method. We also give the exponential fitting and trigonometric fitting conditions. Numerical results indicate that the present method is much more efficient than the “classical” symplectic Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic method introduced by M.P. Calvo and J.M. Sanz-Serna [J. Sci. Comput. (USA) 14, 1237 (1993)]. We note that the present procedure is appropriate for all near-unimodal systems.

  19. Measuring Your Fitness Progress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Measuring Your Fitness Progress If you’ve been exercising ... about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. ...

  20. Inclusive fitness in evolution.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Regis; Michod, Richard E

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. For over fifty years, the evolution of social behaviour has been guided by the concept of inclusive fitness as a measure of evolutionary success. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness should be abandoned. In so doing, however, they misrepresent the role that inclusive fitness has played in the theory of social evolution by which understanding social behaviour in a variety of disciplines has developed and flourished. By discarding inclusive fitness on the basis of its limitations, they create a conceptual tension which, we argue, is unnecessary, and potentially dangerous for evolutionary biology. PMID:21430724

  1. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  2. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  3. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  4. Human Cardiovascular Adaptation to Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Entering weightlessness (0 G) induces immediately a shift of blood and fluid from the lower to the upper parts of the body inducing expansion of the cardiac chambers (Bungo et al. 1986; Charles & Lathers 1991; Videbaek & Norsk 1997). For many years the effects of sudden 0 G on central venous pressure (CVP) was discussed, and it puzzled researchers that CVP compared to the 1-G supine position decreased during the initial hours of spaceflight, when at the same time left atrial diameter increased (Buckey et al. 1996). By measuring esophageal pressure as an estimate of inter-pleural pressure, it was later shown that this pressure decreases more than CVP does during 0 G induced by parabolic flights (Videbaek & Norsk 1997). Thus, transmural CVP is increased, which distends the cardiac chambers. This unique lung-heart interaction whereby 1) inter-pleural pressure decreases and 2) central blood volume is expanded is unique for 0 G. Because transmural CVP is increased, stroke volume increases according to the law of Frank-Starling leading to an increase in cardiac output, which is maintained increased during months of 0 G in space to levels of some 25% above that of the 1-G seated position (Norsk unpublished). Simultaneously, sympathetic nervous activity is at the level of the upright 1-G posture, which is difficult to explain based on the high stroke volume and decreased blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. This paradox should be explored and the mechanisms revealed, because it might have implications for estimating the cardiovascular risk of travelling in space.

  5. Body identical hormone replacement.

    PubMed

    Panay, Nick

    2014-05-22

    The adverse outcomes seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (1) were mainly due to an over-dosage of hormones in a relatively elderly population. However, fundamental differences exist between conjugated equine estrogens and 17 beta estradiol and between medroxyprogesterone acetate and natural progesterone. It is likely that these differences also contributed to the adverse outcomes in WHI, which were contrary to the cardiovascular benefits seen in previous observational trials. Recent studies of cardiovascular risk markers in younger women have been designed using predominantly estradiol and natural progesterone (transdermal and oral) as the primary interventions. This paper reviews the effects that body identical estradiol and progesterone can have, both in the physiological environment and also when replaced as transdermal estradiol and micronised oral progesterone. PMID:24879748

  6. Sirtuins, aging, and cardiovascular risks.

    PubMed

    Favero, Gaia; Franceschetti, Lorenzo; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The sirtuins comprise a highly conserved family proteins present in virtually all species from bacteria to mammals. Sirtuins are members of the highly conserved class III histone deacetylases, and seven sirtuin genes (sirtuins 1-7) have been identified and characterized in mammals. Sirtuin activity is linked to metabolic control, apoptosis, cell survival, development, inflammation, and healthy aging. In this review, we summarize and discuss the potential mutual relations between each sirtuin and cardiovascular health and the impact of sirtuins on oxidative stress and so age-related cardiovascular disorders, underlining the possibility that sirtuins will be novel targets to contrast cardiovascular risks induced by aging. PMID:26099749

  7. A relationship exists between replicative senescence and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that the accumulation of senescent cells is a plausible ageing mechanism. It has been proposed that the senescence of vascular cells plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular pathologies. A key prediction arising from this hypothesis is that cultures of cells derived from donors with cardiovascular disease will show reduced in vitro replicative capacities compared to those derived from disease-free controls. Accordingly, we carried out a formal review of the relationship among donor age, cardiovascular health status and maximum population doubling level attained in vitro by cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Data were available to us on a total of 202 independent cell cultures. An inverse relationship was found to exist between replicative capacity and donor age in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Cultures derived from donors with cardiovascular disease showed a lower overall replicative potential than age-matched healthy controls. In general the replicative potential at the start of the lifespan was found to be higher in those individuals without disease than those with disease and the difference in average cumulative population doublings (CPDs) in age-matched individuals in the two groups remained roughly constant throughout the lifetime. These results are consistent with the model in which the inherited replicative capacity of vascular cells is a stronger determinant of the onset of cardiovascular disease later in life, than wear-and-tear throughout the life course. PMID:24472516

  8. Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential of exercise to positively influence so many physical and psychosocial domains, the Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program was developed to address the multiple impairments arising from the chronic health condition of stroke. We present the details of this exercise program and the evidence which has shown that the FAME Program can improve motor function (muscle strength, balance, walking), cardiovascular fitness, bone density, executive functions and memory. The FAME Program can help to improve the physical and cognitive abilities of people living with a stroke and reduce the risk of secondary complications such as falls, fractures and heart disease. PMID:22287825

  9. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  10. Metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Calviño, Jesús; Adeva, Maria M

    2011-08-01

    Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosis worsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance. PMID:21352078

  11. Metabolic Acidosis-Induced Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Calviño, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosisworsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance. PMID:21352078

  12. The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

  13. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and the Apolipoprotein B / Apolipoprotein A-1 Ratio in Obese Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to confirm whether consistent aerobic exercise has an effect on the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio or reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants included 32 obese women between the ages of 40 and 49. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 16 in each group): the control group and the exercise group. The exercise program in this study corresponded to an intensity of 50 to 60% of the maximum volume of minute oxygen consumption and was performed three times per week over 12 weeks. Physical measurements, measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure, and blood collection were done before and after the 12 weeks of exercise at the same time and under the same conditions. [Results] Based on the results of this study, there were significant interaction effects in both time and group weight, for body mass index, percent body fat, maximum volume of minute oxygen consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio. Moreover, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and the atherogenic index decreased significantly after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise effectively improved cardiovascular risk factors and decreased the obesity index in obese women. PMID:25435709

  14. Cardiovascular & Respiratory Modeling, Analysis & Control

    E-print Network

    Batzel, Jerry

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1.7.3 Sensitivity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2 Respiratory Modeling 45 2Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems: Modeling, Analysis & Control J. J. Batzel, F. Kappel, D.1 Respiratory Control Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.1.1 General features of respiration

  15. Cardiovascular Interactions Model and Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

    2005-06-22

    The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

  16. Cardiovascular Implications of Erectile Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Institution: NIH Library User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Cardiovascular Implications of Erectile Dysfunction Bryan ... PDF Free PPT Slides of All Figures Classifications Cardiology Patient Page Services Article Usage Statistics E-mail ...

  17. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K D Rosenman

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested.

  18. Do the blood pressure effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs influence cardiovascular morbidity and mortality?

    PubMed

    Elliott, William J

    2010-08-01

    There are many theories about why selective inhibitors of the second isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) increase cardiovascular risk. Although torcetrapib raises blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, it has been difficult to prove such a link for COX-2 inhibitors in randomized clinical trials. This review shows a significant correlation in placebo-controlled trials between the five agents' elevations in blood pressures and their rate ratios for cardiovascular events. A larger body of evidence arises from randomized clinical trial comparisons of selective versus nonselective inhibitors of COX-2, but these results are heterogeneous for naproxen versus other traditional agents. The best current trial evidence comes from the centrally adjudicated placebo-controlled trials of celecoxib for colonic polyps: If the blood pressure did not rise at 1 or 3 years after randomization, cardiovascular risk did not significantly increase. Many more data will become available in 2013, after the only prospective clinical trial involving cardiovascular end points is completed. PMID:20524091

  19. Adiponectin and cardiovascular inflammatory responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiro Takemura; Kenneth Walsh; Noriyuki Ouchi

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a cause of many metabolic and cardiovascular disorders through its ability to promote chronic systemic\\u000a inflammation. Recent studies have found that adipose tissues secrete numerous cytokines that are referred to as adipokines.\\u000a Although most adipokines induce inflammation, adiponectin inhibits inflammatory reactions and protects against metabolic and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on the anti-inflammatory properties of

  20. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  1. Testosterone and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Gioia, Angelo; Giovannini, Lara; Boscaro, Marco; Corona, Giovanni; Carpi, Angelo; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is one of the most common causes of death in the western populations and, nowadays, its incidence is increasing even in the developing countries; although CV disease affects both sexes, it is more frequent in males in whom it shortens the average life expectancy. In this regard, this difference has been wrongly attributed for many years to the negative effects of testosterone (T); however, nowadays, a large amount of evidence suggests that this hormone may have protective effects on the CV system and that, indeed, the low levels of T could be associated with an increased CV risk and with an augmentation of morbidity and mortality in males. Such an aspect gains great relevance in light of the consideration that T decrease, besides occurring as a consequence of rare pathological conditions, can often take place with natural aging, causing a state of "male menopause", also called late-onset hypogonadism. In this review, we aimed to summarize the present state of the art concerning the association between T deficit and CV disease by analyzing the protective role of T on CV system and the relationship of this hormonal lack with metabolic syndrome, CV morbidity and mortality, and with the CV complications, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke, that frequently occur in T deficiency. PMID:23475207

