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1

Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

1984-01-01

2

Factors affecting fibrinolytic potential: cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and lipoprotein(a).  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that affect basal (resting) and poststressor fibrinolytic activity or potential. Variables of interest included cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [Vo2max]), body fat, body mass index (BMI), and lipids/lipoproteins, including lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Blood was collected from 46 middle-aged men before and after a maximal exercise test. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to determine associations between the variables of interest and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activities in the basal state and after stimulation with maximal exercise. Multiple regression analyses were also conducted to determine independent predictors of the fibrinolytic variables. Maximal exercise produced significant increases in t-PA activity and decreases in PAI-1 activity. Postexercise t-PA activity was inversely related to basal PAI-1 activity (r = -.34). Vo2max was positively correlated with t-PA activity (basal, r = .39; postexercise, r = .67) and inversely related to PAI-1 activity (basal, r = -.41; postexercise, r = -.42). Body fat was correlated with postexercise t-PA activity (r = -.60) and both basal and postexercise PAI-1 activity (r = .42), but the correlation with basal t-PA activity was not significant (P = .058). Postexercise t-PA activity was positively correlated (r = .37) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and negatively correlated (r = -.42) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Basal PAI-1 activity was negatively correlated with HDL-C (r = -.37), Lp(a) was not correlated with any fibrinolytic variable or fitness. Multiple regression analyses showed that Vo2max was an independent predictor of both basal and postexercise t-PA activity (R2 = .16 and .34, respectively). Triglyceride (TG) levels and Vo2max were significant independent predictors of PAI-1 activity (R2 = .31). In conclusion, cardiovascular fitness was a strong independent predictor of fibrinolytic potential. In addition, poststressor measures of fibrinolytic potential may provide more information about the fibrinolytic system than basal values. PMID:8931650

Szymanski, L M; Durstine, J L; Davis, P G; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

1996-11-01

3

Cardiovascular fitness and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise has long been recognized as a cornerstone in diabetes care. Even so, modern science is just beginning to understand\\u000a the physiologic impact cardiovascular fitness has on long-term diabetes management, and the prevention or delay, of type 2\\u000a diabetes. Recent advances in research are defining the metabolic pathways involved in insulin signaling and in reducing insulin\\u000a resistance. Tools and guidelines

Cathy Mullooly

2002-01-01

4

Changes in Physical Fitness Predict Improvements in Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors Independently of Body Weight Loss in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Participating in the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Physical fitness is inversely related to mortality in the general population and in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Here, we present data concerning the relationship between changes in physical fitness and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 606) were enrolled in 22 outpatient diabetes clinics and randomized to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling versus counseling alone for 12 months. Baseline to end-of-study changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and flexibility, as assessed by Vo2max estimation, a 5–8 maximal repetition test, and a hip/trunk flexibility test, respectively, were calculated in the whole cohort, and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS Changes in Vo2max, upper and lower body strength, and flexibility were significantly associated with the variation in the volume of physical activity, HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score, and inversely, HDL cholesterol. Changes in fitness predicted improvements in HbA1c, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, hs-CRP, and CHD risk score, independent of study arm, BMI, and in case of strength, also waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity/exercise-induced increases in fitness, particularly muscular, predict improvements in cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss, thus indicating the need for targeting fitness in these individuals, particularly in subjects who struggle to lose weight.

Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Mazzitelli, Giulia; Bazuro, Alessandra; Iacobini, Carla; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

5

Muscular fitness and clustered cardiovascular disease risk in Australian youth.  

PubMed

Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the association of muscular fitness phenotypes (strength, endurance and power) on CVD risk in youth has not been examined. We examined the cross-sectional association between muscular fitness phenotypes with individual and clustered CVD risk factors and determined if any potential associations are independent of CRF. Participants were 1,642 youth aged 9, 12, and 15 years from the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey that had muscular strength (dynamometer), power (standing long-jump), and endurance (push-ups) as well as CRF (1.6 km run-time) measured. Outcomes included established risk factors (body mass index, waist circumference, blood lipids and blood pressure) and a clustered CVD risk-score. Muscular strength, endurance, and power were inversely associated with clustered CVD risk (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for body mass index, the association remained for muscular endurance and power (all P ? 0.001), but not strength. Muscular power was inversely related to prevalence of clustered CVD risk (?80th percentile) within low (P trend < 0.001), moderate (Ptrend < 0.001), and high (Ptrend = 0.001) CRF categories. Among youth, low muscular fitness levels as well as low CRF should be avoided for primary CVD prevention. PMID:22183088

Magnussen, Costan G; Schmidt, Michael D; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison

2012-08-01

6

Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAIBI, G. Q., M. L. CRUZ, G. D. C. BALL, M. J. WEIGENSBERG, H. A. KOBAISSI, G. J. SALEM, and M. I. GORAN. Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 922-928, 2005. Purpose: To determine whether cardiovascular fitness (V ú O2max) is associated with the metabolic syndrome and

GABRIEL Q. SHAIBI; MARTHA L. CRUZ; GEOFF D. C. BALL; MARC J. WEIGENSBERG; HASSAN A. KOBAISSI; GEORGE J. SALEM; MICHAEL I. GORAN

7

Cardiovascular Fitness, Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Severely Obese Prepubertal Italian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate if insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) were associated with poor cardiovascular fitness in very obese prepubertal Italian subjects. Methods: Children referred to the Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit of Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital underwent an OGTT with glucose and insulin assays. QUICKI, ISI and HOMA-IR were calculated. Total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and percentage of body

Claudia Brufani; Armando Grossi; Danilo Fintini; Rossana Fiori; Graziamaria Ubertini; Diego Colabianchi; Paolo Ciampalini; Alberto Tozzi; Fabrizio Barbetti; Marco Cappa

2008-01-01

8

Fitting Percentage of Body Fat to Simple Body Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dataset, created by Roger W. Johnson of Carleton College, presented in this article, contains body measurements for 252 men and can be used to illustrate multiple regression and to provide practice in model building. Some of these measurements include: body fat, age, weight, height and ten different body circumference measurements. The author shows how to "fit body fat to the other measurement using multiple regression" and provide a easy method to estimating body fat percentage. This is a good example of using regression and also model building.

Johnson, Roger W.

2009-06-24

9

Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ?-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states.

Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

2013-01-01

10

Cardiovascular Fitness as a Predictor of Mortality in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relations of cardiorespira- tory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake and exercise test duration at the initiation of the study, with overall, cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related, and non- CVD-related mortality. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 1294 men with no CVD, pulmonary disease, or cancer at baseline in Kuopio and surrounding communities in eastern Finland. During

Jari A. Laukkanen; Timo A. Lakka; Rainer Rauramaa; Raimo Kuhanen; Juha M. Venal; Riitta Salonen; Jukka T. Salonen

2001-01-01

11

Exercise-induced asthma and cardiovascular fitness in asthmatic children.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The role of physical training in the management of children with exercise-induced asthma is controversial. A study was undertaken to determine whether a relationship could be found between the occurrence of exercise-induced asthma and the degree of cardiovascular fitness in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty eight children aged 6-13 with mild to moderate asthma and dyspnoea during or after physical exercise were tested. All patients had a basal forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of > 80% predicted. Twelve patients were taking corticosteroid maintenance medication by inhalation and 16 were not. Two exercise tests were performed on a treadmill to assess peak oxygen consumption rate (VO2max) and the percentage decrease in FEV1 after exercise. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the VO2max and the percentage decrease in FEV1. Patients not taking steroids showed a greater fall in FEV1 than those receiving corticosteroid medication (mean fall in FEV1 28.7% versus 6.6%). Four of the 12 children treated with steroids and two of the 16 children not taking steroids had a level of cardiovascular fitness lower than the 5th percentile for healthy Dutch children. CONCLUSION: Normal cardiovascular fitness does not prevent exercise-induced asthma.

Thio, B. J.; Nagelkerke, A. F.; Ketel, A. G.; van Keeken, B. L.; Dankert-Roelse, J. E.

1996-01-01

12

The intriguing metabolically healthy but obese phenotype: cardiovascular prognosis and role of fitness  

PubMed Central

Aims Current knowledge on the prognosis of metabolically healthy but obese phenotype is limited due to the exclusive use of the body mass index to define obesity and the lack of information on cardiorespiratory fitness. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (i) metabolically healthy but obese individuals have a higher fitness level than their metabolically abnormal and obese peers; (ii) after accounting for fitness, metabolically healthy but obese phenotype is a benign condition, in terms of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Methods and results Fitness was assessed by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill and body fat per cent (BF%) by hydrostatic weighing or skinfolds (obesity = BF% ?25 or ?30%, men or women, respectively) in 43 265 adults (24.3% women). Metabolically healthy was considered if meeting 0 or 1 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Metabolically healthy but obese participants (46% of the obese subsample) had a better fitness than metabolically abnormal obese participants (P < 0.001). When adjusting for fitness and other confounders, metabolically healthy but obese individuals had lower risk (30–50%, estimated by hazard ratios) of all-cause mortality, non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality than their metabolically unhealthy obese peers; while no significant differences were observed between metabolically healthy but obese and metabolically healthy normal-fat participants. Conclusions (i) Higher fitness should be considered a characteristic of metabolically healthy but obese phenotype. (ii) Once fitness is accounted for, the metabolically healthy but obese phenotype is a benign condition, with a better prognosis for mortality and morbidity than metabolically abnormal obese individuals.

Ortega, Francisco B.; Lee, Duck-chul; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2013-01-01

13

Exercise, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights research supporting the concept that increased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness attenuate\\u000a risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Increased activity and fitness also attenuate\\u000a risk of developing cardiovascular disease in persons who have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Although controversial,\\u000a relationships between physical activity\\/physical fitness and type 2 diabetes\\/metabolic syndrome

Glen E. Duncan; RCEP SM

2006-01-01

14

Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity as risk predictors of future atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical fitness and activity status are well-documented risk predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. The purpose\\u000a of this article is to show how cardiorespiratory fitness predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Measurement of\\u000a maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), defined with or without ventilatory gas analysis during exercise testing, can provide a good estimate for cardiorespiratory\\u000a fitness, which is an independent marker of the

Jari A. Laukkanen; Sudhir Kurl; Jukka T. Salonen

2002-01-01

15

Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting body/mind…

Rivkin, Mary S.

2007-01-01

16

Fit Kids Have Better Body-Fat Distribution, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fit Kids Have Better Body-Fat Distribution, Study Finds Active ... a weight-loss study. More than half the kids who participated were at a healthy weight, and ...

17

Cardiovascular Fitness and the Psychophysics of Perceived Exertion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptual responses of individuals at different levels of physical fitness to absolute exercise intensities were compared. Perceived exertion, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, did not discriminate between subjects who were physically fit and those who were not, despite differences in physiological strain. (Author/PP)

Mihevic, Patricia M.

1983-01-01

18

Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to lower body negative pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This study tested the hypotheses that differences in the adrenergic, central venous pressure (CVP), cardiovascular, or baroreflex\\u000a responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) or differences in body size would be associated with gender differences in\\u000a orthostatic tolerance. Subjects (24 females, 22 males) underwent graded LBNP to ?100 mmHg or presyncope. At rest, the males\\u000a had higher SV (+

Warren D. Franke; Christopher P. Johnson; Julie A. Steinkamp; Renwei Wang; John R. Halliwill

2003-01-01

19

Cigarette Smoking, Glutathione S-Transferase P1 Genetic Variant, and Cardiovascular Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Glutathione S-transferases are involved in the detoxification of many harmful substances found in tobacco smoke. This study investigated the relation of Ile105Val variant of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene to cardiovascular fitness with special reference to interaction with cigarette smoking. 232 unrelated ethnic Han Chinese men were recruited. GSTP1 genotypes were

Tao Liu

2011-01-01

20

Cardiovascular and cognitive fitness at age 18 and risk of early-onset dementia.  

PubMed

Patients with early-onset dementia are a significantly under-recognized subgroup of patients with an increasing prevalence. Epidemiological studies are limited and studies of modifiable risk factors, such as physical fitness, are lacking. We aimed to investigate the associations between cardiovascular fitness individually and in combination with cognitive performance at age 18 and risk of early-onset dementia and mild cognitive impairment later in life. We performed a population-based cohort study of over 1.1 million Swedish, 18-year-old, male conscripts, who underwent conscription exams between 1968 and 2005. These males were then followed for up to 42 years. Objective data on cardiovascular fitness and cognitive performance were collected during conscription exams and were subsequently linked with hospital registries to calculate later risk of early-onset dementia and mild cognitive impairment using Cox proportional hazards models controlling for several confounders. The scores from the exams were divided into tertiles (low, medium, high) for the analyses. The mean follow-up time for the analyses was 25.7 years (standard deviation: 9.3) and the median was 27 years. In total, 30 195 315 person-years of follow-up were included in the study. In fully adjusted models, both low cardiovascular fitness and cognitive performance (compared to high) at age 18 were associated with increased risk for future early-onset dementia (cardiovascular fitness, n = 662 events: hazard ratio 2.49, 95%, confidence interval 1.87-3.32; cognitive performance, n = 657 events: hazard ratio 4.11, 95%, confidence interval 3.19-5.29) and mild cognitive impairment (cardiovascular fitness, n = 213 events: hazard ratio 3.57, 95%, confidence interval 2.23-5.74; cognitive performance, n = 212 events: hazard ratio 3.23, 95%, confidence interval 2.12-4.95). Poor performance on both cardiovascular fitness and cognitive tests was associated with a >7-fold (hazard ratio 7.34, 95%, confidence interval 5.08-10.58) and a >8-fold (hazard ratio 8.44, 95%, confidence interval 4.64-15.37) increased risk of early-onset dementia and early-onset mild cognitive impairment, respectively. In conclusion, lower cardiovascular fitness and cognitive performance in early adulthood were associated with an increased risk of early-onset dementia and mild cognitive impairment later in life, and the greatest risks were observed for individuals with a combination of low cardiovascular fitness and low cognitive performance. PMID:24604561

Nyberg, Jenny; Åberg, Maria A I; Schiöler, Linus; Nilsson, Michael; Wallin, Anders; Torén, Kjell; Kuhn, H Georg

2014-05-01

21

Get in on the Action: Cardiovascular Fitness for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association recommendation that all children have a minimum of aerobic activity three times a week. Provides suggestions for incorporating exercise into early-childhood classrooms, including specific exercises and stretches, and activities to teach children about body mechanics. Includes…

Texas Child Care, 1998

1998-01-01

22

Body Size, Performance and Fitness in Galapagos Marine Iguanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in

MARTIN WIKELSKI; L. MICHAEL ROMERO

2003-01-01

23

Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

1986-01-01

24

The Relationship Between Aerobic Fitness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Canadian Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerobic fitness and the incidence of risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) were compared for 1595 Canadian servicemen 20-50 years of age. Aerobic power (V02 max) was predicted from heart rates during submaximal exercise performed on a bicyc...

