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  1. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  2. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  3. Prospective BMI category change associated with cardiovascular fitness change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of change in body mass index (BMI) percentile score group (from 6th to 8th grade) with change in cardiovascular fitness (CVF), baseline BMI z-score and CVF was tested. 3,998 (92%) children in the HEALTHY trial provided complete data at the beginning of 6th and end of 8th grades. Hei...

  4. Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Colcombe, Stanley J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Scalf, Paige; McAuley, Edward; Cohen, Neal J.; Webb, Andrew; Jerome, Gerry J.; Marquez, David X.; Elavsky, Steriani

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is thought to offset declines in cognitive performance, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in humans. Research using animal models shows that aerobic training increases cortical capillary supplies, the number of synaptic connections, and the development of new neurons. The end result is a brain that is more efficient, plastic, and adaptive, which translates into better performance in aging animals. Here, in two separate experiments, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, in humans that increases in cardiovascular fitness results in increased functioning of key aspects of the attentional network of the brain during a cognitively challenging task. Specifically, highly fit (Study 1) or aerobically trained (Study 2) persons show greater task-related activity in regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices that are involved in spatial selection and inhibitory functioning, when compared with low-fit (Study 1) or nonaerobic control (Study 2) participants. Additionally, in both studies there exist groupwise differences in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, which is thought to monitor for conflict in the attentional system, and signal the need for adaptation in the attentional network. These data suggest that increased cardiovascular fitness can affect improvements in the plasticity of the aging human brain, and may serve to reduce both biological and cognitive senescence in humans. PMID:14978288

  5. Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging.

    PubMed

    Colcombe, Stanley J; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I; Scalf, Paige; McAuley, Edward; Cohen, Neal J; Webb, Andrew; Jerome, Gerry J; Marquez, David X; Elavsky, Steriani

    2004-03-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is thought to offset declines in cognitive performance, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in humans. Research using animal models shows that aerobic training increases cortical capillary supplies, the number of synaptic connections, and the development of new neurons. The end result is a brain that is more efficient, plastic, and adaptive, which translates into better performance in aging animals. Here, in two separate experiments, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, in humans that increases in cardiovascular fitness results in increased functioning of key aspects of the attentional network of the brain during a cognitively challenging task. Specifically, highly fit (Study 1) or aerobically trained (Study 2) persons show greater task-related activity in regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices that are involved in spatial selection and inhibitory functioning, when compared with low-fit (Study 1) or nonaerobic control (Study 2) participants. Additionally, in both studies there exist groupwise differences in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, which is thought to monitor for conflict in the attentional system, and signal the need for adaptation in the attentional network. These data suggest that increased cardiovascular fitness can affect improvements in the plasticity of the aging human brain, and may serve to reduce both biological and cognitive senescence in humans. PMID:14978288

  6. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  7. Neurocognitive aging and cardiovascular fitness: recent findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Colcombe, Stan J; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward; Erickson, Kirk I; Scalf, Paige

    2004-01-01

    In the first century, ce, the Roman satirist Juneval famously observed Orandum est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano, or "A sound mind in a sound body is something to be prayed for." This implicit link between mental and physical health, also paralleled by Eastern philosophies and practices such as tai chi, has survived the millennia since Juneval and his contemporaries. More recently, controlled examinations of the effects of physical fitness on cognitive performance have shown that improving cardiovascular fitness (CVF) can help to reduce the deleterious effects of age on cognition and brain structure. Thus, as we age, it may well be the case that a sound mind is a natural concomitant of a sound body. Numerous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have examined the effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in aging humans since earlier studies, which found that physically fit older adults performed better on simple cognitive tasks than their less-fit counterparts. This base of knowledge recently has been furthered through examinations of cortical structure (Colcombe et al., 2003) and neurocognitive function in aging humans via functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In this manuscript, we will briefly review some of our recent research on the effects of CVF on brain function, structure, and behavior in older adults. We will then outline some of our current and future directions in this area. PMID:15314244

  8. Aerobic fitness, psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, S M; Hindelang, R D; Dembroski, T M; Mayerson, S E; Parks, E B; Holland, J C

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relations among aerobic fitness (AF), psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity using 62 men divided into highly fit and less fit groups based on a maximal treadmill exercise test. Several psychological and physiological variables were measured, and subjects' cardiovascular reactivity was assessed during a mental arithmetic task and during a video game task. Highly fit subjects showed a significantly smaller increase in both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) and reported themselves to be less anxious and less angry than less fit subjects. Furthermore, controlling for subjects' scores on a scale assessing angry temperament reduced the relationship between AF and DBP reactivity to nonsignificant levels. These results suggest that degree of dispositional anger, which covaries with increased fitness, may contribute to the apparent relationship between AF and DBP--but not HR--reactivity. PMID:2286179

  9. Constructing cardiovascular fitness knowledge in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on cardiorespiratory fitness and health. Fourth grade students (N = 616) from 15 randomly sampled urban elementary schools completed 34 cognitive assignments related to the cardiorespiratory physical activities they were engaged in across 10 lessons. Performance on the assignments were analyzed in relation to their knowledge gain measured using a standardized knowledge test. A multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that the cognitive assignments contributed to knowledge gain but the contribution varied assignment by assignment. A multiple regression analysis indicated that students’ assignment performance by lesson contributed positively to their knowledge growth scores. A content analysis based on the constructivist learning framework showed that observing–reasoning assignments contributed the most to knowledge growth. Analytical and analytical–application assignments contributed less than the constructivist theories would predict. PMID:25995702

  10. Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Maria A. I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Torén, Kjell; Svartengren, Magnus; Bäckstrand, Björn; Johnsson, Tommy; Cooper-Kuhn, Christiana M.; Åberg, N. David; Nilsson, Michael; Kuhn, H. Georg

    2009-01-01

    During early adulthood, a phase in which the central nervous system displays considerable plasticity and in which important cognitive traits are shaped, the effects of exercise on cognition remain poorly understood. We performed a cohort study of all Swedish men born in 1950 through 1976 who were enlisted for military service at age 18 (N = 1,221,727). Of these, 268,496 were full-sibling pairs, 3,147 twin pairs, and 1,432 monozygotic twin pairs. Physical fitness and intelligence performance data were collected during conscription examinations and linked with other national databases for information on school achievement, socioeconomic status, and sibship. Relationships between cardiovascular fitness and intelligence at age 18 were evaluated by linear models in the total cohort and in subgroups of full-sibling pairs and twin pairs. Cardiovascular fitness, as measured by ergometer cycling, positively associated with intelligence after adjusting for relevant confounders (regression coefficient b = 0.172; 95% CI, 0.168–0.176). Similar results were obtained within monozygotic twin pairs. In contrast, muscle strength was not associated with cognitive performance. Cross-twin cross-trait analyses showed that the associations were primarily explained by individual specific, non-shared environmental influences (?80%), whereas heritability explained <15% of covariation. Cardiovascular fitness changes between age 15 and 18 y predicted cognitive performance at 18 y. Cox proportional-hazards models showed that cardiovascular fitness at age 18 y predicted educational achievements later in life. These data substantiate that physical exercise could be an important instrument for public health initiatives to optimize educational achievements, cognitive performance, as well as disease prevention at the society level. PMID:19948959

  11. Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. PMID:25210697

  12. Correlation between waist and mid-thigh circumference and cardiovascular fitness in Korean college students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sung-Sik; Chung, Jae-Soon; So, Wi-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated whether waist and mid-thigh circumference correlated with cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in a selected sample of Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 41 college students (25 males, 16 females; age, > 19?years) who visited the sports medicine laboratory at the Korea National University of Transportation in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea, to undergo measurements of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and waist and mid-thigh circumference. [Results] VO2max did not correlate with waist circumference or mid-thigh circumference in males, whereas VO2max was negatively correlated with mid-thigh circumference, but not waist circumference, in females. [Conclusion] Mid-thigh circumference was not associated with cardiovascular fitness or waist in male college students. However, it was associated with cardiovascular fitness in female college students. Well-designed studies are needed to investigate this further. PMID:26504348

  13. Cardiovascular program to improve physical fitness in those over 60 years old – pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Minguet, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 50% of 60-year-olds are obese. Obesity is a disease with serious cardiovascular risks. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in Spain is 31.1%. Objectives To improve aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility and balance, and body composition (BC) in persons over 60 years old. Materials and methods A clinical intervention study of 24 participants was carried out over a period of 3 months. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test. Upper-body strength was evaluated with an ad hoc test. Flexibility and balance were evaluated using the Sit and Reach Test and the Stork Balance Stand Test, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken by bioelectrical impedance. Results After 3 months of training, aerobic fitness was improved, as demonstrated by improved test times (pretest 13.04 minutes, posttest 12.13 minutes; P<0.05). Body composition was also improved, but the results were not statistically significant (fat mass pretest 31.58%±5.65%, posttest 30.65%±6.31%; skeletal muscle mass pretest 43.99±9.53 kg, posttest 46.63±10.90 kg). Conclusion Our data show that in subjects over 60 years old, aerobic fitness was improved due to program intervention. However, these results should be treated with caution, because of the limited sample size and the brief time period of this pilot study. A more rigorous study would include a sample of at least 100 participants. PMID:25143714

  14. Selected anthropometric variables and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in children.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R; Szmuchrowski, L A; Prado, L S; Couto, B P; Machado, Jcq; Damasceno, V O; Lamounier, J A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 290 school boys and girls from 6 to 10 years old, randomly selected. Blood was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), height and weight were evaluated according to international standards. Aerobic fitness (AF) was assessed by the 20-metre shuttle-run test. Clustering was considered when three of these factors were present: high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high plasma glucose, high insulin concentrations and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A ROC curve identified the cut-off points of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and AF as predictors of risk factor clustering. BMI, WC and WHR resulted in significant areas under the ROC curves, which was not observed for AF. The anthropometric variables were good predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in both sexes, whereas aerobic fitness should not be used to identify cardiovascular risk factor clustering in these children. PMID:26424930

  15. Fitness predicts long-term survival after a cardiovascular event: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Barons, Martine J; Turner, Sally; Parsons, Nicholas; Griffiths, Frances; Bethell, Hugh; Weich, Scott; Thorogood, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the role of fitness, fitness change, body mass index and other factors in predicting long-term (>5?years) survival in patients with coronary heart disease. Design Cohort study of patients with coronary heart disease recruited from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2002, followed up to March 2011 (1?day to 18?years 3?months, mean 10.7?years). Setting A community-based National Health Service (NHS) cardiac rehabilitation programme serving the Basingstoke and Alton area in Hampshire, UK. Participants An unselected cohort of NHS patients, 2167 men and 547 women aged 28–88?years, who attended the rehabilitation programme following acute myocardial infarction, an episode of angina or revascularisation, and had a baseline fitness test. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Results A high level of fitness (VO2?22?mL/kg/min for men, VO2?19?mL/kg/min for women) at completion of the programme was associated with decreased all-cause death, as was a prescription for statins or aspirin, and female gender. Increase in all-cause mortality was associated with higher age and ACE inhibitors prescription. Higher risk of cardiovascular mortality was associated with increasing age, prescriptions for ACE inhibitor, and diagnosis of myocardial infarction or angina as compared with the other diagnoses. Conclusions Prior fitness and fitness improvement are strong predictors of long-term survival in patients who have experienced a cardiac event or procedure. Some secondary prevention medications make a significant contribution to reducing all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in these patients. This study supports public health messages promoting fitness for life. PMID:26493455

  16. Cardiovascular Fitness and Cognitive Spatial Learning in Rodents and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The association between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive functions in both animals and humans is intensely studied. Research in rodents shows that a higher cardiovascular fitness has beneficial effects on hippocampus-dependent spatial abilities, and the underlying mechanisms were largely teased out. Research into the impact of cardiovascular fitness on spatial learning in humans, however, is more limited, and involves mostly behavioral and imaging studies. Herein, we point out the state of the art in the field of spatial learning and cardiovascular fitness. The differences between the methodologies utilized to study spatial learning in humans and rodents are emphasized along with the neuronal basis of these tasks. Critical gaps in the study of spatial learning in the context of cardiovascular fitness between the two species are discussed. PMID:25227128

  17. Respiratory fitness, free living physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk in older individuals: a doubly labeled water study.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, R V; Tchernof, A; Starling, R D; Ades, P A; DiPietro, L; Poehlman, E T

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness vs. physical activity energy expenditure on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors in older individuals. One hundred and seventeen older individuals, 53 men (68 +/- 9 yr) and 63 women (67 +/- 7 yr), participated in the study. This cohort was divided into 4 groups: 1) high cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical activity, 2) high cardiorespiratory fitness and low physical activity, 3) low cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical activity, and 4) low cardiorespiratory fitness and low physical activity. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was determined from a graded exercise test, physical activity energy expenditure was measured by doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and dietary practices were determined by a 3-day recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness exerted greater effects on the cardiovascular disease risk profile than physical activity. That is, older individuals with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, regardless of their physical activity levels, showed lower levels of fasting insulin (P < 0.01), triglycerides (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05), total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05), low density lipoprotein (P < 0.05), and lower waist circumference (P < 0.01). Moreover, individuals with a high cardiorespiratory fitness but low physical activity energy expenditure displayed a more favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile than individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical activity energy expenditure. The results suggest that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness have greater cardioprotective effects than higher levels of free living physical activity in older individuals. Although these findings do not discount the health benefits of being physically active, it is possible that greater emphasis should be placed on aerobic exercise to increase cardiorespiratory fitness in the elderly. PMID:10720023

  18. Impact of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity level on health outcomes in older persons.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Isabelle J; Ades, Philip A; Poehlman, Eric T

    2003-03-01

    It remains unclear whether health recommendations should focus on improving cardiovascular fitness or physical activity energy expenditure in older persons. Although the literature is not abundant in this area, we first examined the association between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity. It appears that cross-sectional studies support a positive association between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity energy expenditure, whereas intervention studies suggest that when aerobic exercise is implemented later in life, older individuals either do not change or decrease physical activity energy expenditure outside of the program. We also considered the impact of improvements in cardiovascular fitness and physical activity on some commonly measured health outcomes in older persons. Based on preliminary studies, it appears that improving cardiovascular fitness has a greater impact on various health outcomes, whereas increased physical activity is also associated with health benefits, although to a lesser extent. Further work should be devoted at elucidating the individual benefits of increasing cardiovascular fitness or physical activity on health outcomes in older persons. Such information will be useful in refining exercise prescription to improve health status, particularly in older persons. PMID:12663123

  19. Aerobic fitness, blood lipids, and body fat in children.

    PubMed Central

    Hager, R L; Tucker, L A; Seljaas, G T

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and serum cholesterol and the effects of controlling for gender, body composition, abdominal fat, and dietary saturated fat in 262 children. The 1-mile run was used to estimate fitness. Skinfolds were used in assessing body fat. Fit children had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than unfit children, except after adjustment for body fat and/or abdominal fat. Unfit children appear to be at an increased risk of unhealthy levels of serum cholesterol due primarily to increased levels of body fat. PMID:7503350

  20. MindandBodyFitnessClasses Yoga&Pilates

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    MindandBodyFitnessClasses Yoga&Pilates October25­December12 NoFitnessClassesNov11,26,27,28,29duetoholidays. Day Times Class Instructor Price Location Monday 12:10 ­ 1:00 pm Continuing Yoga Greg Fit Card FRC RM #1 5:30 ­ 6:45 pm Vinyasa Yoga Kathy Fit Card FRC RM #3 Tuesday 7:30 ­ 8:30 am Continuing Yoga

  1. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations.

  2. Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

  3. Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting body/mind…

  4. Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

  5. The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed???20?hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12?months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively measured relative workload, in a population with high physical work demands. Previous intervention studies have lacked robust objective measurements of the relative workload and physical work demands. This study will monitor the relative workload and general physical activity before, during after the intervention, and contribute to the understanding of the previously observed opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity. Trial registration The study is registered as ISRCTN86682076. PMID:22888833

  7. Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

  8. Longitudinal Algorithms to Estimate Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Associations with Nonfatal Cardiovascular Disease and Disease-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Artero, Enrique G.; Jackson, Andrew S.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Lavie, Carl J.; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To predict risk for non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) and disease-specific mortality using CRF algorithms that do not involve exercise testing. Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not routinely measured, as it requires trained personnel and specialized equipment. Methods Participants were 43,356 adults (21% women) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study followed between 1974 and 2003. Estimated CRF was based on sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, resting heart rate, physical activity level and smoking status. Actual CRF was measured by a maximal treadmill test. Results During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, 1,934 deaths occurred, 627 due to CVD. In a sub-sample of 18,095 participants, 1,049 cases of non-fatal CVD events were ascertained. After adjusting for potential confounders, both measured CRF and estimated CRF were inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality and non-fatal CVD incidence in men, and with all-cause mortality and non-fatal CVD in women. The risk reduction per 1-metabolic equivalent (MET) increase ranged approximately from 10 to 20 %. Measured CRF had a slightly better discriminative ability (c-statistic) than estimated CRF, and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) of measured CRF vs. estimated CRF was 12.3% in men (p<0.05) and 19.8% in women (p<0.001). Conclusions These algorithms utilize information routinely collected to obtain an estimate of CRF that provides a valid indication of health status. In addition to identifying people at risk, this method can provide more appropriate exercise recommendations that reflect initial CRF levels. PMID:24703924

  9. Cardiovascular dynamics associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sather, T. M.; Goldwater, D. J.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify cardiovascular responses associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Eighteen men, ages 29-51 years, were categorized as high (HT) or low (LT) LBNP-tolerant based on a graded presyncopal-limited LBNP exposure criterion of -60 mm Hg relative to ambient pressure. Groups were matched for physical characteristics and pre-LBNP cardiovascular measurements, with the exceptions of greater (p less than 0.05) end-diastolic volume and cardiac output in the HT group. During peak LBNP, cardiac output was similar in both groups, although the HT group displayed a greater heart rate (p less than 0.05). In both groups, venous return appeared to limit cardiac output resulting in decreased arterial pressure. Tolerance to LBNP did not appear solely dependent on the absolute amount of blood pooled in the legs since the HT group demonstrated a greater (p less than 0.05) peak LBNP-induced increase in midthigh-leg volume. Greater tolerance to LBNP was associated with a larger pre-LBNP cardiac output reserve and higher compensatory increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance.

  10. Potential for Cardiovascular Exercise Dosing to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Survivors

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Dave

    2013-05-31

    the cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) level and body composition (weight, BMI, % body fat) in breast cancer survivors. We reported that breast cancer survivors had a low VO2max compared to normal values in a healthy population. In addition, submaximal VO2 exercise...

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (?6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (?0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  12. A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

  13. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  14. Virtual Fitting by Single-shot Body Shape Estimation Masahiro Sekine*1

    E-print Network

    Stenger, Björn

    virtual fitting system for seamlessly adjusting 2D clothing images to users by inferring their 3D body and the body of the user, the system transforms and overlays the clothing image onto the body image in real images captured from a person with a body shape similar to that of the user. We therefore develop

  15. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  16. Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  17. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  18. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  19. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and fainting. Various pre-reentry hyperhydration procedures have been utilized to counteract the GRS. Thus, the somewhat decreased central venous pressure and lack of diuresis early in spaceflight suggests mechanisms other than the Gauer-Henry reflex are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts. Inflight hypohydration and hypovolemia are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts.

  20. The effects of pole walking on arm lymphedema and cardiovascular fitness in women treated for breast cancer: a pilot and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Charlotta; Johansson, Karin

    2014-05-01

    The benefit of exercise for breast cancer-treated women is well documented. However, studies of cardiovascular fitness training for women with breast cancer-related arm lymphedema are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive pole walking on arm lymphedema in women treated for breast cancer. Thirty-five women with unilateral lymphedema were included and twenty-three completed an eight-week exercise intervention consisting of pole walking 3-5 times per week, for 30-60?min, at 70%-80% of their maximum heart rate, preceded by a two-week control period. Measurements of arm lymphedema (water displacement method), body weight, cardiovascular fitness (sub-maximal bicycle ergometer test) and subjective assessments (disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire; heaviness and tightness using a visual analogue scale (VAS); and well-being) were performed before the control period and before and after the exercise intervention. The results indicated a significant reduction in total arm volume of the lymphedema arm (p?=?0.001), in lymphedema absolute volume (p?=?0.014) and lymphedema relative volume (p?=?0.015). Significant decreases of heart rate (p?=?0.004), DASH score (p?=?0.053) and rating of tightness in the arm (p?=?0.043) were found. Positive and negative influences on well-being were reported. The conclusion of this study is that pole walking is feasible for breast cancer-treated women with arm lymphedema. PMID:24175620

  1. Application of the IAP cardiovascular fitness test protocol for Austromars candidate screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasser, E. K.; Goswami, N.; Jantscher, A.; Roessler, A.; Vrecko, K.; Groemer, G.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    2007-10-01

    Rationale: The purpose of our research was to test for cardiovascular stability within 16 Austromars candidates, and to determine hemodynamic variables and hormones in a presyncopal state as evoked by a specific test protocol. Procedures and methods: We used a graded orthostatic stress (GOS) paradigm consisting of head-up tilt (HUT) combined with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to a presyncopal end-point on 15 males and one healthy female. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored and venous blood samples taken. Results: From supine control to presyncope, mean standing time was 12.3 ± 1.2 min, heart rate (HR) increased by 68 ± 12% (p < 0.0001) and thoracic impedance (TI) rose by 12 ± 1% (p < 0.0001), whereas following parameters decreased: stroke volume index (SI) 44 ± 4% (p < 0.0001), systolic pressure (SBP) 26 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), diastolic pressure (DBP) 16 ± 5% (p = 0.004), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 19 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), pulse pressure 41 ± 8% (p = 0.0003) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) 11 ± 5% (p = 0.03). Heart rate and blood pressure variabilities decreased together with pulse pressure. Plasma volume decreased by 11 ± 2% (p = 0.0004). Plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased by 86 ± 16% (p = 0.0001), epinephrine (E) by 460 ± 266% (p = 0.06), cortisol by 10 ± 6% (p = 0.02), plasma renin activity by 147 ± 26% (p = 0.002) and aldosterone by 24 ± 21% (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Our combined HUT- graded LBNP paradigm is useful to study CV regulation and hormonal responses under severe stress conditions.

  2. Long-Term Effects of the RealFit Intervention on Body Composition, Aerobic Fitness, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Maria W.J.; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Mulkens, Sandra; Mujakovic, Suhreta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: RealFit is a 13-week weight reduction program for youth that focuses on nutrition, physical activity (PA), psychology, and parental participation. The short-term effectiveness of the RealFit intervention, in terms of body composition, aerobic fitness, and dietary and PA behavior, having been proven, the present study evaluated the long-term effects of the intervention. Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design. Height, weight, waist circumference, aerobic fitness, and self-reported dietary and PA behavior were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the 13-week RealFit intervention (T1), after 5 months (T2), and 1 year (T3) of follow-up. A total of 86 adolescents participated in the intervention group. The control group (n=32) comprised overweight adolescents who did not receive any treatment. Results: One year after the RealFit intervention, significant decreases in BMI z-score (mean difference [MD]: ?0.39) and waist circumference (MD, ?3.24) were found. The comparison between the intervention and control groups, controlling for confounders, resulted in a significant difference (BMI z-score: ?0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.67 to ?0.15; waist circumference: ?8.07; 95% CI: ?11.58 to ?4.56). The results for dietary and PA behavior consistently showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: The RealFit intervention appears to have significant favorable long-term effects on BMI z-score and waist circumference. These changes in body composition obviously represent changes in adolescents' energy balance-related behavior. Taking all results and limitations into account, it may cautiously be concluded that RealFit is an effective weight loss intervention. PMID:25302441

  3. Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

  4. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  5. Effects of body image on college students' attitudes toward diet/fitness apps on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, H Erin; Kim, Sun Jin; Park, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Considering the increasing use of diet/fitness apps, this study aimed to investigate how four factors related to body image--evaluations of and orientations toward both appearance and fitness--impact college students' perception of the usefulness of such apps. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study tested a path model examining the relationships among the four body-image-oriented factors, perceived usefulness (PU) of diet/fitness apps, and behavioral intention to use such apps. Results from a path analysis revealed that while college students' evaluation of appearance and fitness decreased the PU of diet/fitness apps, their orientation toward fitness increased the same outcome variable. PMID:25584729

  6. Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

  7. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  8. Effects of Physical Training on Cardiovascular Fitness and Behavior Patterns of Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurrer, Rob; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Five mentally retarded adults participated in an ongoing walk-jogging program for 23 weeks. Assessments for maximal oxygen comsumption (VO2 max) and body weight changes before and after training revealed Ss's body weight was reduced by 3.6 kg and VO2 max increased 43 percent. Favorable behavior changes were also noted. (CL)

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevention in Black School Children: The "Know Your Body" Evaluation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Patricia J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal study of the effectiveness of the Know Your Body program in Washington, D.C., involved measuring 1,041 Black students in grades four-six for heart disease risk factors. The intervention resulted in significant changes in blood pressure, cholesterol, fitness, and serum thiocyanate. Intervention students who had the best teachers…

  10. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

  11. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

  12. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  13. The Body Revolution. Revolutionize Your Life Through Nutrition, Behavior Change and Fitness. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others

    This guide is designed for teachers of the "Body Revolution" weight control program. The program may be used either in conjunction with a school program or as an activity for adults in community education programs. The emphasis of the program is on weight loss. Activities are outlined that focus on behavior change, nutrition, and physical fitness.…

  14. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  15. Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  16. Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments.

    PubMed

    Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

    2014-04-01

    For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

  17. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or sedentary individuals. The measurement of energy expenditure across yoga sessions is highly reliable. PMID:18053143

  18. A cardiod based technique to identify cardiovascular diseases using mobile phones and body sensors.

    PubMed

    Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Tari, Zahir

    2010-01-01

    To prevent the threat of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) related deaths, the usage of mobile phone based computational platforms, body sensors and wireless communications is proliferating. Since mobile phones have limited computational resources, existing PC based complex CVD detection algorithms are often unsuitable for wireless telecardiology applications. Moreover, if the existing Electrocardiography (ECG) based CVD detection algorithms are adopted for mobile telecardiology applications, then there will be processing delays due to the computational complexities of the existing algorithms. However, for a CVD affected patient, seconds worth of delay could be fatal, since cardiovascular cell damage is a totally irrecoverable process. This paper proposes a fast and efficient mechanism of CVD detection from ECG signal. Unlike the existing ECG based CVD diagnosis systems that detect CVD anomalies from hundreds of sample points, the proposed mechanism identifies cardiac abnormality from only 5 sample points. Therefore, according to our experiments the proposed mechanism is up to 3 times faster than the existing techniques. Due to less computational burden, the proposed mechanism is ideal for wireless telecardiology applications running on mobile phones. PMID:21096293

  19. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A.; Sanders, Gabriel J.; McDaniel, John; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject's tolerance to LBNP. PMID:25866805

  20. Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

  1. Body Water Distribution and Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in a Healthy Population: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Leigh Cordwin; Sæbye, Ditte; Holst, Claus; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2014-01-01

    Background Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. Objective This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. Method Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n?=?2120) of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993–1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R?/R0) was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R?/R0?=?0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. Conclusion Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R?/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. However, more studies are needed before it can be concluded that bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy improves clinical risk prediction. PMID:24498327

  2. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  3. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  4. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVEL IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT STATUS IN CHILEAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Artero, Enrique G; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low-income Chilean preschool children and to examine whether weight status influences children's performance on fitness tests. A total of 434 preschool children (246 boys; 5.48 ± 0.31 years) participated in our study. Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index -BMI- and waist circumference) and fitness tests (handgrip strength test, standing long jump and 20 m sprint) were assessed by trained nutritionists and physical education teachers, respectively. Significant differences in anthropometry and fitness tests between boys and girls were found. The prevalence of overweight was higher in girls; in contrast to that of obesity. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight/obese boys and girls were heavier and had greater waist circumference (P < 0.001), were taller (P ? 0.002), and showed higher performance in handgrip strength (P ? 0.027) but not in standing long jump nor 20 m sprint (P ? 0.052). Screening physical fitness levels in overweight/obese preschool children could be an important tool in order to design an efficacy physical activity programme. PMID:26262737

  5. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:23762051

  6. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Eling D.; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A.; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. Results: All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg?1 · min?1 (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular stress. Video abstract available for more insights from the authors (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A107). PMID:26050073

  7. Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

  8. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  9. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  10. Cardiovascular responses to head-down-body-up postural exercise (Sarvangasana).