  2. [Homocysteine and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Lutteri, L; Chapelle, J P; Gielen, J

    1999-06-01

    Homocystinuria is an uncommon genetic disease characterized by a marked increase of serum homocysteine (HCY), an intermediate of methionine metabolism. In patients with homocystinuria, hyperhomocysteinemia promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and is responsible for premature coronary artery disease. Recently, several studies have also demonstrated that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia--not necessarily linked to an inborn metabolic defect--may also be considered as an independant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The main mechanisms of HCY atherogenic action are thought to be LDL oxydation, inhibition of vascular endothelium growth combined with stimulation of smooth muscular cells proliferation, and interference with the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Cofactors of key enzymes in HCY metabolism, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6, may be given, alone or in combination, for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteinemia can be assessed by basal plasma HCY concentration and/or by HCY levels measured after a methionine loading test. Mainly measured till now in specialized laboratories using rather complex techniques (HPLC, GCMS, amino acid analyser ...), HCY determination is today spreading widely owing to the development of automated immunoassays. PMID:10446525

  3. Line of Best Fit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Donna

    When data is displayed with a scatter plot, it is often useful to attempt to represent that data with the equation of a straight line for purposes of predicting values that may not be displayed on the plot. Such a straight line is called the "line of best fit." In this activity, students discover the relationship between the fat grams and the total calories in fast food by graphing the given data, estimate the line of best fit using a strand of spaghetti, calculate the slope of that line, and translate it into an equation. Then, they use that equation to predict information not originally included in the scatter plot.

  4. Personal Fitness Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Cross

    2005-11-26

    This activity will help you create a personal fitness plan that is right for you. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle can help you feel your best and prevent the onset of certain diseases. At the conclusion of this activity, you will: Understand the health benefits of physical activity. Be able to describe three types of exercise. Create a custom plan based on your own preferences. The first step in creating your personal fitness plan is to understand why one is important to have and to maintain. Read ...

  5. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  6. Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. Mitochondria, myocardial remodeling, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Hugo E; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Tomás; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Pedrozo, Zully; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Garcia, Lorena; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The process of muscle remodeling lies at the core of most cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac adaptation to pressure or volume overload is associated with a complex molecular change in cardiomyocytes which leads to anatomic remodeling of the heart muscle. Although adaptive at its beginnings, the sustained cardiac hypertrophic remodeling almost unavoidably ends in progressive muscle dysfunction, heart failure and ultimately death. One of the features of cardiac remodeling is a progressive impairment in mitochondrial function. The heart has the highest oxygen uptake in the human body and accordingly it has a large number of mitochondria, which form a complex network under constant remodeling in order to sustain the high metabolic rate of cardiac cells and serve as Ca(2+) buffers acting together with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, this high dependence on mitochondrial metabolism has its costs: when oxygen supply is threatened, high leak of electrons from the electron transport chain leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. These three aspects of mitochondrial function (Reactive oxygen species signaling, Ca(2+) handling and mitochondrial dynamics) are critical for normal muscle homeostasis. In this article, we will review the latest evidence linking mitochondrial morphology and function with the process of myocardial remodeling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22972531

  8. Optimization of inclusive fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Grafen

    2006-01-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be

  9. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  10. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  11. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT)

    MedlinePLUS

    Immunochemical fecal occult blood test; iFOBT; Colon cancer screening - FIT ... test card. Add the brush to the waste bag and throw it away. Send the sample to the lab for testing. Your doctor may ask you to test more than one stool sample before sending it in.

  12. MyFitnessPal.

    PubMed

    2015-05-20

    It can be hard for busy nurses to stick to a healthy diet and keep track of their calorie intake. So whether you are looking to lose weight or just trying to stay healthy, MyFitnessPal is a free app that can help. PMID:25990170

  13. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  14. Curve Fit Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

  15. Making the Fitness Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Sheri J.; Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine

    2005-01-01

    Children's fitness levels are decreasing at an alarming rate. The Centers for Disease Control has determined that approximately 33% of children do not regularly engage in vigorous physical activity (CDC, 2002). As a result, childhood obesity has increased 100% since 1980 in the United States due to physical inactivity (CDC, 2004). A well-planned…

  16. Personal fitness takes work

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-05-28

    It is important to eat healthy foods and exercise regularly to keep your body maintained. Eating disorders and diet pill or steroid addictions should be avoided or treated if they do develop because they are not healthy.

  17. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Lloyd; S C Langley-Evans; S McMullen

    2010-01-01

    Background:Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk.Objective:To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether

  18. Screening for Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Thoracic Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jacob Adams; Robert G. Prosnitz; Louis S. Constine; Lawrence B. Marks; Steven E. Lipshultz

    \\u000a \\u000a Background and purpose  A solid body of evidence demonstrates that therapeutic thoracic radiotherapy can injure the cardiovascular system. However,\\u000a there is little consensus on how to screen survivors who received this therapy. This review intends to assess recent evidence\\u000a on radiotherapy-related cardiac injury with the goal of formulating evidence-based guidelines.

  19. The body as art.

    PubMed

    Barker, D J; Barker, M J

    2002-07-01

    For millennia people have altered the appearance of their bodies with cosmetics, jewellery, tattoos, piercings, and other surgical procedures. It would appear that they wish to conform to a perceived 'ideal body', although the actual appearance of such a body is subject to temporal, cultural and geographical change. In contemporary society the media are largely responsible for providing the yardsticks against which individual body shape is measured. Today the desired form is generally young, slim, tanned and blemish-free. Sadly, dissatisfaction with body image can be the source of great unhappiness and may even lead to suicide. Interested scholars have debated the meaning of beauty for centuries but it seems that every human society has its own standards. At the simplest it would appear that youth and symmetry are the most highly prized ingredients. There is no doubt that those who fit the conventional standards of attractiveness are treated better by society. Individuals have an inalienable right to their own body appearance, and to alter it as they see fit, however such modifications may not always be in their own best interests. Practitioners of cosmetic procedures must be alert to clients with histories of weight fluctuation, unrealistic body image, or low self-esteem. Psychological disorders may present with dysmorphophobic symptoms. Doctors providing cosmetic services need to be adept at diagnosing psychological illness. PMID:17147524

  20. Cardiovascular events in chronic dialysis patients: emphasizing the importance of vascular disease prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosmas I. Paraskevas; Ioannis Kotsikoris; Sotirios A. Koupidis; Alexandros A. Tzovaras; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both chronic kidney disease and peritoneal dialysis\\/hemodialysis patients.\\u000a Vascular disease prevention in these patients is therefore important to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events and\\u000a the high morbidity and mortality. This Editorial discusses the traditional, (1) smoking, (2) dyslipidemia, (3) body mass index,\\u000a (4) glycemic control and (5) blood pressure, and

  1. Fitness, inclusive fitness, and optimization Laurent Lehmann Francois Rousset

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Fitness, inclusive fitness, and optimization Laurent Lehmann · Franc¸ois Rousset Accepted: 23 the conditions under which individuals can be regarded as fitness maximizing agents is thus of consid- erable interest to biologists. Here, we compare different concepts of fitness maxi- mization, and discuss within

  2. What is Fitness123? A fitness program designed exclusively for

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    What is Fitness123? A fitness program designed exclusively for UMaine Faculty & Staff who are: · New to exercise or have lost their motivation to exercise · Intimidated by fitness facilities · Unsure of how to begin an exercise program Join Fitness123 and learn to exercise from supportive instructors

  3. Evaluation of the NASA/JSC Health Related Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, A. S.; Pinkerton, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the NASA Health Related Fitness Program (HRFP), which includes a 12-week educational component (EC) and quarterly fitness retests (RT), on the results of periodic testing of fitness, body composition, and blood lipids were evaluated in three goups of pilots. These included the group of compliers (those who completed EC and not less than 75 percent RT), the noncompliers (completed EC and lesss than 75 percent RT), and the dropouts from EC. Results show that beneficial changes in physical activity found two years after the completion of the HRFP were related to both the completion of the EC and the periodic fitness reevaluations. These changes were associated with maximal oxygen consumption, percent body fat, body weight, and blood lipids.

  4. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular force.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Allen, Ryan P; Roberson, Daniel W; Jurancich, Matt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiovascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular force. Active, young (age and body fat = 25.3 ± 4.5 years and 14.3 ± 6.4%) men and women (N = 20) of a similar age, physical activity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) completed 6 sessions of HIIT consisting of repeated Wingate tests over a 2- to 3-week period. Subjects completed 4 Wingate tests on days 1 and 2, 5 on days 3 and 4, and 6 on days 5 and 6. A control group of 9 men and women (age and body fat = 22.8 ± 2.8 years and 15.2 ± 6.9%) completed all testing but did not perform HIIT. Changes in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), VO2max, body composition, oxygen (O2) pulse, peak, mean, and minimum power output, fatigue index, and voluntary force production of the knee flexors and extensors were examined pretraining and posttraining. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in VO2max, O2 pulse, and Wingate-derived power output with HIIT. The magnitude of improvement in VO2max was related to baseline VO2max (r = -0.44, p = 0.05) and fatigue index (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). No change (p > 0.05) in resting BP, HR, or force production was revealed. Data show that HIIT significantly enhanced VO2max and O2 pulse and power output in active men and women. PMID:22201691

  5. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  6. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 ?M in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 ?bpm in heart rate and 51 ?mmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 ?M and 30 ?M, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation. PMID:26157557

  7. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 ?M in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 ?bpm in heart rate and 51 ?mmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 ?M and 30 ?M, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  8. PPARs and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Milton; Chang, Lin; Fan, Yanbo; Zhang, Jifeng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone-receptor superfamily. Originally cloned in 1990, PPARs were found to be mediators of pharmacologic agents that induce hepatocyte peroxisome proliferation. PPARs also are expressed in cells of the cardiovascular system. PPAR? appears to be highly expressed during atherosclerotic lesion formation, suggesting that increased PPAR? expression may be a vascular compensatory response. Also, ligand-activated PPAR? decreases the inflammatory response in cardiovascular cells, particularly in endothelial cells. PPAR?, similar to PPAR?, also has pleiotropic effects in the cardiovascular system, including antiinflammatory and antiatherosclerotic properties. PPAR? activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle proinflammatory responses, attenuating the development of atherosclerosis. However, PPAR? overexpression may lead to elevated macrophage inflammation and atherosclerosis. Conversely, PPAR? ligands are shown to attenuate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by improving endothelial cell proliferation and survival while decreasing endothelial cell inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Furthermore, the administration of PPAR ligands in the form of TZDs and fibrates has been disappointing in terms of markedly reducing cardiovascular events in the clinical setting. Therefore, a better understanding of PPAR-dependent and -independent signaling will provide the foundation for future research on the role of PPARs in human cardiovascular biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1415–1452. PMID:19061437

  9. Optimisation of inclusive fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Grafen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The first fully explicit argument,is given that broadly supports,a widespread,belief among,whole-organism,biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms,acting as if maximizing,their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization,programs,permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some,kind of Lyapunov,or even potential function.