T. E. Brown W. S. Myles C. L. Allen

1979-01-01

25

Interactive Information Environment for the controlled practice of physical training to improve cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease. Physical activity protects against the development of CVD and also favorably modifies other risk factors, however a huge part of the population lead a relatively sedentary lifestyle. Virtual trainer (vt) concept is a technological platform for the controlled practice of physical training to achieve better cardiovascular fitness results

Sergio G. Guillén; María T. Arredondo; Vicente Traver; Pilar Sala; Marco Romagnoli; Manuel Traver; Alessandro Arduini

2005-01-01

26

Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75?RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

Popescu, Claudiu; Bojinca, Violeta; Opris, Daniela

2014-01-01

27

Self-reported and measured cardiorespiratory fitness similarly predict cardiovascular disease risk in young adults.  

PubMed

We aimed to (a) examine the validity and reliability of the International FItness Scale (IFIS) in Spanish young adults and (b) compare the capacity of self-reported vs measured fitness to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The study comprised 276 participants (18-30 years). Fitness level (overall and specific components) was both self-reported (IFIS) and measured using standard fitness tests. Total and trunk fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We computed a previously validated metabolic syndrome score. A separate sample of 181 of same age and characteristics fulfilled IFIS twice for reliability purposes. The results of the present study support the validity and reliability of self-reported fitness, as measured by IFIS, in Spanish young adults. Our data also suggest that not only measured cardiorespiratory fitness but also self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness predicts CVD risk, as assessed by adiposity and metabolic syndrome indicators. The associations for muscular fitness (both reported and measured) differed depending on how it was expressed (i.e., absolute vs relative terms). Self-reported fitness, as assessed by IFIS, can be a good alternative when physical fitness cannot be measured in large surveys. PMID:22417235

Ortega, F B; Sánchez-López, M; Solera-Martínez, M; Fernández-Sánchez, A; Sjöström, M; Martínez-Vizcaino, V

2013-12-01

28

Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed???20?hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12?months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively measured relative workload, in a population with high physical work demands. Previous intervention studies have lacked robust objective measurements of the relative workload and physical work demands. This study will monitor the relative workload and general physical activity before, during after the intervention, and contribute to the understanding of the previously observed opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity. Trial registration The study is registered as ISRCTN86682076.

2012-01-01

29

Dosimeter fitting wear and body surface exposure dose distribution measuring method and apparatus using the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Dosimeters 140 are housed in dosimeter housing pockets 130 of a dosimeter fitting wear including: wear main bodies 120, 150 which cover measuring positions on at least subject bodies 100, 102, and 110, and can be detachably fitted on the subject bodies, and the dosimeter housing pockets 130 provided at positions that come to the measuring positions when the wear main bodies are fitted on the subject bodies, and then the wear main bodies are fitted on the subject bodies. Thereby, a number of dosimeters can be easily fitted on or detached from the surfaces of subject bodies without hindering medical activities, and set positions of the dosimeters can be easily reproduced.

2009-06-02

30

Mini Review: Physical activity and fitness and its relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:This paper aim to review the newest literature linking physical inactivity and low fitness to metabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and obesity.METHODS:There is a rationale for early prevention of CVD if (a) children have a risk factor profile, where risk for future disease is increased, (b) physical activity and CVD risk factors track into adulthood, and (c)

K Froberg; L B Andersen

2005-01-01

31

Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1995-01-01

32

Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.  

PubMed

Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common-garden experiment that body size may have a genetic component in iguanids. This 'performance paradigm' allows predictions about adaptive evolution in natural populations. PMID:21680446

Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

2003-07-01

33

Cardiovascular fitness associated with cognitive performance in heart failure patients enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Reduced cognitive function is common in persons with heart failure (HF). Cardiovascular fitness is a known contributor to cognitive function in many patient populations, but has only been linked to cognition based on estimates of fitness in HF. The current study examined the relationship between fitness as measured by metabolic equivalents (METs) from a standardized stress test and cognition in persons with HF, as well as the validity of office-based predictors of fitness in this population. Methods Forty-one HF patients enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation completed a standardized exercise stress test protocol, a brief neuropsychological battery, the 2-minute step test (2MST), and a series of medical history and self-report questionnaires. Results Maximum METs from stress testing demonstrated incremental predictive validity for attention (??=?.41, p?=?.03), executive function (??=?.37, p?=?.04), and memory domains (??=?.46, p?=?.04). Partial correlations accounting for key medical and demographic characteristics revealed greater METs was associated with the 2MST (r (32)?=?.41, p?=?.02) but not with the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) (r(32)?=?.24, p?=?.17). Conclusion The current findings indicate that better fitness levels measured by METs is independently associated with better cognitive function in older adults with HF. Results also showed that METs was closely associated with one office-based measure of fitness (2MST), but not another (DASI). Prospective studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms linking fitness and cognitive function in HF.

2013-01-01

34

Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox.  

PubMed

Obesity has been increasing in epidemic proportions, with a disproportionately higher increase in morbid or class III obesity, and obesity adversely affects cardiovascular (CV) hemodynamics, structure, and function, as well as increases the prevalence of most CV diseases. Progressive declines in physical activity over 5 decades have occurred and have primarily caused the obesity epidemic. Despite the potential adverse impact of overweight and obesity, recent epidemiological data have demonstrated an association of mild obesity and, particularly, overweight on improved survival. We review in detail the obesity paradox in CV diseases where overweight and at least mildly obese patients with most CV diseases seem to have a better prognosis than do their leaner counterparts. The implications of cardiorespiratory fitness with prognosis are discussed, along with the joint impact of fitness and adiposity on the obesity paradox. Finally, in light of the obesity paradox, the potential value of purposeful weight loss and increased physical activity to affect levels of fitness is reviewed. PMID:24530666

Lavie, Carl J; McAuley, Paul A; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

2014-04-15

35

Relation between Body Iron Status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between iron stores and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study aimed to investigate the association between body iron indices and some cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In a case–control study conducted in the south of Shiraz, Iran, we determined ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), metabolic risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), and anthropometric measurements in 100 men aged 45 years and higher with newly diagnosed CVD and 100 adjusted controls without evidence for CVD. Results: The mean of low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), CRP, and ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in cases than controls, and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) was significantly lower in cases than controls. Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and the other risk factors in case group showed that only ferritin, serum iron, waist circumference, and LDL-c significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.32 with P < 0.001, r = 0.29 with P < 0.05, r = 0.41 with P < 0.01, and r = 0.36 with P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicated an association between a positive balance of body iron and CVD. Hence, caution should be exercised in administration of iron supplements to patients with CVD and in consumption of food rich in iron by them.

Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Shidfar, Farzad; Zamani, Atefeh

2013-01-01

36

Trends in body fat, body mass index and physical fitness among male and female college students.  

PubMed

There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of physical fitness related to BMI and body fat among university students between 1996 and 2008. The results showed a significant decline in the average fitness levels measured as an estimation of VO(2max) for male and female students (p < 0.001 for both sexes). The linear trend for BMI by years was not significant for both sexes (p for males = 0.772, p for females = 0.253). On average, in the last 13 years, % body fat was increasing 0.513%/year for males and 0.654%/year for females. There is a significant indirect correlation between the student's VO(2max) levels and % body fat, r = -0.489; p < 0.001 for males; and r = -0.416, p < 0.001 for females. Approximately 23.9% of the variance in the VO(2max) levels in males and 17.3% in females can be explained by the variance in % body fat. The results support recent findings that physical fitness among college students is declining and body fatness is increasing. PMID:22253998

Pribis, Peter; Burtnack, Carol A; McKenzie, Sonya O; Thayer, Jerome

2010-10-01

37

Cardiovascular dynamics associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this investigation was to identify cardiovascular responses associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Eighteen men, ages 29-51 years, were categorized as high (HT) or low (LT) LBNP-tolerant based on a graded presyncopal-limited LBNP exposure criterion of -60 mm Hg relative to ambient pressure. Groups were matched for physical characteristics and pre-LBNP cardiovascular measurements, with the exceptions of greater (p less than 0.05) end-diastolic volume and cardiac output in the HT group. During peak LBNP, cardiac output was similar in both groups, although the HT group displayed a greater heart rate (p less than 0.05). In both groups, venous return appeared to limit cardiac output resulting in decreased arterial pressure. Tolerance to LBNP did not appear solely dependent on the absolute amount of blood pooled in the legs since the HT group demonstrated a greater (p less than 0.05) peak LBNP-induced increase in midthigh-leg volume. Greater tolerance to LBNP was associated with a larger pre-LBNP cardiac output reserve and higher compensatory increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance.

Sather, T. M.; Goldwater, D. J.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.

1986-01-01

38

Relationship of physical activity with motor skills, aerobic fitness and body fat in preschool children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study (Ballabeina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Adiposity, low aerobic fitness and low levels of activity are all associated with clustered cardiovascular disease risk in children and their high prevalence represents a major public health concern.Objective:The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with motor skills (agility and balance), aerobic fitness and %body fat in young children.Design:This study is

F Bürgi; U Meyer; U Granacher; C Schindler; P Marques-Vidal; S Kriemler; J J Puder

2011-01-01

39

Dancers' Body Esteem, Fitness Esteem, and Self-Esteem in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-two college-aged, ballet and modern dancers evaluated their bodies and themselves in different dance and non-dance settings. In a self-report survey design, dancers' body esteem, fitness esteem, and self-esteem (an overall self-evaluation) were measured in three different contexts. Dancers rated their body esteem, fitness esteem, and…

Van Zelst, Laura; Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

2004-01-01

40

Matrix Rigidity-Modulated Cardiovascular Organoid Formation from Embryoid Bodies  

PubMed Central

Stem cell clusters, such as embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells, are extensively studied for creation of multicellular clusters and complex functional tissues. It is common to control phenotypes of ES cells with varying molecular compounds; however, there is still a need to improve the controllability of cell differentiation, and thus, the quality of created tissue. This study demonstrates a simple but effective strategy to promote formation of vascularized cardiac muscle - like tissue in EBs and form contracting cardiovascular organoids by modulating the stiffness of a cell adherent hydrogel. Using collagen-conjugated polyacrylamide hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli, we discovered that cellular organization in a form of vascularized cardiac muscle sheet was maximal on the gel with the stiffness similar to cardiac muscle. We envisage that the results of this study will greatly contribute to better understanding of emergent behavior of stem cells in developmental and regeneration process and will also expedite translation of EB studies to drug-screening device assembly and clinical treatments.

Shkumatov, Artem; Baek, Kwanghyun; Kong, Hyunjoon

2014-01-01

41

Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults.

Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-01-01

42

Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P?fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors.

2014-01-01

43

Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.

Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

2014-01-01

44

Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study.  

PubMed

There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children. PMID:25032742

Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

2014-01-01

45

Inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease (The Health, Aging and Body Composition [Health ABC] Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the association of several inflammatory markers with subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in older men and women. Data are from the baseline assessment of 3,045 well-functioning persons aged 70 to 79 years, participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. The study sample was divided into 3 groups: “cardiovascular disease” (diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary

Matteo Cesari; Brenda W. J. H Penninx; Anne B Newman; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Barbara J Nicklas; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Russell P Tracy; Susan M Rubin; Tamara B Harris; Marco Pahor

2003-01-01

46

Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

2007-01-01

47

The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors and CV risk factors in young Australian men. Methods Thirty five healthy men aged 18–25 years had their blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity, dietary intake and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed. Results Participants were categorised according to the percentage of body fat into two groups: lean and overweight men. There were no between-group differences in the biochemical indicators except that overweight men had lower HDL-C compared to lean men. Both groups had similar mean energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol intake, RMR, physical activity level (PAL) and energy expenditure (EE). Most of the participants (65.7%) had LDL?2.5 mmol/L. Other common individual risk factors were body fat?20% (42.9%), waist circumference?88 cm (28.6%), PAL<1.8 (22.9%) and systolic BP?130 mmHg (20%). The mean number of CV risk factors was lower among men having a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, >12% of the energy intake) regardless of whether they were overweight or lean and did not seem to differ according to the source of MUFA consumed. Conclusions It is a serious concern to observe such a high percentage of CV risk factors in a group of apparently healthy young men. The likelihood of multiple CV risk factors is greater among those with high body fatness and low MUFA intake. Intake of MUFA favorably affects CV risk factors regardless of the source.