    PubMed

    Konar, D; Latha, R; Bhuvaneswaran, J S

    2000-10-01

    Sarvangasana (SVGN) is a head-down-body-up postural exercise in a 'negative g' condition. Though highly recommended as one of the three best of all the asanas it has not yet been studied for its very obvious effects on the cardiovascular (CV) functions. This paper reports the results of the first systematic investigation on SVGN employing echocardiographic analysis in eight healthy male subjects before and after a practice of this asana twice daily for two weeks. The resting heart rate (HR) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were significantly reduced (P < 0.02, P < 0.01 respectively) after practising this asana. A tendency toward a mild regression of the left ventricular mass was noticed, though it was not statistically significant. The CV responses to acute 45 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) in a tilt table was not altered after practising this asana. Also there was no orthostatic intolerance during the 3-5 min period of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT). These results strongly indicate that further studies of this asana performed for a longer period is most likely to yield very significant observations of applied value. PMID:11214493

  11. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation. PMID:25520668

  12. Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Benda, Nathalie M. M.; Seeger, Joost P. H.; Stevens, Guus G. C. F.; Hijmans-Kersten, Bregina T. P.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Bellersen, Louise; Lamfers, Evert J. P.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Thijssen, Dick H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT. Methods Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6%) were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload—alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload) or CT (30 minutes at 60–75% of maximal workload). Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test), cardiac function and structure (echocardiography), vascular function and structure (ultrasound) and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ)). Results Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05), whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.). We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05), whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S.). Conclusion Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671 PMID:26517867

  14. Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. The Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Fitness from Physical Education in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Phillips, Jennie; Young, Deborah R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) can improve physical fitness; however, little research has evaluated PE's long-term influence. The purpose is to determine PE's longitudinal effects on fitness in a group of adolescent girls and to determine whether body mass index (BMI) status influenced any potential effects. Methods: Participants were…

  16. Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT < 30%; n=19, 10 female/9 male, age = 43 +/- 10 y); and (3) an inactive control group (C, n=17, 5 female/12 male, age 43 +/- 11 y). RC+BD resulted in more favorable changes (P < 0.01) in percent body fat (-15.8% vs. -6.9%) and abdominal fat (-15.6% vs. -7.5%) compared to C+TD and C. Total cholesterol (-13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (-5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals. PMID:17136940

  17. Validity of Self-Reported Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index in a Military Population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Martin, RC, Grier, T, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, DeGroot, DW, and Jones, BH. Validity of self-reported physical fitness and body mass index in a military population. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 26-32, 2016-Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean ± SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 ± 13.1 and 66.3 ± 14.0 for men and 37.7 ± 12.8 and 40.2 ± 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 ± 11.4 and 68.1 ± 12.1 for men and 64.2 ± 13.6 and 66.5 ± 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 ± 1.8 and 14.9 ± 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 ± 2.9 and 17.4 ± 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 ± 3.4 and 26.3 ± 3.6 for men and 24.6 ± 2.8 and 24.2 ± 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population. PMID:26683633

  18. Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

  19. The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)

  20. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

  1. Aerobic fitness in women and responses to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Mathes, Karen L.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1987-01-01

    The role of tolerance to orthostatic stress in the maintenance of high aerobic fitness in women was investigated by examining the responses of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, Heather index of contractility, arterial pressure, peripheral resistance, change in calf circumference, and thoracic impedance of healthy female subjects to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) applied for 5 min at -50 mm Hg or until a subject became presyncopal. The testing protocol involved a stepwise reduction in pressure and consisted of two parts: an LBNP test in supine position followed by a treadmill test to peak aerobic capacity. Women were found to exhibit the same response pattern to LBNP as was previously reported by Convertino et al. (1984) for men. The results do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance in women is inversely related to aerobic fitness, as demonstrated by a finding that the peak aerobic capacity of subjects who became presyncopal did not differ from the peak of the tolerant subjects, and that hemodynamic responses to LBNPL were not a function of aerobic capacity.

  2. Acrolein Inhalation Alters Arterial Blood Gases and Triggers Carotid Body Mediated Cardiovascular Responses in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. While the mechanisms accounting for these effects are unclear, several epidemiological studies have reported decreases in oxygen ...

  3. A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age?=?4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (?1.2%, p?body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: ?0.74 seconds, p?body composition and physical fitness. Program efficacy should be tested in a randomized trial. Trial registration ChiCTR-ONRC-14004143. PMID:24886119

  4. Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP, and body weight compared with sucrose.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, N; Al-Waili, Noori; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Parizadeh, S M R; Abasalti, Z; Yaghoobi, Z; Yaghoobi, F; Esmaeili, H; Kazemi-Bajestani, S M R; Aghasizadeh, R; Saloom, Khelod Y; Ferns, G A A

    2008-01-01

    It has been found that honey ameliorates cardiovascular risk factors in healthy individuals and in patients with elevated risk factors. The present study investigated the effect of natural honey on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerole, C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and body weight in overweight individuals. There were 55 patients, overweight or obese, who were randomly recruited into the study and assigned into two groups: control group (17 subjects) and experimental group (38 subjects). Patients in the control group received 70 g of sucrose daily for a maximum of 30 days and patients in the experimental group received 70 g of natural honey for the same period. In the control and experimental groups, body weight, body mass index, body fat weight, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triacylglycerole, FBG, and CRP were measured before treatment and at day 31 after the commencement of treatment. Results showed that honey caused a mild reduction in body weight (1.3%) and body fat (1.1%). Honey reduced total cholesterol (3%), LDL-C (5.8), triacylglycerole (11%), FBG (4.2%), and CRP (3.2%), and increased HDL-C (3.3%) in subjects with normal values, while in patients with elevated variables, honey caused reduction in total cholesterol by 3.3%, LDL-C by 4.3%, triacylglycerole by 19%, and CRP by 3.3% (p < 0.05). It is our conclusion that consumption of natural honey reduces cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in subjects with elevated risk factors, and it does not increase body weight in overweight or obese subjects. PMID:18454257

  5. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Olivier; Gauthier, Claudine J.; Fraser, Sarah A.; Desjardins-Crèpeau, Laurence; Desjardins, Michèle; Mekary, Said; Lesage, Frederic; Hoge, Rick D.; Pouliot, Philippe; Bherer, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., V?O2max) in order to classify them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit). All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions) in which the change in prefrontal cortex oxygenation was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness × Condition interaction (p < 0.05) such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the Executive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed in the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (?HbT and ?HbO2), we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion: Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by V?O2max) show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good cardiorespiratory functions can have a positive impact on cognition, regardless of age. PMID:25741267

  6. Effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness during summer break

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Man-Gyoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Evidence suggests that adolescents gain more weight during the summer break than they do during the school year, and that participation in the summer school program is beneficial in maintaining their healthy lifestyle. It is known that obesity and physical fitness in adolescents can be affected by their socio-economic and psychological status, especially during a long school break. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness in underprivileged adolescents during the summer break. [Methods] Body composition and physical fitness in 138 underprivileged adolescents were measured at the beginning and end of the summer break. A survey on socio-economic and psychological status was conducted at the beginning of the summer break. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to establish a relation between psychological outcomes and changes in body composition and physical fitness during the summer break. [Results] Significant increases in body weight (p = .003) and % body fat (p = .014) as well as a decrease in VO2max (p = .018) were found in summer school non-attendants during the summer whereas no significant changes were found in summer school attendants. Summer school non-attendants with lower psychosocial outcomes had a greater decline in physical fitness and weight gain; however, summer school attendants were not affected by psychosocial outcomes. The summer school program effectively prevented summer weight gain among underprivileged adolescents due to the structured environment, restricted food access, and scheduled time for exercise in addition to minimizing the effects of their psychosocial outcomes. [Conclusion] Results indicated that summer school non-attendants may require comprehensive intervention for psychosocial outcomes and nutritional education to maintain body weight and physical fitness levels during the summer break. PMID:26244126

  7. Short-term lower-body plyometric training improves whole body BMC, bone metabolic markers, and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (?%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players. PMID:24018349

  8. Short-Term Lower-Body Plyometric Training Improves Whole-Body BMC, Bone Metabolic Markers, and Physical Fitness in Early Pubertal Male Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (?%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players. PMID:24662116

  9. Dress fit and body image: a thematic analysis of women's accounts during and after trying on dresses.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Sarah; Gill, Simeon; Brownbridge, Kathryn; Kilgariff, Sarah; Whalley, Amanda

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate women's experiences of dress fit and body image. Spontaneous speech of 20 women aged 18-45 years was audio-recorded while they tried on a number of dresses. They were also body-scanned and photographed in their chosen dress and discussed both the scan and the photograph in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and four key themes were found: the slim hourglass ideal, functional aspects of clothes fit, body confidence and clothes fit, and clothes dimensions and size coding. All themes and component sub-themes were ratified in follow-up sessions six months after the original interviews. It was concluded that these women had a complicated relationship with clothes fit and sizing and used well-fitting clothes to increase body confidence, cover perceived flaws, and to try to attain a slender hourglass look. Ideas for future directions for research in these areas are discussed. PMID:23597568

  10. The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

  11. Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

  12. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

  13. The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO{sub 2} max in white, black and Mexican Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Egwuogu, Heartley; Shendell, Derek G. Okosun, Ike S.; Goodfellow, Lynda

    2009-04-15

    Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO{sub 2} max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO{sub 2} max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO{sub 2} max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation.

  14. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-01-01

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P < 0.01). LW fetuses were within the normal weight span showing minor growth dysproportionality at 0.76 gestation favouring heart and brain, with a primary growth of carcass between 0.76 and 0.87 gestation (P < 0.05). While twins largely contributed to LW fetuses, weight differences between singletons and twins were absent at 0.76 and modest at 0.87 gestation, underscoring the fact that twins belong to normality in fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P < 0.05). At this age, FBP and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity were increased in LW fetuses (P < 0.05), suggesting increased sympathetic activity and immaturity of circulatory control. Development of vagal modulation of fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P < 0.01). These functional associations were largely independent of twin pregnancies. We conclude, low fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17218361

  15. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  16. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  17. Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael R.; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 ± 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. PMID:20798764

  18. Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

  19. Body mass index and mortality in nonsmoking older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Diehr, P; Bild, D E; Harris, T B; Duxbury, A; Siscovick, D; Rossi, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the relationship of body mass index to 5-year mortality in a cohort of 4317 nonsmoking men and women aged 65 to 100 years. METHODS: Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict mortality as a function of baseline body mass index, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and laboratory covariates. RESULTS: There was an inverse relationship between body mass index and mortality; death rates were higher for those who weighed the least. Inclusion of covariates had trivial effects on these results. People who had lost 10% or more of their body weight since age 50 had a relatively high death rate. When that group was excluded, there was no remaining relationship between body mass index and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The association between higher body mass index and mortality often found in middle-aged populations was not observed in this large cohort of older adults. Over-weight does not seem to be a risk factor for 5-year mortality in this age group. Rather, the risks associated with significant weight loss should be the primary concern. PMID:9551005

  20. Determination of Cutoff Values for DEXA-Based Body Composition Measurements for Determining Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier; Trivalle, Christophe; Vogel, Thomas; Proust, Jacques; Papazyan, Jean-Pierre; Dramé, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The two components of the body weight (i.e., fat mass and muscle mass) appeared to be of high interest to consider in predicting metabolic health related risks. We aimed to determine cutoff values for fat mass index (FMI) and muscle mass index (MMI), FM/MM, and BMI for metabolic and cardiovascular health. This study was a cross-sectional analysis study conducted in a center of preventive medicine. It included 616 consecutive outpatients: mean age was 56.0±10.0 years (74.6% aged ?50), and 61.4% were female. Fat and muscle mass were obtained with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan analyses. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as people with biological features of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, and/or hepatitis steatosis. Documented hypertension and/or atherosclerosis of at least one major artery defined individuals with cardiovascular complications. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cutoff values for MMI, FMI, and FM/MM were respectively 18.8kg/m2 (sensitivity [Se]=58%; specificity [Sp]=59%), 5.5kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%), and 0.31 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 14.1kg/m2 (Se=52%; Sp=54%), 5.5kg/m2 (Se=65%; Sp=67%), 0.39 (Se=73%; Sp=73%) in women for predicting metabolic health. Values were 19.3kg/m2 (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 7.0kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.49 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in men; and 15.7kg/m2 (Se=58%; Sp=59%), 6.4kg/m2 (Se=61%; Sp=62%) and 0.35 (Se=62%; Sp=62%) in women for cardiovascular complications. Whatever the outcomes considered, the Youden indexes for BMI values were systematically below 25?kg/m2, except for cardiovascular complications in men, where the threshold for the best Se/Sp was 25.7?kg/m2. These cutoff values for FMI, MMI, and FM/MM could be of practical value for the clinical evaluation of a deficit in MM with or without excess of FM. They complement the classical concept of BMI in a more qualitative manner and extend the analysis of its impact on health outcomes to all BMI categories. PMID:26309779

  1. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  2. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Nogueira, EC, Porto, LGG, Nogueira, RM, Martins, WR, Fonseca, RMC, Lunardi, CC, and de Oliveira, RJ. Body composition is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in a large Brazilian military firefighter cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 33-38, 2016-Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (?12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ? 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml·kg·min; p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml·kg·min; p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance. PMID:26691405

  3. Too Fat to Fit through the Door: First Evidence for Disturbed Body-Scaled Action in Anorexia Nervosa during Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Dijkerman, H. Chris; Uzunbajakau, Siarhei A.; van Elburg, Annemarie; Postma, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To date, research on the disturbed experience of body size in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) mainly focused on the conscious perceptual level (i.e. body image). Here we investigated whether these disturbances extend to body schema: an unconscious, action-related representation of the body. AN patients (n?=?19) and healthy controls (HC; n?=?20) were compared on body-scaled action. Participants walked through door-like openings varying in width while performing a diversion task. AN patients and HC differed in the largest opening width for which they started rotating their shoulders to fit through. AN patients started rotating for openings 40% wider than their own shoulders, while HC started rotating for apertures only 25% wider than their shoulders. The results imply abnormalities in AN even at the level of the unconscious, action oriented body schema. Body representation disturbances in AN are thus more pervasive than previously assumed: They do not only affect (conscious) cognition and perception, but (unconscious) actions as well. PMID:23734207

  4. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  5. In Fitness and in Health: Crafting Bodies in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremillion, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Uses ethnographic data from a U.S. eating disorders treatment program to examine how medical and psychiatric practitioners actively craft the types of bodies they claim merely to describe, diagnose, and normalize, producing very real, socially located, embodied effects by acting as if these bodies preexist both socialization and medicalization.…

  6. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P < 0.0001) from 0.9 ± 0.2 METs?hr/week in the pre-intervention period to 6.6 ± 0.7 METs?hr /week during the intervention period. The exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.01) and increased the whole-body muscle mass (Pre, 69.1 ± 0.5%; Post, 70.8 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01). The results of physical fitness tests showed that the intervention promoted muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and muscular power. The scores for mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students. PMID:23475024

  7. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  8. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. PMID:26176993

  9. Body mass, cardiovascular risk and metabolic characteristics of young persons presenting for mental healthcare in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; GeHue, Jeanne; Whitwell, Bradley G; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young people presenting for mental healthcare. Design Cross-sectional assessments of body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Setting Two primary-care based sites in Sydney, Australia for young people in the early stages of mental disorders. Participants A clinical sample of young people (12–30?years) with mental health problems. Outcome measures Daily smoking rates, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate. Results Of 1005 young people who had their BMI determined (62% female; 19.0±3.5?years), three quarters (739/1005) also had BP recordings and one-third (298/1005) had blood sampling. Clinically, 775 were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories (anxious-depression: n=541; mania-fatigue, n=104; developmental-psychotic n=130). The profile of BMI categories approximated that of the comparable segments of the Australian population. Older age, lower levels of social functioning and higher systolic BP were all associated with high BMI. In a subset (n=129), current use of any psychotropic medication was associated (p<0.05) with increased BMI. Almost one-third of cases were current daily smokers (compared to population rate of 11%). Males had a higher proportion of raised glucose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to females (9.3% and 34.1% vs 2.1% and 5.9%, respectively). Overall, there was no relationship between BMI and fasting glucose but significant relationships with triglycerides and HDL were noted. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between diagnostic subgroup and metabolic profiles. Conclusions Daily smoking rates are increased among young people presenting for mental healthcare. However, these young people do not demonstrate adverse cardiometabolic profiles. The high levels of smoking, and association of BMI with adverse social circumstances, suggest that risk factors for chronic disease are already present and likely to be compounded by medication and social disadvantage. PMID:25818274

  10. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  11. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec. PMID:25830145

  12. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore Cydia pomonella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J.

    2012-06-01

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.). In our first set of experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (1) body size is heritable and (2) parental body size mediates egg production and offspring survival. Midparent-offspring regression analyses revealed that body mass is highly heritable for females and moderately heritable for males. The contribution of fathers to estimates of additive genetic variance was slightly greater than for mothers. Egg production increased with mean parental size, but offspring survival rates were equivalent. Based on this result, we tested two additional hypotheses in a second set of experiments: (3) male size moderates female egg production and egg fertility and (4) egg production, egg fertility, and offspring survival rate are influenced by female mating opportunities. Females paired with large males produced more eggs and a higher proportion of fertile eggs than females paired with small males. Females with multiple mating opportunities produced more fertile eggs than females paired with a single male. However, egg production and offspring survival rates were unaffected by the number of mating opportunities. Our experiments demonstrate that body mass is heritable in C. pomonella and that size phenotypes may mediate fecundity but not fitness. We conclude that male size can influence egg production and fertility, but female mate choice also plays a role in determining egg fertility.

  13. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  14. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  15. Generation of three-dimensional body-fitted coordinates using hyperbolic partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steger, J. L.; Rizk, Y. M.

    1985-01-01

    An efficient numerical mesh generation scheme capable of creating orthogonal or nearly orthogonal grids about moderately complex three dimensional configurations is described. The mesh is obtained by marching outward from a user specified grid on the body surface. Using spherical grid topology, grids have been generated about full span rectangular wings and a simplified space shuttle orbiter.

  16. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  17. Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  18. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  19. Pathway analysis of body mass index genome-wide association study highlights risk pathways in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Gu, Jinxia; Li, Ming; Xi, Jie; Sun, Wenyu; Song, Guangmin; Liu, Guiyou

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It is reported that body mass index (BMI) is risk factor for CVD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently provided rapid insights into genetics of CVD and its risk factors. However, the specific mechanisms how BMI influences CVD risk are largely unknown. We think that BMI may influences CVD risk by shared genetic pathways. In order to confirm this view, we conducted a pathway analysis of BMI GWAS, which examined approximately 329,091 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 4763 samples. We identified 31 significant KEGG pathways. There is literature evidence supporting the involvement of GnRH signaling, vascular smooth muscle contraction, dilated cardiomyopathy, Gap junction, Wnt signaling, Calcium signaling and Chemokine signaling in CVD. Collectively, our study supports the potential role of the CVD risk pathways in BMI. BMI may influence CVD risk by the shared genetic pathways. We believe that our results may advance our understanding of BMI mechanisms in CVD. PMID:26264282

  20. The use of esmolol in whole-body hyperthermia: cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Berry, J M; Michalsen, A; Nagle, V; Bull, J M

    1997-01-01

    Whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) is a well-described investigational adjunct to systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced malignancies. The hemodynamic consequences of this physiologic state may include tachycardia, which can produce acute myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Ischemic heart disease is currently considered a contraindication to WBH. We chose to investigate the consequences of using a new beta 1-adrenergic antagonist, esmolol, to attempt to control the tachycardia associated with WBH. After institutional approval and patient consent, nine consecutive patients with normal cardiac function presenting for WBH with carboplatin infusion were studied. Along with standard monitors, radial arterial and oximetric thermodilution pulmonary artery catheters were placed. Patients were sedated and heated in a radiant warmer (Enthermics). Spontaneous ventilation was maintained and hemodynamic data were gathered at 37 degrees C, and at 41.8 degrees C (before, during and after esmolol infusion). Heart rate and cardiac output increased (by 46% (p = 0.001) and 35% (p = 0.04) respectively) while mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance fell (by 18% (p = 0.02) and 44% (p = 0.006) respectively) during hyperthermia. Heart rate was significantly reduced during esmolol administration (mean dose 180 micrograms/kg/min) in the absence of changes in cardiac index and calculated oxygen delivery. Ventricular filling pressures and stroke work were unchanged. No heart failure, pulmonary edema, or other adverse event was observed. Hemodynamic changes seen during esmolol administration were completely reversed 15 min after the infusion was stopped. We conclude that the administration of moderate doses of esmolol is safe for this population of patients undergoing WBH, and that this technique raises the question of whether patients with ischemic heart disease could safely undergo WBH. PMID:9222810

  1. Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sharon

    Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart…

  2. Body position and volume status as determinants of cardiovascular responses to transition into microgravity in parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Karemaker, J M; Stok, W J; Latham, R D

    1993-01-01

    The condition of microgravity during spaceflight imposes a new challenge to the cardiovascular system and to its homeostatic mechanisms. Initial fluids shifts from the dependent parts to the upper parts of the body are supposed to induce a plethora of effects which eventually lead to the well-known puffy faces and chicken legs' of astronauts. At the same time some 2-3 kgs. in fluid is lost in urine and by diminished uptake. For research into these longer-term effects of spaceflight extensive physiologic experiments are required in space. In view of the high cost and the logistic problems related to space-research much work is done in simulation experiments like bedrest or head down tilt studies. For the very initial effects of micro-G parabolic flight can be used. In parabolic flights we have addressed the question of immediate cardiovascular effects of the transition into microgravity. Since a parabola will last for not more than some 25 seconds, one may expect to observe mainly changes in the outflow of the autonomic nervous system, reflecting in blood pressure and heart rate as easily measurable parameters. Such changes can be expected to be caused by the sudden disappearance of hydrostatic effects and the shifts of fluid from pools where it is kept under the influence of gravity. Hydrostatic effects will play a role in the position of the baroreceptors with respect to the heart: in the upright position the carotid sinuses are some 25 cm above heart level, consequently they observe a lower pressure than that at the heart. When this effect disappears in micro-G a suddenly increased pressure will be observed and the baroreflex is called into action. On the venous side blood will rush to the right atrium when it is no longer pulled down in the compliant vessels of the abdomen and legs. This may be expected to lead to increased pressures on the low-pressure side of the heart. Apart from changes in filling of the left heart this may lead to autonomic nervous effects on systemic blood pressure and heart rate as well. PMID:11537427

  3. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  4. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  5. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 – 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 – 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument “Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool” or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Results Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p?fitness and BMI, supporting the use of holistic interventions to address childhood obesity. PMID:24969618

  6. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children: the Mysore Parthenon study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Winder, Nicola R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Noonan, Kate; Boucher, Barbara J; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculo-skeletal health in children, but its relationship with offspring metabolic risk is not known. Objective We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometry, body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Design Serum 25-hydroxy D (25(OH)D ) concentrations were measured at 28-32 weeks gestation in 568 women who delivered at Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Anthropometry, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured in the offspring at 5 and 9.5 years of age. Muscle-grip strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer at 9.5 years. Arm-muscle-area was calculated as a measure of muscle mass. Fasting insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. Results 67% of women had vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l). At 5 and 9.5 years, children born to vitamin D deficient mothers had smaller arm-muscle-area compared to children born to mothers without deficiency (P<0.05). There was no difference in grip strength between offspring of women with and without vitamin D deficiency. At 9.5 years, children of vitamin D deficient mothers had higher fasting insulin resistance than children of non-deficient women (P=0.04). There were no associations between maternal vitamin D status and other offspring risk factors at either age. Conclusions Intra-uterine exposure to low 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with lower muscle mass and higher insulin resistance in children. PMID:21228264

  7. The association of health-related fitness with indicators of academic performance in Texas schools.

    PubMed

    Welk, Gregory J; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William H; Meredith, Marilu D; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school grades. Mixed-model regression analyses revealed modest associations between fitness and academic achievement after controlling for potentially confounding variables. The effects of fitness on academic achievement were positive but small. A separate logistic regression analysis indicated that higher fitness rates increased the odds of schools achieving exemplary/recognized school status within the state. School fitness attainment is an indicator of higher performing schools. Direction of causality cannot be inferred due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. PMID:21049834

  8. Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

  9. 21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary...manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular diagnostic, surgical, and...

  10. A comparison of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations and BMI in predicting body fatness and cardiovascular disease risk factor levels in children1234

    PubMed Central

    Horlick, Mary; Berenson, Gerald S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although estimation of percentage body fat with the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations (PBFSlaughter) is widely used, the accuracy of this method has not been well studied. Objective: The objective was to determine the accuracy of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations. Design: We compared agreement between PBFSlaughter and estimations derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (PBFDXA) in 1169 children in the Pediatric Rosetta Body Composition Project and the relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors, as compared with body mass index (BMI), in 6725 children in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Results: PBFSlaughter was highly correlated (r = 0.90) with PBFDXA, but it markedly overestimated levels of PBFDXA in children with large skinfold thicknesses. In the 65 boys with a sum of skinfold thicknesses (subscapular- plus triceps-skinfold thicknesses) ?50 mm, PBFSlaughter overestimated PBFDXA by 12 percentage points. The comparable overestimation in girls with a high skinfold sum was 6 percentage points. We also found that, after adjustment for sex and age, BMI showed slightly stronger associations with lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values than did PBFSlaughter. Conclusions: These results indicate that PBFSlaughter, which was developed among a group of much thinner children and adolescents, is fairly accurate among nonobese children, but markedly overestimates the body fatness of children who have thick skinfold thicknesses. Furthermore, PBFSlaughter has no advantage over sex- and age-adjusted BMIs at identifying children who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease based on lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values. PMID:24153344

  11. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  12. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  13. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  14. Chronic stress and insulin resistance-related indices of cardiovascular disease risk, part 2: a potential role for mind-body therapies.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Vincent, Heather K; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world, and its prevalence is rapidly increasing among developing nations. The increasing global prevalence of CVD reflects in part the concurrent rise in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and other atherogenic changes associated with insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). Evidence suggests that chronic stress and related psychosocial factors also play an important role in the development and progression of IRS-related states and ultimately, in the pathogenesis of CVD. Designed to address these interrelated psychological and physiological components of health, yoga and other traditional mind-body therapies may offer particular promise in both the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the potential benefits of specific mind-body modalities for CVD risk reduction and discuss possible mechanisms underlying these observed effects. PMID:17900042

  15. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  16. Personal Training & Fitness Assessment

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Personal Training & Fitness Assessment Renewal Form UM RecWell Fitness Programs 301.405.PLAY www.25/$141.75/ na $163.75/$204.75/na $264.50/$330.75/na*** $294/$367.50/na*** $24.60/$33 $13/$16.50 Fitness Assessment and Body Composition Fees Full Fitness Assessment UMD Students/ RecWell Members Fitness Assessment

  17. Television viewing and physical fitness in adults.

    PubMed

    Tucker, L A

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with cardiovascular fitness among 8,885 adults. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, smoking, length of work week, time reported exercising each week, and obesity were also examined. Subjects who watched TV more than 4 hours per day (frequent viewers) were 0.37 times as likely to be physically fit as those who watched TV less than 1 hour per day (infrequent viewers) with age and gender controlled. Similarly, adults who watched TV 3-4 hours per day (moderately frequent viewers) were 0.45 times as likely to be fit as infrequent watchers. Adjustment for potential confounders, particularly measured body fat and reported exercise duration in combination, weakened the TV viewing/fitness relation moderately. Given the findings of this study and the results of previous research, caution should be exercised regarding excessive television viewing. PMID:2132888

  18. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fábio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

  19. Fast N-body Simulations on GPUs Algorithms designed to efficiently solve this classical problem of physics fit very well

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    -body formulation. Adding features such as auto-tuning makes multipole-type algorithms ideal for heterogeneous computing environments. Rio Yokota, Lorena A. Barba Mechanical Engineering Dept., Boston University, Boston MA 02215 The classic N-body problem of mechanics solves for the motion of N bodies interacting via

  20. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age?=?14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  1. Differences in body composition and cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors between migrant and British-born British Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Tessa M; Unwin, Nigel; Fischbacher, Colin; Chamley, Jagdip K

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes in people of South Asian origin living in affluent western countries. We do not know whether or how risk factors for these diseases change in subsequent generations born in the west. Findings that birth-weight is inversely associated with abdominal obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes in later life suggest that those born in the west may have lower levels of risk than migrants. We assessed 30 migrants from Pakistan to the UK, 30 British-born British Pakistani women, and 25 British-born women of European origin. British-born British Pakistani women were taller (P = 0.05), had a lower waist to hip ratio (P = 0.04), lower mean fasting glucose levels (P = 0.03), lower mean triglyceride levels (P = 0.03), and higher mean HDL levels (P < 0.001) than migrant British Pakistani women. Levels of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood pressure were not significantly different in the two British Pakistani groups. Thus, we found healthier levels of several cardiovascular and Type 2 diabetes risk factors in British-born British Pakistani women than in migrant British Pakistani women. These findings might be related to the effects of early environment or to other factors, such as differences in health behaviors. British-born British Pakistani women also differed from British-born European women, having a more adverse body composition, but healthier levels of HDL cholesterol and blood pressure. PMID:18433003

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters of supine lower body negative pressure and upright lower body positive pressure to simulate activity in 1/6 G and 3/8 G

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Stahn, Alexander C.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    For future space exploration missions, it is important to determine the best method of simulating on Earth cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions for lunar and Martian gravities. For this purpose, we compared exercise performed within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber. Twelve subjects underwent a protocol of resting and walking (0.25 Froude) within supine LBNP and upright LBPP simulation. Each protocol was performed in simulated 1/6 G and 3/8 G. We assessed heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V?o2), normalized stride length, normalized vertical peak ground reaction force, duty factor, cadence, perceived exertion (Borg), and comfort of the subject. A mixed linear model was employed to determine effects of the simulation on the respective parameters. Furthermore, parameters were compared with predicted values for lunar and Martian gravities to determine the method that showed the best agreement. During walking, all cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters were unaffected by the simulation used for lunar and Martian gravities. During rest, HR and V?o2 were lower in supine LBNP compared with upright LBPP. HR, V?o2, and normalized vertical peak ground reaction force obtained with supine LBNP and upright LBPP showed good agreement with predicted values. Since supine LBNP and upright LBPP are lacking significant differences, we conclude that both simulations are suited to simulate the cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions during activity in lunar and Martian gravities. Operational characteristics and the intended application should be considered when choosing either supine LBNP or upright LBPP to simulate partial gravities on Earth. PMID:23640597

  3. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

  4. Chronic Pain, Body Mass Index and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Tests of Moderation, Unique and Shared Relationships in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W.; Quartana, Phillip J.; Bruehl, Stephen; Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Appelhans, Bradley; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The current study examined whether persistent bodily pain was related to cardiovascular disease risk factors, whether these effects were moderated by body mass index (BMI), and, if not, whether chronic pain accounted for unique variance in CVD risk factors. Participants were women (N=2135) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. A High Pain Frequency variable (high pain in 0 through 4 assessments) was coded to reflect the frequency of high levels of bodily pain across the first 3 years of the study. Six CVD risk factors and BMI were measured at follow-up year 3. High Pain Frequency and BMI were correlated significantly with risk factors, although effects for the former were small. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed High Pain Frequency × BMI interactions for 5 of 6 CVD risk factors. Dissecting the interactions revealed a similar pattern across 4 risk factors: for women with normal BMI, there was a “dose-response” in which increasing frequency of high pain revealed increasingly worse CVD risk factor levels, whereas for women with obese BMI, high pain frequency was unrelated to risk factors. For obese women, increasing frequency of high pain was associated with higher blood glucose. Although BMI is a well-established CVD risk factor, evaluation of CVD risk level may be improved by considering the incidence of persistent pain, particularly in normal weight women (BMI<25kg/m2) lower BMI. PMID:25427423

  5. Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MusS) has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of MusS in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. MusS has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension (HTN) and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of HTN, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training (RT) are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival. PMID:22885613

  6. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  7. INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 44:498509 (2004) Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms: Fitting Pieces of a

    E-print Network

    Steury, Todd D.