  10. Standard Model Fits

    E-print Network

    Andre Krueger

    2002-06-24

    Recent results of tests of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions are presented. Data are used from the four LEP experiments, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, OPAL, the SLD experiment at SLC, the TEVATRON p-pbar experiments CDF and D0 and the NuTeV neutrino experiment. chi2-fits are performed in order to study the consistency of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions.

  11. A fitness screening model for increasing fitness assessment and research experiences in undergraduate exercise science students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Gregory A. Brown (University of Nebraska, Kearney Department of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Leisure Studies)

    2008-06-25

    When students analyze and present original data they have collected, and hence have a cultivated sense of curiosity about the data, student learning is enhanced. It is often difficult to provide students an opportunity to practice their skills, use their knowledge, and gain research experiences during a typical course laboratory. This article describes a model of an out-of-classroom experience during which undergraduate exercise science students provide a free health and fitness screening to the campus community. Although some evidence of the effectiveness of this experience is presented, this is not a detailed evaluation of either the service or learning benefits of the fitness screening. Working in small learning groups in the classroom, students develop hypotheses about the health and fitness of the population to be screened. Then, as part of the health and fitness screening, participants are evaluated for muscular strength, aerobic fitness, body composition, blood pressure, physical activity, and blood cholesterol levels. Students then analyze the data collected during the screening, accept or reject their hypotheses based on statistical analyses of the data, and make in-class presentations of their findings. This learning experience has been used successfully to illustrate the levels of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lack of physical fitness in the campus community as well as provide an opportunity for students to use statistical procedures to analyze data. It has also provided students with an opportunity to practice fitness assessment and interpersonal skills that will enhance their future careers.

  12. Fitness and employee productivity.

    PubMed

    Howard, J; Mikalachki, A

    1979-09-01

    What should management consider when deciding whether to sponsor a company fitness program? This article gives pragmatic answers to the business community as well as outlining critical avenues for future research for both academics and corporations. Understanding the nature of the commitment is a prerequisite for success. Whether the program should be short term and serve as a catalyst for future individual efforts, or a long-term commitment, is a question which must be considered. Decisions of this type are partially dependent on what criteria are used to evaluate success. As measurements of employee productivity are very subjective or non-existent, absenteeism and turnover are potential yardsticks. Details of employee programs must also address the issue of participation as well as the frequency, intensity and duration. Future research must separate the effect of the fitness improvement from the benfits derived from just being in a program. The measurement of productivity and the long-term effect of fitness programs, especially short-term programs, are also areas for future work. PMID:540412

  13. Nonlinear Curve-Fitting Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Badavi, Forooz F.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear optimization algorithm helps in finding best-fit curve. Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, interactive curve-fitting routine based on description of quadratic expansion of X(sup 2) statistic. Utilizes nonlinear optimization algorithm calculating best statistically weighted values of parameters of fitting function and X(sup 2) minimized. Provides user with such statistical information as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters producing highest degree of correlation between experimental data and mathematical model. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  15. Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging

  16. Cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Ayas, Najib; Laher, Ismail

    2012-04-01

    Sleep apnea is a common health concern that is characterized by repetitive episodes of asphyxia. This condition has been linked to serious long-term adverse effects such as hypertension, metabolic dysregulation, and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanism for the initiation and aggravation of cardiovascular disease has not been fully elucidated, oxidative stress and subsequent endothelial dysfunction play major roles. Animal models, which have the advantage of being free of comorbidities and/or behavioral variables (that commonly occur in humans), allow invasive measurements under well-controlled experimental conditions, and as such are useful tools in the study of the pathophysiological mechanisms of sleep apnea. This review summarizes currently available information on the cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea and briefly describes common experimental approaches useful to sleep apnea in different animal models. PMID:22048845

  17. Radiotherapy and anthracyclines – cardiovascular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wo?niewski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to analyze the impact of radiotherapy and anthracyclines on the cardiovascular system, based on a survey of contemporary literature. Currently, high efficiency of anticancer therapies has increased the rate of survival in patients treated for cancer. It should be emphasized, however, that these treatments damage not only the affected but also the healthy tissue. Consequently, with the increase of survival rate in these patients, the number of patients with complaints regarding numerous organs and systems also increases as a result of earlier treatment. Thus, during the first decade of the 21st century, a number of concerns about the relationship between cancer treatment and dysfunction of the cardiovascular system were resolved. Anthracyclines, as well as radiotherapy, are capable of damaging the cardiovascular system, both at the central level, by the deterioration of cardiac function, and at peripheral levels, by increasing the hemodynamic and thrombotic changes.

  18. Undergraduates Understanding of Cardiovascular Phenomena

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Joel A. Michael (Rush Medical College Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology)

    2002-06-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the studentsÂ? answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the studentsÂ? inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  19. Current Genomics in Cardiovascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Vinit; Brouilette, Scott; Abrams, Dominic; Schilling, Richard; O’Brien, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a heterogeneous, complex trait that has a major impact on human morbidity and mortality. Common genetic variation may predispose to common forms of CVD in the community, and rare genetic conditions provide unique pathogenetic insights into these diseases. With the advent of the Human Genome Project and the genomic era, new tools and methodologies have revolutionised the field of genetic research in cardiovascular medicine. In this review, we describe the rationale for the current emphasis on large-scale genomic studies, elaborate on genome wide association studies and summarise the impact of genomics on clinical cardiovascular medicine and how this may eventually lead to new therapeutics and personalised medicine. PMID:23450299

  20. Pediatric CKD and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Safder, Osama; Al sharif, Shafiqa; Kari, Jameela A

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the possible risk factors for early atherosclerosis in children with CKD. Endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis, starts early in renal disease, as indicated by increased carotid artery intima media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness, impaired flow mediated dilatation, and coronary artery calcification, which are frequently present in children with CKD. Many risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, renal bone disease, hyperhomocysteinemia, and uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors are associated with CKD. All of these risk factors are modifiable and optimal clinical management can delay or prevent cardiovascular disease. Another strategy to decrease the risk of premature cardiac disease and death in children with CKD is to slow the progression of renal disease. PMID:24720458

  1. Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina H.; Robledo, Candace; Boghossian, Nansi; Zhang, Cuilin; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease has traditionally been viewed as a condition of aging individuals, increasing focus has turned to its developmental origins. Since birthweight has been related to cardiovascular disease risk, research into factors such as gravid conditions that affect fetal growth have grown. Associations between maternal diabetes and childhood obesity from sibling studies suggest a causal role but prospective studies of gestational diabetes remain mixed. Preeclampsia and increased offspring blood pressure has been consistently observed but evidence for other cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. While maternal obesity is associated with childhood obesity, causality remains unclear and paternal obesity should be investigated as an independent risk factor. Environmental chemical exposures in utero, particularly obesogens, are now emerging as another concern, as is conception by infertility treatment. Few studies have investigated subclinical measures of endothelial function or atherosclerosis and more research in these areas may help reveal the underlying pathogenesis. PMID:25364653

  2. A Study of VO2 Max and Body Fat Percentage in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bute, Smita S; Deshmukh, P.R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aerobic capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and athletic fitness. Body fat percentage affects VO2 max and thus the cardiovascular status of the athletes. The present study was undertaken to assess the VO2 max and body fat percentage in athletes. The secondary objective of the study was to study the relationship between VO2 max and body fat percentage. Materials and Methods: Twenty five female athletes of age group 17-22years were selected for the study. VO2 max was determined by Queen’s college step test and body fat percentage by skin fold calipers. The VO2 max and body fat percentage were determined in non athletes of same age group for comparison. The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Observation and Results: The mean VO2 max in athletic group was 39.62 ± 2.80 ml/kg/min. In non-athletic group, VO2 max was 23.54 ± 3.26 ml/kg/min. The mean body fat percentage in athletes was 24.11 ± 1.83% and in non-athletes it was 29.31 ± 3.86%.The difference in VO2 max and body fat percentage was statistically significant in our study. The VO2 max and body fat percentage in both the groups showed negative correlation by Pearson test but, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed a statistically significant higher VO2 max in female athletes. The study showed a negative correlation between VO2 max and body fat percentage but was not statistically significant. PMID:25653935

  3. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7?±?1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ?5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (?4 beat/min and ?5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (?5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations. PMID:23161271

  4. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  5. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  6. Physical Fitness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several color-coded sections covering different aspects of the program. It is mimeographed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: Activities are listed under the qualities or parts of the body

  7. Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in three Chinese communities in 1989.