2013-01-01

48

Body adiposity index and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of body adiposity index (BAI) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. Design and Methods The current analysis comprised 19 756 adult men who enrolled in the Aerobics Centre Longitudinal Study and completed a baseline examination during 1988-2002. All-cause and CVD mortality was registered till December 31, 2003. Results During an average follow-up of 8.3 years (163 844 man-years), 353 deaths occurred (101 CVD deaths). Age- and examination year-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality risk were higher for men with high values of BMI (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19–2.23), waist circumference (1.55, 1.22-1.96) and percentage of body fat (%BF) (1.36, 1.04-1.31), but not for men with high values of BAI (1.28, 0.98-1.66). The HRs for CVD mortality risks were higher for men with high values in all adiposity measures (HRs ranged from 1.73 to 2.06). Most of these associations, however, became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple confounders including cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion BAI is not a better predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality risk than BMI, waist circumference or %BF.

Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; Espana-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

2013-01-01

49

The Effects of Aerobic Versus Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese Sedentary Females  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of aerobic and strength training on cardiac variables such as blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and metabolic parameters like cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides and anthropometric parameters of obese women of Punjab. Methods This study was performed as an experimental study, in which subjects were randomly selected. There were thirty obese women, aged between 35-45yrs with body mass index (BMI) of above 30. Subjects were grouped into control (n=10), aerobic training (n=10) and resistance training (n=10). Aerobic training was given for three days a week at 60-70% of maximum HR for 6 weeks. Resistance training (Delorme and Watkins Technique) was given for alternate days for 6 weeks. HR and blood pressure were measured before and after the exercise. Recovery HR was also measured. Results The findings of the study indicate statistically significant differences in recovery heart rate [Pre-exercise: 97.40± 5.378 (mean±standard deviation (SD)), post-exercise: 90.70±4.599, t=8.066, P<0.001] and in post-diastolic blood pressure [Pre-exercise: 85±3.265, post-exercise: 86.20±2.820, P<0.001] in aerobic training and in systolic blood pressure [Pre- and post-exercise] in both training groups (P<0.001). Significant differences were observed in very low-density lipoprotein [pre-exercise: 28.10±1.415, post-exercise: 26.86±0.760, t=5.378] and HDL [pre-exercise: 45.40±3.533, post-exercise: 53.60±3.134, t=6.318] levels in aerobic training group with P<0.001. BMI and body fat percentage showed significant improvements in both training groups. Conclusion Aerobic training is more beneficial and can be used as a preventive measure in patients who are at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to obesity.

Chaudhary, Sarika; Kang, Manpreet Kaur; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

2010-01-01

50

A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

1971-01-01

51

A study of the effect of Picolax on body weight, cardiovascular variables and haemoglobin concentration.  

PubMed Central

This study compared the effect of Picolax when administered for large bowel preparation in combination with preoperative fasting on body weight, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and cardiovascular variables with matched subjects who were fasted before surgery. Picolax resulted in significantly greater weight loss, increases in haemoglobin concentration combined with cardiovascular changes suggesting hypovolaemia in the Picolax group. Intravenous fluid replacement is recommended in patients receiving Picolax.

Barker, P.; Trotter, T.; Hanning, C.

1992-01-01

52

Application of the IAP cardiovascular fitness test protocol for Austromars candidate screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rationale: The purpose of our research was to test for cardiovascular stability within 16 Austromars candidates, and to determine hemodynamic variables and hormones in a presyncopal state as evoked by a specific test protocol. Procedures and methods: We used a graded orthostatic stress (GOS) paradigm consisting of head-up tilt (HUT) combined with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to a presyncopal end-point on 15 males and one healthy female. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored and venous blood samples taken. Results: From supine control to presyncope, mean standing time was 12.3 ± 1.2 min, heart rate (HR) increased by 68 ± 12% (p < 0.0001) and thoracic impedance (TI) rose by 12 ± 1% (p < 0.0001), whereas following parameters decreased: stroke volume index (SI) 44 ± 4% (p < 0.0001), systolic pressure (SBP) 26 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), diastolic pressure (DBP) 16 ± 5% (p = 0.004), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 19 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), pulse pressure 41 ± 8% (p = 0.0003) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) 11 ± 5% (p = 0.03). Heart rate and blood pressure variabilities decreased together with pulse pressure. Plasma volume decreased by 11 ± 2% (p = 0.0004). Plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased by 86 ± 16% (p = 0.0001), epinephrine (E) by 460 ± 266% (p = 0.06), cortisol by 10 ± 6% (p = 0.02), plasma renin activity by 147 ± 26% (p = 0.002) and aldosterone by 24 ± 21% (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Our combined HUT- graded LBNP paradigm is useful to study CV regulation and hormonal responses under severe stress conditions.

Grasser, E. K.; Goswami, N.; Jantscher, A.; Roessler, A.; Vrecko, K.; Groemer, G.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

2007-10-01

53

Maximal Oxygen Uptake Based on Lean Body Mass: A Meaningful Measure of Physical Fitness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and maximal oxygen uptake on the basis of lean body mass, 18 subjects were tested before and after a vigorous six-week training program. Maximal oxygen consumption based on lean body mass (VO2 max (LBM...

E. L. Gitin J. E. Olerud H. W. Carroll

1973-01-01

54

The effects of pole walking on arm lymphedema and cardiovascular fitness in women treated for breast cancer: a pilot and feasibility study.  

PubMed

Abstract The benefit of exercise for breast cancer-treated women is well documented. However, studies of cardiovascular fitness training for women with breast cancer-related arm lymphedema are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive pole walking on arm lymphedema in women treated for breast cancer. Thirty-five women with unilateral lymphedema were included and twenty-three completed an eight-week exercise intervention consisting of pole walking 3-5 times per week, for 30-60?min, at 70%-80% of their maximum heart rate, preceded by a two-week control period. Measurements of arm lymphedema (water displacement method), body weight, cardiovascular fitness (sub-maximal bicycle ergometer test) and subjective assessments (disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire; heaviness and tightness using a visual analogue scale (VAS); and well-being) were performed before the control period and before and after the exercise intervention. The results indicated a significant reduction in total arm volume of the lymphedema arm (p?=?0.001), in lymphedema absolute volume (p?=?0.014) and lymphedema relative volume (p?=?0.015). Significant decreases of heart rate (p?=?0.004), DASH score (p?=?0.053) and rating of tightness in the arm (p?=?0.043) were found. Positive and negative influences on well-being were reported. The conclusion of this study is that pole walking is feasible for breast cancer-treated women with arm lymphedema. PMID:24175620

Jönsson, Charlotta; Johansson, Karin

2014-05-01

55

Effectiveness of a personalized fitness module on knowledge, attitude, and cardiovascular endurance of fifth-grade students: "heart smart".  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a Personalized Fitness Module was compared to a Traditional Fitness Unit, both of which were designed to develop knowledge, behavioral skills, fitness and positive attitudes. 95 students in Grade 5 and from intact physical education/health classes within two public schools participated in a seven-week cardiovascular fitness program. The experimental group of 48 participated in the personalized and noncompetitive fitness module. The control group of 47 participated in the traditional unit, a teacher-centered fitness module. Students received a total of 14 55-min. lessons over seven weeks. Pre- and posttest measurements included the Superkids-Superfit Knowledge Test, the Children's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity Inventory, and the one-mile run/walk. Data were analyzed using group mean gain scores on eight dependent variables (knowledge, six subscales of attitude, and one-mile run/walk) followed by a multivariate analysis of variance. A significant difference between groups led to a discriminant function analysis as a post hoc test. Findings indicated that the use of the personalized unit can substantially improve one-mile run/walk time. The use of modules of this type in health and physical education programs may promote life-long exercise patterns and fitness. PMID:1792133

Mott, D S; Virgilio, S J; Warren, B L; Berenson, G S

1991-12-01

56

Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary school children in Ellisras, South Africa.Design:A cross-sectional study.Setting:The study consisted of 462 boys and 393 girls who

M. A. Monyeki; L. L. J. Koppes; H. C. G. Kemper; K. D. Monyeki; A. L. Toriola; A. E. Pienaar; J. W. R. Twisk

2005-01-01

57

Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis.  

PubMed

The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as "mindful walking" and "mindful movement" are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G; García-Campayo, Javier

2014-01-01

58

Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses.

Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausias; Provinciale, Jaime G.; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

2014-01-01

59

Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

1979-01-01

60

Body size at birth and cardiovascular response to and recovery from mental stress in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular (CV) response to mental stress, a predictor of CV disease risk, may be determined already in utero. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and previous studies have used adult subjects and neglected CV recovery. We investigated 147 girls and 136 boys aged 8 years who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for children to determine whether body size at

K Feldt; K Räikkönen; R Pyhälä; A Jones; D I W Phillips; J G Eriksson; A K Pesonen; K Heinonen; A-L Järvenpää; T E Strandberg; E Kajantie

2011-01-01

61

Temperament in Childhood Predicts Body Mass in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations of temperament at ages 6 to 12 with body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at ages 24 to 30 years. The participants were 619 men and women derived from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Temperament was operationalized as (negative) emotionality, sociability, and activity. High emotionality predicted increased BMI, independently of WC, and

Laura Pulkki-Råback; Marko Elovainio; Mika Kivimäki; Olli T. Raitakari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2005-01-01

62

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

63

Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

1985-01-01

64

Effects of Ranger Training on Selected Measures of Strength and Cardiovascular Fitness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of two-month long Ranger Training Course on the physical fitness levels of 167 Ranger students was evaluated in pre- and post-training administrations of a special physical fitness test which consisted of a modified Harvard Step Test plus push...

F. N. Dyer W. P. Burke

1980-01-01

65

Body Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular Health Risk Factors in Caucasians: A Comparison with the Body Mass Index and Others  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown a relation between the adipose tissue accumulation and a higher risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, body fat content and, mainly, the fat distribution or adiposity could be considered as important indicators of health risk. In spite of presenting several limitations, BMI is the most widely used and accepted index for classifying overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlations between Body Adiposity Index (BAI), BMI and other adiposity indexes such as WC, WHR and WHtR with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Furthermore, the behavior of BAI and BMI regarding the ability to discriminate overweight or obese individuals was also analyzed. Research Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adult workers. Participants in the study (29.214 men and 21.040 women, aged 20–68 years) were systematically selected during their work health periodic examinations. BAI, BMI, WHR, WHtR, body weight, hip and waist circumference (WC) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and glucose were also determined. Results of the study indicated that BAI was less correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic risk factors than other adiposity indexes (BMI, WC and WHtR). The best correlations were found for WHtR. In addition, the BAI presented lower discriminatory capacity than BMI for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS) using both IDF and ATP III criteria. A different behavior of the BAI in men and women when considering the ability to discriminate overweight or obese individuals was also observed. Conclusions The adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (WHtR and WC) may be better candidates than BAI and BMI to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular risk in both clinical practice and research.

Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Angel A.; Tauler, Pedro; Cespedes, Mey L.; Vicente-Herrero, Teofila; Yanez, Aina; Tomas-Salva, Matias; Aguilo, Antoni

2013-01-01

66

Numerical Recirculating Flow Calculation Using a Body-Fitted Coordinate System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite-difference algorithm for recirculating flow problem! in a body-fitted coordinate system is presented. A fully staggered grid system is adopted for the velocity components and the scalar variables. The strong conservation law form of the governing equations is written in the general curvilinear coordinates. The SIMPLE calculation procedure originally developed in Cartesian coordinates is extended to the present curvilinear

W. Shyy; S. S. Tong; S. M. Correa

1985-01-01

67

The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

2002-01-01

68

Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments  

PubMed Central

For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change.

Bardsen, Bard-J?rgen; Naess, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

2014-01-01

69

A Controlled Evaluation of a Fitness and Nutrition Intervention Program on Cardiovascular Health in 10YearOld to 12YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Programs to improve cardiovascular health in schoolchildren need careful scientific evaluation. Method. In a randomized controlled trial of nutrition and fitness programs over a period of about 9 months, 1,147 10- to 12-year-olds from 30 schools were allocated to one of five health programs: fitness, fitness + school nutrition, school-based nutrition, school + home nutrition, home-based nutrition, or a

R. Vandongen; D. A. Jenner; C. Thompson; A. C. Taggart; E. E. Spickett; V. Burke; L. J. Beilin; R. A. Milligan; D. L. Dunbar

1995-01-01

70

Effects of Physical Training on Cardiovascular Fitness and Behavior Patterns of Mentally Retarded Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five mentally retarded adults participated in an ongoing walk-jogging program for 23 weeks. Assessments for maximal oxygen comsumption (VO2 max) and body weight changes before and after training revealed Ss's body weight was reduced by 3.6 kg and VO2 max increased 43 percent. Favorable behavior changes were also noted. (CL)

Schurrer, Rob; And Others

1985-01-01

71

Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

Hooker, John C.