    2004-01-01

    498 INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 44:498­509 (2004) Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms SYNOPSIS. The majority of ectotherms grow slower but mature at a larger body size in colder environments able to explain the generality of temperature-size relationships in ectotherms. We recommend

  8. The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Knechtle, Beat; Fenzl, Matthias; Schlegel, Christian; Konrad, Manuela; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2) whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls) attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subject’s weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Body mass decreased by 11.4% ± 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% ± 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001). Fat mass decreased by 23.8% ± 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% ± 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001). The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017) but not in girls (P > 0.05). The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05). Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% ± 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% ± 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001). Conclusions Adjustments of the chronically positive imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure of obese children and adolescents living in obesogenic environments should be addressed in a multisectoral approach. Future research in multicomponent childhood and adolescent weight loss programs should be directed towards a better understanding of the underlying complex dynamics in energy homeostasis which promote weight loss and changes in body composition due to high intensity exercise interventions. PMID:23525602

  9. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th ... Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure ...

  10. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.)....

  11. 45th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 2007, Reno, NV COMPARISON OF BODY-FITTED, EMBEDDED

    E-print Network

    Löhner, Rainald

    -FITTED, EMBEDDED AND IMMERSED 3-D EULER PREDICTIONS FOR BLAST LOADS ON COLUMNS Rainald L¨ohner, Joseph D. Baum, Washington, D.C. A reinforced concrete, as well as a steel column, were subjected to typical blast loads has become a key bottleneck for numerical simulations. Presently, the widespread use of blast

  12. Body heating induced by sub-resonant (350 MHz) microwave irradiation: cardiovascular and respiratory responses in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, J R; Frei, M R

    1997-01-01

    These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of sub-resonant microwave (MW) exposure (350 MHz, E orientation, average power density 38 mW/cm2, average whole-body specific absorption rate 13.2 W/kg) on selected physiological parameters. The increase in peripheral body temperature during 350 MHz exposure was greater than that in earlier experiments performed at 700 MHz (resonance). Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated during a 1 degree C increase in colonic temperature due to 350 MHz exposure; respiratory rate showed no significant change. The results are consistent with other investigators' reports comparing sub-resonance exposures with those at resonance and above. PMID:9140664

  13. Certain peculiarities of the functioning of the cardiovascular system in bedrest conditions during horizontal and antiorthostatic body positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The adequate modeling of physiological reactions inherent to the state of weightlessness has become a matter of particular urgency in space medicine. This modeling is necessary for studying the phenomenology and degree of disorders, prognostication of the crew's health, and developing the various preventive measures employed in space flights. A comparison is made of the physiological effects brought about by bed rest in a horizontal and antiorthostatic body position. A study is done of the influence of brief antiorthostatic hypokinesia, simulating the acute period of adaptation to weightlessness, on circulation and on a number of involved analytical systems. The basic model accepted is antiorthostatic hypokinesia with a body position declination angle of 4 deg (head lower than feet). The experiment's duration is dictated by the objectives of the research.

  14. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.

    PubMed

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

  15. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System

    PubMed Central

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

  16. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability–based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26–40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. Results PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P?body fat percentage (P?=?0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P?=?0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P?=?0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. Conclusions PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed. PMID:24742265

  17. Geographic variation in body size, sexual size dimorphism and fitness components of a seed beetle: local adaptation versus

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    traits of ectotherms along latitudinal and altitudinal clines is generally assumed to represent reared at 24, 30 and 368C) to quantify the relative contribution of genetically-based differentiation among populations vs phenotypic plasticity to variation in body size and other traits among six

  18. One Size Doesn't Fit All: New Continua of Figure Drawings and Their Relation to Ideal Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novella, Jocelyn; Gosselin, Jennifer T.; Danowski, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study introduces a new figure drawing measure, the Presentation of Images on a Continuum Scale (PICS), which includes continua of bodies from thin to obese and thin to muscular for both men and women. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from a private, Catholic university in Connecticut. The data were collected…

  19. Male reproductive competition and components of female fitness in relation to body size in Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In insects, larger males generally have a reproductive advantage over smaller males when competing for mating partners. We examined male reproductive competition together with pre-copulation and copulation durations, female longevity, and fecundity in northern corn rootworm in relation to the body s...

  20. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  1. Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance. PMID:21992535

  2. Numerical Simulation of Shock-Induced Combustion Past Blunt Bodies Using Shock-Fitting Technique. Appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  3. One size does not fit all: using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women's body image.

    PubMed

    Capodilupo, Christina M

    2015-04-01

    Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women's feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women's body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants' body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. PMID:25150817

  4. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-?. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

  5. Effect of consuming salad and yogurt as preload on body weight management and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Karimi, Golgis; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Few investigations reported the reductive effect of preload consuming on energy intake. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of consuming a mix of low glycaemic index foods such as vegetable salad, yogurt and water before or with meal on anthropometric measures and cardio vascular diseases (CVD) risks. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 25 men and 35 women were recruited to consume similar amounts of macronutrients within a hypocaloric diet for 3 months. Although subjects in the preload group consumed preload 15 min before the main meal, subjects in the control group consumed them with meal. The results showed that body weight, waist circumference, triglyceride, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure decreased in more amount in the preload group ( - 7.8 ± 0.5%, - 2.7 ± 0.2%, - 5.7 ± 1.1%, - 3.1 ± 0.53% and - 4.4 ± 0.4%, respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Fasting blood sugar and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly only in the preload group. Consuming vegetable salad, yogurt and water as preload leads to greater changes in anthropometric measures and CVD risks. PMID:23249429

  6. Throughout the years, our fashions have changed as we've admired different body shapes to fit different styles. The Victorian era called for tiny waists and big busts with the corset look, the 1920's

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Throughout the years, our fashions have changed as we've admired different body shapes to fit and athleticism, but it's now gaining a larger following in both the fitness and fashion worlds. It's kind efforts and follow your determination responsibly. It's a potential fashion craze, it's a way of life

  7. Environment factors associated with adolescents' body mass index, physical activity and physical fitness in Kuching South City, Sarawak: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye L; Chang, Ching T; Saimon, Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived built environment attributes and physical activity, physical fitness and body weight among adolescents aged 14-16 years in Sarawak. This was a cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling. A set of questionnaires consisting of socio-demographic information, a self-administered physical activity checklist and a Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Youth (NEWS-Y) was used. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and physical fitness was tested using a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 316 respondents participated. The mean BMI for boys was almost equal to the mean BMI for girls. Only 7.9% of the sampled population was found to be overweight or obese. The overall mean duration spent per day on physical activity was 128.4 min (SD 118.43), with mean of 56.1 min (SD 73.94) after school time. Girls reported to spend longer each day taking physical activity before and during school. Boys were found to have significantly higher VO2max of 27.79±5.91 mL/kg/min as compared to girls (t=11.22, p<0.000). Based on comparison with other countries, the NEWS-Y scores indicated a mixture of low and high walkability neighborhoods. Respondents who had lower BMIs reported living in lower residential density areas and less risk of crime, and respondents who had better physical fitness reported less suitable infrastructure for walking. Promotion of exercise at all levels should be continuously encouraged as it would lead to improvement in the well-being of an individual. PMID:23183734

  8. Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2011-02-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diet quality in adults 19 years and older (n = 15,023) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Covariate-adjusted means ± SE and prevalence rates were determined for candy consumption groups. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. A total of 21.8%, 12.9%, and 10.9% of adults consumed total, chocolate, and sugar candy, respectively. Mean daily per capita intake of total, chocolate, and sugar candy was 9.0 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 g, respectively; intake in consumers was 38.3 ± 1.0, 39.9 ± 1.1, and 28.9 ± 1.3 g, respectively. Energy (9973 ± 92 vs 9027 ± 50 kJ; P < .0001), saturated fatty acid (27.9 ± 0.26 vs 26.9 ± 0.18 g; P = .0058), and added sugar (25.7 ± 0.42 vs 21.1 ± 0.41 g; P < .0001) intake were higher in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Body mass index (27.7 ± 0.15 vs 28.2 ± 0.12 kg/m(2); P = .0092), waist circumference (92.3 ± 0.34 vs 96.5 ± 0.29 cm; P = .0051), and C-reactive protein (0.40 ± 0.01 vs 0.43 ± 0.01 mg/dL; P = .0487) levels were lower in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Candy consumers had a 14% decreased risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = .0466); chocolate consumers had a 19% decreased risk of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0364) and a 15% reduced risk of MetS (P = .0453). Results suggest that the current level of candy consumption was not associated with health risks. PMID:21419316

  9. Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies. PMID:24761982

  10. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  11. Exercise and the cardiovascular system: clinical science and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-07-01

    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure. These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and heart failure, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs. PMID:26139859

  12. Body Mass Index and Mortality Risk in Asian Peritoneal Dialysis Patients in Hong Kong—Impact of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Status

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Verukonda Ravi; Zhu, Tong Ying; Yip, Terence; Lui, Sing Leung; Lo, Wai Kei

    2014-01-01

    ? Background: Obesity increases mortality in the general population, but improves survival in hemodialysis patients. In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, the reported effect is controversial. We investigated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on patient survival in Asian PD patients. ? Methods: The survival of incident Asian PD patients from 2001 to 2008 in a single center in Hong Kong was analyzed retrospectively. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected from patient records. Patients who had a total Kt/V below 1.7 or who died within 6 months were excluded. The BMI was categorized using the World Health Organization recommendation for Asian populations. ? Results: In the 274 study patients [154 men (56%); 138 with diabetes (50.4%); mean age: 63.4 ± 14.6 years; mean BMI: 21.97 ± 3.23 kg/m2; 37 underweight (13.5%); 35 obese (12.8%)], the relative risk (RR) for mortality [adjusted for age, diabetes status, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)] was similar for the normal and overweight groups, but higher for the underweight (RR: 1.909; p = 0.028) and obese groups (RR: 1.799; p = 0.048). The increased mortality in obese patients was more prominent in patients with diabetes (RR: 1.9 vs 1.19 in patients without diabetes; p = 0.074 and 0.76 respectively), and in patients with CVD (RR: 8.895 vs 1.642 in patients without CVD; p = 0.012 and 0.122 respectively). ? Conclusions: In Asian PD patients, the relationship between BMI and mortality was U-shaped, with higher mortality in the underweight and obese patients. The negative impact of obesity was more prominent in patients with diabetes and CVD. PMID:24497598

  13. Documentation of program COORDC to generate and coordinate system for 3D corners with or without fillet using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program COORDC generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for corner geometry with or without corner fillets. It is assumed that at any given xi, x remains constant; consequently the only variation is in y and z. It is also assumed that for all xi's in the physical plane the coordinate system in y-z plane is similar. This enables solution of coordinate system for one particular xi = 1 (x for xi = 1 is arbitrarily chosen to be 0.0) and the solution for all other xi plane can be easily specified once the coordinates in the physical plane on the line 1 or = to xi or = to IMAX, eta = 1, zeta = 1 are specified.

  14. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24303918

  15. Waist circumference values equivalent to body mass index points for predicting absolute cardiovascular disease risks among adults in an Aboriginal community: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There have been suggestions that currently recommended waist circumference (WC) cut-off points for Australians of European origin may not be applicable to Aboriginal people who have different body habitus profiles. We aimed to generate equivalent WC values that correspond to body mass index (BMI) points for identifying absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting An Aboriginal community in Australia's Northern Territory. Participants From 1992 to 1998, 920 adults without CVD, with age, WC and BMI measurements were followed-up for up to 20?years. Outcome measures Incident CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) events during the follow-up period ascertained from hospitalisation data. We generated WC values with 10-year absolute risks equivalent for the development of CVD as BMI values (20–34?kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated time-failure model. Results There were 211 incident cases of CVD over 13?669 person-years of follow-up. At the average age of 35?years, WC values with absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks equivalent to BMI of 25?kg/m2 were 91.5, 91.8 and 91.7?cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding WC values were 92.5, 92.7 and 93?cm for females. WC values with equal absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks to BMI of 30?kg/m2 were 101.7, 103.1 and 102.6?cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding values were 99.2, 101.6 and 101.5?cm for females. Association between WC and CVD did not depend on gender (p=0.54). Conclusions WC ranging from 91 to 93?cm was equivalent to BMI 25?kg/m2 for overweight, and 99 to 103?cm was equivalent to BMI of 30?kg/m2 for obesity in terms of predicting 10-year absolute CVD risk. Replicating the absolute risk method in other Aboriginal communities will further validate the WC values generated for future development of WC cut-off points for Aboriginal people. PMID:26567258

  16. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

  17. Walking for fitness: is it enough to maintain both heart and bone health?

    PubMed

    Waddington, G; Dickson, T; Trathen, S; Adams, R

    2011-01-01

    Exercising at levels of whole body accelerations exceeding 3.6g has been shown to have positive effects on cardiovascular fitness, bone density and balance. This pilot research project evaluated the whole body accelerations and cardiovascular challenge provided by selected walks in the Canberra region of Australia to determine if walks could be ranked according to potential level of impact on both cardiovascular fitness and bone health. Nine participants, who described themselves as walking at least 3km, three times per week, wore a data logging device recording heart rate, acceleration and GPS position while walking three outdoor tracks: (1) the running track of an athletics stadium; (2) on a hill climb path through bushland; and (3) on a route through suburban streets. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) for heart rate, distribution of whole body accelerations and average walking speed between track 2 and tracks 1 and 3. There was a significant difference for heart rate, distribution of whole body accelerations and average walking speed between the walks. The running track and the suburban walk provide a moderate exercise challenge, with the hill climb walk providing progressively greater vertical height challenge, resulting in an increased cardiovascular exercise challenge. No participant effectively exceeded the threshold for achieving a positive impact on bone density (100 or more accelerations/day >3.6g) on track 1, and only two of the nine participants intermittently achieved this threshold on tracks 2 and 3. PMID:21616030

  18. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  19. Personality, physical fitness, and affective response to exercise among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Margaret; Graham, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Evidence shows that aspects of personality are associated with participation in physical activity. We hypothesized that, among adolescents, behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) would be associated with physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and percent body fat), enjoyment of exercise, tolerance of and persistence in high-intensity exercise, and affective response to an acute exercise bout. Methods One hundred forty-six healthy adolescents completed a cardiovascular fitness test, percent body fat assessment (dual energy x-ray absorptiometer), and two 30-minute cycle ergometer exercise tasks at a moderate and a hard intensity. Questionnaires evaluated BIS/BAS, enjoyment of exercise, and preference and tolerance for high-intensity activity. Affect in response to exercise was assessed using the Feeling Scale (FS) and the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL). Results BIS was negatively correlated with cardiovascular fitness and tolerance for high-intensity exercise, and adolescents with high BIS scores reported more negative FS in response to exercise at both moderate and hard intensities. BAS was positively correlated with enjoyment of exercise, and adolescents with high BAS scores reported having more positive FS and higher Energetic Arousal on the AD ACL in response to moderate exercise. The association between BAS and affect was attenuated for the hard exercise task. Conclusion These findings suggest that both the drive to avoid punishing stimuli (BIS) and the drive to approach rewarding stimuli (BAS) are related to the affective response to exercise. The BIS may be more strongly associated with fitness-related exercise behavior among adolescents than the BAS, whereas the BAS may play a relatively greater role in terms of subjective exercise enjoyment. PMID:19276837

  20. Effects of Poly-Bioactive Compounds on Lipid Profile and Body Weight in a Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Population with Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-M; Puzo, José; Calabuig, José-Ramón; Brea, Angel; Pedret, Anna; Moriña, David; Villar, José; Millán, Jesús; Anguera, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A dietary supplement (AP, Armolipid Plus) that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of AP, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations and other CVD biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of six Spanish hospitals Hospital Virgen del Rocío (Sevilla); Hospital San Jorge (Huesca); Hospital San Pedro (Logroño); Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid), Hospital la Fe (Valencia) and Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus) as recruiting and coordinating center. 102 participants (mean age ± SD; 50.91±11.61; 32 men) with low CVD, with mild-to-moderately elevated LDL-c (between 3.35 mmol/L and 4.88 mmol/L) without hypolipemic therapy were randomized in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, multicenter trial commencing January 2012 and ending December 2012. Among the exclusion criteria were any concomitant chronic disease, triglycerides (TG) >3.97 mmol/L, pregnant or lactating, and history of CVD. At 12 weeks, compared to placebo, AP reduced LDL-c by ?6.9%, apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 by ?6.6% and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio by ?5.5%, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio by ?8.6%, while increasing ApoA1 by +2.5% (p<0.05). AP consumption was associated with modest mean weight loss of ?0.93 kg (95%CI: -1.74 to -0.12; P?=?0.02) compared with control group while dietary composition remained unchanged in the AP group. The AP product was well tolerated. In conclusion, AP, combined with dietary recommendations, reduced LDL-c levels as well as total cholesterol/HDL-c and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while increasing Apo A1, all of which are improvements in CVD risk indicators. AP is a product which could benefit patients having moderate hyperlipidemia and excess body weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01562080 PMID:25084280

  1. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA1c) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p?fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  3. Cigarette smoking and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Brunette, Mary F; McElvery, Raleigh; Naslund, John A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    This study explored cigarette smoking, health status, and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention. Baseline data from two studies of the In SHAPE fitness intervention were combined. A total of 341 overweight or obese adults with serious mental illness were assessed on smoking, interest in quitting, cardiovascular fitness, lipids, body mass index, readiness to change diet, and psychiatric symptoms. Thirty-six percent (n = 122) of participants were categorized as current smokers. The majority of smokers (84%) were interested in quitting. Smokers were more likely to be younger, male, and less educated than non-smokers. Smokers had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and were less ready to reduce dietary fat, after adjusting for age, gender, and education. Findings highlight the potential to address both fitness and smoking to reduce cardiovascular risk in individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:26034872

  4. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  5. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

  6. The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

  7. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  8. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  9. Cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    2015-10-21

    Essential facts Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an umbrella term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. It includes coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and transient ischaemic attack. CVD is the leading cause of death in England and Wales, accounting for almost one third of all deaths. PMID:26488967

  10. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  11. North York Fall Norms for Boys and Girls Age 12-14 for: CAHPER Tests; Measures of Aerobic Fitness; Peak Flow; Muscle Strength; Percent Body Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia

    Tests are described that were given to 1,000 students randomly selected at grade 7-9 levels with an equal representation from both sexes. Participants were selected from two junior high schools in North York for a study comparing students in a regular physical education program to those in a program to develop cardiovascular endurance. The first…

  12. CardioGenBase: A Literature Based Multi-Omics Database for Major Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    V, Alexandar; Nayar, Pradeep G; Murugesan, R; Mary, Beaulah; P, Darshana; Ahmed, Shiek S S J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both, genetic and epigenetic factors are involved in the enumeration of various cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a vast amount of multi-omics data are accumulated in the field of cardiovascular research, yet the understanding of key mechanistic aspects of CVDs remain uncovered. Hence, a comprehensive online resource tool is required to comprehend previous research findings and to draw novel methodology for understanding disease pathophysiology. Here, we have developed a literature-based database, CardioGenBase, collecting gene-disease association from Pubmed and MEDLINE. The database covers major cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertensive heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, ischemic heart disease and rheumatic heart disease. It contains ~1,500 cardiovascular disease genes from ~2,4000 research articles. For each gene, literature evidence, ontology, pathways, single nucleotide polymorphism, protein-protein interaction network, normal gene expression, protein expressions in various body fluids and tissues are provided. In addition, tools like gene-disease association finder and gene expression finder are made available for the users with figures, tables, maps and venn diagram to fit their needs. To our knowledge, CardioGenBase is the only database to provide gene-disease association for above mentioned major cardiovascular diseases in a single portal. CardioGenBase is a vital online resource to support genome-wide analysis, genetic, epigenetic and pharmacological studies. PMID:26624015

  13. CardioGenBase: A Literature Based Multi-Omics Database for Major Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    V, Alexandar; Nayar, Pradeep G.; Murugesan, R.; Mary, Beaulah; P, Darshana; Ahmed, Shiek S. S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both, genetic and epigenetic factors are involved in the enumeration of various cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a vast amount of multi-omics data are accumulated in the field of cardiovascular research, yet the understanding of key mechanistic aspects of CVDs remain uncovered. Hence, a comprehensive online resource tool is required to comprehend previous research findings and to draw novel methodology for understanding disease pathophysiology. Here, we have developed a literature-based database, CardioGenBase, collecting gene-disease association from Pubmed and MEDLINE. The database covers major cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertensive heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, ischemic heart disease and rheumatic heart disease. It contains ~1,500 cardiovascular disease genes from ~2,4000 research articles. For each gene, literature evidence, ontology, pathways, single nucleotide polymorphism, protein-protein interaction network, normal gene expression, protein expressions in various body fluids and tissues are provided. In addition, tools like gene-disease association finder and gene expression finder are made available for the users with figures, tables, maps and venn diagram to fit their needs. To our knowledge, CardioGenBase is the only database to provide gene-disease association for above mentioned major cardiovascular diseases in a single portal. CardioGenBase is a vital online resource to support genome-wide analysis, genetic, epigenetic and pharmacological studies. PMID:26624015

  14. Potential energy surface fitting by a statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares method for the many-body potential: Method and application to N{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Jason D.; Doraiswamy, Sriram; Candler, Graham V. E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu; Truhlar, Donald G. E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu

    2014-02-07

    Fitting potential energy surfaces to analytic forms is an important first step for efficient molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we present an improved version of the local interpolating moving least squares method (L-IMLS) for such fitting. Our method has three key improvements. First, pairwise interactions are modeled separately from many-body interactions. Second, permutational invariance is incorporated in the basis functions, using permutationally invariant polynomials in Morse variables, and in the weight functions. Third, computational cost is reduced by statistical localization, in which we statistically correlate the cutoff radius with data point density. We motivate our discussion in this paper with a review of global and local least-squares-based fitting methods in one dimension. Then, we develop our method in six dimensions, and we note that it allows the analytic evaluation of gradients, a feature that is important for molecular dynamics. The approach, which we call statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares fitting of the many-body potential (SL-PI-L-IMLS-MP, or, more simply, L-IMLS-G2), is used to fit a potential energy surface to an electronic structure dataset for N{sub 4}. We discuss its performance on the dataset and give directions for further research, including applications to trajectory calculations.

  15. Cardiovascular responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular system's adaptive changes during and after spaceflight are discussed. Cephalic fluid shifts are demonstrated by photographs along with calf girth and leg volume changes. Inflight measurements show an increase in average resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure, and a sympathetic-parasympathetic neural imbalance. Postflight findings include a small but reversible decrease in the left ventricular muscle mass. Since 1980, NASA's research has emphasized cardiovascular deconditioning and countermeasures: hemodynamic changes, endocrine and neurohumoral aspects, etiologic factors, and lower body negative pressure devices. Though human beings acclimate to the space environment, questions concerning the immediate and long-term aspects of spaceflight need to be answered for adequate planning of extended space missions.

  16. Limulus polyphemus hemocyanin: 10 A cryo-EM structure, sequence analysis, molecular modelling and rigid-body fitting reveal the interfaces between the eight hexamers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andreas G; Depoix, Frank; Stohr, Michael; Meissner, Ulrich; Hagner-Holler, Silke; Hammouti, Kada; Burmester, Thorsten; Heyd, Jochen; Wriggers, Willy; Markl, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    The blue copper protein hemocyanin from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus is among the largest respiratory proteins found in nature (3.5 MDa) and exhibits a highly cooperative oxygen binding. Its 48 subunits are arranged as eight hexamers (1x6mers) that form the native 8x6mer in a nested hierarchy of 2x6mers and 4x6mers. This quaternary structure is established by eight subunit types (termed I, IIA, II, IIIA, IIIB, IV, V, and VI), of which only type II has been sequenced. Crystal structures of the 1x6mer are available, but for the 8x6mer only a 40 A 3D reconstruction exists. Consequently, the structural parameters of the 8x6mer are not firmly established, and the molecular interfaces between the eight hexamers are still to be defined. This, however, is crucial for understanding how allosteric transitions are mediated between the different levels of hierarchy. Here, we show the 10 A structure (FSC(1/2-bit) criterion) of the oxygenated 8x6mer from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis. Moreover, we show its molecular model as obtained by DNA sequencing of subunits II, IIIA, IV and VI, and molecular modelling and rigid-body fitting of all subunit types. Remarkably, the latter enabled us to improve the resolution of the cryo-EM structure from 11 A to the final 10 A. The 10 A structure allows firm assessment of various structural parameters of the 8x6mer, the 4x6mer and the 2x6mer, and reveals a total of 46 inter-hexamer bridges. These group as 11 types of interface: four at the 2x6mer level (II-II, II-IV, V-VI, IV-VI), three form the 4x6mer (V-V, V-VI, VI-IIIB/IV/V), and four are required to assemble the 8x6mer (IIIA-IIIA, IIIA-IIIB, II-IV, IV-IV). The molecular model shows the amino acid residues involved, and reveals that several of the interfaces are intriguingly histidine-rich and likely to transfer allosteric signals between the different levels of the nested hierarchy. PMID:17207812

  17. [Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics].