    PubMed

    Rao, X; Hsu-Hage, B H; Wahlqvist, M L; Li, Y; Liu, X; Zhang, K; Kuang, T; Zhang, D; Dai, Z

    1995-09-01

    The cardiovascular risk prevalence of 935 adult Chinese living in Chauzhou, Meizhou, and Xinhui cities of Guangdong Province, China, is reported. The three communities are geographically separated, and represent the three major dialect group in Guangdong Province (Teochew, Hakka and Cantonese respectively) which are also the major donor populations of overseas Chinese to Australia and South East Asia. Taking into account historical data, the conventional cardiovascular risk factor prevalence of these combined communities in China as a whole is on the increase and approaches or even exceeds that in Western Society. However, the three communities are not very alike in their prevalences of individual conventional cardiovascular risk factors, notably for hyperlipidaemia (most prevalent in Chauzhou), hypertension (most prevalent in Chauzhou men at 12.4% and least in Meizhou women 5.0%) and cigarette smoking (most prevalent in Xinhui men at 72.7% and least in Xinhui women, 0%). They are similar in stature, body weight, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio, with very low prevalences of overweight/obesity, or abdominal obesity. An understanding of the contributors to sub-ethnic difference in cardiovascular risk should emerge with further study of these Chinese populations. PMID:24394352

  8. Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia; Deyanov, Christo; Israel, Mishel

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the cardiovascular system. Two groups of exposed operators (49 broadcasting (BC) station and 61 TV station operators) and a control group of 110 radiorelay station operators, matched by sex and age, with similar job characteristics except for the radiofrequency EMR were studied. The EMR exposure was assessed and the time-weighted average (TWA) was calculated. The cardiovascular risk factors arterial pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease were followed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in the two exposed groups. It was found that the radiofrequency EMR exposure was associated with greater chance of becoming hypertensive and dyslipidemic. The stepwise multiple regression equations showed that the SBP and TWA predicted the high TC and high LDL-C, while the TC, age and abdominal obesity were predictors for high SBP and DBP. In conclusion, our data show that the radiofrequency EMR contributes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:16503299

  9. Peripheral effector mechanism hypothesis of postflight cardiovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L F; Yu, Z B; Ma, J; Mao, Q W

    2001-06-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of cardiovascular dysfunction after space-flight are important to illustrate the cardiovascular effect of microgravity and develop appropriate multi-system countermeasures for future long-duration spaceflights. Over the past 10 yr, we have systematically studied the adaptational changes in structure and function of both the heart and vessels, using the tail-suspension rat model to simulate microgravity effects. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity induced atrophic changes and reduced contractility of the heart muscle, and upward- and downward-regulation in structure, function, and innervation state of vessels in the brain and hind body of the rat. In addition, more recent advances in relevant ground-based and space-flight studies from different laboratories have also been reviewed. Based on these studies, it has been speculated that, in addition to hypovolemia, the microgravity-induced adaptational changes in the structure and function of the two main effectors of the cardiovascular system, i.e., the arterial smooth muscle and the cardiac muscle, might be among the most important mechanisms responsible for postflight cardiovascular dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance. In this paper we will review the available evidence with comments. PMID:11396563

  10. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  11. Fitness characteristics of a suburban special weapons and tactics team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Colburn, Deanna; Crill, Matthew T; Hostler, David P; Suyama, J

    2012-03-01

    Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) operators are specialized law enforcement officers who traditionally perform their duties with higher anticipated workloads because of additional body armor, weapons, and equipment used for enhanced operations and protection. This elevated workload increases the need for SWAT operators to improve or maintain their physical fitness to consistently perform routine operations. Typical tasks require trunk rotation, overhead upper extremity use, upper and lower body strength use, and long waiting periods followed by explosive movements while wearing additional equipment. Eleven male SWAT operators from 1 SWAT team performed flexibility, strength, power, and aerobic capacity tests and a variety of job-related tasks. Data were compared with age- and gender-based normative data. Fitness testing revealed that officers ranked high on tests of muscular strength (leg strength, 90th percentile; bench press, 85th percentile); however, body composition (55th percentile), core body strength, and flexibility ranked lower. Furthermore, aerobic capacity and muscular power had a wide range of scores and were also not ideal to support maximal performance during routine operations. These data can assist exercise specialists choose fitness programs specifically for job-related tasks of SWAT operators when creating fitness programs. Fitness programming for law enforcement should focus on improving aerobic fitness, flexibility, core strength, and muscular power while maintaining muscular strength to meet the needs of these specialized officers. PMID:22289693

  12. Association of Sedentary Behavior Time with Ideal Cardiovascular Health: The ORISCAV-LUX Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p?=?0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p?=?0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p?=?0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:24925084

  13. Evaluation of respirator fit training by quantitative fit testing 

    E-print Network

    Chute, Daniel Otis

    1981-01-01

    EVALUATION OF RESPiRATOR FIT TRAINING BY OLIANTITATIVE FIT TESTING A Thesis by DANIEL OTIS CHUTE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of HASTER OF SCIENCE Auoust... 1981 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATION OF RESPIRATOR FIT TRAINING BY I)UANTITATIVE FIT TESTING A Thesis by Daniel Otis Chute Approved as to style and content by: Chairman f Committ e) (Head o epartment) (Memb (Member) August 1981...

  14. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, K D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested. PMID:465378

  15. Bile Acids Regulate Cardiovascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Sandeep; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Pallone, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Research over the last decade has uncovered roles for bile acids (BAs) that extend beyond their traditional functions in regulating lipid digestion and cholesterol metabolism. BAs are now recognized as signaling molecules that interact with both plasma membrane and nuclear receptors. Emerging evidence indicates that by interacting with these receptors BAs regulate their own synthesis, glucose and energy homeostasis, and other important physiological events. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the actions of BAs on cardiovascular function. In the heart and the systemic circulation, BAs interact with plasma membrane G-protein coupled receptors, e.g. TGR5 and muscarinic receptors, and nuclear receptors, e.g. the farnesoid (FXR) and pregnane (PXR) xenobiotic receptors. BA receptors are expressed in cardiovascular tissue, however, the mechanisms underlying BA-mediated regulation of cardiovascular function remain poorly understood. BAs reduce heart rate by regulating channel conductance and calcium dynamics in sino-atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, and regulate vascular tone via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. End-stage-liver disease, obstructive jaundice and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are prominent conditions in which elevated serum BAs alter vascular dynamics. This review focuses on BAs as newly-recognized signaling molecules that modulate cardiovascular function. PMID:21707953

  16. Telomere biology in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Kurz

    2004-01-01

    Summary Advanced age brings about significant changes to cardiovascular physiology, and is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The basis for this associa- tion remains unclear, but it has been suggested that atherogenesis may share common mech- anisms with the ageing process. Ageing at the cellular level leads to a condition known as replicative senescence, which is

  17. Therapeutic angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Anthony Ware; Michael Simons

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in the management of ischaemic cardiovascular disease during the past three decades, there remains a significant population of patients who are not served well by current treatment approaches. Stimulating revascularization in ischaemic regions is an attractive novel therapeutic strategy, and several angiogenic agents anticipated to have the potential to achieve this goal have been clinically evaluated in

  18. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed. PMID:21465906

  19. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  20. Cardiovascular Toxicities Upon Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yueming; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism has been well documented; however, little attention has been devoted to Mn-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. This review summarizes literature data from both animal and human studies on Mn’s effect on cardiovascular function. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) is significantly higher in Mn-exposed workers than that in the control subjects. The main types of abnormal ECG include sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinister megacardia, and ST-T changes. The accelerated heartbeat and shortened P-R interval appear to be more prominent in female exposed workers than in their male counterparts. Mn-exposed workers display a mean diastolic blood pressure that is significantly lower than that of the control subjects, especially in the young and female exposed workers. Animal studies indicate that Mn is capable of quickly accumulating in heart tissue, resulting in acute or sub-acute cardiovascular disorders, such as acute cardiodepression and hypotension. These toxic outcomes appear to be associated with Mn-induced mitochondrial damage and interaction with the calcium channel in the cardiovascular system. PMID:16382172

  1. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  2. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Mathieu; I Lemieux; J-P Després

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, a highly prevalent condition, is heterogeneous with regard to its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Epidemiological observations and metabolic investigations have consistently demonstrated that the accumulation of excess visceral fat is related to an increased risk of CVD as well as several metabolic and inflammatory perturbations. In the past decade, data from several studies have served to emphasize

  3. Global risk of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Poulter

    2003-01-01

    UK death rates from coronary heart disease are among the highest in the world. This is because the UK has high levels of standard risk factors and a low level of intervention on those risk factors. The most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are dyslipidaemia (particularly high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol), smoking, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and central obesity.