1990-01-01

72

Aerobic Fitness Does Not Modify the Effect of FTO Variation on Body Composition Traits  

PubMed Central

Purpose Poor physical fitness and obesity are risk factors for all cause morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify whether common genetic variants of key energy intake determinants in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) are associated with aerobic and neuromuscular performance, and whether aerobic fitness can alter the effect of these genotypes on body composition. Methods 846 healthy Finnish males of Caucasian origin were genotyped for FTO (rs8050136), LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and studied for associations with maximal oxygen consumption, body fat percent, serum leptin levels, waist circumference and maximal force of leg extensor muscles. Results Genotype AA of the FTO SNP rs8050136 associated with higher BMI and greater waist circumference compared to the genotype CC. In general linear model, no significant interaction for FTO genotype-relative VO2max (mL·kg?1·min?1) or FTO genotype-absolute VO2max (L·min?1) on BMI or waist circumference was found. Main effects of aerobic performance on body composition traits were significant (p<0.001). Logistic regression modelling found no significant interaction between aerobic fitness and FTO genotype. LEP SNP rs7799039, LEPR SNPs rs8179183 and rs1137101 did not associate with any of the measured variables, and no significant interactions of LEP or LEPR genotype with aerobic fitness were observed. In addition, none of the studied SNPs associated with aerobic or neuromuscular performance. Conclusions Aerobic fitness may not modify the effect of FTO variation on body composition traits. However, relative aerobic capacity associates with lower BMI and waist circumference regardless of the FTO genotype. FTO, LEP and LEPR genotypes unlikely associate with physical performance.

Huuskonen, Antti; Lappalainen, Jani; Oksala, Niku; Santtila, Matti; Hakkinen, Keijo; Kyrolainen, Heikki; Atalay, Mustafa

2012-01-01

73

Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (?2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2013-01-01

74

Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting. Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS. Comprehensive Therapy 6(9): 12-27 1980. Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting. Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS. Comprehensive Therapy 6(9): 12-27 1980. Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS ?

75

The Relation of Body Mass Index, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and All-Cause Mortality in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relation of body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and all-cause mortality in women.Research Methods and Procedures: A cohort of women (42.9 ± 10.4 years) was assessed for CRF, height, and weight. Participants were divided into three BMI categories (normal, overweight, and obese) and three CRF categories (low, moderate, and high). After adjustment for age, smoking,

Stephen W. Farrell; LeeAnn Braun; Carolyn E. Barlow; Yiling J. Cheng; Steven N. Blair

2002-01-01

76

Coupled ghost fluid\\/two-phase level set method for curvilinear body-fitted grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A coupled ghost fluid\\/two-phase level set method to simulate air\\/water turbulent flow for complex geometries using curvilinear body-fitted grids is presented. The proposed method is intended to treat ship hydrodynamics problems. The original level set method for moving interface flows was based on Heaviside functions to smooth all fluid properties across the interface. We call this the Heaviside function

Juntao Huang; Pablo M. Carrica; Frederick Stern

2007-01-01

77

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

2004-01-01

78

Body mass penalties in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy.  

PubMed

Recent research has empirically documented a consistent penalty against heavier service members for events identical or similar to those in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy. These penalties, which are not related to body fatness, are based on biological scaling models and have a physiological basis. Using hypothetical cases, we quantified the penalties for men, with body mass of 60 vs. 90 kg, and women, 45 vs. 75 kg, to be 15% to 20% for the fitness tests of these three services. Such penalties alone can adversely affect awards and promotions for heavier service members. To deal equitably with these penalties in a practical manner, we offer two recommendations, i.e., (1) implementation of revised fitness tests with balanced events, in which the penalties of one event for heavier service members are balanced by an equal and opposite bias against lighter service members, or (2) development of correction factors that can be multiplied by raw scores to yield adjusted scores free of body mass bias. PMID:16933817

Vanderburgh, Paul M; Crowder, Todd A

2006-08-01

79

Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition  

PubMed Central

Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n?=?322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493

2012-01-01

80

Benefit of repeated receptor stimulation as a spaceflight medical tool to promote cardiovascular fitness: different orthostatic paradigms compared.  

PubMed

We used various orthostatic stimulus combinations to better understand the physiology and countermeasure potential of repeated change of body position in humans. The purpose of the investigations reported was threefold: To investigate cardiovascular and hormonal effects of repeated transition between partially antiorthostatic (-30 degrees HDT) and partially head-up passive body tilt (+30 degrees HUT). Protocol Y denotes the repeated transition between these two body positions; To apply, in the same test persons, repeated transition between supine and passive upright (Protocol X), and to compare the effect of the two protocols; To find out which stimulus pattern provides the largest physiological effects and, hence, presumably the largest countermeasure potential. We chose our tilt protocol according to tilt angle sine ranges: The sine difference is 1.0 both in Protocol X (sine=0 vs. sine=1.0) and Y (sine= -0.5 vs. sine= +0.5) since this difference, and not the angle change per se, determines hydrostatic effect intensities. Due to longer-lasting neurohormonal effects elicited by tilting procedures, they all should be a useful countermeasure against post-immobilization orthostatic instability, a conjecture not yet been tested in this specific form. Therefore, one of the questions asked in this study were if movement between the two defined body positions produces similar changes when employing Protocol X vs. Protocol Y. PMID:16101465

Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Rössler, Andreas

2005-08-01

81

[Accuracy of body fat and waist circumference in predicting metabolic abnormalities indicating cardiovascular risk in adolescents].  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate the performance of percent body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC) in predicting metabolic abnormalities indicating cardiovascular risk in adolescents. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 573 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years from state public schools in Niterói, RJ. The Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve was used to evaluate the accuracy of WC and %BF in predicting alterations in blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose. Results: The best %BF cutoff points were 21% for boys, and 23% for girls, with sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of approximately 60%. The best WC cutoff points were 71 cm for boys, and 66 cm for girls (SE: 55% to 70%; SP: 55% to 78%). Conclusion: Even the best cutoff points misidentified high proportions of adolescents with metabolic abnormalities. Caution is recommended in the use of these indicators for cardiovascular risk screening in this age group. PMID:24936728

Moraes, Milena Miranda de; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da

2014-06-01

82

The effect of backward locomotion training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of young women.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of a backward training program on the physical and fitness condition of young women. Twenty-six healthy female university students (aged 18 - 23 years) took part in three different baseline tests: body composition, a submaximal treadmill test, and a 20-m shuttle run test. Subjects were divided into a training group (n = 13) and a control group (n = 13). The training group completed a six-week backward run/walk training program. The control group was restricted to their daily activities similar to the four weeks prior to the onset of the baseline tests. The training group showed a significant (p = 0.01) decrease in O(2) consumption during both submaximal forward and backward exercise on the treadmill (32 % decrease during backward and 30 % decrease during forward exercise). A significant (p = 0.01) decrease in percentage body fat (2.4 %), a 19.7 % decrease in the sum of skinfolds (p = 0.001) and significantly (p = 0.013) improved predicted VO(2max) values from the forward 20-m shuttle run test (5.2 %) were also found in the case of the training group. The findings suggest that backward walk/run training improves cardiorespiratory fitness for both forward and backward exercise and causes significant changes in body composition in young women. PMID:15776337

Terblanche, E; Page, C; Kroff, J; Venter, R E

2005-04-01

83

Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity--a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events.

Chevalier, Gaetan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

2013-01-01

84

Snoring, Daytime Sleepiness, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the association between snoring and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design, Settings, and Participants: This is a prospective study in which community dwelling older adults were evaluated at baseline, and followed up for an average of 9.9 years. Measurements: Data on snoring, daytime sleepiness, as well as demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants was collected at baseline, and participants were followed up every six months for an average of 9.9 years. Based on snoring and sleepiness status, 4 groups of participants were created: (1) No Snoring, No Sleepiness; (2) No Snoring, Sleepiness; (3) Snoring, No Sleepiness; (4) Snoring, Sleepiness. Incident CVD was defined as a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or congestive heart failure that resulted in overnight hospitalization during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard was used to estimate the risk of incident cardiovascular disease during follow-up by baseline snoring and sleepiness status. Results: A total of 2,320 participants with a mean age of 73.6 (2.9) years at baseline were included in the analysis. Fifty-two percent were women, and 58% were white. A total of 543 participants developed CVD events during the follow-up period. Participants who reported snoring associated with daytime sleepiness had significantly increased hazard ratio for CVD events (HR = 1.46 [1.03-2.08], P = 0.035) after adjusting for demographic and clinical confounding factors. Conclusion: The results suggest that self-reported snoring and daytime sleepiness status are associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease among older adults. Citation: Endeshaw Y; Rice TB; Schwartz AV; Stone KL; Manini TM; Satterfield S; Cummings S; Harris T; Pahor M; for the Health ABC Study. Snoring, daytime sleepiness, and incident cardiovascular disease in the health, aging, and body composition study. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1737-1745.

Endeshaw, Yohannes; Rice, Thomas B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Stone, Katie L.; Manini, Todd M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven; Harris, Tamara; Pahor, Marco

2013-01-01

85

Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

1992-01-01

86

Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

1990-01-01

87

Preaccession fitness and body composition as predictors of attrition in U.S. Army recruits.  

PubMed

The Assessment of Recruit Motivation and Strength (ARMS) project evaluated whether active duty Army enlistees who exceeded weight and body-fat standards but were able to pass the ARMS physical fitness test were at elevated risk of early attrition relative to the traditional recruit population. Attrition among 1146 overweight and overbody-fat (OBF) recruits who passed ARMS was compared to 10,514 fully qualified (FQ) recruits who began service in February 2005 through September 2006. The ARMS test includes a 5-minute step test and a 1-minute pushup test. There were no significant differences in attrition between OBF and FQ at 180 days: adjusted hazard ratios were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.65) among females and 1.23 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.58) among males. This study indicates that physically fit recruits who exceeded weight/body-fat standards were equally capable of serving at least 180 days compared to those who met standards. PMID:19685840

Niebuhr, David W; Scott, Christine T; Li, Yuanzhang; Bedno, Sheryl A; Han, Weiwei; Powers, Timothy E

2009-07-01

88

Effects of lower-body negative pressure on blood flow with applications to the human cardiovascular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a theoretical investigation into the effects of lower-body negative pressure on blood flow through the human\\u000a cardiovascular system. The human cardiovascular system is modelled as a closed network of arteries, arterioles, capillaries,\\u000a venules and veins of different lengths and cross-sections. The pumping action is provided by the contraction of the ventricles.\\u000a The model has been analysed using

V. K. Sud; R. Srinivasan; J. B. Charles; M. W. Bungo

1993-01-01

89

Associations of muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness with total and central body fat in adolescents: The HELENA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the association of healthrelated physical fitness with total and central body fat in adolescents.Participants\\/MethodsThe present cross-sectional study comprises 363 Spanish adolescents (186 female participants) aged 12.5–17.5 years. We assessed fitness by the 20-m shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness); the handgrip strength, the standing broad jump and the Abalakov tests (muscular strength); and the 4×10-m shuttle run test (speed–agility).

D. Moliner-Urdiales; J. R. Ruiz; G. Vicente-Rodriguez; F. B. Ortega; J. P. Rey-Lopez; V. Espana-Romero; J. A. Casajus; D. Molnar; K. Widhalm; J. Dallongeville; M. Gonzalez-Gross; M. J. Castillo; M. Sjostrom; L. A. Moreno

2011-01-01

90

Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. Methods Using data collected in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (? 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and ? 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. Results Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p?cardiovascular risk factors, despite associated dietary differences. Given the cross-sectional study design, however, it cannot be concluded that candy consumption does not cause obesity or untoward levels of cardiovascular risk markers. The lack of an association between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors could be due to reduced intake of candy among the overweight due to dieting or a health professional’s recommendations. Additionally, it is important to note that the analysis was based on frequency of candy consumption and not amount of candy consumed. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the lack of associations between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors.

2013-01-01

91

The Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Fitness from Physical Education in Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education (PE) can improve physical fitness; however, little research has evaluated PE's long-term influence. The purpose is to determine PE's longitudinal effects on fitness in a group of adolescent girls and to determine whether body mass index (BMI) status influenced any potential effects. Methods: Participants were…

Camhi, Sarah M.; Phillips, Jennie; Young, Deborah R.

2011-01-01

92

Body Fat and Racial Genetic Admixture Are Associated With Aerobic Fitness Levels in a Multiethnic Pediatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate (i) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to BMI as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and (ii) the

Amanda L. Willig; Gary R. Hunter; Krista Casazza; Douglas C. Heimburger; T. Mark Beasley; Jose R. Fernandez

2011-01-01

93

Comparison of Effect of Regular Unstructured Physical Training and Athletic Level Training on Body Composition and Cardio Respiratory Fitness in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12–17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student’s t–test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regular unstructured physical activity for 60 minutes daily for the duration of one year can help the students to maintain their anthropometric parameters, body composition measures and CRF at par with the athletes of the same age and gender. However, athletic level training further reduces the cardiovascular load of the adolescent students.

Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

2013-01-01

94

Comparison of effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on body composition and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents.  

PubMed

Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12-17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student's t-test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regular unstructured physical activity for 60 minutes daily for the duration of one year can help the students to maintain their anthropometric parameters, body composition measures and CRF at par with the athletes of the same age and gender. However, athletic level training further reduces the cardiovascular load of the adolescent students. PMID:24179887

Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

2013-09-01

95

Effects of whole-body cryotherapy duration on thermal and cardio-vascular response.  