    PubMed

    Scibona, Paula; Angriman, Federico; Simonovich, Ventura; Heller, Martina M; Belloso, Waldo H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical practice takes into account information based on population studies and benefits observed in large populations or cohorts. However, individual patients present great differences in both toxicity and clinical efficacy that can be explained by variations in adherence, unknown drug to drug interactions and genetic variability. The latter seems to explain from 20% up to 95% of patient to patient variability. Treating patients with cardiovascular disorders faces the clinician with the challenge to include genomic analysis into daily practice. There are several examples within cardiovascular disease of treatments that can vary in toxicity or clinical usefulness based on genetic changes. One of the main factors affecting the efficacy of Clopidogrel is the phenotype associated with polymorphisms in the gene CYP 2C9. Furthermore, regarding oral anticoagulants, changes in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play an important role in changing the clinical response to anticoagulation. When analyzing statin treatment, one of their main toxicities (myopathy) can be predicted by the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. The potential for prediction of toxicity and clinical efficacy from the use of genetic analysis warrants further studies aiming towards its inclusion in daily clinical practice. PMID:24636047

  18. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  19. The Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy on Whole-Body Physical Fitness and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation In Vivo in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients – An Observational Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    West, Malcolm A.; Loughney, Lisa; Lythgoe, Daniel; Barben, Christopher P.; Adams, Valerie L.; Bimson, William E.; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Jack, Sandy; Kemp, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, patients with locally advanced rectal cancer routinely receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. However, the effects of this on physical fitness are unclear. This pilot study is aimed to investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on objectively measured in vivo muscle mitochondrial function and whole-body physical fitness. Methods We prospectively studied 12 patients with rectal cancer who completed standardized neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, recruited from a large tertiary cancer centre, between October 2012 and July 2013. All patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy quadriceps muscle exercise-recovery study before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Data were analysed and reported blind to patient identity and clinical course. Primary variables of interest were the two physical fitness measures; oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold and oxygen uptake at Peak exercise (ml.kg?1.min?1), and the post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (min?1), a measure of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo. Results Median age was 67 years (IQR 64–75). Differences (95%CI) in all three primary variables were significantly negative post-NACRT: Oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold ?2.4 ml.kg?1.min?1 (?3.8, ?0.9), p?=?0.004; Oxygen uptake at Peak ?4.0 ml.kg?1.min?1 (?6.8, ?1.1), p?=?0.011; and post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant ?0.34 min?1 (?0.51, ?0.17), p<0.001. Conclusion The significant decrease in both whole-body physical fitness and in vivo muscle mitochondrial function raises the possibility that muscle mitochondrial mechanisms, no doubt multifactorial, may be important in deterioration of physical fitness following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This may have implications for targeted interventions to improve physical fitness pre-surgery. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01859442 PMID:25478898

  20. Ideal cardiovascular health in young adult populations from the United States, Finland, and Australia and its association with cIMT: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals for cardiovascular disease prevention were set by the American Heart Association in 2010 for the concept of cardiovascular health. Ideal cardiovascular health is defined by senen cardiovascular health metrics: blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity on ...

  1. The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

    1992-01-01

    Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

  2. Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Medicine ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    methods, and novel therapeutic measures of various cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, heart of cardiovascular diseases ·Imaging techniques (echocardiography, MRI, CT, RI, NOGA) in cardiovas- cular diseases polymorphisms and risk factors in cardiovascular disease ·Differentiation of smooth muscle cells

  3. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  4. Racial Discrimination & Cardiovascular Disease Risk: My Body My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black and White Community Health Center Participants (US)

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T.; Smith, Kevin W.; Carney, Dana R.; Bennett, Gary G.; Williams, David R.; Thornhill, Gisele; Freeman, Elmer R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n?=?504) and white (n?=?501) participants age 35–64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008–2010; 82.4% response rate), using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination); and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964). Results Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 2.89) and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta ?=?0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07); among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta ?=??4.86; 95% CI ?9.08, ?0.64) and lower Framingham CVD score (beta ?=??0.36, 95% CI ?0.63, ?0.08)). All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score. Conclusion Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss implications for valid research on social determinants of health. PMID:24204765

  5. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  6. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  7. Fitness Is Fun for Everyone!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamiya, Artie

    1989-01-01

    Exercises and classroom activities that familiarize students with the "human body machine" are the focus of this article which addresses the decline in elementary student health and fitness. A reproducible worksheet, "Benefits of Exercise Worksheet", is included. (IAH)

  8. Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body

  9. Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk

    E-print Network

    Luke, Amy; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Schoeller, Dale A.; Dugas, Lara R.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Shoham, David; Cooper, Richard S.; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf; Steyn, Nelia

    2011-12-14

    examination. Fasting blood samples were drawn for analysis of adipose-related hormones and adipocytokines, glucose, insulin, lipids, albumin. A random spot urine sample was collected for assessment of urinary creatinine and albumin. The blood samples were... clinic examination, prior to the measurement of REE, a spot urine collection was made and the participant given an oral dose of DLW contain- ing approximately 1.8 g of 10% H2 18O and 0.12 g 99.9% 2H2O per kg body water. Spot urine samples were...

  10. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Zourdos, Michael C; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  11. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  12. The effects of pre- and post-exercise consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements on cardiovascular health and body fat in trained men after six weeks of resistance training: a stratified, randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) in conjunction with periodized resistance training (RT) in resistance-trained men are unknown. This population is a major target audience for performance supplements, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of RT and commercially available pre- and post-exercise performance supplements on CV health and body fat in resistance-trained men. Methods Twenty-four resistance-trained men completed six weeks (three times/week) of periodized RT while either ingesting SHOT 15-min pre-exercise and SYN immediately post-exercise (multi-ingredient performance supplement group: MIPS) or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo 15-min pre-exercise and immediately post-exercise (Placebo group). Before and after six weeks of RT and supplementation, resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat, fat-free mass (FFM) and fasting blood measures of glucose, lipids, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), cortisol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using a one-way ANOVA for baseline differences and a 2?×?2 (group?×?time) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Significance was set at p?body fat. However, there was a time effect where significant decreases in body fat (mean?±?SD; MIPS: -1.2?±?1.2%; Placebo: -0.9?±?1.1%), android fat (MIPS: -1.8?±?2.1%; Placebo: -1.6?±?2.0%), and gynoid fat (MIPS: -1.3?±?1.6%; Placebo: -1.0?±?1.4%) for both groups were observed. FFM increased in both groups, and a group?×?time interaction was observed with MIPS increasing significantly more than the Placebo group (4.2% vs. 1.9%). Conclusions Six weeks of MIPS ingestion and periodized RT does not alter CV health parameters or blood indices of health or body fat more than a Placebo treatment in healthy, resistance-trained men. However, MIPS significantly increased FFM more than Placebo. PMID:23680036

  13. Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

    2014-01-28

    Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous M?ori and non-M?ori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

  14. Tobacco and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Prajeena; Pant, Sadip; Rodriguez, Alexis Phillip; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco consumption has been inextricably intertwined with society and its evolution. At one time, centuries ago, thought to be a sign of refinement and nobility, fortunately, this perception has been changing worldwide. Currently, this change in perception has been so dramatic that laws are enacted to limit tobacco exposure through second-hand smokers. Countless studies continue to emerge on tobacco's healthcare toll to the point that we now consider indisputable facts that smokers have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, among many others. However, there are other less well-known emerging facts that still require close attention such as the effect on the immune and hematopoietic systems. Tobacco smoke is injurious to all major organs in our bodies. With over 30 known carcinogens, it should not be surprising that it affects all aspects of human health. In this chapter, we will focus on the effects of tobacco on cardiovascular health. PMID:25225032

  15. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  16. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

  17. Help! Is This My Body?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Snacking Losing Weight Safely Help! Is This My Body? KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Body Image > Help! Is This My Body? Print ...

  18. Origins of Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease: Birth Weight, Body Mass Index, and Young Adult Systolic Blood Pressure in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Jon M.; Strutz, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We evaluated the contributions of birth weight and current body mass index (BMI) to racial/ethnic disparities in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the U.S. METHODS Participants were 10,046 young adults (ages 24 – 32) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). SBP, BMI, and other contemporaneous factors were assessed at Wave IV (2007–2008); birth weight and other early life factors were reported at Wave I (1994–1995). Data were analyzed using sex- and race-stratified multivariable regression models. RESULTS Racial/ethnic disparities in SBP were limited to Black and White females. The Black-White female disparity in SBP was 3.36 mmHg and was partially explained by current BMI but not birth weight. Associations between birth weight and SBP were limited to males, in whom we found a decrease of 1.05 mmHg in SBP per 1 kg increase in birth weight (95% CI: ?1.90, ?0.20). This inverse relationship strengthened after adjusting for BMI and other factors, and was strongest among Black and White males. A significant association between BMI and SBP was found in all racial/ethnic and sex subgroups. CONCLUSION In this U.S. national cohort, birth weight is negatively associated with SBP among Black and White young adult males. PMID:21497518

  19. Boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for solution of partial differential equations on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multi-connected two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. No restrictions are placed on the shape of the boundaries, which may even be time-dependent, and the approach is not restricted in principle to two dimensions. With this procedure the numerical solution of a partial differential system may be done on a fixed rectangular field with a square mesh with no interpolation required regardless of the shape of the physical boundaries, regardless of the spacing of the curvilinear coordinate lines in the physical field, and regardless of the movement of the coordinate system in the physical plane. A number of examples of coordinate systems and application thereof to the solution of partial differential equations are given. The FORTRAN computer program and instructions for use are included.

  20. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6?months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4?kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to ?6.9?kg on low-carbohydrate and ?5.8?kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) ?1.1?kg (?2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) ?0.49?mmol/L (?0.70 to ?0.28), p<0.001 and ?0.34?mmol/L (?0.57 to ?0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (?0.57 (?0.83, ?0.32), p<0.001 and ?0.05 (?0.09, ?0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516. PMID:24500611

  1. Validity and Reliability of the Self-Reported Physical Fitness (SRFit) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Clark, Daniel O.; Stump, Timothy E.; Miller, Douglas K.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background An accurate physical fitness survey could be useful in research and clinical care. Purpose To estimate the validity and reliability of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey; an instrument that estimates muscular fitness, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, BMI, and body composition (BC) in adults ? 40 years of age. Methods 201 participants completed the SF-36 Physical Function Subscale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Older Adults’ Desire for Physical Competence Scale (Rejeski), the SRFit survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test. BC, height and weight were measured. SRFit survey items described BC, BMI, and Senior Fitness Test movements. Correlations between the Senior Fitness Test and the SRFit survey assessed concurrent validity. Cronbach’s Alpha measured internal consistency within each SRFit domain. SRFit domain scores were compared with SF-36, IPAQ, and Rejeski survey scores to assess construct validity. Intraclass correlations evaluated test-retest reliability. Results Correlations between SRFit and the Senior Fitness Test domains ranged from 0.35 to 0.79. Cronbach’s Alpha scores were .75 to .85. Correlations between SRFit and other survey scores were ?0.23 to 0.72 and in the expected direction. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.79 to 0.93. All P-values were 0.001. Conclusion Initial evaluation supports the SRFit survey’s validity and reliability. PMID:23676451

  2. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  4. UK Centre for Cardiovascular

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    of cardiovascular disease and diabetes to improve human life It is an important team effort between the UniversityT AGAINST hEART DISEASE 7 #12;CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND DIAbETES IS A GLObAL ChALLENGE Diabetes-centre imaging trials. Our work showing the superiority of MRI for diagnosing cardiovascular disease has

  5. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  6. Cardiovascular Health Issues in Inner City Populations.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Dhruv; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Inner city populations in high-income countries carry a disproportionately high burden of cardiovascular disease. Although low individual socioeconomic status has long been associated with higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, there is a growing body of evidence that area-level socioeconomic status may also have a major effect on cardiovascular outcomes. A lack of supermarkets, limited green space, and high rates of violent crime in inner city neighbourhoods result in poor dietary intake and low rates of physical activity among residents. The physical and social environments of inner city neighbourhoods may also contribute to high rates of comorbid mental illness in disadvantaged urban populations. Mental illness may lead to the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors through its impact on health behaviours, effects of psychiatric medications, and sequelae of substance abuse. Individuals residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods experience reduced access to both primary preventive and acute in-hospital cardiovascular care. This may be driven by financial disincentives for caring for patients with low socioeconomic status, as well as system capacity issues in the inner city, and patient-level differences in health-seeking behaviours. Small-scale studies of interventions to improve individual-level health behaviours and access to care in the inner city have demonstrated some success in improving cardiovascular outcomes through the use of mobile clinics, health coaching, and case management approaches. There is a need for further research into community-wide interventions to improve the cardiovascular health of inner city populations. PMID:26321435

  7. Exercise Effects on Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Amin-Shokravi, Farkhondeh; Rajabi, Reza; Ziaee, Nargess

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Physical inactivity is more prevalent among women than men, varies by ethnic group, and becomes increasingly prevalent with age. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week exercise program on the cardiovascular disease risk and fitness of Iranian middle aged women. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial study. Participants in the training group (n=20) performed treadmill running exercise at a high intensity (70-80% of maximum heart rate, 0% grade) for 30 min/day, 3 days/week. On the other hand, participants in the control group (n=20) were asked to maintain their habitual lifestyle and not change their activity or dietary habits. Measurements of body mass index, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and lipoprotein subtractions were taken before program and after 12 weeks. Changes in 10-year risk scores for coronary heart disease were calculated using Framingham risk equation. Results Significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reduction in 10-year risk of coronary heart disease, and reduction in lipid levels were found within the training group between baseline and 12-week measurements. No changes were found in these parameters within the control group. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the positive effects of exercise training on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risks among women aged 40-55 years. PMID:22375216

  8. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shashi K

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC) wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one’s strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

  9. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.

  10. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

  11. Physical activity, physical fitness, and risk of dying.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, P J; Morrison, H I; Craig, C L; Schaubel, D E

    1998-11-01

    We examined the relation between physical activity, physical fitness, and all-cause mortality in a national population-based study of Canadians. We followed men and women ages 20-69 years who had participated in the Canada Fitness Survey between 1981 and 1988. We assessed risk factors for 6,246 men and 8,196 women using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. At baseline, all subjects were asymptomatic according to self-reported screening questions for cardiovascular disease. Men who expended > or =0.5 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per day (KKD) experienced a 20% decline in risk of mortality [rate ratio (RR) = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-1.04] when compared with subjects expending <0.5 KKD. We observed a 30% decline in risk of mortality among women expending > or =3.0 KKD relative to those expending <0.5 KKD (RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.45-1.11). Similar patterns of risk were evident for both men and women when analyses were restricted to participation in nonvigorous activities. Those who perceived themselves to be of less than average fitness were at increased risk of mortality (male RR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.21-2.22; female RR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.21-2.26). Subjects with undesirable cardiorespiratory fitness levels were more likely to die, compared with those having recommended fitness levels (RR = 1.52; 95% CI = 0.72-3.18). Fifty-three per cent of men and 35% of women reported participating in a vigorous activity. The relation between daily energy expenditure and risk of mortality in these subjects could not be evaluated, as there were few deaths. Nonetheless, our results among participants reporting no vigorous activities support the hypothesis that there is a reduction in mortality risk associated with even modest participation in activities of low intensity. PMID:9799172

  12. Rationale, design and baseline data for the Activating Consumers to Exercise through Peer Support (ACE trial): A randomized controlled trial to increase fitness among adults with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Gerald J.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Stewart, Kerry J.; Crum, Rosa M.; Latkin, Carl; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Charleston, Jeanne; Leatherman, Elisabeth; Appel, Lawrence J.; Daumit, Gail L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of regular physical activity are particularly salient to persons with serious mental illness (SMI) who have increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and earlier mortality from cardiovascular disease. Methods The Activating Consumers to Exercise through Peer Support (ACE) trial will examine the effectiveness of peer support on adherence to a 4-month pilot exercise program for adults with SMI. Design, rationale and baseline data are reported. Baseline measures included: graded treadmill test; six-minute walk; height, weight and blood pressure; body composition; fasting blood; and self-reported psychiatric symptoms. Fitness levels were compared with national data and relationships among fitness parameters, psychological factors and cardiovascular disease risk factors were examined. Results There were 93 participants and 18 peer leaders recruited from community psychiatry programs with an average age of 47 years (SD 10). There were no differences in demographics (76% female, 72% African American) or mental health symptoms between participants and peer leaders. Ninety-five percent of the sample had below average fitness levels for their age and sex with average MET levels of 5.9(SD 2.2) for participants and 6.2(SD 2.3) for peer leaders. Fitness evaluated during the treadmill test and the six-minute-walk were associated (rs = 0.36, p<.001). Lower MET levels were associated with a higher BMI (rs = ?0.35, p<.001) and percent body fat (rs = ?0.36, p <.001). Conclusion The uniformly low baseline cardiovascular fitness and the association of fitness with BMI and adiposity underscore the importance of suitably tailored programs to increase physical activity among adults with SMI. PMID:23471190

  13. Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, J W; Hartman, E; Mullender-Wijnsma, M J; Bosker, R J; Doolaard, S; Visscher, C

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the possible moderator effect of SDC. Data on 544 children were collected and analysed (130 SDC, 414 non-SDC, mean age = 8.0 ± 0.7). Physical fitness was measured with tests for cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Academic performance was evaluated using scores on mathematics, spelling and reading. SDC did not differ on physical fitness, compared with non-SDC, but scored significantly lower on academic performance. In the total group, multilevel analysis showed positive associations between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics (? = 0.23), and between cardiovascular fitness and spelling (? = 0.16), but not with reading. No associations were found between muscular fitness and academic performance. A significant interaction effect between SDC and cardiovascular fitness was found for spelling. To conclude, results showed a specific link between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics, regardless of socioeconomic status. SDC did moderate the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and spelling. PMID:25092881

  14. Physical Fitness and Serum Vitamin D and Cognition in Elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong-Deok; Kang, Hyunsik

    2015-01-01

    Poor physical fitness and low serum vitamin D are known to be modifiable risk factors for cognitive declines with normal aging. We investigated the association of physical fitness and serum vitamin D levels with global cognitive function in older adults. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 412 older Korean adults (108 men aged 74.4 ± 6.0 years and 304 women aged 73.1 ± 5.4 years) completed the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess global cognitive performance and the senior fitness test to assess strength, flexibility, agility, and endurance domains of physical fitness. Body mass index, percent body fat, serum vitamin D, geriatric depression scale (GDS), level of education, smoking, and history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were also assessed as covariates. Age, sex, GDS, and body fatness were negatively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Serum vitamin D and physical fitness were positively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression showed that agility (partial R2 = -0.184, p = 0.029) and endurance (partial R2 = 0.191, p = 0.022) domains of physical fitness along with serum vitamin D (partial R2 = 0.210, p = 0.012) were significant predictors for global cognitive performance after controlling for covariates (i.e., age, sex, education, GDS, body fatness, and comorbidity index). The current findings of the study suggest that promotion of physical fitness and vitamin D supplementation should be key components of interventions to prevent cognitive decline with normal aging. Key points Cognitive declines are associated with normal aging as well as modifiable lifestyle risk factors, and there is an increasing need to identify the modifiable risk factors for the onset of cognitive declines and to provide evidence-based strategies for healthy and successful aging. In Korea, little is known about the relationships of physical fitness and serum vitamin D with cognitive function in older adults, and we determined the associations between a) serum vitamin D levels and cognitive function and b) physical fitness and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly Koreans. The current findings of the study suggest that agility and endurance domains of physical fitness along with serum vitamin D were significant predictors for global cognitive performance after controlling for covariates. PMID:26664270

  15. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  16. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  17. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  18. Cardiovascular drug development: is it dead or just hibernating?

    PubMed

    Fordyce, Christopher B; Roe, Matthew T; Ahmad, Tariq; Libby, Peter; Borer, Jeffrey S; Hiatt, William R; Bristow, Michael R; Packer, Milton; Wasserman, Scott M; Braunstein, Ned; Pitt, Bertram; DeMets, David L; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Armstrong, Paul W; Berkowitz, Scott D; Scott, Rob; Prats, Jayne; Galis, Zorina S; Stockbridge, Norman; Peterson, Eric D; Califf, Robert M

    2015-04-21

    Despite the global burden of cardiovascular disease, investment in cardiovascular drug development has stagnated over the past 2 decades, with relative underinvestment compared with other therapeutic areas. The reasons for this trend are multifactorial, but of primary concern is the high cost of conducting cardiovascular outcome trials in the current regulatory environment that demands a direct assessment of risks and benefits, using clinically-evident cardiovascular endpoints. To work toward consensus on improving the environment for cardiovascular drug development, stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory bodies, and government agencies convened for a think tank meeting in July 2014 in Washington, DC. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the meeting and aims to delineate the current adverse trends in cardiovascular drug development, understand the key issues that underlie these trends within the context of a recognized need for a rigorous regulatory review process, and provide potential solutions to the problems identified. PMID:25881939

  19. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  20. Toward a cardiovascular pathology training report on the forum held in Vancouver, March 6, 2004, Society for Cardiovascular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Thiene, Gaetano; Becker, Anton E; Buja, L Maximilian; Fallon, John T; McManus, Bruce M; Schoen, Frederick J; Winters, Gayle L

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that requires both clinical education and expertise in contemporary physiopathology. The Society for Cardiovascular Pathology sponsored a special workshop within the frame of the USCAP Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, March 6-12, 2004, to address the present and future role of cardiovascular pathology in research, clinical care, and education. Clearly, the recruitment and training of young pathologists are crucial to this aim. The forum tried to answer a series of questions. First, is there room for cardiovascular pathologists and clinicopathologic correlations in the era of extraordinary advances of in vivo human body imaging? What is the evolving role of the autopsy? How can the cardiovascular pathologist simultaneously be an autopsy prosector, a surgical pathologist, a molecular pathologist, and an experimental pathologist? Is there a specific domain content for training in cardiovascular pathology and does it meet the constellation of market needs and demands? What are the experiences in Europe, North America and elsewhere? What is the influence of cardiovascular pathology in departments of pathology? Is the subdiscipline still a Cinderella in the anatomic theatre or a Princess with a double helix coat of arms? The Society for Cardiovascular Pathology is strongly committed to optimizing the academic and professional profile of the future generation of cardiovascular pathologists. This article reports the outcome of the forum and directions that may lead to a vibrant future for well-trained cardiovascular pathologists. PMID:16286040

  1. Adolescents with metabolic syndrome have a history of low aerobic fitness and physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Harrell, Joanne S; Amorim, Leila D

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors that identifies individuals with the highest risk for heart disease. Two factors that may influence the MS are physical activity and aerobic fitness. This study determined if adolescent with the MS had low levels of aerobic fitness and physical activity as children. Methods This longitudinal, exploratory study had 389 participants: 51% girls, 84% Caucasian, 12% African American, 1% Hispanic, and 3% other races, from the State of North Carolina. Habitual physical activity (PA survey), aerobic fitness (VO2max), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and lipids obtained at 7–10 y of age were compared to their results obtained 7 y later at ages 14–17 y. Results Eighteen adolescents (4.6%) developed 3 or more characteristics of the MS. Logistic regression, adjusting for BMI percentile, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels, found that adolescents with the MS were 6.08 (95%CI = 1.18–60.08) times more likely to have low aerobic fitness as children and 5.16 (95%CI = 1.06–49.66) times more likely to have low PA levels. Conclusion Low levels of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness are associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Thus, efforts need to begin early in childhood to increase exercise. PMID:18394155

  2. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  3. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adult Population in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. Methods and Findings This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21–74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ?23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ?0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. Conclusions BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore. PMID:25880905

  4. Use of complementary therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Davis, Roger B; Phillips, Russell S

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients with chronic medical conditions use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at a higher rate than the general population. Despite recent interest in CAM for cardiovascular disease, few data are available regarding patterns of use in patients with cardiovascular disease in the United States. This study used the 2002 National Health Interview Survey and analyzed data on CAM use in 10,572 respondents with cardiovascular disease. Among those with cardiovascular disease, 36% had used CAM (excluding prayer) in the previous 12 months. The most commonly used therapies were herbal products (18%) and mind-body therapies (17%). Among herbs, echinacea, garlic, ginseng, ginkgo biloba, and glucosamine with or without chondroitin were most commonly used. Among mind-body therapies, deep-breathing exercises and meditation were most commonly used. Overall, CAM was used most frequently for musculoskeletal complaints (24% of respondents who used mind-body therapies, 22% who used herbs, 45% who used any CAM). Mind-body therapies were also used for anxiety or depression (23%) and stress or emotional health and wellness (16%). Herbs were commonly used for head and chest colds (22%). Fewer respondents (10%) used CAM specifically for their cardiovascular conditions (5% for hypertension, 2% for coronary disease, 3% for vascular insufficiency, < 1% for heart failure or stroke). Most, however, who used CAM for their cardiovascular condition perceived the therapies to be helpful (80% for herbs, 94% for mind-body therapies). CAM use was more common in younger respondents, women, Asians, and those with more education and greater incomes. In conclusion, CAM use, particularly herbs and mind-body therapies, is common in the United States in patients with cardiovascular disease and mirrors use in the general population. CAM use specifically to treat cardiovascular conditions, however, is less common. PMID:16923460

  5. Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day?1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week?1 (NW and CW) or 2 day·week?1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

  6. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  7. Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    a world-class education, and conduct cutting- edge cardiovascular research. As heart disease remains into improved tools for cardiovascular disease detection, prevention and treatment. In late 2012, Dr. Robert CStanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 2013­2014 #12;Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2

  8. Poor sleep and cardiovascular function in children.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Silja; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Feldt, Kimmo; Jones, Alexander; Lahti, Jari; Pyhälä, Riikka; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan; Räikkönen, Katri

    2011-07-01

    We investigated whether sleep quantity and quality were related to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity in children. We studied term-born, healthy 8.0-year olds (SD: 1.4 years) without sleep-disordered breathing (231 and 265 children provided valid data for analyses of ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity, respectively). Sleep was registered with an actigraph for 6 nights on average (SD: 1.2; range: 3 to 13 nights). Ambulatory blood pressure was measured for 24-hours (41% nonschool days) with an oscillometric device. The children underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children, during which blood pressure, electrocardiography, and thoracic impedance were recorded and processed offline to give measures of cardiovascular and autonomic function. Neither quantity nor quality of sleep was related to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure or cardiovascular reactivity after accounting for major covariates (sex, age, height, body mass index, and parental education). Although lower sympathetic nervous system activation and higher cardiac activation under stress were found in the group of children who slept for short duration when they were compared with the average sleep duration group, these associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing and were not seen in linear regression models of the effects of sleep duration. These findings do not support the mainstream of epidemiological findings, derived from samples more heterogeneous in age, sociodemographic characteristics, and health, suggesting that poor sleep is associated with an unhealthy cardiovascular phenotype. PMID:21555678

  9. FITNESS INSTRUCTOR -Personal Training -

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    FITNESS INSTRUCTOR TRAINING - Personal Training - Joseph Agnew, Fitness Coordinator Website: joseph.agnew@unlv.edu srwc.unlv.edu 702-774-7126 702-774-7100 UNLV Campus Recreational Services Fitness Instructor Training (F.I.T.) course combines lecture & practical appli- cation to cover the basics of personal fitness

  10. Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

  11. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  12. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology.

    PubMed

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A; Hill, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. In this Review, we discuss the potential for targeting autophagy therapeutically and our vision for where this exciting biology may lead in the future. PMID:25654551

  13. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  14. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

  15. Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

  16. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  17. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. In this Review, we discuss the potential for targeting autophagy therapeutically and our vision for where this exciting biology may lead in the future. PMID:25654551

  18. Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular

    E-print Network

    Lazzaro, John

    Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular Pressure Transduction in Analog VLSI John Lazzaro of the baroreceptors in the carotid vessel. Inspired by re- cent work in silicon models of the cochlea [3

  19. Cardiovascular and related agents.

    PubMed

    Mátyus, P

    2001-10-01

    Research activities of the Hungarian Institute of Drug Research in the field of cardiovascular agents are reviewed. Many promising drug candidates were found including a compound already marketed. Novel concepts for drug research were developed as well. PMID:11686092

  20. Colchicine for cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Colchicine is an ancient drug with anti-inflammatory effects especially on neutrophils. These cells are critically involved in pericardial and atherosclerotic plaques inflammation, thus representing a new potential target for new therapies to treat and especially prevent cardiovascular events such as pericarditis, atrial fibrillation triggered by inflammation and ischemic vascular events. The aim of the present review is to briefly review the essential pharmacology and explore potential efficacy and safety of colchicine for new emerging cardiovascular indications. PMID:26632860

  1. Prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jay N

    2015-07-01

    Meaningful prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires prolongation of life to age 90 or 100 free of morbid events. This requires early detection of the CVD phenotypes and effective treatment to slow their progression. We present a strategy for screening and evaluation of the population that should accomplish that goal with potential benefits on both cost and cardiovascular health. Studies to document the effectiveness of this strategy are urgently needed. PMID:25601035

  2. Partnerships for the Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    The YMCA has helped train and employ fitness leaders while educating the public on physical fitness. Colleges and universities can help develop careers in fitness while maintaining their traditional role of developing teachers and coaches. (DF)

  3. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ045 WOMEN’S HEALTH Exercise and Fitness • What are the benefits of exercise? • What are ... heart and lungs to work harder to build fitness. Improving the fitness of your heart and lungs ...

  4. [Drug addiction and cardiovascular pathologies].