  4. CSU Research Colloquium Cardiovascular Research at CSU

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    that focuses on understanding the cellular and molecular bases of cardiovascular function in health and disease-top to bed-side efforts to understand and develop new interventions for cardiovascular disease in people CSU Research Colloquium Cardiovascular Research at CSU: Molecules, Models and Mankind Hilton Fort

  5. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD. PMID:17120060

  6. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  7. STRETCH AND STRENGTHEN PROGRAM 02010 Wellness Initiative| Get Fit At Work

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    bend mid back stretch 3. Upper Back Stretch 2. Torso Twist 1. Side bend *** Fit Tip *** Never bounce Body Hang Stretch 6. Lower Back and Hip Stretch 5. Shoulder Blade Squeeze *** Fit Tip *** While. #12;UofL STRETCH AND STRENGTHEN PROGRAM 9 Back Strength 5. Upper Body Twist 6. Single Limb Raise

  8. Cardiovascular toxicity of Citrus aurantium in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Deborah K; George, Nysia I; White, Gene E; Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Pellicore, Linda S; Fabricant, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    When safety concerns forced the removal of ephedra from the market, other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium or bitter orange (BO) were used as replacements. A major component of the BO extract is synephrine, a chemical that is structurally similar to ephedrine. Because ephedrine has cardiovascular effects that may be exacerbated during physical exercise, the purpose of this study was to determine whether extracts containing synephrine produced adverse effects on the cardiovascular system in exercising rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with 10 or 50 mg of synephrine/kg body weight from one of two different extracts; caffeine was added to some doses. The rats ran on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 3 days/week. Heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and QT interval were monitored. Both doses of both extracts significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure for up to 8 h after dosing. Effects on heart rate and body temperature appeared to be due primarily to the effects of caffeine. These data suggest that the combination of synephrine, caffeine, and exercise can have significant effects on blood pressure and do not appear to be effective in decreasing food consumption or body weight. PMID:23397375

  9. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

  10. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Floras, John S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep apnea is evident in approximately 10% of adults in the general population, but in certain cardiovascular diseases, and in particular those characterized by sodium and water retention, its prevalence can exceed 50%. Although sleep apnea is not as yet integrated into formal cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms, there is increasing awareness of its importance in the causation or promotion of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and stroke, and thus, not surprisingly, as a predictor of premature cardiovascular death. Sleep apnea manifests as two principal phenotypes, both characterized by respiratory instability: obstructive (OSA), which arises when sleep-related withdrawal of respiratory drive to the upper airway dilator muscles is superimposed upon a narrow and highly compliant airway predisposed to collapse, and central (CSA), which occurs when the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide falls below the apnea threshold, resulting in withdrawal of central drive to respiratory muscles. The present objectives are to: (1) review the epidemiology and patho-physiology of OSA and CSA, with particular emphasis on the role of renal sodium retention in initiating and promoting these processes, and on population studies that reveal the long-term consequences of untreated OSA and CSA; (2) illustrate mechanical, autonomic, chemical, and inflammatory mechanisms by which OSA and CSA can increase cardiovascular risk and event rates by initiating or promoting hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke; (3) highlight insights from randomized trials in which treating sleep apnea was the specific target of therapy; (4) emphasize the present lack of evidence that treating sleep apnea reduces cardiovascular risk and the current clinical equipoise concerning treatment of asymptomatic patients with sleep apnea; and (5) consider clinical implications and future directions of clinical research and practice. PMID:24084492

  11. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  12. Finding the Right Fitness Trainer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... don’t hurt myself!” — Grace, age 81 Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at ... but want some extra help, working with a fitness trainer may be just the thing. A trainer ...

  13. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ... vigorous program for people of all ability and fitness levels. Dance video games and DVDs are also ...

  14. The impact of the circadian timing system on cardiovascular and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Yang, Jessica N.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that adverse cardiovascular events peak in the morning (i.e., between 6 AM and noon) and that shift work is associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. The endogenous circadian timing system modulates certain cardiovascular risk markers to be highest (e.g., cortisol, nonlinear dynamic heart rate control, and platelet activation) or to respond most unfavorably to stressors such as exercise (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vagal cardiac modulation) at an internal body time corresponding to the time of day when adverse cardiovascular events most likely occur. This indicates that the circadian timing system and its interaction with external cardiovascular stressors (e.g., physical activity) could contribute to the morning peak in adverse cardiovascular events. Moreover, circadian misalignment and simulated night work have adverse effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function. This suggests that misalignment between the behavioral cycle and the circadian timing system in shift workers contributes to that population’s increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22877674

  15. The role of inflammatory markers in explaining the association between depression and cardiovascular hospitalisations.

    PubMed

    Hiles, Sarah A; Baker, Amanda L; de Malmanche, Theo; McEvoy, Mark; Boyle, Michael; Attia, John

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether inflammation may explain the relationship between depression and incident cardiovascular hospitalisations. Participants (55-85 years) completed baseline depression and physical assessment. Those without self-reported cardiovascular events were followed prospectively for hospital admissions for angina, myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction (median 937 days). Across 5140 person-years of risk (N = 1692), there were 47 incident cardiovascular hospitalisations (2.8 %). Controlling for age and gender, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio were associated with future cardiovascular events. Mediation analysis showed that CRP accounted for 8.1 % and IL-6 10.9 % of the effect of depression on cardiovascular events, and including the indirect effect in the model substantially reduced the direct relationship between depression and cardiovascular hospitalisations. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio accounted for indirect effects of 7.7 and 10.4 %, respectively. Inflammatory markers partly explain the association between depression and cardiovascular events, although other shared factors also likely contribute. PMID:25835436

  16. Fit Indices Versus Test Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2005-01-01

    Model evaluation is one of the most important aspects of structural equation modeling (SEM). Many model fit indices have been developed. It is not an exaggeration to say that nearly every publication using the SEM methodology has reported at least one fit index. Most fit indices are defined through test statistics. Studies and interpretation of…

  17. Group Fitness Instructor? Student Affairs

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Group Fitness Instructor? Student Affairs Are you... Energetic? Outgoing? Motivating? If you answered "yes!" to these questions, we are looking for you! We Will train you to teach! GrOup FITNESS INTErNShIp Preparatory class for the National AFAA Primary Group Fitness Exam 2 or 3 credit course for Spring 2014

  18. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjian; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2014-10-16

    Cardiovascular cells derived from patient specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) harbor gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of inherited cardiac diseases and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Numerous reports have demonstrated the utilization of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) to model cardiac diseases as a means of investigating their underlying mechanisms. So far, they have been shown to investigate the molecular mechanisms of many cardiac disorders, such as long-QT syndrome (LQT), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Barth syndrome (BTHS), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and other CHD. This article summarizes the growing body of research related to modeling various cardiac diseases using hiPSCs. Moreover, by reviewing the methods used in previous studies, we propose multiple novel applications of hiPSCs to investigate comprehensive cardiovascular disorders and facilitate drug discovery. PMID:25322695

  19. Opto-physiological modeling applied to photoplethysmographic cardiovascular assessment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Zheng, Jia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents opto-physiological (OP) modeling and its application in cardiovascular assessment techniques based on photoplethysmography (PPG). Existing contact point measurement techniques, i.e., pulse oximetry probes, are compared with the next generation non-contact and imaging implementations, i.e., non-contact reflection and camera-based PPG. The further development of effective physiological monitoring techniques relies on novel approaches to OP modeling that can better inform the design and development of sensing hardware and applicable signal processing procedures. With the help of finite-element optical simulation, fundamental research into OP modeling of photoplethysmography is being exploited towards the development of engineering solutions for practical biomedical systems. This paper reviews a body of research comprising two OP models that have led to significant progress in the design of transmission mode pulse oximetry probes, and approaches to 3D blood perfusion mapping for the interpretation of cardiovascular performance. PMID:24287429

  20. Physical fitness of visually impaired adolescent goalball players.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Ilkim Citak; Aki, Esra; Ergun, Nevin

    2009-02-01

    This study compared the physical fitness of 28 visually impaired goalball players (M=13 yr.) and a group of 27 less active age-matched adolescents. Physical characteristics (age, height, weight, sex) and visual acuity of the children were recorded. Body composition (Body Mass Index, skinfold thickness of triceps plus calf), musculoskeletal function (trunk-lift, curl-up, isometric push-up, shoulder-stretch tests) and aerobic function (1-mile run/walk test) were evaluated according to the Brockport Physical Fitness Test Battery. Also, anaerobic power was assessed by a vertical jump test. Physical fitness of visually impaired goalball players was higher than that of the more sedentary group (p<.05), except shoulder-stretch test values (p>.05). It was considered that directing visually impaired children to participation sports or recreational activities such as goalball has importance in improving their physical fitness. PMID:19425454

  1. Physical Education: Tennis, Physical Fitness, Body-Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veilleux, Dave

    This unit plan for introducing high school students to the game of tennis is divided into objectives and suggested activities. A listing of resource outlets and retail prices for equipment and audiovisual materials is included. Student evaluation procedures are outlined, and a sample evaluation checklist is provided. (LH)

  2. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ailing Liu; Andrew P Hills; Xiaoqi Hu; Yanping Li; Lin Du; Ying Xu; Nuala M Byrne; Guansheng Ma

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular

  3. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo preventivo fondamentale sin dall’epoca prenatale e nelle diverse età della crescita. La condizione metabolica e neuro-endocrino cui è sottoposto il feto è rilevante per la “programmazione metabolica”. E’ dimostrata inoltre l’importanza delle modalità di allattamento e divezzamento con particolare interesse per l’assunzione di proteine nel controllo dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari. La corretta distribuzione di macronutrienti (lipidi, proteine e carboidrati) dall’infanzia all’adolescenza favorisce una crescita corretta e risulta utile a prevenire l’insorgenza dei determinanti di rischio di malattia cardiovascolare in età adulta. Nella presente review verrà esaminato l’impatto della nutrizione dalle più precoci fasi delle vita sul rischio cardiovascolare. PMID:23259704

  4. How to measure inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Creel, S

    1990-09-22

    Although inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964) is regarded as the basic currency of natural selection, difficulty in applying inclusive fitness theory to field studies persists, a quarter-century after its introduction (Grafen 1982, 1984; Brown 1987). For instance, strict application of the original (and currently accepted) definition of inclusive fitness predicts that no one should ever attempt to breed among obligately cooperative breeders. Much of this confusion may have arisen because Hamilton's (1964) original verbal definition of inclusive fitness was not in complete accord with his justifying model. By re-examining Hamilton's original model, a modified verbal definition of inclusive fitness can be justified. PMID:1979447

  5. A population model of integrative cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Pruett, William A; Husband, Leland D; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  6. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ciafone, R.A.; Rhodes, A.R.; Audley, M.; Freedberg, I.M.; Abelmann, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed.