PubMed

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9±4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5min after and 30min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort. PMID:24802149

Fonda, Borut; De Nardi, Massimo; Sarabon, Nejc

2014-05-01

96

A cardiod based technique to identify cardiovascular diseases using mobile phones and body sensors.  

PubMed

To prevent the threat of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) related deaths, the usage of mobile phone based computational platforms, body sensors and wireless communications is proliferating. Since mobile phones have limited computational resources, existing PC based complex CVD detection algorithms are often unsuitable for wireless telecardiology applications. Moreover, if the existing Electrocardiography (ECG) based CVD detection algorithms are adopted for mobile telecardiology applications, then there will be processing delays due to the computational complexities of the existing algorithms. However, for a CVD affected patient, seconds worth of delay could be fatal, since cardiovascular cell damage is a totally irrecoverable process. This paper proposes a fast and efficient mechanism of CVD detection from ECG signal. Unlike the existing ECG based CVD diagnosis systems that detect CVD anomalies from hundreds of sample points, the proposed mechanism identifies cardiac abnormality from only 5 sample points. Therefore, according to our experiments the proposed mechanism is up to 3 times faster than the existing techniques. Due to less computational burden, the proposed mechanism is ideal for wireless telecardiology applications running on mobile phones. PMID:21096293

Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Tari, Zahir

2010-01-01

97

United States Ski Team Fitness Testing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a fitness profile designed to identify the individual athlete's strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, the areas of fitness examined are a) muscular strength; b) cardiovascular respiratory function; c) body composition; and d) motor abilities, agility, and speed. The procedures in the testing program involve the following: a) the…

Gettman, Larry R.

98

Obesity as Assessed by Body Adiposity Index and Multivariable Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

To assess the role of body adiposity index (BAI) in predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, in comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist circumference to hip circumference ratio (WHR). This study was a prospective 15 year mortality follow-up of 4175 Australian males, free of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. The Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) for CHD and CVD death were calculated at baseline for all subjects. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the effects of the measures of obesity on CVD and CHD mortality, before adjustment and after adjustment for FRS. The predictive ability of BAI, though present in the unadjusted analyses, was generally not significant after adjustment for age and FRS for both CVD and CHD mortality. BMI behaved similarly to BAI in that its predictive ability was generally not significant after adjustments. Both WC and WHR were significant predictors of CVD and CHD mortality and remained significant after adjustment for covariates. BAI appeared to be of potential interest as a measure of % body fat and of obesity, but was ineffective in predicting CVD and CHD.

Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Welborn, Timothy A.; Goh, Louise G. H.; Howat, Peter A.

2014-01-01

99

Standardized Childhood Fitness Percentiles Derived from School-Based Testing  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a statewide school-based program of measuring and reporting cardiovascular fitness levels in children, and to create age- and sex-specific cardiovascular fitness percentile-based distribution curves. Study design; A pilot study validated cardiovascular fitness assessment with Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) testing as an accurate predictor of cardiovascular fitness measured by maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing. Schools throughout the state were then recruited to perform PACER and body mass index (BMI) measurement and report de-identified data to a centralized database. Results Data on 20 631 individual students with a mean age 12.1 ± 2.0 years, BMI of 21.4 ± 5.1, and a cardiovascular fitness measured with PACER of 29.7 ± 18.2 laps (estimated maximal oxygen consumption of 36.5 mL/kg/min) were submitted for analysis. Standardized fitness percentiles were calculated for age and sex. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing, reporting, and recording annual school-based assessments of cardiovascular fitness to develop standardized childhood fitness percentiles on the basis of age and sex. Such data can be useful in comparing populations and assessing initiatives that aim to improve childhood fitness. Because health consequences of obesity result from both adiposity and physical inactivity, supplementation of BMI measurement with tracking of cardiovascular fitness adds a valuable tool for large-scale health assessment.

Carrel, Aaron L.; Bowser, John; White, Doug; Moberg, D. Paul; Weaver, Brian; Hisgen, Jon; Eickhoff, Jens; Allen, David B.

2014-01-01

100

Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

Nerem, R. M.

1973-01-01

101

A computer code for three-dimensional incompressible flows using nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.

Chen, Y. S.

1986-01-01

102

Predicting metabolic rate across walking speed: one fit for all body sizes?  

PubMed

We formulated a "one-size-fits-all" model that predicts the energy requirements of level human walking from height, weight, and walking speed. Our three-component model theorizes that the energy expended per kilogram per stride is independent of stature at mechanically equivalent walking speeds. We measured steady-state rates of oxygen uptake of 78 subjects who spanned a nearly twofold range of statures (1.07-2.11 m) and sevenfold range of body masses (16-112 kg) at treadmill speeds from 0.4 to 1.9 m/s. We tested the size independence of the model by deriving best-fit equations in the form of the model on four stature groups (n ? 15): short, moderately short, moderately tall, and tall. The mean walking metabolic rates predicted by these four independently derived equations for the same set of reference subjects (n = 16; stature range: 1.30-1.90 m) agreed with one another to within an average of 5.2 ± 3.7% at the four intermediate speeds in our protocol. We next evaluated the model's gross predictive accuracy by dividing our 78 subjects into 39 stature-matched pairs of experimental and validation group subjects. The model best-fit equation derived on the experimental group subjects predicted the walking metabolic rates of the validation group subjects to within an average of 8.1 ± 6.7% (R(2) = 0.90; standard error of estimate = 1.34 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The predictive error of the American College of Sports Medicine equation (18.0 ± 13.1%), which does not include stature as a predictor, was more than twice as large for the same subject group. We conclude that the energy cost of level human walking can be accurately predicted from height, weight, and walking speed. PMID:23928111

Weyand, Peter G; Smith, Bethany R; Schultz, Nicole S; Ludlow, Lindsay W; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

2013-11-01

103

Aerobic fitness in women and responses to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of tolerance to orthostatic stress in the maintenance of high aerobic fitness in women was investigated by examining the responses of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, Heather index of contractility, arterial pressure, peripheral resistance, change in calf circumference, and thoracic impedance of healthy female subjects to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) applied for 5 min at -50 mm Hg or until a subject became presyncopal. The testing protocol involved a stepwise reduction in pressure and consisted of two parts: an LBNP test in supine position followed by a treadmill test to peak aerobic capacity. Women were found to exhibit the same response pattern to LBNP as was previously reported by Convertino et al. (1984) for men. The results do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance in women is inversely related to aerobic fitness, as demonstrated by a finding that the peak aerobic capacity of subjects who became presyncopal did not differ from the peak of the tolerant subjects, and that hemodynamic responses to LBNPL were not a function of aerobic capacity.

Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Mathes, Karen L.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

1987-01-01

104

Combining Template Matching and Model Fitting for Human Body Segmentation and Tracking with Applications to Sports Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper present a method for extracting and automatic tracking of human body using template matching and human body model\\u000a fitting for specific activity. The method includes training and testing stages. For training, the body shapes are manually\\u000a segmented from image sequences as templates and are clustered. The 2D joint locations of each cluster center are labeled and\\u000a the dynamical

Hao-Jie Li; Shou-Xun Lin; Yong-Dong Zhang

2006-01-01

105

A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age?=?4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (?1.2%, p?body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: ?0.74 seconds, p?body composition and physical fitness. Program efficacy should be tested in a randomized trial. Trial registration ChiCTR-ONRC-14004143.

2014-01-01

106

Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

2010-01-01

107

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as screening tools for cardiovascular risk factors in Guadeloupean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes, important cardiovascular risk factors, are strongly linked to obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are measures of obesity that can be useful in identifying individuals with these risk factors. We assessed which of the two measures is more informative at the population level. The study population included 5,149 consecutive women aged

Lydia Foucan; Jim Hanley; Jacqueline Deloumeaux; Samy Suissa

2002-01-01

108

Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents.

Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Junior, Djalma Adao; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andreia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

2013-01-01

109

Cardiovascular adjustments induced by hypertonic saline in hemorrhagic rats: Involvement of carotid body chemoreceptors.  

PubMed

The peripheral hyperosmolarity elicited by intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline brings potential benefits to the treatment of hemorrhage. The neural mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects remain unknown. The present study examines the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by hypertonic saline after hypovolemic hemorrhage in rats. Male Wistar rats (300-400 g) were anesthetized with thiopental, and instrumented for recording of mean arterial pressure. Arterial pressure was reduced to 60 mm Hg by withdrawal of arterial blood over 10 min, and maintained at this level for 60 min by withdrawal or infusion of blood. In control rats (n = 8) with intact chemoreceptors, the subsequent intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline (3M NaCl, 1.8 ml kg(-1) body weight, in 2 min) restored blood pressure (pressure increased from 61 ± 4 to 118 ± 5 mm Hg). In experimental rats (n = 8), the carotid body arteries were tied, 30 min after the beginning of the hypotensive phase, leaving the carotid chemoreceptors ischemic. In these rats, hypertonic saline failed to restore blood pressure (pressure increased from 55 ± 1 to 70 ± 6 mm Hg). These findings suggest that the restoration of blood pressure after hypovolemic hemorrhage induced by hypertonic saline depends on intact carotid chemoreceptors. PMID:21146474

Pedrino, Gustavo R; Rossi, Marcio V; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M; Lopes, Oswaldo U; Cravo, Sergio L

2011-02-24

110

The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)

Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

1995-01-01

111

Short-Term Lower-Body Plyometric Training Improves Whole Body BMC, Bone Metabolic Markers, and Physical Fitness in Early Pubertal Male Basketball Players.  

PubMed

The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (?%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players. PMID:24018349

Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

2014-02-01

112

Short-Term Lower-Body Plyometric Training Improves Whole-Body BMC, Bone Metabolic Markers, and Physical Fitness in Early Pubertal Male Basketball Players.  

PubMed

The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p < .01) and all physical fitness except for the 5-jump test. However, there was no improvement in aBMD, BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (?%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players. PMID:24662116

Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

2014-02-01

113

Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

2005-01-01

114

LIFETIME RISKS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORTALITY BY CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS LEVELS MEASURED AT AGE 45-, 55-, AND 65-YEARS IN MEN: THE COOPER CENTER LONGITUDINAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the association between fitness and lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background Higher levels of traditional risk factors are associated with marked differences in lifetime risks for CVD. However, data are sparse regarding the association between fitness and the lifetime risk for CVD. Methods We followed 11,049 men who underwent clinical examination at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX before 1990 until the occurrence of CVD death, non-CVD death, or attainment of age 90 (281,469 person-years of follow-up, median follow-up 25.3 years, 1,106 CVD deaths). Fitness was measured by Balke protocol and categorized according to treadmill time into low-, intermediate-, and high- fitness with further stratification by CVD risk factor burden. Lifetime risk for CVD death determined by the National Death Index was estimated for fitness levels measured at ages 45-, 55-, and 65-years with non-CVD death as the competing event. Results Differences in fitness levels (low- fitness versus high- fitness) were associated with marked differences in the lifetime risks for CVD death at each index age (age 45: 13.7% versus 3.4%; age 55: 34.2% versus 15.3%; age 65: 35.6% versus 17.1%). These associations were strongest among individuals with CVD risk factors. Conclusions A single measurement of low fitness in mid-life was associated with higher lifetime risk for CVD death, particularly among individuals with a high burden of CVD risk factors.

Berry, Jarett D.; Willis, Benjamin; Gupta, Sachin; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Khera, Amit; Rohatgi, Anand; de Lemos, James A.; Haskell, William; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

2011-01-01

115

Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

1977-01-01

116

Bionic cardiology: exploration into a wealth of controllable body parts in the cardiovascular system.  

PubMed

Bionic cardiology is the medical science of exploring electronic control of the body, usually via the neural system. Mimicking or modifying biological regulation is a strategy used to combat diseases. Control of ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation by selective vagal stimulation, suppression of ischemia-related ventricular fibrillation by vagal stimulation, and reproduction of neurally commanded heart rate are some examples of bionic treatment for arrhythmia. Implantable radio-frequency-coupled on-demand carotid sinus stimulators succeeded in interrupting or preventing anginal attacks but were replaced later by coronary revascularization. Similar but fixed-intensity carotid sinus stimulators were used for hypertension but were also replaced by drugs. Recently, however, a self-powered implantable device has been reappraised for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Closed-loop spinal cord stimulation has successfully treated severe orthostatic hypotension in a limited number of patients. Vagal nerve stimulation is effective in treating heart failure in animals, and a small-size clinical trial has just started. Simultaneous corrections of multiple hemodynamic abnormalities in an acute decompensated state are accomplished simply by quantifying fundamental cardiovascular parameters and controlling these parameters. Bionic cardiology will continue to promote the development of more sophisticated device-based therapies for otherwise untreatable diseases and will inspire more intricate applications in the twenty-first century. PMID:22275044

Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

2009-01-01

117

Depicting the Sporting Body: The Intersection of Gender, Race and Disability in Women's Sport\\/Fitness Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the relationship between images of sport, disability, gender and race in four U.S. women's sport\\/fitness magazines. According to a view of feminism that sees it as addressing all oppressions, these magazines should provide an empowering space for all women, including women with a disability. Rejection of ableism signifies a rejection of the male body standard in sport,

Marie Hardin; Susan Lynn; Kristie Walsdorf

118

Efficacy of WBV as a modality for inducing changes in body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular strength: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training as a modality for inducing changes in body composition, cardiovascular condition, and muscular strength in sedentary postmenopausal women. WBV training was compared with other training regimens, ie, aerobic training and circuit resistance training, commonly used to promote weight loss, cardiovascular conditioning, and muscular strength. Postmenopausal women (aged 48–60 years) were randomly assigned to WBV training, circuit resistance training, or aerobic training. Participants trained three times per week for 8 weeks. The training regimens were progressive in nature, with increases in training intensity and duration occurring throughout the 8-week period. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. A modified Bruce treadmill protocol was used to assess aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and time to peak exhaustion. Upper and lower body strengths were determined by one repetition maximum (1-RM) chest and leg presses, respectively. Variables were analyzed using separate 3 (exercise mode) × 2 (time) repeated-measures analysis of variance with effect sizes due to the small sample size. No significant main effects or interactions were seen for any body composition variable; however, moderate to large effect sizes (?2=0.243 and ?2=0.257) were detected regarding interactions for percent body fat and lean body mass favoring aerobic training and circuit resistance training. For VO2peak, no significant main effects or interactions were detected (time, ?2=0.150; P=0.11; time × group, ?2=0.139; P=0.30); but a significant time effect was observed for time to peak exhaustion (?2=0.307; P=0.017). A significant interaction for upper body strength (?2=0.464; P=0.007), and main effect for time in lower body strength (?2=0.663; P=0.0001) was detected. Post hoc analysis indicated a significant increase in upper body strength for circuit resistance training (P=0.023) and a decrease for WBV training (P=0.015). Our results indicate that WBV may not be an effective alternative to traditional training with regard to body composition or aerobic capacity, but could have a positive impact on lower body strength.