    PubMed

    Vandhuick, O; Pistorius, M A; Jousse, S; Ferreira-Maldent, N; Guilmot, J-L; Guias, B; Bressollette, L

    2004-12-01

    Drug addiction which entails cardiovascular risks unknown or misknown to physicians, currently involves an increasing number of miscellaneous drugs, existing in manifold forms. There appears to be no bounds on the way of intake. All territories of the body may be affected with more or less severity. In young people, the cardiac, coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular systems are generally involved. Two illicit drugs, cannabis and cocaine, showing a permanent increase in misuse, prevail. This drug addiction comes along with intercurrent pathologies which have their own vascular toxicity, especially HIV infection. Moreover, the advent of new illicit substances emphasizes the complexity of the clinical presentations. These complex situations have a real social and medical impact. We are currently in a phase of permanently increasing risk of cardiovascular complications. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved are intertwined and complicated by the frequent association of polytoxicomania or by the effects excipients added to these drugs: direct vascular toxicity, angeitis, arterial and venous thrombosis. Arsenic, a common component of these drugs, is also found in cigarettes; arsenic toxicity mainly affects the lower limbs. Treatment of these complications is non-specific; the ideal solution being weaning which, unfortunately in this peculiar population of patients, may entail serious complications due to the misuse of substitution products. PMID:15738835

  5. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

  6. Obesity in the cardiovascular continuum.

    PubMed

    Persic, Viktor

    2013-05-01

    A higher prevalence of coronary heart disease, cardiac and overall mortality is associated with obesity. The development of obesity appears in different adaptations in the morphology of cardiac structure and function. Obesity causes eccentric hypertrophy and changes in diastolic function of left ventricle. A systolic on diastolic heart dysfunction results from the breakdown of compensatory pace to raised wall stress and dilatation of chambers. Obesity does not possess primary cause and effect relationship with cardiovascular disease, such as LDL cholesterol. It is regarded as a means of facilitating factors such as hypertension, diabetes or cigarette smoking. Adipose tissue in this manner works as the hormone generating tissue, secreting various peptides and secondary messengers and inflammatory cytokines. Pharmacotherapy can be a useful component in the global fight against obesity. Besides repeating re-evaluations of weight loosing drug treatment with respect to efficiency or safety for continuous use, one must not underappreciate the pretreatment risk-assessments and expected benefits of treatment, along with impact on the patient's quality of life and motivation. Pharmacotherapy of obesity is reserved for obese people with body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2 but also in individuals with BMI 27 .0 and 29 .9 kg/m2 and obesity related comorbidities as obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although connections between obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are acknowledged for over dozen of years, there is still a lack of scientific research into the field and it is a challenge for future studies. PMID:22950957

  7. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  8. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness in children: a simple screening test for population studies.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Marek; Niedzielska, Aleksandra; Brzezinski, Micha?; Drabik, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is one measure of body functions, and its assessment should play an important role in the activities associated with the promotion of physical activity as an important component of a healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to develop a reference system of the mean post-exercise heart rate (HRmean post-ex) after a 3-min step test for use in screening the cardiorespiratory fitness of 6- to 12-year-old children. The study included 14,501 children ages 6-12 years from primary schools in Gdansk. The participants were subjected to the 3-min Kasch Pulse Recovery Test (KPR Test). The reference range for the classification of cardiorespiratory fitness was developed on the basis of the age-specific percentile distribution of HRmean post-ex in 6- to 9- and 10- to 12-year-old children. This study showed that the 3-min KPR Test is easy to perform and well tolerated by school-age children. As such, it can constitute a useful tool for health promoters and educators. The presented age- and gender-specific reference range of HRmean post-ex enables the assessment and monitoring of submaximal exercise-induced changes in the cardiovascular system and, consequently, the physical fitness of a given individual. PMID:25070386

  10. Secretin and body fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jessica Y S; Cheng, Carrie Y Y; Lee, Vien H Y; Chan, Y S; Chow, Billy K C

    2011-02-01

    Body fluid homeostasis is critical for the survival of living organisms and hence is tightly controlled. From initial studies on the effects of secretin (SCT) on renal water reabsorption in the 1940s and recent investigations of its role in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine functions, it has now become increasingly clear that this peptide is an integral component of the homeostatic processes that maintain body fluid balance. This review, containing some of our recent findings of centrally expressed SCT on water intake, focuses on the actions of SCT in influencing the physiological, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular processes that subserve body fluid homeostasis. PMID:20944548

  11. "Shapes for Kids!" Life Fitness for Grades 5 through 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Julie Stiles

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an exercise program for children. "Shapes for Kids," takes the same 30-minute approach at the Curves workout for women. The program is set up using 20 stations, which rotate upper-body work, abdominal exercises, lower-body work, and cardiovascular exercises. Some stations combine more than one component. Children change…

  12. Impact of Harness Fit on Suspension Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Turner, Nina; Whisler, Richard; Zwiener, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of body size and shape and harness fit on suspension tolerance time. Background Fall victims may develop suspension trauma, a potentially fatal reduction of return blood flow from legs to the heart and brain, after a successfully arrested fall if they are not rescued quickly or the harness does not fit them well. Method For this study, 20 men and 17 women with construction experience were suspended from the dorsal D-ring of a full-body fall-arrest harness. Their suspension tolerance time, physical characteristics, and harness fit levels were assessed. Results Body characteristics (i.e., weight, stature, upper- and lower-torso depths) were associated with decreased suspension tolerance time (r = ?.36 ~ –.45, p ? .03). In addition, harness fit affected suspension tolerance time; workers with a torso angle of suspension greater than 35°, a thigh strap angle greater than 50°, or a poorly fitting harness size had shorter suspension tolerance time (mean differences = 14, 11, and 9.8 min, respectively, p ? .05). Conclusion Body size and harness fit were predictors of suspension tolerance time. Selecting well-fit harnesses and establishing a 9-min rescue plan are suggested to ensure that no more than 5% of workers would experience suspension trauma. Applications The study provides a basis for harness designers, standards writers, and manufacturers to improve harness configurations and testing requirements for better worker protection against suspension trauma. PMID:22768638

  13. Relationships between physical fitness, physical activity, smoking and metabolic and mental health parameters in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Scheewe, Thomas; De Herdt, Amber; Sweers, Kim; Knapen, Jan; van Winkel, Ruud; De Hert, Marc

    2013-05-15

    Low physical fitness has been recognised as a prominent behavioural risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. No studies have systematically assessed physical fitness compared with a matched health control group in patients with schizophrenia. Eighty patients with schizophrenia and 40 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers were included. All participants performed an Eurofit test battery and filled out the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients additionally had a fasting metabolic laboratory screening and were assessed for psychiatric symptoms. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significant differences from controls in whole body balance, explosive leg muscle strength, abdominal muscular endurance, and running speed. Inactive patients scored worse on most Eurofit items than patients walking for at least 30min per day. Low physical fitness was associated with illness duration, smoking, the presence of MetS and more severe negative, depressive and cognitive symptoms. Less physically active patients who smoke and suffer from high levels of negative, depressive and/or cognitive symptoms might benefit from specific rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. PMID:23051886

  14. Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: The Future of Cardiovascular Therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to drug therapy vary from benefit to no effect to adverse effects which can be serious or occasionally fatal. Increasing evidence supports the idea that genetic variants can play a major role in this spectrum of responses. Well-studied examples in cardiovascular therapeutics include predictors of steady-state warfarin dosage, predictors of reduced efficacy among patients receiving clopidogrel for drug eluting stents, and predictors of some serious adverse drug effects. This review summarizes contemporary approaches to identifying and validating genetic predictors of variability in response to drug treatment. Approaches to incorporating this new knowledge into clinical care, and the barriers to this concept, are addressed. PMID:23200096

  15. Understanding and Improving Cardiovascular Health: An Update on the American Heart Association's Concept of Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Shay, Christina M; Gooding, Holly S; Murillo, Rosenda; Foraker, Randi

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goal is "By 2020, to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% while reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20%." To monitor progress towards this goal, a new construct "ideal cardiovascular health" (iCVH) was defined that includes the simultaneous presence of optimal levels of seven health behaviors (physical activity, smoking, dietary intake, and body mass index) and factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose). In this review, we present a summary of major concepts related to the concept of iCVH and an update of the literature in this area since publication of the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal, including trends in iCVH prevalence, new determinants and outcomes related to iCVH, strategies for maintaining or improving iCVH, policy implications of the iCVH model, and the remaining challenges to reaching the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal. PMID:25958016

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

  17. It's Your Choice: A Program for Cardiovascular Health. Teaching Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, Shirley Holder

    This publication is designed to help high school students develop a lifestyle that promotes cardiovascular and overall health; activities are intended to promote total health and wellness. The handbook is composed of a curriculum guide and classroom materials, and is designed to fit into a comprehensive health education program. Multidisciplinary…

  18. Cardiovascular Endurance Activities for Children in Grades Four Through Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary Ann

    A program of cardiovascular endurance activities for children in grades four through six was developed to emphasize success and improvement and establish lifelong patterns of concern for and enjoyment of activities that contribute to physical fitness and optimum health. The activities in the program require more teacher preparation than the…

  19. Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

  20. Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health. PMID:25476191

  1. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  2. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  3. Photonics in cardiovascular medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Regar, Evelyn; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-10-01

    The use of photonics technology is bringing new capabilities and insights to cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging and sensing, laser ablation and optical pacing are just some of the functions being explored to help diagnose and treat conditions of the heart and arteries.

  4. Brisk walking compared with an individualised medical fitness programme for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, E. S. J.; Wijtvliet, A.; Boonman-de Winter, L. J. M.; Enneking, Th.; Kuipers, H.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; van Loon, L. J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Structured exercise is considered a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, adherence to combined resistance and endurance type exercise or medical fitness intervention programmes is generally poor. Group-based brisk walking may represent an attractive alternative, but its long-term efficacy as compared with an individualised approach such as medical fitness intervention programmes is unknown. We compared the clinical benefits of a 12-month exercise intervention programme consisting of either brisk walking or a medical fitness programme in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 92 type 2 diabetes patients (60?±?9 years old) to either three times a week of 60 min brisk walking (n?=?49) or medical fitness programme (n?=?43). Primary outcome was the difference in changes in HbA1c values at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were differences in changes in blood pressure, plasma lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, body composition, physical fitness, programme adherence rate and health-related quality of life. Results After 12 months, 18 brisk walking and 19 medical fitness participants were still actively participating. In both programmes, 50 and 25% of the dropout was attributed to overuse injuries and lack of motivation, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no important differences between brisk walking and medical fitness programme in primary or secondary outcome variables. Conclusions/interpretation The prescription of group-based brisk walking represents an equally effective intervention to modulate glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in type 2 diabetes patients when compared with more individualised medical fitness programmes. Future exercise intervention programmes should anticipate the high attrition rate due to overuse injuries and motivation problems. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-008-0950-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:18297259

  5. Fitness Shoes and Clothes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Fitness Shoes and Clothes Choosing the right clothing and ... be a great motivator! Download the Tip Sheet Fitness Shoes and Clothes (PDF, 436.87 KB) You ...

  6. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  7. Kids and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corradini, Deedee

    1999-01-01

    Too many U.S. children are out of shape. Parents must help them learn to improve their fitness by exercising with them. The U.S. Conference of Mayors recently made physical fitness of the nation's children a primary emphasis. A sidebar presents information on how to contact local mayors to start up programs to help children improve their fitness.…

  8. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePLUS

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  9. FIRMENFITNESS JOHN HARRIS FITNESS

    E-print Network

    Auzinger, Winfried

    FIRMENFITNESS #12;JOHN HARRIS FITNESS AM SCHILLERPLATZ 1010 Wien | Nibelungengasse 5 Tel. +43 (0) 1 587 37 10 schillerplatz@johnharris.at JOHN HARRIS FITNESS AM MARGARETENPLATZ 1050 Wien | Strobachgasse 7-9 Tel. +43 (0) 1 544 12 12 margaretenplatz@johnharris.at JOHN HARRIS FITNESS DC TOWER 1220 Wien

  10. Cardiovascular Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, Peter; Schneider, Sue

    1999-01-01

    It was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity responses in-flight and post-flight on neurolab appeared appropriate, enough bed-rest and post-flight stand test data, along with animal model data suggest that vasoconstriction was compromised. The mechanism of this compromised vasoconstriction needs to be delineated. Other major findings concerning microgravity and physiological regulatory systems are that: I . Thermoregulatory adaptation appear to suggest some decrements in the control of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating; 2. Calcium resorption and dietary calcium need to be defined for differing durations of spaceflight, especially as the effects of excess calcium on vasomotor function appears to be detrimental; 3. Neurohumoral mechanisms of microgravity induced changes in neural function and the regulation of plasma volume and total body water, bone resorption and autonomic neural control of the circulation need further delineation; 4. As performance of work tasks become prolonged, the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in microgravity needs to be used in the recovery period from prolonged work tasks.

  11. Transgenerational Epigenetics: The Role of Maternal Effects in Cardiovascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Dao H.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics, the study of non-genetic transfer of information from one generation to the next, has gained much attention in the past few decades due to the fact that, in many instances, epigenetic processes outweigh direct genetic processes in the manifestation of aberrant phenotypes across several generations. Maternal effects, or the influences of maternal environment, phenotype, and/or genotype on offsprings’ phenotypes, independently of the offsprings’ genotypes, are a subcategory of transgenerational epigenetics. Due to the intimate role of the mother during early development in animals, there is much interest in investigating the means by which maternal effects can shape the individual. Maternal effects are responsible for cellular organization, determination of the body axis, initiation and maturation of organ systems, and physiological performance of a wide variety of species and biological systems. The cardiovascular system is the first to become functional and can significantly influence the development of other organ systems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the role of maternal effects in cardiovascular development, and to understand its impact on adult cardiovascular health. Topics to be addressed include: (1) how and when do maternal effects change the developmental trajectory of the cardiovascular system to permanently alter the adult’s cardiovascular phenotype, (2) what molecular mechanisms have been associated with maternally induced cardiovascular phenotypes, and (3) what are the evolutionary implications of maternally mediated changes in cardiovascular phenotype? PMID:24813463

  12. Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getchell, Bud

    The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness.…

  13. The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  14. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  15. [Sports and extreme conditions. Cardiovascular incidence in long term exertion and extreme temperatures (heat, cold)].

    PubMed

    Melin, B; Savourey, G

    2001-06-30

    During ultra-endurance exercise, both increase in body temperature and dehydration due to sweat losses, lead to a decrease in central blood volume. The heart rate drift allows maintaining appropriate cardiac output, in order to satisfy both muscle perfusion and heat transfer requirements by increasing skin blood flow. The resulting dehydration can impair thermal regulation and increase the risks of serious accidents as heat stroke. Endurance events, lasting more than 8 hours, result in large sweat sodium chloride losses. Thus, ingestion of large amounts of water with poor salt intake can induce symptomatic hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 130 mEq/L) which is also a serious accident. Heat environment increases the thermal constraint and when the air humidity is high, evaporation of sweat is compromise. Thus, thermal stress becomes uncompensable which increases the risk of cardiovascular collapse. Cold exposure induces physiological responses to maintain internal temperature by both limiting thermal losses and increasing metabolic heat production. Cold can induce accidental hypothermia and local frost-bites; moreover, it increases the risk of arrhythmia during exercise. Some guidelines (cardiovascular fitness, water and electrolyte intakes, protective clothing) are given for each extreme condition. PMID:11505864

  16. Effects of horizontal body casting on the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, G. E.; Dickey, D. T.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term horizontal body position on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate. Six male rhesus monkeys (6.2-9.4 kg) were given bolus injections of 4.0 microgram/kg, phenylephrine during each of the following conditions: awake, anesthetized (10 mg/kg ketamine HCl), and after beta-blockade (1 mg/kg propranolol HCl) before, 7, 14, and 28 days after being placed in a horizontal body cast. R-R interval vs. systolic arterial pressure was plotted, and the slope was determined by least-squares-fit linear regression. Baroreceptor slope was significantly reduced by 7 days of horizontal body position and remained attenuated throughout the 28-day restraint period both before and after beta-receptor blockade. These data are consistent with the thesis that prolonged exposure to a zero-gravity environment impairs autonomic reflex regulation of the cardiovascular system.

  17. Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Auda

    2013-01-01

    This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

  18. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  19. [Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Yamashina, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) evolves and is occupying an important status in cardiovascular diagnostic imaging. In particular, in the estimation of the cause of heart failure, or evaluation of severity-of-illness and prognostic presumption, utility is high clinically. In this chapter, about a selection sequence for taking image according to the purpose, description of findings, and its clinical utility are introduced. And the role which this imaging plays will be discussed in the near future. PMID:25138928

  20. Fit to play: the fitness effect on physically challenging flute repertoire.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Jennifer A

    2011-03-01

    This case study was done to determine whether physical fitness plays a part in performing flute repertoire. Most repertoire allows performers the choice of where to breathe. However, there exists a "brute" repertoire where breathing is prescribed by the composer, which poses physical challenges for performers. The author contrasted pieces from traditional repertoire with Heinz Holliger's (t)air(e), which requires passages of breath-holding and measured inhalations. The author was tested for cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) and corresponded these levels to pulse rates while playing at baseline and 6 months after undertaking a physical fitness program. After the exercise program, expertise with standard repertoire combined with the unmeasured variables of resonance, openness of the chest and oral cavities, embouchure size, and air speed saw little improvement with increased fitness levels. However, when air regulation is out of the performer's control, the effect of cardiovascular training brought the "brute" repertoire into the same range of difficulty as the standard repertoire. PMID:21442138

  1. Obesity and Aerobic Fitness among Urban Public School Students in Elementary, Middle, and High School

    PubMed Central

    White, M. Leanne; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Burlis, Tamara L.; DuPont, Nicholas C.; Wallendorf, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk among urban public school students through a collaborative school district and university partnership. Methods Children and adolescents in grades K-12 from 24 urban public schools participated in measurements of height, weight, and other health metrics during the 2009–2010 school year. Body mass index (BMI) percentiles and z-scores were computed for 4673 students. President’s Challenge 1-mile endurance run was completed by 1075 students ages 9–19 years. Maximal oxygen consumption (?O2max) was predicted using an age-, sex-, and BMI-specific formula to determine health-related fitness. Resting blood pressure (BP) was assessed in 1467 students. Regression analyses were used to compare BMI z-scores, fitness, and age- and sex-specific BP percentiles across grade levels. Chi-square tests were used to explore the effect of sex and grade-level on health-related outcomes. Results Based on BMI, 19.8% were categorized as overweight and 24.4% were obese. Included in the obese category were 454 students (9.7% of sample) classified with severe obesity. Using FITNESSGRAM criteria, 50.2% of students did not achieve the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ); the proportion of students in the Needs Improvement categories increased from elementary to middle school to high school. Male students demonstrated higher fitness than female students, with 61.4% of boys and only 35.4% of girls meeting HFZ standards. Elevated BP was observed among 24% of 1467 students assessed. Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores revealed low correlation with BMI z-scores. Conclusions A community-university collaboration identified obesity, severe obesity, overweight, and low aerobic fitness to be common risk factors among urban public school students. PMID:26378914

  2. Relationship between level of independence in activities of daily living and estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; Maranhao Neto, Geraldo Albuquerque; Moraes, Helena; Emerick, Raphael Fonseca e Silva; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2014-01-01

    Elderly individuals undergo a progressive decline in functional capacity related to increased risk of dependency, loss of autonomy, and frailty. A lower cardiorespiratory fitness level is associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality from all causes. The Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ) was developed to facilitate prediction of the exercise capacity in older people with cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the VSAQ and functional capacity in elderly women. This study investigated the relationship between functional capacity and the estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women, as assessed by the VSAQ. In this descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 37 healthy elderly women (aged 70 ± 7 years). The assessment protocols used were the following: Anamnesis, VSAQ and nomogram (age adjusted), Senior Fitness Test (30-s chair stand, to assess lower-body strength; 8-foot up-and-go test, to assess agility-dynamic balance; and 2-min step test, to assess aerobic endurance). The Spearman test showed a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the functional tests and the VSAQ (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.715; 2-min step test rs=0.567; 30-s chair stand rs=0.582). Adjustment of the results by age improved the correlation (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.760; 2-min step test rs=0.627; 30-s chair stand rs=0.601). The VSAQ seems to be a simple way to estimate functional capacity, particularly in older women. PMID:24948514

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D receptors have a broad tissue distribution that includes vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, and cardiomyocytes. A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but few prospective data exist. This study examined the relation...

  4. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, Ronald R. (McKees Rocks, PA); Jandrasits, Walter G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  5. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T. (Kettering, OH)

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  6. Inferring fitness landscapes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Ruth G; Geyer, Charles J

    2010-09-01

    Since 1983, study of natural selection has relied heavily on multiple regression of fitness on the values for a set of traits via ordinary least squares (OLSs), as proposed by Lande and Arnold, to obtain an estimate of the quadratic relationship between fitness and the traits, the fitness surface. However, well-known statistical problems with this approach can affect inferences about selection. One key concern is that measures of lifetime fitness do not conform to a normal or any other standard sampling distribution, as needed to justify the usual statistical tests. Another is that OLS may yield an estimate of the sign of the fitness function's curvature that is opposite to the truth. We here show that the recently developed aster modeling approach, which explicitly models the components of fitness as the basis for inferences about lifetime fitness, eliminates these problems. We illustrate selection analysis via aster using simulated datasets involving five fitness components expressed in each of four years. We demonstrate that aster analysis yields accurate estimates of the fitness function in cases in which OLS misleads, as well as accurate confidence regions for directional selection gradients. Further, to evaluate selection when many traits are under consideration, we recommend model selection by information criteria and frequentist model averaging. PMID:20456492

  7. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

  8. Marcus Hutter -1 -Fitness Uniform Selection Fitness Uniform Selection to

    E-print Network

    Hutter, Marcus

    Marcus Hutter - 1 - Fitness Uniform Selection Fitness Uniform Selection to Preserve Genetic;Marcus Hutter - 2 - Fitness Uniform Selection Contents · Optimization with Evolutionary algorithms · Problem: Local Optima & Selection Pressure · Fitness Uniform Selection Strategy (FUSS) · Properties

  9. Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

    2014-09-01

    Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

  10. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  11. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  12. Fifth day fits

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, H James; Sheehy, Elizabeth M

    1982-01-01

    A 3-year prospective study to elucidate the cause of fifth day fits was carried out. A highly significant relationship with low cerebrospinal fluid zinc levels was found. Theoretical and practical considerations support the contention that fifth day fits are caused by an acute deficiency of zinc. PMID:7114883

  13. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  14. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  15. Model fitting Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    Model fitting Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Model Fitting Seattle, June 2009 #12;Regression commands Two levels plotted by genotype (single SNP) q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q

  16. Equality of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoyer, Jesse O.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has been a personal trainer for the past ten years, recently realized that all fitness centers are not equal. In February, he was able to participate in the grand opening of the Center for Independent Living of Central PA (CILCP), a fitness center that is designed to accommodate persons with disabilities living in the Central…

  17. Fitness in Disguise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Neil F.; Germain, Jenna

    2008-01-01

    Physical fitness activities are often viewed as monotonous and tedious, so they fail to motivate students to become more physically active. This tedium could be relieved by using a "learning as play" strategy, widely used in other academic disciplines. This article describes how to incorporate fitness into a variety of games so that students do…

  18. Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine Cardiovascular Effects of Cocaine

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine Cardiovascular Effects of Cocaine Bryan G. Schwartz, MD; Shereif Rezkalla, MD; Robert A. Kloner, MD, PhD The use of cocaine has evolved from chewing the leaves of the Erythroxylon coca bush thousands of years ago, to purification of cocaine hydrochloride

  19. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

  20. Instrumentation for Non-Invasive Assessment of Cardiovascular Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    It is critically important to be able to assess alterations in cardiovascular regulation during and after space flight. We propose to develop an instrument for the non-invasive assessment of such alterations that can be used on the ground and potentially during space flight. This instrumentation would be used by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team at multiple sites for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system and the evaluation of countermeasures. In particular, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team will use this instrumentation in conjunction with ground-based human bed-rest studies and during application of acute stresses e.g., tilt, lower body negative pressure, and exercise. In future studies, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team anticipates using this instrumentation to study astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The instrumentation may also be used by the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team, the Neurovestibular Team and the Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team to measure changes in autonomic nervous function. The instrumentation will be based on a powerful new technology - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - which has been developed in our laboratory. CSI provides a non-invasive approach for the study of alterations in cardiovascular regulation. This approach involves the analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in physiologic signals such as heart rate and non-invasively measured arterial blood pressure in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of multiple physiologic mechanisms, CSI provides a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject.

  1. Cardiovascular Implications of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Adriane; Founds, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death of women in the United States. Many healthcare providers are unaware of sex-specific factors that affect the development of CVD. Nursing care for women with a history of preeclampsia and their children is presented. Preeclampsia affects 4% to 8% of all pregnancies. Rates have increased by 25% over the past 2 decades. Research supports the link between preeclampsia and risk of future CVD in women and the children of affected pregnancies. Appropriate preconception, prenatal and postpartum education, and surveillance are necessary to improve the long-term health of both mother and infant. Currently, there are no evidence-based interventions specific to the prevention of CVD for women and their children who have been affected by preeclampsia. However, women who have had preeclampsia may require yearly risk factor assessment and education regarding cardiovascular prevention strategies such as smoking cessation, increased physical activity, importance of a healthy diet, and maintenance of a healthy weight. Preeclampsia should be acknowledged by healthcare providers as a CVD risk factor. Appropriate monitoring, education, and CVD preventive strategies need to be implemented with this population and their children. PMID:26474476

  2. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  3. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Richard; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. To achieve this goal, a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life. Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) node within the heart itself. In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences, the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute. Heart rate and cardiac output, however, must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions. In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues, the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system, hormones, and other factors. Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system, but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system. PMID:25914789

  4. Adaptive plasticity in vestibular influences on cardiovascular control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, B. J.; Holmes, M. J.; Jian, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected in both human subjects and animal models indicate that the vestibular system influences the control of blood pressure. In animals, peripheral vestibular lesions diminish the capacity to rapidly and accurately make cardiovascular adjustments to changes in posture. Thus, one role of vestibulo-cardiovascular influences is to elicit changes in blood distribution in the body so that stable blood pressure is maintained during movement. However, deficits in correcting blood pressure following vestibular lesions diminish over time, and are less severe when non-labyrinthine sensory cues regarding body position in space are provided. These observations show that pathways that mediate vestibulo-sympathetic reflexes can be subject to plastic changes. This review considers the adaptive plasticity in cardiovascular responses elicited by the central vestibular system. Recent data indicate that the posterior cerebellar vermis may play an important role in adaptation of these responses, such that ablation of the posterior vermis impairs recovery of orthostatic tolerance following subsequent vestibular lesions. Furthermore, recent experiments suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs to the central vestibular system may be important in controlling blood pressure during movement, particularly following vestibular dysfunction. A number of sensory inputs appear to be integrated to produce cardiovascular adjustments during changes in posture. Although loss of any one of these inputs does not induce lability in blood pressure, it is likely that maximal blood pressure stability is achieved by the integration of a variety of sensory cues signaling body position in space.

  5. Cardiovascular Technology Program Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1990/91, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Cardiovascular Technology program. Fifty-two local hospitals were surveyed to gather information on the employment demand, employment benefits and career preparation requirements for cardiovascular technologists (CVTs), yielding a 62% response…

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence and deaths across the U.S. for the time periods 1997–2009 and 1979–2007, respectively. Cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S., may be partly...

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays a significant role in many aspects of healthcare worldwide, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review describes some of the challenges of CAM in terms of scientific research. Biologically-based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies, whole medical systems, and energy medicine are reviewed in detail with regard to cardiovascular risk factors and mediation or modulation of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. CAM use among patients with CVD is prevalent and in many instances provides positive and significant effects, with biologically-based and mind-body therapies being the most commonly used treatment modalities. More rigorous research to determine the precise physiologic effects and long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with CAM usage, as well as more open lines of communication between patients and physicians regarding CAM use, is essential when determining optimal treatment plans. PMID:23710229

  8. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  9. Comparison of Physical Fitness among Smoker and Non-Smoker Men

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi-Haghighi, Farzaneh; Rezaei, Iman; Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz; Lari, Reza; Pouya, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Background It is well documented that cigarette smoking has negative impacts on body health, as well as social health, economy, culture, etc. Nowadays, there is a large body of evidence that smoking is the cause of numerous life-threatening diseases like cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases along with different kinds of cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of smokers and non smokers. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 64 non-sportsmen (34 non-smokers and 30 smokers) aging 19-27 years. Both groups were matched for age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The smokers used cigarettes at least 5 cigarettes a day for 2 years. None of them had a musculoskeletal disease. We used a questionnaire and physical fitness tests for data gathering. The tests were used to measure muscle strength, endurance, speed, agility and flexibility in both groups. Findings The muscle strength was significantly different in smokers and non-smokers (P = 0.012). Moreover, smokers had less agility (P = 0.004) and speed (P = 0.008) than non-smokers. However, although smokers were weaker than non- smokers, the differences in muscle endurance (P = 0.066) and flexibility (P = 0.095) were not the statistically significant. Conclusion According to these results, the smokers were less powerful than nonsmokers. In addition, physical activity skills in young smokers were decreased. Therefore, smoking will cause a gradual loss of physical strength and active personal and social power. PMID:24494112

  10. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Room Foundation Store Get Involved Advancing health through science, education and medicine About ACSM Who We Are Student ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Physical ...