  7. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

  8. Insulin Sensitizers and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina K. Thethi; Shipra Singh; Vivian Fonseca

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive disease caused by insulin resistance (IR) in the skeletal muscle, adipose tissue,\\u000a and liver in conjunction with impaired pancreatic secretion. Epidemiologic studies have shown IR to be an independent risk\\u000a factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance contributes to the development of atherosclerosis through multiple\\u000a other well-established risk factors such as hypertension,

  9. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Jennifer R.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a significant cause of death in industrialized society. Although some controversy persists, scientific evidence largely suggests that it is possible to reduce blood cholesterol by dietary measures and that reduction of hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. There is, furthermore, general consensus amongst health authorities with regard to dietary guidelines for modifying hypercholesterolaemia. This paper examines how dietary intervention, with particular emphasis on dietary fat, may influence the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease.

  10. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare M. Hasler; Susan Kundrat; Deborah Wool

    2000-01-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic\\u000a nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic,\\u000a tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and

  11. Cardiovascular effects of extreme physical training.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, W; Rost, R; De Meirleir, K; Liesen, H; Heck, H; Mader, A

    1986-01-01

    After a short historical remark the development of athlete's heart in childhood is described. Within 2 years significant differences were observed between endurance-trained (swimming) and untrained girls and boys determined by X-ray and echocardiographical examinations. The limits of the physiological size in relation to body weight were not exceeded within 10 years of longitudinal studies. A second point deals with athlete's heart from physiological and clinical viewpoints. The largest healthy heart ever found in our examinations of athletes had a size of 1,700 ml. Sixteen years after stopping the active career it was reduced to 950 ml without a pathological finding. Questionable and pathological cases are described. A third chapter covers the blood supply of internal organs during exercise combined with air or oxygen breathing. In this connection liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, and brain have been investigated. The reduced blood supply of the liver and kidneys during intense exercise on the cycle ergometer was not influenced significantly by inspiration of oxygen. A significant blood volume increase of the lungs was noticed during incremental rates of work. Exercise augmented also blood flow of the brain in relation to the work rate (at 100 W a 27% increase in grey matter flow of the right hemisphere). A fourth chapter deals with new hormonal and neurohormonal aspects related to the cardiovascular system. Beta-endorphines remained unchanged at work rates below the anaerobic threshold but increased significantly during maximal rate of work. The opiate antagonist naloxone abolished the rise in body temperature seen during ergometer exercise. The serotonin antagonist ketanserin lowered the blood pressure and the arterial lactic acid level during an incremental exercise test, similar to the results with the dopamine agonist pergolide. The hormone cardiodilatin is produced in the atrial appendages, and it is a potent substance in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. The adaptive reaction of the sympathetic nerve fibres in the myocard revealed different directions: activation, degeneration, and regeneration. These findings correlated highly significantly with the total amount of catecholamines in the heart muscle. PMID:3465205

  12. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Slaví?ek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Kone?ná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1±4.60 (SD) to 24.8±4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8±23.02 (SD) to 123.8±21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1,210 persons) from 79.8±12.7 (SD) to 77.5±11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86±0.95 (SD) to 4.32±0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31±1.59 (SD) to 3.88±1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  13. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy, although the majority of studies have been largely confined to non-cardiac cells. Despite the unique arrangement of mitochondria in the adult heart, emerging data suggest that changes in mitochondrial morphology may be relevant to various aspects of cardiovascular biology-these include cardiac development, the response to ischaemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and apoptosis. Interestingly, the machinery required for altering mitochondrial shape in terms of the mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins are all present in the adult heart, but their physiological function remains unclear. In this article, we review the current developments in this exciting new field of mitochondrial biology, the implications for cardiovascular physiology, and the potential for discovering novel therapeutic strategies for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:20631158

  14. Cardiovascular Dementia - A Different Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Udhaya; Heese, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The number of dementia patients has been growing in recent years and dementia represents a significant threat to aging people all over the world. Recent research has shown that the number of people affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. The rapidly increasing financial and personal costs will affect the world's economies, health care systems, and many families. Researchers are now exploring a possible connection among AD, vascular dementia (VD), diabetes mellitus (type 2, T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CD). This correlation may be due to a strong association of cardiovascular risk factors with AD and VD, suggesting that these diseases share some biologic pathways. Since heart failure is associated with an increased risk of AD and VD, keeping the heart healthy may prove to keep the brain healthy as well. The risk for dementia is especially high when diabetes mellitus is comorbid with severe systolic hypertension or heart disease. In addition, the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) is independently associated with cardinal neuropathological lesions of AD. Thus, the contribution of T2DM and CD to AD and VD implies that cardiovascular therapies may prove useful in preventing AD and dementia. PMID:20448820

  15. Cardiovascular dementia - a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Udhaya; Heese, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The number of dementia patients has been growing in recent years and dementia represents a significant threat to aging people all over the world. Recent research has shown that the number of people affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. The rapidly increasing financial and personal costs will affect the world's economies, health care systems, and many families. Researchers are now exploring a possible connection among AD, vascular dementia (VD), diabetes mellitus (type 2, T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CD). This correlation may be due to a strong association of cardiovascular risk factors with AD and VD, suggesting that these diseases share some biologic pathways. Since heart failure is associated with an increased risk of AD and VD, keeping the heart healthy may prove to keep the brain healthy as well. The risk for dementia is especially high when diabetes mellitus is comorbid with severe systolic hypertension or heart disease. In addition, the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) is independently associated with cardinal neuropathological lesions of AD. Thus, the contribution of T2DM and CD to AD and VD implies that cardiovascular therapies may prove useful in preventing AD and dementia. PMID:20448820

  16. Cardiovascular physiology - Effects of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments during spaceflight and its groundbase analog, bedrest, provide consistent data which demonstrate that numerous changes in cardiovascular function occur as part of the physiological adaptation process to the microgravity environment. These include elevated heart rate and venous compliance, lowered blood volume, central venous pressure and stroke volume, and attenuated autonomic reflex functions. Although most of these adaptations are not functionally apparent during microgravity exposure, they manifest themselves during the return to the gravitational challenge of earth's terrestrial environment as orthostatic hypotension and instability, a condition which could compromise safety, health and productivity. Development and application of effective and efficient countermeasures such as saline "loading," intermittent venous pooling, pharmacological treatments, and exercise have become primary emphases of the space life sciences research effort with only limited success. Successful development of countermeasures will require knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity which can be obtained only through controlled, parallel groundbased research to complement carefully designed flight experiments. Continued research will provide benefits for both space and clinical applications as well as enhance the basic understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis in humans.

  17. TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

  18. Kids Health: How the Body Works - Circulatory System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-11-20

    How the Body Works is an interactive website for children to explore the systems of the body and learn basic anatomy and physiology. In particular this link provides students and teachers to animations, videos and activities related to the cardiovascular system.

  19. Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

  20. Fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls: importance of the intraabdominal fat depot'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Caprio; Lauren D Hyman; Sherley McCarthy; Robert Lange; Mary Bronson; William V Tamborlane

    The regional distribution of body fat has repeat- edly been found to be a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in both obese men and women. To deter- mine whether abnormalities in the lipid-lipoprotein profile and systolic and diastolic blood pressure are related to specific fat depots early in the course of obesity, we used magnetic resonance imaging

  1. Central Cardiovascular Responses of Quadriplegic Subjects to Arm Exercise at Varying Levels of Oxygen Uptake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figoni, Stephen F.

    The purpose of this study was to assess selected central cardiovascular functions of spinal cord injured, quadriplegic subjects at varying levels of oxygen uptake (VO sub 2). Subjects included 11 untrained, male college students with C5, C6, or C7 complete quadriplegia and 11 able-bodied reference subjects. Exercise was performed on a Monark cycle…

  2. HDL measures, particle heterogeneity, proposed nomenclature, and relation to atherosclerotic cardiovascular events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence from epidemiological data, animal studies, and clinical trials supports HDL as the next target to reduce residual cardiovascular risk in statin-treated, high-risk patients. For more than 3 decades, HDL cholesterol has been employed as the principal clinical measure of HDL ...

  3. Evaluation of a Cardiovascular Health Program for Participants with Mental Retardation and Normal Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Gary; McDermott, Suzanne; Thomas-Koger, Marlo; Whitner, Wendy; Pierce, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted to compare the impact of an 8-week cardiovascular disease risk reduction group teaching program for 92 individuals with mental retardation (MR; IQ less than 70) and 97 normal learners. The curriculum emphasized exercise, nutritional choices, and stress reduction. Body Mass Index (BMI; weight in kilograms, divided by…

  4. Cardiovascular Health Score and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Aijun; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Yuntao; Cai, Jun; Chen, Youren; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the American Heart Association proposed a definition of ideal health behaviors and health factors to measure cardiovascular health, from which Huffman et al. created the Cardiovascular Health Score (CVH score) to estimate these metrics on an individual level. We performed a prospective cohort study among employees of the Kailuan Group Corporation, who underwent a physical examination in 2006–2007 to investigate the relationship between the CVH score and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 91,598 individuals free of stroke and myocardial infarction at baseline were included in the final analysis. We calculated baseline CVH score for each metric (poor=0, intermediate=1, ideal=2 points; range=0–14 points for all seven metrics) and categorized them into three groups: inadequate (0–4 points), average (5–9 points), and optimum (10–14 points). Incidence of total number of CVD events, myocardial infarction, and stroke was analyzed among these three groups and each incremental point on the CVH score. During an average 6.81 years of follow-up, there were 3276 CVD events, 2579 strokes and 747 myocardial infarction occurred. After adjusting for several confounding factors, each better health category of the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 47% for all CVD events, and each point higher on the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 18%. Similar trends were detected in the risks for myocardial infarction and stroke. A higher CVH score is therefore a protective factor for CVD, myocardial infarction, and stroke. PMID:26154254

  5. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  6. Physical fitness training for people with stroke 

    E-print Network

    Saunders, David H.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Impaired physical fitness may contribute to functional limitations and disability after stroke. Physical fitness (including cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength/power) can be improved by appropriate ...