Tapp, Lauren R; Signorile, Joseph F

2014-01-01

119

Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Total, Cardiovascular, and Noncardiovascular Mortality Across 3 Decades of Follow-Up in Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background The inverse, dose-dependent association between cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality is well-established; however, the pattern of the association between low fitness and mortality across short- (0 to 10 years), intermediate- (10 to 20 years), and long-term (>20 years) follow-up has not been studied. Methods and Results We included 46 575 men and 16 151 women (mean age 44 years) from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Participants were categorized as either “low fit” or “not low fit,” based on age- and sex- adjusted treadmill times, and were followed for mortality, determined from the National Death Index. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to compare the association between fitness and traditional risk factors, with mortality outcomes across short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-up. After a median follow-up of 16 years, there were 1295 cardiovascular disease and 2840 noncardiovascular disease deaths. Low fitness was associated with all-cause mortality across all periods in men [0 to 10 years: hazard ratios (HR), 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.40); 10 to 20 years: HR, 1.61 (95% CI, 1.41 to 1.84); and >20 years: HR, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.60)] and in women [0 to 10 years: HR, 1.98 (95% CI, 1.27 to 3.10); 10 to 20 years: HR, 1.90 (95% CI, 1.40 to 2.56); and >20 years: HR, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.15 to 2.07)]. Similar results were seen for both cardiovascular disease and noncardiovascular disease mortality. Although these associations were also consistent across most subgroups, low fitness appeared to be most strongly associated with mortality in the short term among individuals at highest short-term risk (ie, older age, abnormal exercise test). Conclusions Similar to traditional risk factors, fitness is associated with mortality across short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-up.

Vigen, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Willis, Benjamin; DeFina, Laura; Berry, Jarett D.

2013-01-01

120

Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Vänttinen, T, Blomqvist, M, Nyman, K, and Häkkinen, K. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3342-3351, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 10.8 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 13), 12.7 ± 0.2-year-old (n = 14), and 14.7 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 12) Finnish regional youth soccer players during a 2-year monitoring period and to compare physical fitness characteristics of soccer players with those of age-matched controls (10.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 13; 14.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 10) not participating in soccer. Body composition was measured in terms of height, weight, muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body weight of trunk, legs, and arms. Hormonal status was monitored by concentrations of serum testosterone and cortisol. Physical fitness was measured in terms of sprinting speed, agility, isometric maximal strength (leg extensors, abdominal, back, grip), explosive strength, and endurance. Age-related development was detected in all other measured variables except in the percentage of body fat. The results showed that the physical fitness of regional soccer players was better than that of the control groups in all age groups, especially in cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.01-0.001) and in agility (p < 0.01-0.001). In conclusion, playing in a regional level soccer team seems to provide training adaptation, which is beyond normal development and which in all likelihood leads to positive health effects over a prolonged period of time. PMID:21921822

Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

2011-12-01

121

The effects of body-weight supported treadmill training on cardiovascular regulation in individuals with motor-complete SCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Four-month longitudinal within-subject exercise training study.Objective:Although body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has not shown promise as a means of improving ambulation in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI), it may still improve cardiovascular health and function in this population. The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate the effects of BWSTT on peripheral muscular and elastic artery

D S Ditor; M J MacDonald; M V Kamath; J Bugaresti; M Adams; N McCartney; A L Hicks

2005-01-01

122

Comparison of Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, Percent Body Fat and Other Measure of Adiposity in Identifying Cardiovascular Disease Risks among Thai Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the abilities of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) to identify cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study is comprised of 1,391 Thai participants (451 men and 940 women) receiving annual health check-ups. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to determine the association of the five anthropometric indices with metabolic parameters including fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and blood pressure. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was determined according to tertile of each anthropometric measure. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to compare anthropometric measure as predictors of the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Metabolic parameters were more strongly associated with %BF and WHR and least correlated with BMI in men. Among women, BMI was most strongly correlated with metabolic parameters. In both genders, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased across successive tertiles for each anthropometric measure. Review of ROC curves indicated that %BF and WHR performed slightly better than other measures in identifying differences in CVD risk factors among men. BMI performed at least as well or better than other measures of adiposity among women. Conclusions These findings confirm high correlations between anthropometric measures and metabolic parameters. BMI, WC and other measures were not materially different in identifying cardiovascular disease risk factors. Although small differences were observed, the magnitudes of those differences are not likely to be of public health or clinical significance.

Paniagua, Linda; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

123

Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

2012-01-01

124

Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

2000-01-01

125

Blood pressure, body mass index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese men and women  

PubMed Central

Background It is still uncertain whether increased blood pressure (BP) has a stronger effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lean persons than in obese persons. We tested it using a data set collected from a large cohort of Chinese adults. Methods Systolic and diastolic BP, body mass index (BMI) and other variables were measured in 169,871 Chinese men and women ? 40 years of age in 1991 using standard protocols. Follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999-2000, with a response rate of 93.4%. Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. Results After adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, high school education, physical inactivity, geographic region, and urbanization, we found that the effects of systolic or diastolic BP on risk of CVD generally increased with the increasing BMI levels (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese). For example, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 1- standard deviation (SD) increase in systolic BP within corresponding BMI levels were 1.27(1.21-1.33), 1.45(1.41-1.48), 1.52 (1.45-1.59) and 1.63 (1.51-1.76), respectively. Statistically significant interactions (P < 0.0001) were observed between systolic BP, diastolic BP and BMI in relation to CVD. In baseline hypertensive participants we found both obese men and women had higher risk of CVD than normal-weight persons. The multivariate-adjusted HRs(95%CI) were 1.23(1.03-1.47) and 1.20(1.02-1.40), respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that the magnitude of the association between BP and CVD generally increase with increasing BMI. Hypertension should not be regarded as a less serious risk factor in obese than in lean or normal-weight persons in Chinese adults.

2010-01-01

126

Association of Body Mass Index with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and expanded CVD mortality in the elderly. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Annual physical examination program for the elderly from 2006 to 2010. Participants We included 77,541 Taipei residents aged ?65 years (39,365 men and 38,176 women). Measurements BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5), normal weight (18.5?BMI<25), overweight (25?BMI<30), grade 1 obesity (30?BMI<35), or grade 2–3 obesity (BMI?35). Mortality was ascertained by national death files. Results Underweight (hazard ratios [HRs] of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 1.92, 1.74, and 1.77, respectively), grade 2–3 obesity (HRs: 1.59, 2.36, and 2.22, respectively), older age, male sex, smoking, and high fasting blood sugar were significant predictors of mortality. Meanwhile, being married/cohabitating, higher education, alcohol consumption, more regular exercise, and high total cholesterol were inversely associated with mortality. Multivariate stratified subgroup analyses verified smokers (HRs of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 3.25, 10.71, and 7.86, respectively, for grade 2–3 obesity), the high triglyceride group (HRs: 5.82, 10.99, and 14.22, respectively for underweight), and patients with 3–4 factors related to metabolic syndrome (HRs: 4.86, 12.72, and 11.42, respectively, for underweight) were associated with mortality. Conclusion The associations of BMI with all-cause, CVD, expanded CVD mortality in the elderly are represented by U-shaped curves, suggesting unilateral promotions or interventions in weight reduction in the elderly may be inappropriate. Heterogeneous effects of grades 1 and 2–3 obesity on mortality were observed and should be treated as different levels of obesity.

Wu, Chen-Yi; Chou, Yi-Chang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Li, Chung-Pin

2014-01-01

127

The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a remarkably powerful, intergenerational effect on body size and total and central adiposity. Indians are highly susceptible to insulin resistance and cardiovascular risks, with babies being born small but relatively fat. Insulin resistance is amplified by rapid childhood growth. Dietary factors seem to have profound long-term metabolic influences in pregnancy. Overcrowding with infections and central obesity may amplify cytokine-induced insulin resistance and early diabetes in Indian adults with a low BMI. PMID:12164475

Yajnik, C S

2002-08-01

128

Measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children from Two Commonly Used Field Tests After Accounting for Body Fatness and Maturity  

PubMed Central

Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8–13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5–7% of the variance.

Hamlin, Michael J.; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Kimber, Nicholas E.

2014-01-01

129

Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia. PMID:24143082

Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

2013-01-01

130

Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia  

PubMed Central

Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60–74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (?2.1% body weight, ?1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (?4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia.

Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Manaf, Zahara Abd; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

2013-01-01

131

Effects of black tea on body composition and metabolic outcomes related to cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that tea and its non-caffeine components (primarily flavonoids) contribute to cardiovascular health. Randomized controlled trials have shown that tea can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. We have previously reported a non-caffeine associated beneficial effect of regular black tea consumption on blood pressure and its variation. Objective: To explore the non-caffeine associated effects of black tea on body weight and body fat distribution, and cardiovascular disease related metabolic outcomes. Design: regular tea-drinking men and women (n = 111; BMI 20-35 kg m(-2)) were recruited to a randomized controlled double-blind 6 month parallel-designed trial. Participants consumed 3 cups per day of either powdered black tea solids (tea) or a flavonoid-free flavour- and caffeine-matched placebo (control). Body weight, waist- and hip-circumference, endothelial function and plasma biomarkers were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Results: Compared to control, regular ingestion of black tea over 3 months inhibited weight gain (-0.64 kg, p = 0.047) and reduced waist circumference (-1.88 cm, P = 0.035) and waist-to-hip ratio (-0.03, P = 0.005). These effects were no longer significant at 6 months. There were no significant effects observed on fasting glucose, insulin, plasma lipids or endothelial function. Conclusion: Our study suggests that short-term regular ingestion of black tea over 3 months can improve body weight and body fat distribution, compared to a caffeine-matched control beverage. However, there was no evidence that these effects were sustained beyond 3 months. PMID:24889137

Bøhn, Siv K; Croft, Kevin D; Burrows, Sally; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo P J; Fuchs, Dagmar; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

2014-06-25

132

A multigrid method for the transonic full potential equation discretized with finite elements on an arbitrary body fitted mesh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multigrid method for the acceleration of transonic potential flow calculations based on a Galerkin finite element approach is described. In order to allow the use of arbitrary body fitted meshes it is necessary to introduce nonuniform interpolation and residual weighting. Emphasis is put on the construction of these operators consistent with the finite element approximation, while standard successive line overrelaxation is used as a smoothing step. Substantial convergence acceleration is obtained and results are presented for different transonic flow configurations including shocks.

Deconinck, H.; Hirsch, C.

1981-01-01

133

Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

2011-01-01

134

Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

2001-01-01

135

Body mass index, playing position, race, and the cardiovascular mortality of retired professional football players.  

PubMed

Concern exists about cardiovascular disease (CVD) in professional football players. We examined whether playing position and size influence CVD mortality in 3,439 National Football League players with ? 5 pension-credited playing seasons from 1959 to 1988. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) compared player mortality through 2007 to the United States population of men stratified by age, race, and calendar year. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations of playing-time body mass index (BMI), race, and position with CVD mortality. Overall player mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48 to 0.59) as was mortality from cancer (SMR 0.58, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.72), and CVD (SMR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.81). CVD mortality was increased for defensive linemen (SMR 1.42, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.92) but not for offensive linemen (SMR 0.70, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.05). Defensive linemen's cardiomyopathy mortality was also increased (SMR 5.34, 95% CI 2.30 to 10.5). Internal analyses found that CVD mortality was increased for players of nonwhite race (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.51). After adjusting for age, race, and calendar year, CVD mortality was increased for those with a playing-time BMI ? 30 kg/m2 (hazard ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.85) and for defensive linemen compared to offensive linemen (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.46). In conclusion, National Football League players from the 1959 through 1988 seasons had decreased overall mortality but those with a playing-time BMI ? 30 kg/m2 had 2 times the risk of CVD mortality compared to other players and African-American players and defensive linemen had higher CVD mortality compared to other players even after adjusting for playing-time BMI. PMID:22284915

Baron, Sherry L; Hein, Misty J; Lehman, Everett; Gersic, Christine M

2012-03-15

136

The "New Deadly Quartet" for cardiovascular disease in the 21st century: obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and climate change: how does statin therapy fit into this equation?  