  11. Model Fitting Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    Model Fitting Ken Rice Thomas Lumley UW Biostatistics Seattle, June 2008 #12;Regression commands/homozygous or "2 df" #12;Use of lm() in genetics Some data; cholesterol levels plotted by genotype (single SNP) q q

  12. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  13. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  14. [Inflammasome and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Connat, J-L

    2011-02-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) constitute a recently identified family of intracellular pattern recognition receptors which contains more than 20 members in mammals. Some of the NLRs, the NALP subfamily, constituted from 14 members, many of them without actual identified role, form multiproteic complex known as inflammasome, that initiate inflammation by processing inactive pro-caspase-1 to its active form, allowing the cleavage and subsequent activation of pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18. We review the identified roles of NLRs in pathologies and argue for the role of inflammasome in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The atherogenic cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 are matured in NLRPs inflammasomes. Immunocytochemistry shows that Nlrp3 inflammasome is expressed in plaques, upregulated and activated in the CD11b(+)Gr1(high) atherosclerosis-prone monocyte subset and modulated by oxLDL in murine macrophages. These results provide an unexpected role for Nlrp3 inflammasome in atherosclerosis. PMID:20800829

  15. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  16. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  17. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Parental Educational Level in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Michael J.; Vale, Susana; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine any differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Portuguese children split by parental educational level. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 2011 on 359 Portuguese children (202 girls and 157 boys) aged 10 to 17 years (mean age ± SD = 13.9 ± 1.98 years). Height and body mass were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI). Parental education level (PEL) was used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Capillary blood sampling was used to determine: Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Fasting Glucos (GLUC), High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL/LDL). These measurements were combined with measures of systolic blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness as z-scores. CVD risk was constructed by summing the z-scores. Analysis of covariance, controlling for BMI, indicated that CVD risk was significantly different across PEL groups (p = 0.01), with CVD risk score being significantly lower in low (p = 0.04) and middle (p = 0.008) PEL groups, compared to high PEL. Moreover, the covariate, BMI was also significant (p = 0.0001, ? = 0.023), evidencing a significant positive association between BMI and CVD risk, with higher BMI associated with greater CVD risk. In Portuguese children, significantly greater CVD risk was found for children of high PEL, while higher BMI was associated with greater CVD risk. PMID:23330223

  18. The Clinical and Nonclinical Values of Nonexercise Estimation of Cardiovascular Endurance in Young Asymptomatic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shqair, Dana M.; Khabour, Omar F.; Alawneh, Khaldoon; Nazzal, Mahmoud I.; Keewan, Esraa F.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise testing is associated with barriers prevent using cardiovascular (CV) endurance (CVE) measure frequently. A recent nonexercise model (NM) is alleged to estimate CVE without exercise. This study examined CVE relationships, using the NM model, with measures of obesity, physical fitness (PF), blood glucose and lipid, and circulation in 188 asymptomatic young (18–40 years) adults. Estimated CVE correlated favorably with measures of PF (r = 0.4 ? 0.5) including handgrip strength, distance in 6 munities walking test, and shoulder press, and leg extension strengths, obesity (r = 0.2 ? 0.7) including % body fat, body water content, fat mass, muscle mass, BMI, waist and hip circumferences and waist/hip ratio, and circulation (r = 0.2 ? 0.3) including blood pressures, blood flow, vascular resistance, and blood (r = 0.2 ? 0.5) profile including glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides. Additionally, differences (P < 0.05) in examined measures were found between the high, average, and low estimated CVE groups. Obviously the majority of these measures are CV disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome components. These results enhance the NM scientific value, and thus, can be further used in clinical and nonclinical settings. PMID:22606068

  19. Human Cardiovascular Adaptation to Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Entering weightlessness (0 G) induces immediately a shift of blood and fluid from the lower to the upper parts of the body inducing expansion of the cardiac chambers (Bungo et al. 1986; Charles & Lathers 1991; Videbaek & Norsk 1997). For many years the effects of sudden 0 G on central venous pressure (CVP) was discussed, and it puzzled researchers that CVP compared to the 1-G supine position decreased during the initial hours of spaceflight, when at the same time left atrial diameter increased (Buckey et al. 1996). By measuring esophageal pressure as an estimate of inter-pleural pressure, it was later shown that this pressure decreases more than CVP does during 0 G induced by parabolic flights (Videbaek & Norsk 1997). Thus, transmural CVP is increased, which distends the cardiac chambers. This unique lung-heart interaction whereby 1) inter-pleural pressure decreases and 2) central blood volume is expanded is unique for 0 G. Because transmural CVP is increased, stroke volume increases according to the law of Frank-Starling leading to an increase in cardiac output, which is maintained increased during months of 0 G in space to levels of some 25% above that of the 1-G seated position (Norsk unpublished). Simultaneously, sympathetic nervous activity is at the level of the upright 1-G posture, which is difficult to explain based on the high stroke volume and decreased blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. This paradox should be explored and the mechanisms revealed, because it might have implications for estimating the cardiovascular risk of travelling in space.

  20. Improvements to cardiovascular gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Ruth C; Dimmer, Emily C; Talmud, Philippa J

    2009-07-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) provides a controlled vocabulary to describe the attributes of genes and gene products in any organism. Although one might initially wonder what relevance a 'controlled vocabulary' might have for cardiovascular science, such a resource is proving highly useful for researchers investigating complex cardiovascular disease phenotypes as well as those interpreting results from high-throughput methodologies. GO enables the current functional knowledge of individual genes to be used to annotate genomic or proteomic datasets. In this way, the GO data provides a very effective way of linking biological knowledge with the analysis of the large datasets of post-genomics research. Consequently, users of high-throughput methodologies such as expression arrays or proteomics will be the main beneficiaries of such annotation sets. However, as GO annotations increase in quality and quantity, groups using small-scale approaches will gradually begin to benefit too. For example, genome wide association scans for coronary heart disease are identifying novel genes, with previously unknown connections to cardiovascular processes, and the comprehensive annotation of these novel genes might provide clues to their cardiovascular link. At least 4000 genes, to date, have been implicated in cardiovascular processes and an initiative is underway to focus on annotating these genes for the benefit of the cardiovascular community. In this article we review the current uses of Gene Ontology annotation to highlight why Gene Ontology should be of interest to all those involved in cardiovascular research. PMID:19046747

  1. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span. PMID:26436463

  2. Rules, culture, and fitness

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

  3. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  4. Physical Fitness Linked to Mental Fitness in Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155694.html Physical Fitness Linked to Mental Fitness in Seniors Study found regular activity associated with ... level of aerobic endurance. The researchers found greater fitness is associated with stronger brain connections later in ...

  5. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26474157

  6. Galectin-3 Participates in Cardiovascular Remodeling Associated With Obesity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; López-Ándres, Natalia; Jurado-López, Raquel; Rousseau, Elodie; Bartolomé, Mará Visitación; Fernández-Celis, Amaya; Rossignol, Patrick; Islas, Fabian; Antequera, Alfonso; Prieto, Santiago; Luaces, María; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, and arterial stiffness are some of the alterations through which obesity affects the cardiovascular system. Fibrosis and inflammation are important mechanisms underlying cardiovascular remodeling, although the precise promoters involved in these processes are still unclear. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) induces inflammation and fibrosis in the cardiovascular system. We have investigated the potential role of Gal-3 in cardiac damage in morbidly obese patients, and we have evaluated the protective effect of the Gal-3 inhibition in the occurrence of cardiovascular fibrosis and inflammation in an experimental model of obesity. Morbid obesity is associated with alterations in cardiac remodeling, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity and hypertension are the main determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy. Insulin resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and circulating levels of C-reactive protein and Gal-3 are associated with a worsening of diastolic function in morbidly obese patients. Obesity upregulates Gal-3 production in the cardiovascular system in a normotensive animal model of diet-induced obesity by feeding for 6 weeks a high-fat diet (33.5% fat). Gal-3 inhibition with modified citrus pectin (100 mg/kg per day) reduced cardiovascular levels of Gal-3, total collagen, collagen I, transforming and connective growth factors, osteopontin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the heart and aorta of obese animals without changes in body weight or blood pressure. In morbidly obese patients, Gal-3 levels are associated with diastolic dysfunction. In obese animals, Gal-3 blockade decreases cardiovascular fibrosis and inflammation. These data suggest that Gal-3 could be a novel therapeutic target in cardiac fibrosis and inflammation associated with obesity. PMID:26351031

  7. Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential of exercise to positively influence so many physical and psychosocial domains, the Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program was developed to address the multiple impairments arising from the chronic health condition of stroke. We present the details of this exercise program and the evidence which has shown that the FAME Program can improve motor function (muscle strength, balance, walking), cardiovascular fitness, bone density, executive functions and memory. The FAME Program can help to improve the physical and cognitive abilities of people living with a stroke and reduce the risk of secondary complications such as falls, fractures and heart disease. PMID:22287825

  8. Phase-fitted Discrete Lagrangian Integrators

    E-print Network

    O. T. Kosmas; D. S. Vlachos

    2009-03-19

    Phase fitting has been extensively used during the last years to improve the behaviour of numerical integrators on oscillatory problems. In this work, the benefits of the phase fitting technique are embedded in discrete Lagrangian integrators. The results show improved accuracy and total energy behaviour in Hamiltonian systems. Numerical tests on the long term integration (100000 periods) of the 2-body problem with eccentricity even up to 0.95 show the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, based on a geometrical evaluation of the frequency of the problem, a new technique for adaptive error control is presented.

  9. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in obese children.

    PubMed

    Carolan, E; Hogan, A; O'Connell, J; Fallon, M; Byrne, D; O'Shea, D; Cody, D

    2015-05-01

    Childhood Obesity poses a public health problem in Ireland. Complications associated include metabolic disease and cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of obese Irish children. Assessments were performed on obese children attending weight management clinic. Pedometers and self report physical activity questionnaires were administered to each participant to determine physical activity levels. Fifty-nine children (21 prepubertal and 38 pubertal/post-pubertal) were metabolically profiled. Mean ± SD of z scores for BMI, Waist Circumference and Body Fat % were +3.29 ± 0.48, +3.98 ± 0.73 and +2.75 ± 0.50 respectively. 43% (n = 9) prepubertal and 68% (n = 26) pubertal/postpubertal children had at least one other cardiovascular risk factor in addition to obesity. Increased moderate-vigorous physical activity levels correlated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors. There is a significant prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among obese pre-pubertal children and pubertal/post-pubertal adolescents attending an Irish obesity clinic. PMID:26062237

  10. Impact of augmenting dialysis frequency and duration on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Ly, Joseph; Chan, Christopher T

    2006-01-01

    Conventional hemodialysis (CHD) only delivers 10% to 15% of renal function in a nonphysiological intermittent mode. Because it occurs nightly and is sustained over a longer dialysis time, the uremic clearance provided by nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) far exceeds that of CHD. Increasing the dose and frequency of dialysis by NHD has been demonstrated, in both short- and long-term studies, to reverse several important risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease such as hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, conduit artery stiffness, attenuated baroreflex regulation of heart rate, disturbed heart rate variability, sleep apnea, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In addition, the Toronto NHD experience has reported an emerging body of evidence demonstrating the benefits of NHD on anemia management, inflammation, and endothelial progenitor cell biology. The mechanism(s) by which nocturnal hemodialysis improves cardiovascular outcomes are under active investigation by our group. It is tempting to speculate that NHD has the potential to decrease endothelial/myocardial injury and restore simultaneously endothelial repair, thereby improving cardiovascular function in patients with end-stage renal disease. The objectives of the present document are (1) to review the mechanisms underlying dialysis-associated cardiovascular morbidity and (2) to describe the restorative potential of NHD on the cardiovascular system. PMID:17117036

  11. Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

  12. 76 FR 25521 - National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...29, 2011 National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2011 By the President of the United...Proclamation National Physical Fitness and Sports Month shines a spotlight on the important...health and wellness. Participation in sports can strengthen both body and mind,...

  13. Ginga: Flexible FITS viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Ginga is a viewer for astronomical data FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files; the viewer centers around a FITS display widget which supports zooming and panning, color and intensity mapping, a choice of several automatic cut levels algorithms and canvases for plotting scalable geometric forms. In addition to this widget, the FITS viewer provides a flexible plugin framework for extending the viewer with many different features. A fairly complete set of "standard" plugins are provided for expected features of a modern viewer: panning and zooming windows, star catalog access, cuts, star pick/fwhm, thumbnails, and others. This viewer was written by software engineers at Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and is in use at that facility.

  14. Body Image

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  15. Body Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  16. Neck afferent involvement in cardiovascular control during movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, P. S.; Ray, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that labyrinth and neck afferent information contributes to the regulation of somatomotor function during movement and changes in posture. There is also convincing evidence that the vestibular system participates in the modulation of sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular function during changes in posture, presumably to prevent orthostatic hypotension. However, the labyrinth organs do not provide any signals concerning body movements with respect to the head. In contrast, the neck receptors, particularly muscle spindles, are well located and suited to provide information about changes in body position with respect to the head and vestibular signals. Studies in the cat suggest that neck afferent information may modulate the vestibulosympathetic reflex responses to head-neck movements. There is some evidence in the cat to suggest involvement of low threshold mechanoreceptors. However, human studies do not indicate that low threshold mechanoreceptors in the neck modulate cardiovascular responses. The human studies are consistent with the studies in the cat in that they demonstrate the importance of otolith activation in mediating cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to changes in posture. This paper briefly reviews the current experimental evidence concerning the involvement of neck afferent information in the modulation of cardiovascular control during movement and changes in posture.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of xylazine recorded with telemetry in the dog.

    PubMed

    Ilbäck, N G; Stålhandske, T

    2003-12-01

    Cardiovascular effects of xylazine have not been studied with telemetry in dogs. In the present study, the effects on cardiovascular parameters after intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 2.0 mg/kg xylazine were studied via telemetry in unrestrained dogs. Telemetry transmitters were implanted subcutaneously (s.c.) with a pressure catheter in the femoral artery. Cardiovascular effects and body temperature effects were assessed after i.m. administration of xylazine. Heart rate decreased for about 10 min and was continuously depressed during 60 min. Thereafter, heart rate slowly increased but had not fully reached pre-dose values 4 h after treatment. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased immediately after administration of xylazine. The systolic blood pressure showed a peak increase for about 5-10 min and then decreased below the baseline value not normalizing within 90 min. The diastolic blood pressure peaked 5-10 min after xylazine administration but did not return to baseline level until 50 min after administration. Body temperature decreased continuously for about 90 min and remained low for more than 4 h after treatment. An additional administration of xylazine to the same individuals after a recovery period of 4 weeks induced exactly the same response in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in heart rate. By using the telemetric recording system it was possible to continuously evaluate xylazine-induced cardiovascular responses in a way that is not possible with conventional techniques. PMID:15157013

  18. Cardiovascular Disease and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Triant, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of chronic disease complications in controlled HIV disease has changed the landscape of HIV clinical care. HIV infection confers an increased cardiovascular disease risk which is thought to be due to a complex interplay of mechanistic factors. While traditional cardiovascular risk factors likely play a role, recent evidence suggests that HIV-associated inflammation and immune activation are important mediators of cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether established preventative interventions for the general population are applicable to HIV-infected patients, and the need to translate mechanistic knowledge into HIV-specific clinical interventions represents an important priority. Developing strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals calls for a multidisciplinary approach and represents an opportunity to exert a major public health impact in an at-risk population. PMID:23793823

  19. The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

  20. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  1. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

  2. Ivabradine: cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Rognoni, Andrea; Bertolazzi, Marzia; Macciò, Sergio; Rognoni, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Ivabradine (a compound of the benzocyclobutane) is a highly selective I(f) current inhibitor acting directly on the sino-atrial node, induces a rapid, sustained and dose-dependent reduction of heart rate at rest and during exercise without a significant effect on atrio-ventricular conduction, left ventricular contraction/relaxation or vascular tissues. These properties associated with an improvement in left ventricular loading related to bradycardia resulted in an increase in stroke volume and preservation in cardiac output even during exercise. Various experimental and clinical studies showed the efficacy of ivabradine in patients with chronic stable angina, on heart rate reduction, on ventricular remodelling after acute myocardial infarction and on coronary blood flow. The safety of ivabradine has been documented in several studies and clinical trials, in contrast to beta-blockers, no significant side effects were expressed in the literature. The aim of our review is to describe ivabradine and its cardiovascular effects and outline some recent patents and the results of the most important trials. PMID:19149708

  3. Thioredoxins in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F; Parinandi, Narasimham; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2015-11-01

    Key thioredoxin (Trx) system components are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), Trx reductase (TrxR), and Trx. TrxR catalyzes disulfide reduction in Trx with NADPH as cofactor. Because Trx is an antioxidant, oxidative stress results in an increase in Trx, which has a reduced disulfide component. If Trx is suppressed, oxidative stress in higher. In contrast a decrease in oxidative stress is associated with low Trx levels. Trx is involved in inflammation, apoptosis, embryogenesis, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review focuses on the Trx system in CVD. Abnormal Trx binding occurs in mouse familial combined hyperlipidemia; however, this has not been confirmed in humans. Congestive heart failure is a manifestation of many CVDs, which may be improved by attenuating oxidative stress through the suppression of Trx and decreased reactive oxygen species. Angiotensin II is associated with hypertension and other CVDs, and its receptor blockade results in decreased oxidative stress with reduced Trx levels. Inflammation is a major causative factor of CVDs, and myocarditis as an example, is associated with increased Trx levels. Vascular endothelial dysfunction has an association with CVD. This dysfunction is alleviated by hormone replacement therapy, which involves decreased oxidative stress and Trx levels. Diabetes mellitus has a major association with CVDs; increase in Trx levels may reflect insulin resistance. Identification of Trx system abnormalities may lead to innovative approaches to treat multiple CVDs and other pathologies. PMID:26417924

  4. Cardiovascular Effects of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Weight loss is recommended for overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes based on short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS We randomly assigned 5,145 overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes recruited at 16 US centers to intensive lifestyle intervention (the intervention group), which promoted weight loss through decreased calorie intake and increased physical activity, or diabetes support and education (the control group). The primary outcome was the first post-randomization occurrence of a composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or hospitalized angina) over a planned maximum follow-up of 13.5 years. RESULTS The trial was stopped early based on a futility analysis when median follow-up was 9.6 years. Weight loss was greater in the intervention group than the control group throughout (8.6% vs. 0.7% at 1 year; 6.0% vs. 3.5% at study end). Intensive lifestyle intervention also produced greater reductions in hemoglobin A1c and greater initial improvements in fitness and all cardiovascular risk factors, except LDL cholesterol. The primary outcome occurred in 403 patients in the intervention group and in 418 in the control group (1.83/100 person-years and 1.92/100 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.09, p=0.505). CONCLUSION In our study, intensive lifestyle intervention focused on weight loss did not reduce cardiovascular events in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the Department of Health and Human Services and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00017953.) PMID:23796131

  5. Do the blood pressure effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs influence cardiovascular morbidity and mortality?

    PubMed

    Elliott, William J

    2010-08-01

    There are many theories about why selective inhibitors of the second isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) increase cardiovascular risk. Although torcetrapib raises blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, it has been difficult to prove such a link for COX-2 inhibitors in randomized clinical trials. This review shows a significant correlation in placebo-controlled trials between the five agents' elevations in blood pressures and their rate ratios for cardiovascular events. A larger body of evidence arises from randomized clinical trial comparisons of selective versus nonselective inhibitors of COX-2, but these results are heterogeneous for naproxen versus other traditional agents. The best current trial evidence comes from the centrally adjudicated placebo-controlled trials of celecoxib for colonic polyps: If the blood pressure did not rise at 1 or 3 years after randomization, cardiovascular risk did not significantly increase. Many more data will become available in 2013, after the only prospective clinical trial involving cardiovascular end points is completed. PMID:20524091

  6. Measuring Your Fitness Progress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you’re becoming more fit, such as increased energy, greater ability to perform daily tasks, or even an improved outlook on life. VISIT www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life l Read more about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise ...

  7. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  8. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  9. Student-Institution Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Terry E.

    The concept of student-institution fit in higher education is clarified, and an approach that can be applied to different types of campuses is described. Also considered is the theoretical framework, including the concept of "person-environment interaction." Three sets of factors are important: student characteristics, institutional…

  10. Curve Fit Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

  11. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  12. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  13. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  14. The Role of Sport/Fitness and Eating Disorders: Cosmetic Fitness from Starvation to Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    The incidence of eating disorders is much higher among children and young adults involved in sport and fitness activities. When weight loss is followed by excessive exercise, certain biological and social reinforcers become evident. This is also followed by a diminished appetite, increased narcissistic investment in the body, and an elevated…

  15. Learning from large cardiovascular clinical trials: classical cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kempler, Peter

    2005-06-01

    The number of cardiovascular risk factors significantly influences age adjusted cardiovascular death rates according to the data of the MRFIT Trial. Up to 60% of patients with Type 2 diabetes have concomitant hypertension. In the HOT (Hypertension Optimal Treatment) Study lowering of blood pressure was particularly beneficial in the subgroup of diabetes mellitus: there was a 51% reduction in major cardiovascular events in target groupcardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with diabetes. In the diabetic cohort of the LIFE Study losartan was more effective than athenolol in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as mortality from all causes in patients with hypertension, diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy. In the Heart Protection Study 5963 people with diabetes were studied. For the first occurrence of any major vascular events among diabetic participants, there was a 22% reduction in the event rate simvastatin-allocated versus placebo allocated patients (p<0.0001). DAIS (Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study) data suggest that treatment with fenofibrate reduces the angiographic progression of coronary artery disease in patients with Type 2 diabetes. According to results on multifactorial intervention in patients with Type 2 diabetes (the STENO-2 study) the overall cardiovascular risk reduction was 53%. In conclusion, management of cardiovascular risk factors should be considered as the cornerstone of diabetes care. PMID:15955374

  16. DIFFERENCES IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PM EXPOSURE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE STROKE-PRONE (SHSP) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM), notably in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand the mechanisms of PM...

  17. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Risti?-Medi?, Danijela; Risti?, Gordana; Tepsi?, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  18. Dairy and cardiovascular health: Friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Markey, O; Vasilopoulou, D; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence at a global level is predicted to increase substantially over the next decade due to the increasing ageing population and incidence of obesity. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to focus on modifiable contributors to CVD risk, including a high dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). As an important source of SFA in the UK diet, milk and dairy products are often targeted for SFA reduction. The current paper acknowledges that milk is a complex food and that simply focusing on the link between SFA and CVD risk overlooks the other beneficial nutrients of dairy foods. The body of existing prospective evidence exploring the impact of milk and dairy consumption on risk factors for CVD is reviewed. The current paper highlights that high milk consumption may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, while illustrating that the evidence is less clear for cheese and butter intake. The option of manipulating the fatty acid profile of ruminant milk is discussed as a potential dietary strategy for lowering SFA intake at a population level. The review highlights that there is a necessity to perform more well-controlled human intervention-based research that provides a more holistic evaluation of fat-reduced and fat-modified dairy consumption on CVD risk factors including vascular function, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipaemia and markers of inflammation. Additionally, further research is required to investigate the impact of different dairy products and the effect of the specific food matrix on CVD development. PMID:25400508

  19. Mitochondria, myocardial remodeling, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Hugo E; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Tomás; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Pedrozo, Zully; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Garcia, Lorena; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The process of muscle remodeling lies at the core of most cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac adaptation to pressure or volume overload is associated with a complex molecular change in cardiomyocytes which leads to anatomic remodeling of the heart muscle. Although adaptive at its beginnings, the sustained cardiac hypertrophic remodeling almost unavoidably ends in progressive muscle dysfunction, heart failure and ultimately death. One of the features of cardiac remodeling is a progressive impairment in mitochondrial function. The heart has the highest oxygen uptake in the human body and accordingly it has a large number of mitochondria, which form a complex network under constant remodeling in order to sustain the high metabolic rate of cardiac cells and serve as Ca(2+) buffers acting together with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, this high dependence on mitochondrial metabolism has its costs: when oxygen supply is threatened, high leak of electrons from the electron transport chain leads to oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. These three aspects of mitochondrial function (Reactive oxygen species signaling, Ca(2+) handling and mitochondrial dynamics) are critical for normal muscle homeostasis. In this article, we will review the latest evidence linking mitochondrial morphology and function with the process of myocardial remodeling and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22972531

  20. Fitness consequences of Anopheles gambiae population hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Menge, David M; Guda, Tom; Zhong, Daibin; Pai, Aditi; Zhou, Goufa; Beier, John C; Gouagna, Louis; Yan, Guiyun

    2005-01-01

    Background The use of transgenic mosquitoes with parasite inhibiting genes has been proposed as an integral strategy to control malaria transmission. However, release of exotic transgenic mosquitoes will bring in novel alleles along with parasite-inhibiting genes that may have unknown effects on native populations. Thus it is necessary to study the effects and dynamics of fitness traits in native mosquito populations in response to the introduction of novel genes. This study was designed to evaluate the dynamics of fitness traits in a simulation of introduction of novel alleles under laboratory conditions using two strains of Anopheles gambiae: Mbita strain from western Kenya and Ifakara strain from Tanzania. Methods The dynamics of fitness traits were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the two An. gambiae strains. These two geographically different strains were cross-bred and monitored for 20 generations to score fecundity, body size, blood-meal size, larval survival, and adult longevity, all of which are important determinants of the vector's potential in malaria transmission. Traits were analysed using pair-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA) for fecundity, body size, and blood-meal size while survival analysis was performed for larval survival and adult longevity. Results Fecundity and body size were significantly higher in the progeny up to the 20th generation compared to founder strains. Adult longevity had a significantly higher mean up to the 10th generation and average blood-meal size was significantly larger up to the 5th generation, indicating that hybrids fitness is enhanced over that of the founder strains. Conclusion Hybridization of the two mosquito populations used in this study led to increased performance in the fitness traits studied. Given that the studied traits are important determinants of the vector's potential to transmit malaria, these results suggest the need to release genetically modified mosquitoes that have the same or very similar backgrounds to the native populations. PMID:16174295

  1. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  2. Modeling of Cardiovascular Response to Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, M. Keith

    1999-01-01

    It was the hypothesis of this Project that the Simple lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity generates several purely physical reactions that underlie and may explain, in part, the cardiovascular response to weightlessness. For instance, hydrostatic pressure within the ventricles of the heart may improve cardiac performance by promoting expansion of ventricular volume during diastole. The lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity might, therefore, reduce diastolic filling and cardiac performance. The change in transmural pressure is possible due to the difference in hydrostatic pressure gradients between the blood inside the ventricle and the lung tissue surrounding the ventricle due to their different densities. On the other hand, hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature may reduce cardiac inlet pressures because of the typical location of the heart above the hydrostatic indifference level (the level at which pressure remains constant throughout changes in gravity). Additional physical responses of the body to changing gravitational conditions may influence cardiovascular performance. For instance, fluid shifts from the lower body to the thorax in microgravity may serve to increase central venous pressure (CVP) and boost cardiac output (CO). The concurrent release of gravitational force on the rib cage may tend to increase chest girth and decrease pedcardial pressure, augmenting ventricular filling. The lack of gravity on pulmonary tissue may allow an upward shifting of lung mass, causing a further decrease in pericardial pressure and increased CO. Additional effects include diuresis early in the flight, interstitial fluid shifts, gradual spinal extension and movement of abdominal mass, and redistribution of circulatory impedance because of venous distention in the upper body and the collapse of veins in the lower body. In this project, the cardiovascular responses to changes in intraventricular hydrostatic pressure, in intravascular hydrostatic pressure and, to a limited extent, in extravascular and pedcardial hydrostatic pressure were investigated. A complete hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system was built and flown aboard the NASA KC-135 and a computer model was developed and tested in simulated microgravity. Results obtained with these models have confirmed that a simple lack of hydrostatic pressure within an artificial ventricle causes a decrease in stroke volume. When combined with the acute increase in ventricular pressure associated with the elimination of hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature and the resultant cephalad fluid shift with the models in the upright position, however, stroke volume increased in the models. Imposition of a decreased pedcardial pressure in the computer model and in a simplified hydraulic model increased stroke volume. Physiologic regional fluid shifting was also demonstrated by the models. The unifying parameter characterizing of cardiac response was diastolic ventricular transmural pressure (DVDELTAP) The elimination of intraventricular hydrostatic pressure in O-G decreased DVDELTAP stroke volume, while the elimination of intravascular hydrostatic pressure increased DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the upright posture, but reduced DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the launch posture. The release of gravity on the chest wall and its associated influence on intrathoracic pressure, simulated by a drop in extraventricular pressure4, increased DVDELTAP ans stroke volume.