  7. Cardiovascular sex differences influencing microvascular exchange.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Virginia H; Wang, Jianjie

    2010-07-15

    The vital role of the cardiovascular (CV) system is maintenance of body functions via the matching of exchange to tissue metabolic demand. Sex-specific differences in the regulatory mechanisms of CV function and the metabolic requirements of men and women, respectively, have been identified and appreciated. This review focuses on sex differences of parameters influencing exchange at the point of union between blood and tissue, the microvasculature. Microvascular architecture, blood pressure (hydrostatic and oncotic), and vascular permeability, therefore, are discussed in the specific context of sex in health and disorders. It is notable that when sex differences exist, they are generally subtle but significant. In the aggregate, though, they can give rise to profoundly different phenotypes. The postulated mechanisms responsible for sex differences are attributed to genomics, epigenetics, and sex hormones. Depending on specific circumstances, the effect of the combined factors can range from insignificant to lethal. Identifying and understanding key signalling mechanisms bridging genomics/sex hormones and microvascular exchange properties within the scope of this review holds significant promise for sex-specific prevention and treatment of vascular barrier dysfunction. PMID:20495187

  8. Cardiovascular sex differences influencing microvascular exchange

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Virginia H.; Wang, Jianjie

    2010-01-01

    The vital role of the cardiovascular (CV) system is maintenance of body functions via the matching of exchange to tissue metabolic demand. Sex-specific differences in the regulatory mechanisms of CV function and the metabolic requirements of men and women, respectively, have been identified and appreciated. This review focuses on sex differences of parameters influencing exchange at the point of union between blood and tissue, the microvasculature. Microvascular architecture, blood pressure (hydrostatic and oncotic), and vascular permeability, therefore, are discussed in the specific context of sex in health and disorders. It is notable that when sex differences exist, they are generally subtle but significant. In the aggregate, though, they can give rise to profoundly different phenotypes. The postulated mechanisms responsible for sex differences are attributed to genomics, epigenetics, and sex hormones. Depending on specific circumstances, the effect of the combined factors can range from insignificant to lethal. Identifying and understanding key signalling mechanisms bridging genomics/sex hormones and microvascular exchange properties within the scope of this review holds significant promise for sex-specific prevention and treatment of vascular barrier dysfunction. PMID:20495187

  9. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    PubMed Central

    Hundley, W Gregory; Bluemke, David; Bogaert, Jan G; Friedrich, Matthias G; Higgins, Charles B; Lawson, Mark A; McConnell, Michael V; Raman, Subha V; van Rossum, Albert C; Flamm, Scott; Kramer, Christopher M; Nagel, Eike; Neubauer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations. PMID:19257889

  10. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Mitsnefes

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally\\u000a high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular\\u000a complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors,\\u000a mortality and morbidity in children with

  11. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu

    2012-01-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP), atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future. PMID:22276248

  12. Is high pulse pressure a marker of preclinical cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    de Simone, Giovanni; Roman, Mary J; Alderman, Michael H; Galderisi, Maurizio; de Divitiis, Oreste; Devereux, Richard B

    2005-04-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that high brachial pulse pressure might constitute preclinical cardiovascular disease, rather than a risk factor. We studied 1250 subjects (472 nonobese normotensive [<135/80 mm Hg] and 778 untreated hypertensive). Central pulse pressure was estimated from brachial pulse pressure and age and divided by stroke volume (PP/SV). Brachial pulse pressure was considered high when >63 mm Hg, and peripheral resistance high when >90th percentile of normal distribution. Among hypertensive subjects, 34% had high resistance; among them, 33% had high brachial pulse pressure, as opposed to 147 of 516 patients (28.5%) with normal resistance (P=not significant). After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, heart rate, and center, left ventricular (LV) internal dimension and mass were lower with high resistance, and higher when brachial pulse pressure was high. PP/SV was 36% higher with high resistance than with normal resistance, and higher when brachial pulse pressure was high (all P<0.0001). Factorial analysis demonstrated that associations of high brachial pulse pressure with both higher PP/SV and LV mass were independent of other pressure components. Thus, because of these associations, our hypothesis is that in hypertension, pulse pressure may be considered as a marker of preclinical cardiovascular disease, similar to LV mass and PP/SV, rather than a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:15767471

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Thayyil, Jayakrishnan; Jayakrishnan, Thejus Thayyil; Raja, Meharoof; Cherumanalil, Jeeja Mathumal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Police force constitutes a special occupational group. They have been shown to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases. A multitude of factors may be responsible for this. There is very limited documentation of their health status and health surveillance activities are inadequate. Aim: The present study was designed to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors among police officers. Materials and Methods: The design was cross-sectional and spanned 900 policemen (n = 900). A pre-tested questionnaire was used for collecting historical data. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were carried out using standard techniques. MS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: MS was observed in 16.8% of the study population. High blood pressure and hyper-triglyceridemia were the commonest abnormalities. The prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors were high body mass index (65.6%), hypertension (37.7%), diabetes (7%), smoking (10%), and alcohol use (48%). Conclusion: Our study identified police officers as a high-risk group for developing CVDs. The findings underscore the need for regular surveillance and lifestyle interventions in this important occupational group. PMID:23272304

  14. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  15. Obesity and the cardiovascular health effects of fine particulate air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Weichenthal, Scott; Hoppin, Jane A; Reeves, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review examines evidence related to the potential impact of obesity on the cardiovascular health effects of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5). Methods A PubMed search was conducted in December, 2013 and studies were included if they examined the relationship between PM2.5 and cardiovascular health as well as effect modification by obesity. Results One hundred twenty-one citations were reviewed; three large prospective cohort studies and 14 panel studies with short-term follow-up met the above criteria. All three cohort studies reported stronger associations between PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality among obese subjects and one reported a significant trend of increased risk with increased body mass index. Similarly, 11 of 14 panel studies reported stronger associations between PM2.5 and acute changes in physiological measures of cardiovascular health among obese subjects including outcomes such as blood pressure and arrhythmia. Although interactions were not always statistically significant, the consistent pattern of stronger associations among obese subjects suggests that obesity may modify the impact of PM2.5 on cardiovascular health. Conclusions Epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity may increase susceptibility to the cardiovascular health effects of PM2.5. This an important area of research as the public health impacts of air pollution could increase with increasing prevalence of obesity. PMID:24639433

  16. [20 years of cardiovascular epidemiology. The epidemiologist's viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Kornitzer, M

    1996-11-01

    The author reviews the evolution of cardiovascular epidemiology during the twenty last years. The mortality from cardiovascular diseases with atherosclerosis as their pathological basis grew rapidly in the industrialised countries after World War II. This led to epidemiological research which started in 1950 with respectively the studies of Framingham in the United States and the Seven Countries Study, essentially in Europe. The concept of multifactorial origin of coronary heart disease was proposed during the 60s. Three major coronary risk factors besides age and gender, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and cigarette smoking emerged systematically in epidemiological studies before 1975. The last twenty years have confirmed the importance of these three modifiable coronary risk factors which are long-term predictors in different ethnic groups, both in males and females. Other risk factors appeared in this period. Some polymorphisms of several genes as well as their phenotypic expression have been found to be related to an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Uni- and multifactorial primary and secondary prevention trials have confirmed the observations of analytical epidemiology. Moreover, the crucial role of nutrition within a metabolic hypothesis has been confirmed by experimental research. The concept of the strategy of prevention in higher risk subjects as well as in the whole population was proposed by international bodies following the publications by the English epidemiologist G. Rose. Both France and Belgium contributed to the development of cardiovascular epidemiology during the last twenty years. France is doing cutting-edge research on genetic predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Although the multifactorial causal model of cardiovascular diseases is robust, it is still a probabilistic one; it predicts however relative risks of about 15 to 1 according to the decile of the multilogistic function distribution. Environmental factors essentially related to lifestyles explain a great part of these differences. At the individual level, genetic factors most probably modulate these environmental influences and one can foresee in the future a more predictive model. In most medical schools, teaching of cardiovascular epidemiology and prevention has a low priority with clinicians putting the accent on the risk factors rather than on the risk profile of the individual. Secondary prevention is more in the realm of clinical medicine due to a large publicity given to the results of the large randomised trials. Consequently, in hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction is decreasing as well as long-term mortality. Finally, prevention at the population level is connected to political decisions in public health which could have a major impact on the economy at the country level. Consequently, these political decisions are very slow to be taken both at the national and European Union level. PMID:9005492

  17. Summary of lower body negative pressure experiments during space flight.

    PubMed

    Charles, J B; Lathers, C M

    1994-06-01

    This paper summarizes the lower body negative pressure experiments performed in space, beginning with the experiments conducted on Skylab, because this program provided the most cardiovascular physiology data for United States space flight. Data obtained during studies of lower body negative pressure for use as a countermeasure after months of Russian space flight are also presented. Lower body negative pressure experiments conducted aboard Space Shuttle flights provide data about the deadaptation response of the cardiovascular system to orthostatic stress occurring during periods of zero gravity, and about protection against postflight orthostatic intolerance. Data obtained using Russian and American lower body negative pressure devices indicate that, when a crew member stands, as opposed to being supported by a seat or saddle as in the American device, there may be a slight detrimental effect in terms of the cardiovascular response to this orthostatic stress. Comparison of heart rate and blood pressure response to entry and landing of the Shuttle indicate that, although lower body negative pressure is a different stress and is applied in a different manner, the maximum heart rates during lower body negative pressure are reached at approximately the same point that the maximum heart rates are reached during entry and landing. Thus, the use of a lower body negative pressure stress in flight is a fairly good predictor of the cardiovascular response to the actual entry and landing of the Shuttle. PMID:8083388

  18. Homocysteine: Role in Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Sabetisoofyani; Douglas F. Larson; Ronald Ross Watson

    \\u000a Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular ischemic events.\\u000a \\u000a Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmia, and\\u000a peripheral vascular disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Some factors induce elevation of homocysteine concentration such as mutations in the enzymes responsible for homocysteine\\u000a metabolism: cystathionine ?-synthase (C?S) or 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, nutritional deficiencies in B vitamin\\u000a cofactors

  19. Applied Pharmacogenomics in Cardiovascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    Interindividual heterogeneity in drug response is a central feature of all drug therapies. Studies in individual patients, families, and populations over the past several decades have identified variants in genes encoding drug elimination or drug target pathways that in some cases contribute substantially to variable efficacy and toxicity. Important associations of pharmacogenomics in cardiovascular medicine include clopidogrel and risk for in-stent thrombosis, steady-state warfarin dose, myotoxicity with simvastatin, and certain drug-induced arrhythmias. This review describes methods used to accumulate and validate these findings and points to approaches—now being put in place at some centers—to implementing them in clinical care. PMID:24111889

  20. [Cardiovascular complications of alpha interferon].

    PubMed

    Le Corguillé, Monika; Pochmalicki, Gilbert; Eugène, Claude

    2007-12-01

    Interferon-alpha is a biological response modifier with antiviral and tumoral effect that is used in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. Cardiovascular complications occurred in clinical trials of interferon. The most common presentations of cardio toxicity were cardiac arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial extrasystole and symptoms of ischemic heart disease, including myocardial infarction and other effects less common and dangerous: low-level conduction impairment or reversible hypertension. The physiopathology of this cardiotoxicity remains unknown, but rigorous cardiological monitoring of all patients receiving this treatment seems necessary. PMID:18176361

  1. Bayesian reweighting for global fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Nobuo; Owens, J. F.; Prosper, Harrison B.

    2014-06-01

    Two different techniques for adding additional data sets to existing global fits using Bayesian reweighting have been proposed in the literature. The derivation of each reweighting formalism is critically reviewed. A simple example is constructed that conclusively favors one of the two formalisms. The effects of this choice for global fits are discussed.

  2. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  3. Pilot Fitness and Airplane Crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Ferree; G. Rand

    1938-01-01

    With the growing conviction that the pilot is an important factor in the increasing number of airplane crashes, it seems that more attention should be paid to fitness in the selection of pilots and to making sure that they are fit for service at all times when they are called upon to render service. It is strange indeed that so

  4. Classifier Fitness Based on Accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart W. Wilson

    1995-01-01

    In many classifier systems, the classifier strength parameter serves as a predictor of future payoff and as the classifier's fitness for the genetic algorithm. We investigate a classifier system, XCS, in which each classifier maintains a prediction of expected payoff, but the classifier's fitness is given by a measure of the prediction's accuracy. The system executes the genetic algorithm in

  5. Bayesian Reweighting for Global Fits

    E-print Network

    Sato, Nobuo; Prosper, Harrison

    2013-01-01

    Two different techniques for adding additional data sets to existing global fits using Bayesian reweighting have been proposed in the literature. The derivation of each reweighting formalism is critically reviewed. A simple example is constructed that conclusively favors one of the two formalisms. The effects of this choice for global fits is discussed.

  6. Negative Effects of Alcohol on Physical Fitness and Athletic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiken, Gail B.

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects virtually every organ and system of the body. The article examines the negative physiological and psychomotor effects of short-term alcohol consumption relevant to physical fitness and athletic performance. Educators must be responsible for reaching students and discussing the issue. (SM)

  7. Fitness for Life Reebok Sports Club/NY presents

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    choreography or seemingly difficult exercises? The benefits of exercise actually increase with age. Participate Are you an active older adult and afraid of the group exercise environment? Are you intimidated by complex the fundamentals as well as how to adapt any group exercise class to your body and fitness goals. Each of the four

  8. Fitness Space Structure of a Neuromechanical Randall D. Beer

    E-print Network

    Beer, Randall D.

    , 1994). A leg is composed of a segment of length L connected to the body by a joint actuated by two the structure of the entire fitness space of a simple neuromechan- ical system consisting of a model leg walking sys- tem consisting of a single neuron in closed-loop inter- action with a leg. Although

  9. ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY Fitness consequences of immune responses

    E-print Network

    Obbard, Darren

    ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY Fitness consequences of immune responses: strengthening the empirical fitness consequences of different strategies for immune defense. 2. Measuring the fitness consequences of immune responses is difficult, partly because of com- plex relationships between host fitness

  10. Translating metabolomics to cardiovascular biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Senn, Todd; Hazen, Stanley L; Tang, W H Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics is the systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints of small molecules or metabolite profiles that are related to a variety of cellular metabolic processes in a cell, organ, or organism. Although messenger RNA gene expression data and proteomic analyses do not tell the whole story of what might be happening in a cell, metabolic profiling provides direct and indirect physiologic insights that can potentially be detectable in a wide range of biospecimens. Although not specific to cardiac conditions, translating metabolomics to cardiovascular biomarkers has followed the traditional path of biomarker discovery from identification and confirmation to clinical validation and bedside testing. With technological advances in metabolomic tools (such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry) and more sophisticated bioinformatics and analytical techniques, the ability to measure low-molecular-weight metabolites in biospecimens provides a unique insight into established and novel metabolic pathways. Systemic metabolomics may provide physiologic understanding of cardiovascular disease states beyond traditional profiling and may involve descriptions of metabolic responses of an individual or population to therapeutic interventions or environmental exposures. PMID:22824112

  11. Personalized Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a novel medical model with all decisions and practices being tailored to individual patients in whatever ways possible. In the era of genomics, personalized medicine combines the genetic information for additional benefit in preventive and therapeutic strategies. Personalized medicine may allow the physician to provide a better therapy for patients in terms of efficiency, safety and treatment length to reduce the associated costs. There was a remarkable growth in scientific publication on personalized medicine within the past few years in the cardiovascular field. However, so far, only very few cardiologists in the USA are incorporating personalized medicine into clinical treatment. We review the concepts, strengths, limitations and challenges of personalized medicine with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There are many challenges from both scientific and policy perspectives to personalized medicine, which can overcome them by comprehensive concept and understanding, clinical application, and evidence based practices. Individualized medicine serves a pivotal role in the evolution of national and global healthcare reform, especially, in the CVDs fields. Ultimately, personalized medicine will affect the entire landscape of health care system in the near future. PMID:23091501

  12. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Recent findings Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. Summary The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing. PMID:24717670

  13. FDA's perspectives on cardiovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eric A; Patel-Raman, Sonna M; O'Callaghan, Kathryn; Hillebrenner, Matthew G

    2009-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decision process for approving or clearing medical devices is often determined by a review of robust clinical data and extensive preclinical testing of the device. The mission statement for the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) is to review the information provided by manufacturers so that it can promote and protect the health of the public by ensuring the safety and effectiveness of medical devices deemed appropriate for human use (Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, Section 903(b)(1, 2(C)), December 31, 2004; accessed December 17, 2008 http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/fdcact/fdctoc.htm). For high-risk devices, such as ventricular assist devices (VADs), mechanical heart valves, stents, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices, pacemakers, and defibrillators, the determination is based on FDA's review of extensive preclinical bench and animal testing followed by use of the device in a clinical trial in humans. These clinical trials allow the manufacturer to evaluate a device in the intended use population. FDA reviews the data from the clinical trial to determine if the device performed as predicted and the clinical benefits outweigh the risks. This article reviews the regulatory framework for different marketing applications related to cardiovascular devices and describes the process of obtaining approval to study a cardiovascular device in a U.S. clinical trial. PMID:20559979

  14. Cardiovascular disease and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its increased stiffness, which reverts after treatment with levothyroxine. Mortality seems mildly reduced, although the risk of myocardial infarction is increased. The risk of atrial fibrillation is related to thyroid function over the whole spectrum: from a reduced risk in overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, a progressively increased risk in people with different levels of reduced TSH to a physiologically 'dose-dependent' effect of thyroid hormones on the heart in overt hyperthyroidism. Heart failure represents an intriguing clinical situation in which triiodothyronine treatment might be beneficial. In conclusion, subclinical dysthyroid states affect the heart with subsequent changes in morbidity and mortality. Subclinical hyperthyroidism seems a more serious condition than subclinical hypothyroidism, which should affect treatment decision in a more aggressive manner. PMID:24943297

  15. 21 CFR 870.2100 - Cardiovascular blood flowmeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. 870.2100 Section 870...Devices § 870.2100 Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. (a) Identification. A cardiovascular blood flowmeter is a device that is...

  16. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17 Section...Services § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition... Medicare Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2100 - Cardiovascular blood flowmeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. 870.2100 Section 870...Devices § 870.2100 Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. (a) Identification. A cardiovascular blood flowmeter is a device that is...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2100 - Cardiovascular blood flowmeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. 870.2100 Section 870...Devices § 870.2100 Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. (a) Identification. A cardiovascular blood flowmeter is a device that is...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2100 - Cardiovascular blood flowmeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. 870.2100 Section 870...Devices § 870.2100 Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. (a) Identification. A cardiovascular blood flowmeter is a device that is...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2100 - Cardiovascular blood flowmeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. 870.2100 Section 870...Devices § 870.2100 Cardiovascular blood flowmeter. (a) Identification. A cardiovascular blood flowmeter is a device that is...