  3. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    PubMed

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  4. Physical fitness of schoolgirls with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Stupnicki, Romuald

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280) were studied with the use of the EUROFIT test battery. Girls with TS were significantly inferior to the control group in maintaining balance, standing broad jump, sit-ups, shuttle run, and endurance shuttle run (p < .001). No significant differences were found for plate tapping, but girls with TS were superior to their healthy mates (p < .001) in handgrip, sit-and-reach, and bent-arm hang. Unlike controls, body height in girls with TS had significant effects on handgrip strength (positive) and on plate tapping speed (negative), other contributions being relatively similar in both groups. It thus seems that the somatic specificity of girls with TS explains most differences in motor fitness. The identified motor deficiencies of girls with TS call for undertaking steps toward attracting those girls to motor activities. PMID:23406704

  5. Evaluation of the NASA/JSC Health Related Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, A. S.; Pinkerton, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the NASA Health Related Fitness Program (HRFP), which includes a 12-week educational component (EC) and quarterly fitness retests (RT), on the results of periodic testing of fitness, body composition, and blood lipids were evaluated in three goups of pilots. These included the group of compliers (those who completed EC and not less than 75 percent RT), the noncompliers (completed EC and lesss than 75 percent RT), and the dropouts from EC. Results show that beneficial changes in physical activity found two years after the completion of the HRFP were related to both the completion of the EC and the periodic fitness reevaluations. These changes were associated with maximal oxygen consumption, percent body fat, body weight, and blood lipids.

  6. Quantum Data Fitting

    E-print Network

    Nathan Wiebe; Daniel Braun; Seth Lloyd

    2012-07-03

    We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently (Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 103}, 150502 (2009)). In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data is a pure quantum state, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

  7. Physiological response to whole-body vibration in athletes and sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new exercise method, with good acceptance among sedentary subjects. The metabolic response to WBV has not been well documented. Three groups of male subjects, inactive (SED), endurance (END) and strength trained (SPRINT) underwent a session of side-alternating WBV composed of three 3-min exercises (isometric half-squat, dynamic squat, dynamic squat with added load), and repeated at three frequencies (20, 26 and 32 Hz). VO(2), heart rate and Borg scale were monitored. Twenty-seven healthy young subjects (10 SED, 8 SPRINT and 9 END) were included. When expressed in % of their maximal value recorded in a treadmill test, both the peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) attained during WBV were greatest in the SED, compared to the other two groups (VO(2): 59.3 % in SED vs 50.8 % in SPRINT and 48.0 % in END, p<0.01; HR 82.7 % in SED vs 80.4 % in SPRINT and 72.4 % in END, p<0.05). In conclusions, the heart rate and metabolic response to WBV differs according to fitness level and type, exercise type and vibration frequency. In SED, WBV can elicit sufficient cardiovascular response to benefit overall fitness and thus be a potentially useful modality for the reduction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25157652

  8. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Maarit; Laaksonen, David E; Laukkanen, Jari; Tolmunen, Tommi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kauhanen, Jussi; Lakka, Timo; Niskanen, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67%) more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being. PMID:19555509

  9. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  10. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 ?M in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 ?bpm in heart rate and 51 ?mmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 ?M and 30 ?M, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation. PMID:26157557

  11. Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of varenicline in rats

    PubMed Central

    Selçuk, Engin Burak; Sungu, Meltem; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermi?, Necip; Tasl?dere, Elif; Vard?, Nigar; Yalç?nsoy, Murat; Sag?r, Mustafa; Polat, Alaaddin; Karatas, Mehmet; Kayhan-Tetik, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among tobacco users. Varenicline is widely used worldwide to help smoking cessation, but some published studies have reported associated cardiovascular events. Objective To determine the cardiovascular toxicity induced by varenicline in rats. Materials and methods We randomly separated 34 rats into two groups: 1) the control group (given only distilled water orally, n=10) and the varenicline group (given 9 ?g/kg/day varenicline on days 1–3, 9 ?g/kg twice daily on days 4–7, and 18 ?g/kg twice daily on days 8–90 [total 83 days], n=24). Each group was then subdivided equally into acute and chronic subgroups, and all rats in these groups were euthanized with anesthesia overdose on days 45 and 90, respectively. Body and heart weights, hemodynamic (mean oxygen saturation, mean blood pressure, and heart rate, electrocardiographic (PR, QRS, and QT intervals) biochemical (oxidants and antioxidants), and histopathological analyses (including immunostaining) were performed. Results Acute varenicline exposure resulted in loss of body weight, while chronic varenicline exposure caused heart weight loss and decreased mean blood pressure, induced lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant activity. Both acute and chronic varenicline exposure caused impairment of mean oxygen saturation. QT interval was prolonged in the chronic varenicline group, while PR interval prolongation was statistically significant in both the control and acute varenicline groups. Caspase-9 activity was also significantly increased by chronic exposure. Moreover, histopathological observations revealed severe morphological heart damage in both groups. Conclusion Adverse effects of chronic varenicline exposure on cardiovascular tissue were confirmed by our electrocardiographic, biochemical, and histopathological analyses. This issue needs to be investigated with new experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the exact mechanism(s) of the detrimental effects of varenicline. Physicians should bear in mind the toxic effects of varenicline on the cardiovascular system when prescribing it for smoking cessation. PMID:26543352

  12. Cannabis Use: Signal of Increasing Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre?Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. Methods and Results In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis?related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger?like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Conclusions Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people. PMID:24760961

  13. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  14. Health and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrand, Per Olaf

    The need for physical activity to maintain good health is emphasized in this book. Regular exercise and a balanced diet are regarded as being of prime importance. The nutritional and caloric values of various diets are discussed in relation to their energy producing potential as well as their effect on body weight. Photographs, charts, and line…

  15. Physical Fitness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several color-coded sections covering different aspects of the program. It is mimeographed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: Activities are listed under the qualities or parts of the body

  16. PPAR-? in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Sheng Zhong; Ivashchenko, Christine Y.; Usher, Michael G.; Mortensen, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), an essential transcriptional mediator of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, is increasingly recognized as a key player in inflammatory cells and in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. PPAR-? agonists, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), increase insulin sensitivity, lower blood glucose, decrease circulating free fatty acids and triglycerides, lower blood pressure, reduce inflammatory markers, and reduce atherosclerosis in insulin-resistant patients and animal models. Human genetic studies on PPAR-? have revealed that functional changes in this nuclear receptor are associated with CVD. Recent controversial clinical studies raise the question of deleterious action of PPAR-? agonists on the cardiovascular system. These complex interactions of metabolic responsive factors and cardiovascular disease promise to be important areas of focus for the future. PMID:18288291

  17. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mozos, Ioana; Caraba, Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of mortality. Sudden cardiac death may also appear in athletes, due to underlying congenital or inherited cardiac abnormalities. The electrocardiogram is used in clinical practice and clinical trials, as a valid, reliable, accessible, inexpensive method. The aim of the present paper was to review electrocardiographic (ECG) signs associated with cardiovascular mortality and the mechanisms underlying those associations, providing a brief description of the main studies in this area, and consider their implication for clinical practice in the general population and athletes. The main ECG parameters associated with cardiovascular mortality in the present paper are the P wave (duration, interatrial block, and deep terminal negativity of the P wave in V1), prolonged QT and Tpeak-Tend intervals, QRS duration and fragmentation, bundle branch block, ST segment depression and elevation, T waves (inverted, T wave axes), spatial angles between QRS and T vectors, premature ventricular contractions, and ECG hypertrophy criteria. PMID:26257460

  18. Educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among Finns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high educated live longer and healthier lives when compared to the low educated. Physical fitness as a health indicator reflects the level of physical activity along with other health-influencing factors such as obesity, smoking, chronic diseases and individual training effects. Studies support that self-rated physical fitness correlates with objectively measured physical fitness well. However, the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness are not known. Methods Our aim was to study educational differences in self-rated physical fitness in Finnish population. The data were collected in 2007 for a cross-sectional population based National FINRISK Study. The analyzed data included 2722 men and 3108 women aged 25 to 74 years. Statistical method was ordinal logistic regression. Results Longer educational career was associated with better self-rated physical fitness. The educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were largely explained by health behavior. Leisure-time physical activity explained fully and body mass index partly the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among men. The combination of body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking explained the differences fully among men and partly among women. Leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activities, body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking together explained all educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among both genders. Conclusions Although educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were found, they were explained by health behavior related factors. Leisure-time physical activity offered the strongest single explanation for the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness. Thus, possibilities for leisure-time physical activity should be increased especially among the low educated. PMID:23433081

  19. New approaches to cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Neely, Robert C; Leacche, Marzia; Byrne, Christopher R; Norman, Anthony V; Byrne, John G

    2014-12-01

    Modern treatment of cardiovascular disease requires a patient-centered approach. With several technological advances, the options for treatment must be carefully weighed and novel approaches tested for safety and efficacy. In this article, we outline some of the new approaches available to cardiothoracic surgeons for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, transcatheter valve replacement, and hybrid and robotic technology. We discuss current evidence and controversies and highlight the challenges that we face in training surgeons in an environment of ever-evolving surgical techniques. PMID:25498978

  20. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  1. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7?±?1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ?5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (?4 beat/min and ?5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (?5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations. PMID:23161271

  2. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  3. Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results. PMID:23857219

  4. Resveratrol and cardiovascular health--promising therapeutic or hopeless illusion?

    PubMed

    Tang, Philip Chiu-Tsun; Ng, Yam-Fung; Ho, Susan; Gyda, Michael; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in Polygonum cuspidatum, grapes, peanuts and berries, as well as their manufactured products, especially red wine. Resveratrol is a pharmacologically active compound that interacts with multiple targets in a variety of cardiovascular disease models to exert protective effects or induce a reduction in cardiovascular risks parameters. This review attempts to primarily serve to summarize the current research findings regarding the putative cardioprotective effects of resveratrol and the molecular pathways underlying these effects. One intent is to hopefully provide a relatively comprehensive resource for clues that may prompt ideas for additional mechanistic studies which might further elucidate and strengthen the role of the stilbene family of compounds in cardiovascular disease and cardioprotection. Model systems that incorporate a significant functional association with tissues outside of the cardiovascular system proper, such as adipose (cell culture, obesity models) and pancreatic (diabetes) tissues, were reviewed, and the molecular pathways and/or targets related to these models and influenced by resveratrol are discussed. Because the body of work encompassing the stilbenes and other phytochemicals in the context of longevity and the ability to presumably mitigate a plethora of afflictions is replete with conflicting information and controversy, especially so with respect to the human response, we tried to remain as neutral as possible in compiling and presenting the more current data with minimal commentary, permitting the reader free reign to extract the knowledge most helpful to their own investigations. PMID:25151891

  5. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32?404 employees aged 18?years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221?923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28?m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge generated will be disseminated in the peer-reviewed literature, and will inform population-based strategies to improve cardiovascular health in China. Trial registration number NCT02329886. PMID:26656011

  6. Diagnosis Of Age-Related Cardiovascular Disorders

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute on Aging Cardiovascular Biology Unit-Vascular Group is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods for diagnosing age-related cardiovascular disorders.

  7. 21 CFR 870.3375 - Cardiovascular intravascular filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3375 Cardiovascular intravascular filter...Identification. A cardiovascular intravascular filter is an implant that is placed in the inferior vena cava for the...

  8. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  9. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  10. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S; Knudsen, T; Pedersen, B K

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50?km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy), improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold), and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases. PMID:25821340

  11. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Laye, M. J.; Nielsen, M. B.; Hansen, L. S.; Knudsen, T.; Pedersen, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50?km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy), improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold), and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases. PMID:25821340

  12. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  13. Apollo space crew cardiovascular evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses associated with pre- and postflight orthostatic tolerance evaluations of Apollo crewmen are presented with a brief historical survey and a discussion of their implications for future manned space flight. Heart rates were increased while systolic and pulse pressures were decreased during the immediate postflight orthostatic evaluation. A postflight elevation in resting heart rate was a less frequent finding.

  14. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed. PMID:21465906

  15. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, K D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested. PMID:465378

  16. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  17. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  18. Regulatory Fit and Cognitive Assessment

    E-print Network

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Regulatory Fit and Cognitive Assessment Brian D. Glass W. Todd Maddox Arthur B. Markman University and cognition - Regulatory Focus Theory Regulatory Fit vs. Mismatch Some findings · Possible: Motivational "impairment" in normal population · Future directions #12;Regulatory Focus Theory · Goals Goals

  19. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ... vigorous program for people of all ability and fitness levels. Dance video games and DVDs are also ...

  20. 14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.211 Section 67.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a second-class...

  1. 14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.311 Section 67.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a third-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.311 Section 67.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a third-class...

  3. 14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.211 Section 67.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a second-class...

  4. Physical Education: Tennis, Physical Fitness, Body-Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veilleux, Dave

    This unit plan for introducing high school students to the game of tennis is divided into objectives and suggested activities. A listing of resource outlets and retail prices for equipment and audiovisual materials is included. Student evaluation procedures are outlined, and a sample evaluation checklist is provided. (LH)

  5. An Absent Body in a Present Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcussen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The wilderness expedition experience will always be a confluence of emotional, cognitive and bodily processes. The author wants to show that the body is an important but often forgotten part of the wilderness expedition experience. In society, the focus on the body is often polarised. Sometimes, there is an extreme focus on the thin and fit body

  6. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  7. Thermal and cardiovascular strain from hypohydration: influence of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Montain, S J; Sawka, M N; Latzka, W A; Valeri, C R

    1998-02-01

    This study determined the effects of exercise intensity on the physiologic (thermal and cardiovascular) strain induced from hypohydration during heat stress. We hypothesized that the added thermal and cardiovascular strain induced by hypohydration would be greater during high intensity than low intensity exercise. Nine heat-acclimated men completed a matrix of nine trials: three exercise intensities, 25%, 45% and 65% VO2 max; and three hydration levels, euhydration and hypohydration at 3% and 5% body weight loss (BWL). During each trial, subjects attempted 50 min of treadmill exercise in a hot room (30 degrees C db, 50% rh) while body temperatures and cardiac output were measured. Hypohydration was achieved by exercise and fluid restriction the day preceding the trials. Core temperature increased (P<0.05) 0.12 degrees C per%BWL at each hypohydration level and was not affected by exercise intensity. Cardiac output was reduced (P<0.05) compared to euhydration levels and was reduced more during high compared to low intensity exercise after 5% BWL. It was concluded that: a) the thermal penalty (core temperature increase) accompanying hypohydration is not altered by exercise intensity; and b) at severe hypohydration levels, the cardiovascular penalty (cardiac output reduction) increases with exercise intensity. PMID:9562215

  8. The Construction of a Motor Fitness Test Battery for Boys in the Lower Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNucci, James M.; Shore, John Roger

    In order to construct a scientifically designed evaluative instrument to assess the motor fitness of boys in the primary grades, 30 test items purported to measure muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, power, speed, agility, flexibility, and balance were administered to an incidental sample of 238 boys ages 6 to 9 years.…

  9. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation, computational diagnostic tools, and crash-handling capabilities to sustain extensive computations. SE-FIT performance is enabled by its so-called file-layer mechanism. During the early stages of SE-FIT development, it became necessary to modify the original SE code to enable capabilities required for an enhanced and synchronized communication. To this end, a file-layer was created that serves as a command buffer to ensure a continuous and sequential execution of commands sent from the front-end to SE. It also establishes a proper means for handling crashes. The file layer logs input commands and SE output; it also supports user interruption requests, back and forward operation (i.e. undo and redo), and others. It especially enables the batch mode computation of a series of equilibrium surfaces and the searching of critical parameter values in studying the stability of capillary surfaces. In this way, the modified SE significantly extends the capabilities of the original SE.

  10. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ?1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  11. Cardiovascular toxicity of Citrus aurantium in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Deborah K; George, Nysia I; White, Gene E; Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Pellicore, Linda S; Fabricant, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    When safety concerns forced the removal of ephedra from the market, other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium or bitter orange (BO) were used as replacements. A major component of the BO extract is synephrine, a chemical that is structurally similar to ephedrine. Because ephedrine has cardiovascular effects that may be exacerbated during physical exercise, the purpose of this study was to determine whether extracts containing synephrine produced adverse effects on the cardiovascular system in exercising rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with 10 or 50 mg of synephrine/kg body weight from one of two different extracts; caffeine was added to some doses. The rats ran on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 3 days/week. Heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and QT interval were monitored. Both doses of both extracts significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure for up to 8 h after dosing. Effects on heart rate and body temperature appeared to be due primarily to the effects of caffeine. These data suggest that the combination of synephrine, caffeine, and exercise can have significant effects on blood pressure and do not appear to be effective in decreasing food consumption or body weight. PMID:23397375

  12. Fit Indices Versus Test Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2005-01-01

    Model evaluation is one of the most important aspects of structural equation modeling (SEM). Many model fit indices have been developed. It is not an exaggeration to say that nearly every publication using the SEM methodology has reported at least one fit index. Most fit indices are defined through test statistics. Studies and interpretation of…

  13. Fitness Landscapes Peter F. Stadler

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Fitness Landscapes Peter F. Stadler 1 Institut f¨ur Theoretische Chemie und Molkulare Park Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87501 Abstract. Fitness landscapes are a valuable concept in evolutionary biology, com- binatorial optimization, and the physics of disordered systems. A fitness landscape

  14. Fitness Center Student Supervisor: Qualifications

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Fitness Center Student Supervisor: Qualifications · Must be certified in CPR/AED. · Must possess and approved by the Student Affairs Office to be employed at Fitness Center. · Previous experience working/participating in a formal Fitness Center preferred. · Work study eligible students preferred. Responsibilities: · Supervise

  15. Fitness Landscapes Peter F. Stadler

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Fitness Landscapes Peter F. Stadler 1 Institut fË?ur Theoretische Chemie und Molkulare Park Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87501 Abstract. Fitness landscapes are a valuable concept in evolutionary biology, com­ binatorial optimization, and the physics of disordered systems. A fitness landscape

  16. The handling of bariatric bodies.

    PubMed

    Eitzen, David; Byard, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Increased body mass has occurred in many countries over the past two decades. Morbidly obese individuals are prone to higher rates of cardiovascular, endocrine and malignant disease requiring hospitalization and medical care. A review of problems encountered by ambulance services, hospitals, forensic facilities and funeral service reveals common problems in examination, transport and handling. Strategies used in one area of health to deal with bariatric cases can be adapted for use in other areas. Forensic facilities may require the use bigger body bags, reinforced trolleys and vehicles, with larger refrigerator bays and CT scanning machines. The best option is for purpose built mortuaries designed with lifting hoists and passages, doorways, machinery and autopsy tables that can cope with morbidly obese bodies. Unnecessary handling and lifting of these bodies should be minimized, and so the admissions area, cool room storage and dissection theatre should be in close proximity to each other. PMID:23217377

  17. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  18. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

  19. The impact of the circadian timing system on cardiovascular and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Yang, Jessica N.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that adverse cardiovascular events peak in the morning (i.e., between 6 AM and noon) and that shift work is associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. The endogenous circadian timing system modulates certain cardiovascular risk markers to be highest (e.g., cortisol, nonlinear dynamic heart rate control, and platelet activation) or to respond most unfavorably to stressors such as exercise (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vagal cardiac modulation) at an internal body time corresponding to the time of day when adverse cardiovascular events most likely occur. This indicates that the circadian timing system and its interaction with external cardiovascular stressors (e.g., physical activity) could contribute to the morning peak in adverse cardiovascular events. Moreover, circadian misalignment and simulated night work have adverse effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function. This suggests that misalignment between the behavioral cycle and the circadian timing system in shift workers contributes to that population’s increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22877674

  20. Meditation can produce beneficial effects to prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cardoso, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Coronary heart disease is the major cause of global cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Lifestyle behaviour contributes as a risk factor: unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial stress. Atherosclerosis pathologic mechanisms involving oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, inflammation and senescence are associated with arterial wall damage and plaque formation. Stress reduction was observed in several types of meditation. After meditation, hormonal orchestration modulates effects in the central nervous system and in the body. All types of meditation are associated with blood pressure control, enhancement in insulin resistance, reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular senescence, independent of type of meditation. This review presents scientific evidence to explain how meditation can produce beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and particularly regarding vascular aspects. PMID:25390009

  1. Video markers tracking methods for bike fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkiewicz, Piotr; ?epkowska, Katarzyna; Cygan, Szymon

    2015-09-01

    Sports cycling is becoming increasingly popular over last years. Obtaining and maintaining a proper position on the bike has been shown to be crucial for performance, comfort and injury avoidance. Various techniques of bike fitting are available - from rough settings based on body dimensions to professional services making use of sophisticated equipment and expert knowledge. Modern fitting techniques use mainly joint angles as a criterion of proper position. In this work we examine performance of two proposed methods for dynamic cyclist position assessment based on video data recorded during stationary cycling. Proposed methods are intended for home use, to help amateur cyclist improve their position on the bike, and therefore no professional equipment is used. As a result of data processing, ranges of angles in selected joints are provided. Finally strengths and weaknesses of both proposed methods are discussed.

  2. Access to Care and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá, Héctor E.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Roby, Dylan H.; Beckerman, Jacob; Champagne, Philippe; Brookmeyer, Ron; Prelip, Michael L.; Glik, Deborah C.; Inkelas, Moira; Garcia, Rosa-Elenna; Ortega, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading killer of Americans. CVD is understudied among Latinos, who have high levels of CVD risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether access to health care (ie, insurance status and having a usual source of care) is associated with 4 CVD prevention factors (ie, health care utilization, CVD screening, information received from health care providers, and lifestyle factors) among Latino adults and to evaluate whether the associations depended on CVD clinical risk/disease. Data were collected as part of a community-engaged food environment intervention study in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, CA. Logistic regressions were fitted with insurance status and usual source of care as predictors of the 4 CVD prevention factors while controlling for demographics. Analyses were repeated with interactions between self-reported CVD clinical risk/disease and access to care measures. Access to health care significantly increased the odds of CVD prevention. Having a usual source of care was associated with all factors of prevention, whereas being insured was only associated with some factors of prevention. CVD clinical risk/disease did not moderate any associations. Although efforts to reduce CVD risk among Latinos through the Affordable Care Act could be impactful, they might have limited impact in curbing CVD among Latinos, via the law's expansion of insurance coverage. CVD prevention efforts must expand beyond the provision of insurance to effectively lower CVD rates. PMID:26313803

  3. Cardiovascular Health Effects of Internet-Based Encouragements to Do Daily Workplace Stair-Walks: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Boysen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Persson, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the hazardous health effects of a sedentary lifestyle are well known, many adults struggle with regular physical activity. Simple and efficient encouragements for increased physical activity are needed. Objective To determine the effect on cardiovascular health of email-based encouragements to do daily stair-walks at work together with colleagues among adults in sedentary occupations. Methods A single-blind randomized controlled trial was performed at a large administrative company in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants were 160 office workers (125 women, 35 men; mean age 42 years, SD 10; sitting 89.5% of work time). At baseline, aerobic fitness was 37 mL/min/kg (SD 9), mean blood pressure was 118/79 mmHg (SD 14/9), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 23 kg/m2 (SD 4). Participants were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to an email group receiving weekly email-based encouragements to walk the stairs for 10 minutes a day or to a control group receiving weekly reminders to continue their usual physical activities. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in aerobic fitness determined from a maximal cycle test. The examiner was blinded to group allocation. Results Adherence to the email encouragements was fairly high with 82.7% of the participants performing at least 3 sessions of 10-minute stair-walks per week (mean 3.3, SD 1.3). Mean heart rate reached 167 beats/min (SD 10) during stair-walks. In the intention-to-treat analysis, aerobic fitness increased 1.45 mL/min/kg (95% CI 0.64-2.27) at 10-week follow-up in the email group compared with the control group. In participants with low aerobic fitness at baseline (n=56), aerobic fitness increased 1.89 mL/min/kg (95% CI 0.53-3.24), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased 4.81 mmHg (95% CI 0.47-9.16) and 2.67 mmHg (95% CI 0.01-5.32), respectively, in the email group compared with the control group. Body weight decreased in the email group of those with low aerobic fitness compared with the control group, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Simple and inexpensive email-based encouragements to do daily stair-walks together with colleagues at work improves cardiovascular health among adults in sedentary occupations. There exists an enormous potential to prevent the hazardous health effects of a sedentary lifestyle through the use of email-based encouragements to do short bouts of physical activity at the workplace. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01293253; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01293253 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6HWG2jw68). PMID:23793032

  4. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ciafone, R.A.; Rhodes, A.R.; Audley, M.; Freedberg, I.M.; Abelmann, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peter; Sun, Mei; Sader, Sawsan

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that are regulated by inflammatory signals to mediate changes in extracellular matrix. Members of the MMP family share sequence homology, act on interstitial protein substrates, acutely participate in inflammatory processes and chronically mediate tissue remodelling. MMPs are important in vascular remodelling, not only in the overall vasculature architecture but also, more importantly, in the advancing atherosclerotic plaque. MMP activation modifies the architecture of the plaque and may directly participate in the process of plaque rupture. MMPs also participate in cardiac remodelling following myocardial infarction and development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Soluble MMPs are now potential biomarkers in delineating cardiovascular risk for plaque rupture and coronary risk. They also constitute innovative direct or indirect targets to modify cardiovascular tissue remodelling in atherosclerosis and heart failure. PMID:16498509

  6. [Modern technology in cardiovascular medicine].

    PubMed

    Bolz, A

    2010-08-01

    Despite basic physiologic principles being well known for more than 300 years, the diagnosis and therapy of cardiovascular diseases are still in their early beginnings. For example, 100 years ago sudden cardiac arrest was regarded as the result of toxic gases. The diagnosis of ventricular fibrillation or treatment with a defibrillator are very recent developments. We are currently experiencing a technological revolution, which is rapidly changing cardiovascular medicine. This publication is focused on electrical devices and tries to identify some of the innovation mainstreams using a few examples to demonstrate these. Four megatrends are explained in more detail: the influence of wireless technology, information technology, micro systems technology, and thinking in systems. This paper is aimed at stimulating active researchers and engineers to detect the rapid changes that we often do not observe in our daily work. The author hopes that this stimulation will lead to new ideas and combinations. PMID:20700781

  7. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

  8. The programming of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, K L

    2015-10-01

    In spite of improving life expectancy over the course of the previous century, the health of the U.S. population is now worsening. Recent increasing rates of type 2 diabetes, obesity and uncontrolled high blood pressure predict a growing incidence of cardiovascular disease and shortened average lifespan. The daily >$1billion current price tag for cardiovascular disease in the United States is expected to double within the next decade or two. Other countries are seeing similar trends. Current popular explanations for these trends are inadequate. Rather, increasingly poor diets in young people and in women during pregnancy are a likely cause of declining health in the U.S. population through a process known as programming. The fetal cardiovascular system is sensitive to poor maternal nutritional conditions during the periconceptional period, in the womb and in early postnatal life. Developmental plasticity accommodates changes in organ systems that lead to endothelial dysfunction, small coronary arteries, stiffer vascular tree, fewer nephrons, fewer cardiomyocytes, coagulopathies and atherogenic blood lipid profiles in fetuses born at the extremes of birthweight. Of equal importance are epigenetic modifications to genes driving important growth regulatory processes. Changes in microRNA, DNA methylation patterns and histone structure have all been implicated in the cardiovascular disease vulnerabilities that cross-generations. Recent experiments offer hope that detrimental epigenetic changes can be prevented or reversed. The large number of studies that provide the foundational concepts for the developmental origins of disease can be traced to the brilliant discoveries of David J.P. Barker. PMID:26173733

  9. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of gases, liquids and PM (particulate matter). In the modern urban world, PM is principally derived from fossil fuel combustion with individual constituents varying in size from a few nanometres to 10 microm in diameter. In addition to the ambient concentration, the pollution source and chemical composition may play roles in determining the biological toxicity and subsequent health effects. Nevertheless, studies from across the world have consistently shown that both short- and long-term exposures to PM are associated with a host of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischaemia and infarctions, heart failure, arrhythmias, strokes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Evidence from cellular/toxicological experiments, controlled animal and human exposures and human panel studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which particle exposure may both trigger acute events as well as prompt the chronic development of cardiovascular diseases. PM inhaled into the pulmonary tree may instigate remote cardiovascular health effects via three general pathways: instigation of systemic inflammation and/or oxidative stress, alterations in autonomic balance, and potentially by direct actions upon the vasculature of particle constituents capable of reaching the systemic circulation. In turn, these responses have been shown to trigger acute arterial vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmias and pro-coagulant/thrombotic actions. Finally, long-term exposure has been shown to enhance the chronic genesis of atherosclerosis. Although the risk to one individual at any single time point is small, given the prodigious number of people continuously exposed, PM air pollution imparts a tremendous burden to the global public health, ranking it as the 13th leading cause of morality (approx. 800,000 annual deaths). PMID:18691154

  10. TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

  11. NuFit: nutrition and fitness CBPR program evaluation.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chelsea; Bishop, Virginia; Cabrera, Kathy; Medina, Roxane; Takawira, Desire; Donate, Nilmari; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guevara, Beti

    2014-01-01

    The present study combines community-based participatory research (CBPR) and peer education to create NuFit, a nutrition and fitness curriculum, adapted by community and student peer leaders for Latino and African-American high-school students in Chicago. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the NuFit curriculum to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nutrition and fitness for minority and adolescent student populations. The NuFit curriculum improved students' short-term self-reported behaviors and attitudes around nutrition and fitness. The NuFit curriculum shows promise as one mechanism to help prevent and combat childhood obesity by fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors during the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Involvement of and collaboration between community stakeholders and youth appeared to increase the likelihood of NuFit's cultural relevance and sustainability. More work is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of NuFit. PMID:24702662

  12. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  13. Cardiovascular physiology - Effects of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments during spaceflight and its groundbase analog, bedrest, provide consistent data which demonstrate that numerous changes in cardiovascular function occur as part of the physiological adaptation process to the microgravity environment. These include elevated heart rate and venous compliance, lowered blood volume, central venous pressure and stroke volume, and attenuated autonomic reflex functions. Although most of these adaptations are not functionally apparent during microgravity exposure, they manifest themselves during the return to the gravitational challenge of earth's terrestrial environment as orthostatic hypotension and instability, a condition which could compromise safety, health and productivity. Development and application of effective and efficient countermeasures such as saline "loading," intermittent venous pooling, pharmacological treatments, and exercise have become primary emphases of the space life sciences research effort with only limited success. Successful development of countermeasures will require knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity which can be obtained only through controlled, parallel groundbased research to complement carefully designed flight experiments. Continued research will provide benefits for both space and clinical applications as well as enhance the basic understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis in humans.

  14. Environmental factors in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosselman, Kristen E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-11-01

    Environmental exposure is an important but underappreciated risk factor contributing to the development and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heart and vascular system are highly vulnerable to a number of environmental agents-ambient air pollution and the metals arsenic, cadmium, and lead are widespread and the most-extensively studied. Like traditional risk factors, such as smoking and diabetes mellitus, these exposures advance disease and mortality via augmentation or initiation of pathophysiological processes associated with CVD, including blood-pressure control, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, vascular function, and atherogenesis. Although residence in highly polluted areas is associated with high levels of cardiovascular risk, adverse effects on cardiovascular health also occur at exposure levels below current regulatory standards. Considering the widespread prevalence of exposure, even modest contributions to CVD risk can have a substantial effect on population health. Evidence-based clinical and public-health strategies aimed at reducing environmental exposures from current levels could substantially lower the burden of CVD-related death and disability worldwide. PMID:26461967

  15. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension. PMID:26141200

  16. Cardiovascular pharmacology of estradiol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Tofovic, Stevan P; Jackson, Edwin K

    2004-02-01

    A discussion of the role of endogenous estradiol metabolites in mediating important biological actions of estradiol is essentially nonexistent in standard textbooks of pharmacology and endocrinology. Indeed, the prevailing view is that all biological effects of estradiol are initiated by binding of estradiol per se to estrogen receptors and that estradiol metabolites are more or less irrelevant. This orthodox view, which is most likely incorrect, is the fundamental premise (an estrogen is an estrogen is an estrogen) underlying the design of important clinical trials such as the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study and the Women's Health Initiative Study. Accumulating data provide convincing evidence that some metabolites of estradiol, the major estrogen secreted by human ovaries, are biologically active and mediate multiple effects on the cardiovascular and renal systems that are largely independent of estrogen receptors. More specifically, metabolites of estradiol, particularly catecholestradiols and methoxyestradiols, induce multiple estrogen receptor-independent actions that protect the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys from disease. These protective effects are mediated in part by the inhibition of the ability of vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and glomerular mesangial cells to migrate, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix proteins, as well as by an improvement in vascular endothelial cell function. The purpose of this review is to highlight the cardiovascular and renal pharmacology of catecholestradiols and methoxyestradiols. The take home message is simple: that when it comes to cardiovascular and renal protection, the concept that all estrogenic compounds are created equal may not be true. PMID:14657266

  17. Cardiovascular news 2013/2014.

    PubMed

    Cuende, J I; Lahoz, C; Armario, P; García-Alegría, J; Ena, J; García de Casasola, G; Mostaza, J M

    2015-01-01

    During 2013 and the first months of 2014, numerous studies have been published in the cardiovascular field. New guidelines have appeared for managing arterial hypertension and reducing cardiovascular risk by lowering cholesterol levels. New data have emerged on the considerable lipid-lowering efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against PCSK-9, in contrast, however, to the clinical trials directed towards raising HDL-cholesterol with nicotinic acid, which have not shown a reduction in the rate of cardiovascular complications. In the field of hypertension, neither stent placement in patients with renovascular hypertension nor sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension has been shown to be effective in reducing blood pressure. In terms of antithrombotic treatment, the pharmacogenetic tests do not seem useful for maintaining patients anticoagulated with warfarin within the therapeutic range for longer periods. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, for patients with coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation, antiplatelet therapy adds no benefit to anticoagulation therapy and is associated with a greater risk of bleeding. Lastly, a Mediterranean diet could prevent the onset of diabetes, while bariatric surgery could be a reasonable option for improving the disease in patients with obesity. Many of these studies have immediate practice applications in daily clinical practice. PMID:25439172

  18. Cardiovascular Dementia - A Different Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Udhaya; Heese, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The number of dementia patients has been growing in recent years and dementia represents a significant threat to aging people all over the world. Recent research has shown that the number of people affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. The rapidly increasing financial and personal costs will affect the world's economies, health care systems, and many families. Researchers are now exploring a possible connection among AD, vascular dementia (VD), diabetes mellitus (type 2, T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CD). This correlation may be due to a strong association of cardiovascular risk factors with AD and VD, suggesting that these diseases share some biologic pathways. Since heart failure is associated with an increased risk of AD and VD, keeping the heart healthy may prove to keep the brain healthy as well. The risk for dementia is especially high when diabetes mellitus is comorbid with severe systolic hypertension or heart disease. In addition, the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) is independently associated with cardinal neuropathological lesions of AD. Thus, the contribution of T2DM and CD to AD and VD implies that cardiovascular therapies may prove useful in preventing AD and dementia. PMID:20448820

  19. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  20. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  1. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  2. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jani?, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Šabovi?, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    The world population is aging and the number of old people is continuously increasing. Arterial structure and function change with age, progressively leading to arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness is best characterized by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is its surrogate marker. It has been shown that PWV could improve cardiovascular event prediction in models that included standard risk factors. Consequently, it might therefore enable better identification of populations at high-risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review is focused on a survey of different pharmacological therapeutic options for decreasing arterial stiffness. The influence of several groups of drugs is described: antihypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates), statins, peroral antidiabetics, advanced glycation end-products (AGE) cross-link breakers, anti-inflammatory drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, and vasopeptidase inhibitors. All of these have shown some effect in decreasing arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, further studies are needed which should address the influence of arterial stiffness diminishment on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). PMID:25170513

  3. Effect of Pregnancy Upon Facial Anthropometrics and Respirator Fit Testing.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B

    2015-11-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups. There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  4. Web-enabled feedback control over energy balance promotes an increase in physical activity and a reduction of body weight and disease risk in overweight sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Lutz Erwin; Krämer, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate whether a Web-based tool will facilitate the adoption of feedback control over calorie balance in overweight individuals, thereby promoting an increase of physical activity and a reduction of body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This is a prospective exercise intervention study, commencing with a minimum weekly 3?×?20-min requirement of high-intensity interval training and requirement for Web-based self-monitoring and self-reporting of exercise and body weight. Subjects of this study include 83 overweight, sedentary, otherwise healthy adults aged 26-68 years. Anthropometric parameters, body fat, peak oxygen consumption, self-reported physical activity, frequency of use of the Web-based tool are among the characters measured in this study. This 24-week intervention substantially increased time spent for exercise (mean and median of 135 and 170 min/week, respectively) among the 72 % of participants who had adopted cognitive feedback control vs. no increase in the remaining participants of nonadopters. Adopters witnessed significantly improved peak oxygen consumption of >1 metabolic equivalent vs. no improvement among nonadopters. Adopters also reduced body mass index, body weight, and body fat by 1.6 kg/m(2), 4.8 kg, and 3.6 kg, respectively vs. 0.4 kg/m(2), 1.4 kg, and 1.1 kg in the control group. The increase in physical activity came at virtually no intervention effort of the investigators. This study demonstrates for the first time that adoption of cognitive feedback control over energy balance is possible with the help of a simple Web-based tool and that overweight adopters self-regulate exercise volume to significantly reduce body weight and improve biomarkers of fitness and cardiovascular risk. PMID:23636894

  5. Role and Function of MicroRNAs in Extracellular Vesicles in Cardiovascular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Philipp; Werner, Nikos; Jansen, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles is crucial for preserving vascular integrity and in the development of cardiovascular disease. Extracellular vesicles consist of apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes that can be found in almost every fluid compartment of the body like blood, saliva, and urine. In the recent years, a lot of reports came up suggesting that major cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies like atherogenesis, heart failure, or diabetes are highly influenced by transfer of microRNAs via extracellular vesicles leading to altered protein expression and phenotypes of recipient cells. The following review will summarize the fast developing field of intercellular signaling in cardiovascular biology by microRNA-containing extracellular vesicles. PMID:26558258

  6. Construction of a Lower Body Negative Pressure Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Ben T. A; Scott, Jessica M.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    2007-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is an established and important technique used to physiologically stress the human body, particularly the cardiovascular system. LBNP is most often used to simulate gravitational stress, but it has also been used to simulate hemorrhage, alter preload, and manipulate baroreceptors. During experimentation, the…

  7. Cardiovascular disease and androgens: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manu; Sontineni, Siva P; Hunter, Claire

    2010-06-25

    Globally, cardiovascular disease is the single largest cause of mortality. The differences in pattern of cardiovascular disease between the two genders have not been explained properly. The spotlight has largely been focused on estrogens but no conclusive evidence has proven its role in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Consequently, androgens have attracted significant interest in explaining the gender difference in cardiovascular disease. More studies in last two decades have increased our knowledge about the effects of androgens on cardiovascular disease progression. Evidence for age related fall in testosterone levels in males and increasing cardiovascular events with age had lead to the postulation of idea of 'andropause or male menopause'. Unfortunately, for the last few decades the androgens have been highlighted as agents of abuse among athletes all over the world. There have been multiple reports of their association with sudden cardiac death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes when abused. Contrastingly, there has been an increasing prescription use of testosterone supplementation in various conditions related to androgen deficiency state and for many other off-label indications. Human observational studies have mostly concluded that men with lower testosterone levels tend to have higher incidence of coronary artery disease. Emerging evidence supports that lower androgen levels predict poor cardiovascular risk profile. Role with supplementation of testosterone for cardiovascular disease is being studied in both primary and secondary prevention stages and its safety being evaluated. This is an appropriate time to review the role of androgens specifically from a cardiovascular standpoint. PMID:19923015

  8. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world. PMID:26308059

  9. [Vitamin E and cardiovascular prevention].

    PubMed

    Léger, C

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of vitamin E are well established. In humans, they appear very clearly from the nutritional supplementation trials. There is a strong correlation between supplied doses (>= 50 mg/j), vitamin E content of LDL and antioxidant protection of LDL. The consumption studies mostly suggest that the cardiovascular disease risk is diminished by the vitamin E supplementation, this being not true for vitamin E supplied by food strictly. In spite of the fact that there is a coherence between these results due in particular to the highly atherogenic role of oxidized low density lipoprotein, it is not allowed to claim that only the increased protection of LDL against oxidation is responsible for the diminished risk. The cell-regulating properties of vitamin E that have been more recently discovered have also to be taken into account as regards the functions of platelets, monocytes-macrophages, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. The LDL-vitamin E capacity at decreasing the superoxide anion production (involved in turn in the oxidation process of LDL) could also play a role in preventing cardiovascular risk. The nutritional intervention studies undertaken in secondary prevention indicate a beneficial effect in terms of cardiovascular morbidity, either for low dose (50 mg), or for higher dose (>= 270 mg/d) intake, but without effect in terms of mortality. A recent study presumably supports a beneficial effect at the dose intake of 300 mg/d only in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Only one intervention has been carried out in condition of primary prevention, leading to the absence of effect at the dose employed (50 mg/d). The studies on the mechanisms of action make plausible the beneficial effects observed in analytical or experimental epidemiology. However, the experimental epidemiology does not provide indisputable evidence for the efficacy of the secondary prevention of cardiovascular risk by vitamin E supplementation. There is no intervention study using doses higher than 50 mg/d in primary prevention. There is a need for such studies in the not too distant future. A period of several years will be necessary before having new data possibly resulting in a consensus achievement. PMID:11022097

  10. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health.

    PubMed

    Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2008-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the latest developments with regard to physical fitness and several health outcomes in young people. The literature reviewed suggests that (1) cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with total and abdominal adiposity; (2) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness are shown to be associated with established and emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors; (3) improvements in muscular fitness and speed/agility, rather than cardiorespiratory fitness, seem to have a positive effect on skeletal health; (4) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness enhancements are recommended in pediatric cancer patients/survivors in order to attenuate fatigue and improve their quality of life; and (5) improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness have positive effects on depression, anxiety, mood status and self-esteem, and seem also to be associated with a higher academic performance. In conclusion, health promotion policies and physical activity programs should be designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, but also two other physical fitness components such us muscular fitness and speed/agility. Schools may play an important role by identifying children with low physical fitness and by promoting positive health behaviors such as encouraging children to be active, with special emphasis on the intensity of the activity. PMID:18043605

  11. Data Plotting and Curve Fitting in MATLAB Curve Fitting

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Reid R.

    Data Plotting and Curve Fitting in MATLAB Curve Fitting Get the file pwl.dat from the class web the 100 × 2 matrix in text form. In order to view the data graphically, type plot(pwl(:,1), pwl(:,2), `o') This plots the second column vs. the first column using circles for each data point. This is the appropriate

  12. Got Fitness? Addressing Student Fitness Needs within Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Aaron; Reimann, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    Feeling trapped within your daily teaching routine? Are the same curricular activities getting you down, or worse yet ... your students? Perhaps you and your students are craving an injection of new and fun fitness activities designed for the secondary level. The development of health-related fitness has long been associated with primary…

  13. Central Cardiovascular Responses of Quadriplegic Subjects to Arm Exercise at Varying Levels of Oxygen Uptake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figoni, Stephen F.

    The purpose of this study was to assess selected central cardiovascular functions of spinal cord injured, quadriplegic subjects at varying levels of oxygen uptake (VO sub 2). Subjects included 11 untrained, male college students with C5, C6, or C7 complete quadriplegia and 11 able-bodied reference subjects. Exercise was performed on a Monark cycle…

  14. Evaluation of a Cardiovascular Health Program for Participants with Mental Retardation and Normal Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Gary; McDermott, Suzanne; Thomas-Koger, Marlo; Whitner, Wendy; Pierce, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted to compare the impact of an 8-week cardiovascular disease risk reduction group teaching program for 92 individuals with mental retardation (MR; IQ less than 70) and 97 normal learners. The curriculum emphasized exercise, nutritional choices, and stress reduction. Body Mass Index (BMI; weight in kilograms, divided by…

  15. HDL measures, particle heterogeneity, proposed nomenclature, and relation to atherosclerotic cardiovascular events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence from epidemiological data, animal studies, and clinical trials supports HDL as the next target to reduce residual cardiovascular risk in statin-treated, high-risk patients. For more than 3 decades, HDL cholesterol has been employed as the principal clinical measure of HDL ...

  16. Physical fitness training for people with stroke 

    E-print Network

    Saunders, David H.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Impaired physical fitness may contribute to functional limitations and disability after stroke. Physical fitness (including cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength/power) can be improved by appropriate ...

  17. Role of exercise intensity on GLUT4 content, aerobic fitness and fasting plasma glucose in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Verusca Najara; de Paula Lima, Mérica; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; de Andrade, Rosangela Vieira; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia; Lewis, John E; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) results in several metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, clinically characterized by hyperglycaemia due to lower glucose uptake and oxidation. Physical exercise is an effective intervention for glycaemic control. However, the effects of exercising at different intensities have not yet been addressed. The present study analysed the effects of 8?weeks of training performed at different exercise intensities on type 4 glucose transporters (GLUT4) content and glycaemic control of T2D (ob/ob) and non-diabetic mice (ob/OB). The animals were divided into six groups, with four groups being subjected either to low-intensity (ob/obL and ob/OBL: 3% body weight, three times/week/40?min) or high-intensity (ob/obH and ob/OBH: 6% body weight, three times per week per 20?min) swimming training. An incremental swimming test was performed to measure aerobic fitness. After the training intervention period, glycaemia and the content of GLUT4 were quantified. Although both training intensities were beneficial, the high-intensity regimen induced a more significant improvement in GLUT4 levels and glycaemic profile compared with sedentary controls (p?fitness. Thus, our study shows that high-intensity training was more effective for increasing GLUT4 content and glycaemia reduction in insulin-resistant mice, perhaps because of a higher metabolic demand imposed by this form of exercise. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26467261

  18. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  19. GEMS: Galaxy fitting catalogues and testing parametric galaxy fitting codes

    E-print Network

    Boris Häuß ler; Daniel H. McIntosh; Marco Barden; Eric F. Bell; Hans-Walter Rix; Andrea Borch; Steven V. W. Beckwith; John A. R. Caldwell; Catherine Heymans; Knud Jahnke; Shardha Jogee; Sergey E. Koposov; Klaus Meisenheimer; Sebastian F. Sánchez; Rachel S. Somerville; Lutz Wisotzki; Christian Wolf

    2007-05-07

    In the context of measuring structure and morphology of intermediate redshift galaxies with recent HST/ACS surveys, we tune, test, and compare two widely used fitting codes (GALFIT and GIM2D) for fitting single-component Sersic models to the light profiles of both simulated and real galaxy data. We find that fitting accuracy depends sensitively on galaxy profile shape. Exponential disks are well fit with Sersic models and have small measurement errors, whereas fits to de Vaucouleurs profiles show larger uncertainties owing to the large amount of light at large radii. We find that both codes provide reliable fits and little systematic error, when the effective surface brightness is above that of the sky. Moreover, both codes return errors that significantly underestimate the true fitting uncertainties, which are best estimated with simulations. We find that GIM2D suffers significant systematic errors for spheroids with close companions owing to the difficulty of effectively masking out neighboring galaxy light; there appears to be no work around to this important systematic in GIM2D's current implementation. While this crowding error affects only a small fraction of galaxies in GEMS, it must be accounted for in the analysis of deeper cosmological images or of more crowded fields with GIM2D. In contrast, GALFIT results are robust to the presence of neighbors because it can simultaneously fit the profiles of multiple companions thereby deblending their effect on the fit to the galaxy of interest. We find GALFIT's robustness to nearby companions and factor of >~20 faster runtime speed are important advantages over GIM2D for analyzing large HST/ACS datasets. Finally we include our final catalog of fit results for all 41,495 objects detected in GEMS.

  20. Motor Coordination and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant…

  1. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Scotty J; Neyedly, Tyler J; Horvey, Karla J; Benko, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit “Workouts of the Day” (WODs). Materials and methods Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs “Grace” (30 clean and jerks for time), “Fran” (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions), and “Cindy” (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats), as well as the “CrossFit Total” (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing. Results Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total) (r=?0.88 and ?0.65, respectively) and anaerobic threshold (r=?0.61 and ?0.53, respectively); however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively). There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy. Conclusion CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training, CrossFit athletes should likely ensure an adequate level of strength and aerobic endurance to optimize performance on at least some benchmark WODs. PMID:26261428

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit increase in body mass index (P < .01). Dyslipidemia (adjusted relative risk = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.26–2.03]; P < .01) and elevated blood pressure (adjusted relative risk = 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16–1.89]; P < .01) were more likely in adolescent boys compared with adolescent girls. White individuals were at greater risk of having elevated triglyceride levels (adjusted relative risk = 1.76 [95% CI, 1.14–2.72]; P = .01) but were less likely to have impaired fasting glucose levels (adjusted relative risk = 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38–0.89]; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Numerous CVD risk factors are apparent in adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. Increasing body mass index and male sex increase the relative risk of specific CVD risk factors. These data suggest that even among severely obese adolescents, recognition and treatment of CVD risk factors is important to help limit further progression of disease. PMID:25730293

  3. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  4. DIAGNOSIS NUMBER OF CASES CARDIOVASCULAR

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Paul

    /colitis/typhlitis....................................19 Fatty Liver and/or Hemorrhagic Syndrome.......54 Gastrointestinal Impaction- Foreign body/Plant..................................................................... 3 Total.................................................................12 NERVOUS Brain tumor

  5. Accelerating in Situ Endothelialisation of Cardiovascular Bypass Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Ee Teng; Wong, Eleanor; Farhatnia, Yasmin; Tan, Aaron; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    The patency of synthetic cardiovascular grafts in the long run is synonymous with their ability to inhibit the processes of intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis and calcification. In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes. As such it is not surprising that research in tissue engineering is directed towards replicating the functionality of the natural endothelium in cardiovascular grafts. This can be done either by seeding the endothelium within the lumen of the grafts prior to implantation or by designing the graft such that in situ endothelialisation takes place after implantation. Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years. To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation. This article aims to review and compile recent developments to promote the in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular grafts and subsequently improve their patency, which can also have widespread implications in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:25551605

  6. Cardiovascular function in the heat-stressed human

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, C. G.; González-Alonso, J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress, whether passive (i.e. exposure to elevated environmental temperatures) or via exercise, results in pronounced cardiovascular adjustments that are necessary for adequate temperature regulation as well as perfusion of the exercising muscle, heart and brain. The available data suggest that generally during passive heat stress baroreflex control of heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity are unchanged, while baroreflex control of systemic vascular resistance may be impaired perhaps due to attenuated vasoconstrictor responsiveness of the cutaneous circulation. Heat stress improves left ventricular systolic function, evidenced by increased cardiac contractility, thereby maintaining stroke volume despite large reductions in ventricular filling pressures. Heat stress-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion likely contribute to the recognized effect of this thermal condition in reducing orthostatic tolerance, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is not completely understood. The combination of intense whole-body exercise and environmental heat stress or dehydration-induced hyperthermia results in significant cardiovascular strain prior to exhaustion, which is characterized by reductions in cardiac output, stroke volume, arterial pressure and blood flow to the brain, skin and exercising muscle. These alterations in cardiovascular function and regulation late in heat stress/dehydration exercise might involve the interplay of both local and central reflexes, the contribution of which is presently unresolved. PMID:20345414

  7. Bayesian Reweighting for Global Fits

    E-print Network

    Nobuo Sato; J. F. Owens; Harrison Prosper

    2013-10-03

    Two different techniques for adding additional data sets to existing global fits using Bayesian reweighting have been proposed in the literature. The derivation of each reweighting formalism is critically reviewed. A simple example is constructed that conclusively favors one of the two formalisms. The effects of this choice for global fits is discussed.

  8. FURNISHINGS, FITTINGS, FINISHES and ARTWORK

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    furnishings, fittings and finishes include: · Furniture · Security Safes · Window treatments · Paint and wall racks and lockers · Other fixed and non-fixed site fittings and improvements 4.00 Furniture Matrix outlines basic complements/quantities of furniture for general use based on function. The matrix

  9. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  10. Health Fitness Standards. Aerobic Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Chuck

    1988-01-01

    An exploration of the current thinking about levels of fitness necessary to meet health fitness standards, with particular focus on aerobic capacity, discusses major health problems, the prevalence of heart disease, how health standards are set, and how health habits change as people age. (CB)

  11. Bayesian Reweighting for Global Fits

    E-print Network

    Sato, Nobuo; Prosper, Harrison

    2013-01-01

    Two different techniques for adding additional data sets to existing global fits using Bayesian reweighting have been proposed in the literature. The derivation of each reweighting formalism is critically reviewed. A simple example is constructed that conclusively favors one of the two formalisms. The effects of this choice for global fits is discussed.

  12. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  13. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  14. Imaging Cardiovascular Manifestations of Genetic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Soham; Ashwath, Ravi; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital structural cardiovascular defects are commonly associated and found concurrently with many different types of genetic diseases and syndromes. Understanding these cardiovascular manifestations is essential for diagnosing these genetic syndromes without delay and provides prompt attention and repair of life-threatening defects without complications. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are increasingly used in the evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities, and it is imperative for radiologists to be cognizant of the syndromes associated with these abnormalities. In this article, we review the cardiovascular manifestations of the common genetic syndromes and illustrate the role of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of these abnormalities. PMID:26163737

  15. [Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: epidemiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Guessous, I; Bochud, M

    2012-10-31

    The quasi-ubiquitous distribution of vitamin D receptors in the human tissues and the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide have generated much enthusiasm about the opportunity of cardiovascular disease prevention through vitamin D supplementation. However, reported associations between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease present important limitations and are prone to confounding and reverse causation. Results from ongoing randomized clinical trials testing the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation to reduce cardiovascular events will not be available before year 2015. This article reviews the epidemiology of vitamin D and provides a brief overview on the relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23185927

  16. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  17. Proceedings of a conference on Cardiovascular Bioinstrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Fuller, Charles A.; Mains, Richard; Finger, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    The Ames Research Center (ARC) has a long history in the development of cardiovascular (CV) instrumentation for human and animal research. The ARC Cardiovascular Research Lab under the Space Physiology Branch, Space Research Directorate, supports both ground-based and space-based animal and human research goals. The Cardiovascular Research Laboratory was established at ARC in the mid 1960's to conduct ground-based animal research and support development of advanced cardiovascular instrumentation applicable to spaceflight. The ARC Biomedical Research Program also conducts human studies with a CV instrumentation focus.

  18. Cardiovascular response to thermoregulatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Yavar, Zubin; Sun, Qinghua

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of extreme climate events are occurring in the setting of ongoing climate change, with an increase in both the intensity and frequency. It has been shown that ambient temperature challenges have a direct and highly varied impact on cardiovascular health. With a rapidly growing amount of literature on this issue, we aim to review the recent publications regarding the impact of cold and heat on human populations with regard to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality/morbidity while also examining lag effects, vulnerable subgroups, and relevant mechanisms. Although the relative risk of morbidity/mortality associated with extreme temperature varied greatly across different studies, both cold and hot temperatures were associated with a positive mean excess of cardiovascular deaths or hospital admissions. Cause-specific study of CVD morbidity/mortality indicated that the sensitivity to temperature was disease-specific, with different patterns for acute and chronic ischemic heart disease. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality was associated with some characteristics of the populations, including sex, age, location, socioeconomic condition, and comorbidities such as cardiac diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Temperature-induced damage is thought to be related to enhanced sympathetic reactivity followed by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin system, as well as dehydration and a systemic inflammatory response. Future research should focus on multidisciplinary adaptation strategies that incorporate epidemiology, climatology, indoor/building environments, energy usage, labor legislative perfection, and human thermal comfort models. Studies on the underlying mechanism by which temperature challenge induces pathophysiological response and CVD await profound and lasting investigation. PMID:26432837

  19. FitSKIRT: Oligochromatic Fitting of Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geyter, G.; Baes, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present the updated version of FitSKIRT, a method to fit radiative transfer models to UV/optical/NIR images of dusty galaxies. Among various improvements made to the code, the most substantial one is the ability to simultaneously fit to several images. This oligochromatic fitting technique (“oligo” stems from Ancient Greek meaning “a few”) can use several reference images, ranging from the UV to NIR, to constrain the parameters of the model more appropriately. Since the alterations made to the code are quite substantial, we revisit the test case used to test the previous version. This new test case is created to check to which degree the improved FitSKIRT is capable of retrieving the initial parameters. Both the images and parameter values are compared to provide insights and valorize the updated fitting procedure. The result is a highly automated fitting routine capable of providing more accurate constraints on both the distribution and properties of stars and dust in dusty galaxies.

  20. Fitness, aging and neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Arthur F; Colcombe, Stanley J; McAuley, Edward; Scalf, Paige E; Erickson, Kirk I

    2005-12-01

    In this manuscript we provide a brief review of the recent literature that has examined the relationship among fitness training, cognition and brain. We began with a discussion of the non-human animal literature that has examined the relationship among these factors. Next we discuss recent epidemiological studies of the relationship between physical activity and fitness and cognition and age-related disease such as Alzheimer's dementia. We then discuss the results of randomized clinical trials of fitness training on human cognition. Finally, we conclude with a review of the nascent literature that has begun to employ neuroimaging techniques to examine fitness training effects on human brain. In general, the results are promising and suggest that fitness may serve a neuroprotective function for aging humans. PMID:16213062