PubMed

Despite population-based improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking, cardiovascular disease still remains the number-one cause of mortality in the United States. In 1989, Kaplan coined the term "Deadly Quartet" to represent a combination of risk factors that included upper body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension [Kaplan in Arch Int Med 7:1514-1520, 1989]. In 2002, the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III) essentially added low HDL-C criteria and renamed this the "metabolic syndrome." [The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in JAMA 285:2486-2497, 2001] However, often forgotten was that a pro-inflammatory state and pro-thrombotic state were also considered components of the syndrome, albeit the panel did not find enough evidence at the time to recommend routine screening for these risk factors [The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in JAMA 285:2486-2497, 2001]. Now over a decade later, it may be time to reconsider this deadly quartet by reevaluating the roles of obesity and subclinical inflammation as they relate to the metabolic syndrome. To complete this new quartet, the addition of increased exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere may help elucidate why this cardiovascular pandemic continues, despite our concerted efforts. In this article, we will summarize the evidence, focusing on how statin therapy may further impact this new version of the "deadly quartet". PMID:24338517

Clearfield, Michael; Pearce, Melissa; Nibbe, Yasmin; Crotty, David; Wagner, Alesia

2014-01-01

137

Too Fat to Fit through the Door: First Evidence for Disturbed Body-Scaled Action in Anorexia Nervosa during Locomotion  

PubMed Central

To date, research on the disturbed experience of body size in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) mainly focused on the conscious perceptual level (i.e. body image). Here we investigated whether these disturbances extend to body schema: an unconscious, action-related representation of the body. AN patients (n?=?19) and healthy controls (HC; n?=?20) were compared on body-scaled action. Participants walked through door-like openings varying in width while performing a diversion task. AN patients and HC differed in the largest opening width for which they started rotating their shoulders to fit through. AN patients started rotating for openings 40% wider than their own shoulders, while HC started rotating for apertures only 25% wider than their shoulders. The results imply abnormalities in AN even at the level of the unconscious, action oriented body schema. Body representation disturbances in AN are thus more pervasive than previously assumed: They do not only affect (conscious) cognition and perception, but (unconscious) actions as well.

Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Dijkerman, H. Chris; Uzunbajakau, Siarhei A.; van Elburg, Annemarie; Postma, Albert

2013-01-01

138

Insulin resistance, physical fitness, body composition and leptin concentration in 7-8 year-old children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and physical fitness, leptin concentration, body composition and family history for diabetes in non-selected young children. Physical fitness, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, anthropometric characteristics and medical history were available in two hundred and fifty-seven 7-year-old Dutch children. Correlations with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance were studied. A multiple regression model was calculated for HOMA. The differences between children with or without a family history for diabetes were not significant. Boys scored higher on glucose concentration and aerobic fitness and lower on sum of skin folds and leptin concentration (p<.05). After adjustment for sum of skin folds, HOMA was significantly associated with leptin in both genders (boys r=.184 p=.031; girls r=.430 p=.000). The association between physical fitness and HOMA was mediated by sum of skin folds. The associations were stronger in girls than in boys. In the regression model (R(2)=.205) the leptin concentration was the only significant predictor for HOMA. The influence of family history for diabetes on insulin resistance is shown as a trend at this age. Our findings suggest that plasma leptin concentration is independently associated with the development of insulin resistance in a non-selected prepubertal population. The association of physical fitness with insulin resistance seems to be mediated by the sum of skin folds. PMID:17215165

Slinger, Jantine D; van Breda, Eric; Keizer, Hans; Rump, Patrick; Hornstra, Gerard; Kuipers, Harm

2008-04-01

139

Joint effect of insulin signalling genes on cardiovascular events and on whole body and endothelial insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Objective Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share a common soil. We investigated the combined role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting insulin signaling (ENPP1 K121Q, rs1044498; IRS1 G972R, rs1801278; TRIB3 Q84R, rs2295490) on CVD, age at myocardial infarction (MI), in vivo insulin sensitivity and in vitro insulin-stimulated nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Design and Setting 1. We first studied, incident cardiovascular events (a composite endpoint comprising myocardial infarction -MI-, stroke and cardiovascular death) in 733 patients (2,186 person-years, 175 events). 2. In a replication attempt, age at MI was tested in 331 individuals. 3. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was assessed in 829 individuals with fasting glucose < 126 mg/dl. 4. NOS activity was measured in 40 strains of human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results 1. Risk variants jointly predicted cardiovascular events (HR=1.181; p=0.0009) and, when added to clinical risk factors, significantly improved survival C-statistics; they also allowed a significantly correct reclassification (by net reclassification index) in the whole sample (135/733 individuals) and, even more, in obese patients (116/204 individuals). 2. Risk variants were jointly associated with age at MI (p=0.006). 3. A significant association was also observed with ISI (p=0.02). 4. Finally, risk variants were jointly associated with insulin-stimulated NOS activity in HUVECs (p=0.009). Conclusions Insulin signaling genes variants jointly affect cardiovascular disease, very likely by promoting whole body and endothelium-specific insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to address whether their genotyping help identify very high-risk patients who need specific and/or more aggressive preventive strategies.

Bacci, Simonetta; Prudente, Sabrina; Copetti, Massimiliano; Spoto, Belinda; Rizza, Stefano; Baratta, Roberto; Di Pietro, Natalia; Morini, Eleonora; Di Paola, Rosa; Testa, Alessandra; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Mercuri, Luana; Di Silvestre, Sara; Lauro, Renato; Malatino, Lorenzo; Consoli, Agostino; Pellegrini, Fabio; Pandolfi, Assunta; Frittitta, Lucia; Zoccali, Carmine; Federici, Massimo; Doria, Alessandro; Trischitta, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

140

Numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for arbitrary bodies using boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of automatic body-fitted curvilinear coordinate generation is described and used to construct a finite-difference solution of the full incompressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the unsteady laminar viscous flow arbitrary two-dimensional airfoils or any other two-dimensional body. A method of controlling the spacing of the coordinate lines encircling the body is developed in order to treat high Reynolds number flows, since the coordinate lines must concentrate near the surface to a greater degree as the Reynolds number increases. Multiple airfoils and submerged hydrofoils are treated as illustrative examples. The solution shows good agreement with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semi-infinite flat plate.

Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Walker, R. L.; Shanks, S. P.

1975-01-01

141

A Healthy Brain in a Healthy Body: Brain Network Correlates of Physical and Mental Fitness  

PubMed Central

A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely understood. By applying mathematical concepts from ‘network theory’, insights in the organization and dynamics of brain functioning can be obtained. We test the hypothesis that neural network organization mediates the association between cardio respiratory fitness (i.e. VO2 max) and cognitive functioning. A healthy cohort was studied (n?=?219, 113 women, age range 41–44 years). Subjects underwent resting-state eyes-closed magneto-encephalography (MEG). Five artifact-free epochs were analyzed and averaged in six frequency bands (delta-gamma). The phase lag index (PLI) was used as a measure of functional connectivity between all sensors. Modularity analysis was performed, and both within and between-module connectivity of each sensor was calculated. Subjects underwent a maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) measurement as an indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. All subjects were tested with a commonly used Dutch intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was related to VO2 max. In addition, VO2 max was negatively associated with upper alpha and beta band modularity. Particularly increased intermodular connectivity in the beta band was associated with higher VO2 max and IQ, further indicating a benefit of more global network integration as opposed to local connections. Within-module connectivity showed a spatially varied pattern of correlation, while average connectivity did not show significant results. Mediation analysis was not significant. The occurrence of less modularity in the resting-state is associated with better cardio respiratory fitness, while having increased intermodular connectivity, as opposed to within-module connections, is related to better physical and mental fitness.

Douw, Linda; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dijk, Bob W.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.

2014-01-01

142

Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The "Martial Fitness" Study  

PubMed Central

Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 ± 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.

Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael R.; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

2010-01-01

143

Kung fu training improves physical fitness measures in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.  

PubMed

Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 +/- 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37-2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. PMID:20798764

Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael R; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

2010-01-01

144

Physical Fitness in People with Mental Retardation. Arc Q&A #101-49  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to physical fitness in people with mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: a definition of "physical fitness"; the components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition, and cardiovascular endurance);…

Rimmer, James H.

145

"Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.  

PubMed

Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility. PMID:23746610

Hutson, David J

2013-08-01

146

The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO{sub 2} max in white, black and Mexican Americans  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO{sub 2} max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO{sub 2} max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO{sub 2} max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation.

Egwuogu, Heartley [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shendell, Derek G. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-School of Public Health (and EOHSI), 683 Hoes Lane West, 3rd Floor, P.O. Box 9, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: shendedg@umdnj.edu; Okosun, Ike S. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goodfellow, Lynda [School of Health Professions, College of Health and Human Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2009-04-15

147

The effects of physical fitness and body composition on oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery after high-intensity exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), heart rate recovery (HRR) and their respective time constants (tvo2 and t HR) and body composition and aerobic fitness (VO2max) variables after an anaerobic effort. 14 professional cyclists (age=28.4±4.8 years, height=176.0±6.7 cm, body mass=74.4±8.1 kg, VO2max=66.8±7.6 mL·kg - 1·min - 1) were recruited. Each athlete made 3 visits to the laboratory with 24 h between each visit. During the first visit, a total and segmental body composition assessment was carried out. During the second, the athletes undertook an incremental test to determine VO2max. In the final visit, EPOC (15-min) and HRR were measured after an all-out 30 s Wingate test. The results showed that EPOC is positively associated with % body fat (r=0.64), total body fat (r=0.73), fat-free mass (r=0.61) and lower limb fat-free mass (r=0.55) and negatively associated with HRR (r= - 0.53, p<0.05 for all). HRR had a significant negative correlation with total body fat and % body fat (r= - 0.62, r= - 0.56 respectively, p<0.05 for all). These findings indicate that VO2max does not influence HRR or EPOC after high-intensity exercise. Even in short-term exercise, the major metabolic disturbance due to higher muscle mass and total muscle mass may increase EPOC. However, body fat impedes HRR and delays recovery of oxygen consumption after effort in highly trained athletes. PMID:22706939

Campos, E Z; Bastos, F N; Papoti, M; Freitas Junior, I F; Gobatto, C A; Balikian Junior, P

2012-08-01

148

Effects of eight weeks of caffeine supplementation and endurance training on aerobic fitness and body composition.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of daily administration of a supplement that contained caffeine in conjunction with 8 weeks of aerobic training on VO(2)peak, time to running exhaustion at 90% VO(2)peak, body weight, and body composition. Thirty-six college students (14 men and 22 women; mean +/- SD, age 22.4 +/- 2.9 years) volunteered for this investigation and were randomized into either a placebo (n = 18) or supplement group (n = 18). The subjects ingested 1 dose (3 pills = 201 mg of caffeine) of the placebo or supplement per day during the study period. In addition, the subjects performed treadmill running for 45 minutes at 75% of the heart rate at VO(2)peak, three times per week for 8 weeks. All subjects were tested pretraining and posttraining for VO(2)peak, time to running exhaustion (TRE) at 90% VO(2)peak, body weight (BW), percentage body fat (%FAT), fat weight (FW), and fat-free weight (FFW). The results indicated that there were equivalent training-induced increases (p < 0.05) in VO(2)peak and TRE for the supplement and placebo groups, but no changes (p > 0.05) in BW, %FAT, FW, or FFW for either group. These findings indicated that chronic use of the caffeine-containing supplement in the present study, in conjunction with aerobic training, provided no ergogenic effects as measured by VO(2)peak and TRE, and the supplement was of no benefit for altering body weight or body composition. PMID:17149989

Malek, Moh H; Housh, Terry J; Coburn, Jared W; Beck, Travis W; Schmidt, Richard J; Housh, Dona J; Johnson, Glen O

2006-11-01

149

Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), grip strength (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and sit-ups (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) while maximal leg extension force revealed only a weak positive correlation with repeated squats (r = 0.23, p < 0.001). However, moderate correlation between repeated squats and V(O2)max was found (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) In addition, BM and body fat correlated negatively with muscular endurance (r = -0.25 - -0.47, p < 0.001), while FFM and maximal isometric strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p < 0.001). In conclusion, muscular endurance test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities. PMID:21997456

Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

2012-08-01

150

The relationship among motor proficiency, physical fitness, and body composition in children with and without visual impairments.  

PubMed

This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not differentially affect the outcomes. Compared to their sighted peers, the children with VI scored lower on the locomotor and object control skills as assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and the physical fitness (Eurofit) parameters of plate tapping, the standing broad jump, the modified 5 x 10-m shuttle run, and 20-m multistage shuttle run (20-MST). Their body mass and body fat indexes were inversely correlated with the standing broad jump and the 20-MST but positively correlated with handgrip strength. Moreover significant inverse correlations were found between their locomotor and object control skills on the one hand and plate tapping and the 5 x 10-m shuttle run on the other hand. Given the relatively high proportion (25%) of overweight/obese children within the VI sample, educators are recommended to promote health-related activities and help enhance motor skills in this population. PMID:20949849

Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

2010-09-01

151

The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary students  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary school students. For the purpose of this study, 20 obese elementary students were selected as subjects. The subjects were then divided into two groups: the swimming group (n= 10) and the control group (n= 10). The subjects were asked to exercise for 60 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 12 weeks with an exercise intensity of 50–70% HRmax. The following results were achieved: first, in terms of body composition, both body fat percentage and fat-free mass showed significant differences within the swimming group. There were also significant differences again in the posttest of difference between the two groups. Second, in terms of changes in physical fitness, there were, again, no significant changes in muscular strength between the two groups. However, muscular endurance, flexibility, and cardiopulmonary endurance showed significant differences in the swimming group’s test for difference within groups. Significant differences in both groups for the posttest of differences between groups were also seen. Third, in terms of vascular compliance, there was a significant increase in the right leg for the swimming groups’ test of difference within groups, as well as in the posttest of difference between groups.

Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

2014-01-01

152

Generation of three-dimensional body-fitted coordinates using hyperbolic partial differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient numerical mesh generation scheme capable of creating orthogonal or nearly orthogonal grids about moderately complex three dimensional configurations is described. The mesh is obtained by marching outward from a user specified grid on the body surface. Using spherical grid topology, grids have been generated about full span rectangular wings and a simplified space shuttle orbiter.

Steger, J. L.; Rizk, Y. M.

1985-01-01

153

Independent Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Vigorous Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index on Clinical Gallbladder Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Incident self-reported physician-diagnosed clinical gallbladder disease was compared to BMI, body dimensions, physical activity (km\\/day run) and cardiorespiratory fitness (10 km race speed, meters per second [m\\/s]) in 29,110 male and 11,953 female runners.METHODS:Physician-diagnosed gallbladder disease was reported by 166 men (0.57%) and 112 women (0.94%) during (mean ± SD) 7.74 ± 1.84 and 7.42 ± 2.10 years

Paul T. Williams

2008-01-01

154

Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

1994-01-01

155

Comparison of cardiovascular response to sinusoidal and constant lower body negative pressure with reference to very mild whole-body heating  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present study was to compare sinusoidal versus constant lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with reference to very mild whole-body heating. Sinusoidal LBNP has a periodic load component (PLC) and a constant load component (CLC) of orthostatic stress, whereas constant LBNP has only a CLC. We tested two sinusoidal patterns (30-s and 180-s periods with 25 mmHg amplitude) of LBNP and a constant LBNP with ?25 mmHg in 12 adult male subjects. Results Although the CLC of all three LBNP conditions were configured with ?25 mmHg, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) results showed a significantly large decrease from baseline in the 30-s period condition (P <0.01). In contrast, the other cardiovascular indices (heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), basal thoracic impedance (Z0), total peripheral resistance (TPR), the natural logarithmic of the HF component (lnHF), and LF/HF (ln(LF/HF))) of heart rate variability (HRV) showed relatively small variations from baseline in the 30-s period condition (P <0.01). The result of the gain and phase of transfer function at the sinusoidal period of LBNP showed that the very mild whole-body heating augmented the orthostatic responses. Conclusion These results revealed that the effect of the CLC of LBNP on cardiovascular adjustability was attenuated by the addition of the PLC to LBNP. Based on the results of suppressed HRV response from baseline in the 30-s period condition, we suggest that the attenuation may be caused by the suppression of the vagal responsiveness to LBNP.

2012-01-01

156

A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate cut-off points of waist circumference, body mass index and waist to hip ratio with respect to their ability to predict other individual and multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors.DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional surveys.SUBJECTS: A total of 9913 men and women aged 18–74, selected using health insurance registries from five Canadian provinces.MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric measures, other cardiovascular risk factors, receiver

CJ Dobbelsteyn; G Flowerdew

2001-01-01

157

Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features.

Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

2013-01-01

158

Newborn size, infant and childhood growth, and body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors at the age of 6 years: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To study associations of size and body proportions at birth, and growth during infancy and childhood, to body composition and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors at the age of 6 years.Design:The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, a prospective population-based study of maternal nutrition and CVD risk in rural Indian children.Methods:Body composition and CVD risk factors measured in 698 children at 6

C V Joglekar; C H D Fall; V U Deshpande; N Joshi; A Bhalerao; V Solat; T M Deokar; S D Chougule; S D Leary; C Osmond; C S Yajnik

2007-01-01

159

One size fits all? Race, gender and body mass index among U.S. adults.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the extent to which factors presumed to be correlated with body mass index (BMI) vary across four race- and gender-specific groups. Data were drawn from the American Changing Lives Survey to estimate separate multivariate regression models for the total study sample that included African-American males, Caucasian males, African-American females and Caucasian females. The dependant variable of interest was BMI. Independent variables included age, human capital variables, relationship and support measures, health status and behavior measures, and stress and outlook measures. Results from the pooled model indicated that BMI was associated with a number of factors such as employment status, chronic illness, financial strain and religiosity. However, race- and gender-specific regression models revealed that predictors of BMI varied considerably for African-American men, Caucasian men, African-American women and Caucasian women. In other words, these models disentangled important correlations not observed in the pooled model. These findings suggest that addressing racial disparities in body weight-related outcomes requires health practitioners to modify obesity prevention and treatment efforts to incorporate a broader array of factors inherent to specific racial and gender populations.

Bruce, Marino A.; Sims, Mario; Miller, Stephania; Elliott, Vanessa; Ladipo, Marian

2007-01-01

160

Role of body mass index on physical fitness index in two different age groups of healthy young males from north interior Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body mass index (BMI) is an index of weight adjusted for hieght. It is one of the useful tools for diagnosing obesity or malnutrition; however, such diagnosis should take into account a person's age, gender, fitness, and ethnicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the BMI and physical fitness index (PFI) of healthy subjects consists of early

Haroonrashid M. Hattiwale; Shaheen A. Maniyar; Kusal K. Das; Salim A. Dhundasi

161

Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development.

2012-01-01

162

Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health.

2012-01-01

163

Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

2011-01-01

164

Observational study of regional aortic size referenced to body size: production of a cardiovascular magnetic resonance nomogram  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is regarded as the gold standard for clinical assessment of the aorta, but normal dimensions are usually referenced to echocardiographic and computed tomography data and no large CMR normal reference range exists. As a result we aimed to 1) produce a normal CMR reference range of aortic diameters and 2) investigate the relationship between regional aortic size and body surface area (BSA) in a large group of healthy subjects with no vascular risk factors. Methods 447 subjects (208 male, aged 19–70 years) without identifiable cardiac risk factors (BMI range 15.7–52.6 kg/m2) underwent CMR at 1.5 T to determine aortic diameter at three levels: the ascending aorta (Ao) and proximal descending aorta (PDA) at the level of the pulmonary artery, and the abdominal aorta (DDA), at a level 12 cm distal to the PDA. In addition, 201 of these subjects had aortic root imaging, allowing for measurements at the level of the aortic valve annulus (AV), aortic sinuses and sinotubular junction (STJ). Results Normal diameters (mean ±2 SD) were; AV annulus male(?) 24.4?±?5.4, female (?) 21.0?±?3.6 mm, aortic sinus?32.4?±?7.7, ?27.6?±?5.8 mm, ST-junction ?25.0?±?7.4, ?21.8?±?5.4 mm, Ao ?26.7?±?7.7, ?25.5?±?7.4 mm, PDA ?20.6?±?5.6, +18.9?±?4.0 mm, DDA ?17.6?±?5.1, ?16.4?±?4.0 mm. Aortic root and thoracic aortic diameters increased at all levels measured with BSA. No gender difference was seen in the degree of dilatation with increasing BSA (p?>?0.5 for all analyses). Conclusion Across both genders, increasing body size is characterized by a modest degree of aortic dilatation, even in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

2014-01-01

165

The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

2008-01-01

166

Three City Feasibility Study of a Body Empowerment and HIV Prevention Intervention Among Women with Drug Use Histories: Women FIT  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background New intervention models are needed for HIV prevention among drug-using women. Methods The Women Fighting Infection Together (Women FIT) feasibility study enrolled 189 women in three U.S. cities (Providence, New York, Philadelphia) with drug-using histories, who also reported risky sexual behavior. Eligible women had participated previously in a yearlong study of HIV Counseling and Testing (HIV-CT) and limited case management. Two thirds of the sample were black, most were unemployed, and about two thirds reported prior or current crack use. Women were randomized into two groups. In one group, women participated in a manualized, four-session, peer-led, interactive group intervention that stressed body knowledge, woman-initiated HIV/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) prevention, including a focus on women's health (reproductive health screening, sexual violence, self-breast examination, STI signs, symptoms), which aimed to increase comfort with and pride in their bodies. Control group women received HIV-CT enriched by female condom counseling. Outcomes included study retention, session attendance and ratings, changes in knowledge, and use of protection methods. Results The study successfully retained 95% of the participants for a 2-month follow-up. Positive assessments from participants and peer leaders exceeded preset thresholds for success. Pre-post changes in body knowledge (p?body empowerment model deserves further elaboration in interventions focusing on women at high risk of HIV/STI acquisition.

Morrow, Kathleen M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Peterside, Pamela Brown; Husnik, Marla J.; Metzger, David S.

2010-01-01

167

Computations of unsteady viscous compressible flows using adaptive mesh refinement in curvilinear body-fitted grid systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1994-01-01

168

Cardiovascular group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

Blomqvist, Gunnar

1989-01-01

169

Fitness, motor competence and body composition as correlates of adolescent neck/shoulder pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent neck/shoulder pain (NSP) is a common and sometimes debilitating problem. Several risk factors for this condition have been investigated, but no studies have previously evaluated associations between fitness, motor competence, body composition and adolescent NSP. Methods 1608 males and females of mean age 14 years answered questions on their history of NSP (4 measures), and were tested for aerobic fitness, upper and lower limb power, trunk endurance, grip strength, shoulder flexibility, motor competence and anthropometric factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to test for associations between NSP and physical variables. Results There were significant gender differences for most physical and pain variables. After multivariate analysis, males had lower odds of NSP if they had reduced back endurance [OR: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46–0.97)], reduced persistent control [0.42 (0.19–0.95], and increased muscle power [0.33 (0.12–0.94)], and higher odds of NSP if they had a higher basketball throw [2.47 (1.22–5.00)] and jump performance [3.47 (1.55–7.74)]. Females had lower odds for NSP if they had a reduced jump performance [0.61(0.41–0.92)], a better basketball throw [0.60(0.40–0.90)], lower shoulder flexibility [0.54 (0.30–0.98)] and a higher aerobic capacity [0.61 (0.40–0.93)], and higher odds for NSP if they had greater abdominal endurance [1.57(1.07–2.31)] and greater bimanual dexterity [1.77(1.18–2.65)]. Females showed a U shaped relationship between NSP and back endurance [low: 2.12 (1.20–3.74); high 2.12 (1.18–3.83)]. Conclusion Adolescent NSP was associated with fitness and motor competence, although the associations varied with gender, and their strength was limited.

Perry, Mark C; Straker, Leon M; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Smith, Anne J; Hands, Beth

2008-01-01

170

Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation  

PubMed Central

The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a “size-advantage” hypothesis – that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition – that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density – as well as local density of just reproductive individuals – was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had – in the following growing season – a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a ‘reproductive-economy-advantage’ – that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring – and hence transmitting genes to future generations – despite intense and persistent (cross-generational) crowding/competition from near neighbors. Selection for the latter is expected to favor relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size and hence – as a tradeoff – relatively small (not large) potential body size.

Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

2014-01-01

171

Numerical solutions for laminar and turbulent viscous flow over single and multi-element airfoils using body-fitted coordinate systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique of body-fitted coordinate systems is applied in numerical solutions of the complete time-dependent compressible and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow and to the time-dependent mean turbulent equations closed by modified Kolmogorov hypotheses for turbulent flow. Coordinate lines are automatically concentrated near to the bodies at higher Reynolds number so that accurate resolution of the large gradients near the solid boundaries is achieved. Two-dimensional bodies of arbitrary shapes are treated, the body contour(s) being simply input to the program. The complication of the body shape is thus removed from the problem.

Thompson, J. F.; Warsi, Z. U. A.; Amlicke, B. B.

1976-01-01

172

A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 – 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 – 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument “Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool” or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Results Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p?fitness and BMI, supporting the use of holistic interventions to address childhood obesity.

2014-01-01

173

Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting beach-chair body position for induction of anesthesia  

PubMed Central

The sitting beach-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining beach-chair position. Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting beach-chair (n = 15) or with the beach-chair tilted backwards to a reclining beach-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting beach-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous hemodynamic variables were recorded by photoplethysmography and frontal cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) by near infrared spectroscopy. Significant differences were only observed immediately after the induction when patients induced in a reclining beach-chair position had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) (35 ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared to the sitting beach-chair position indicate more stable hemodynamics with the clinical implication that anesthesia should not be induced with the patient in the sitting position.

Larsen, S?ren L.; Lyngeraa, Tobias S.; Maschmann, Christian P.; Van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

2014-01-01

174

Relations of Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use to Body Mass Index and Selected Biomarkers for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with biomarkers for glucose dysregulation and inflammation, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Methods. Postmenopausal women were recruited into the Women’s Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998, and data were collected at regular intervals through 2005. We used multiple linear regression models to examine whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with BMI, waist circumference, and biomarkers. Results. Analysis of data from 71?809 women who completed all relevant baseline and year 3 assessments showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were significantly associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. Among 1950 women, elevated depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased insulin levels and measures of insulin resistance. Analyses of baseline data from 2242 women showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with higher C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions. Monitoring body habitus and other biomarkers among women with elevated depression symptoms or taking antidepressant medication may be prudent to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Balasubramanian, Raji; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Hebert, James R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Culver, Annie L.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Beck, James; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Zorn, Martha; Liu, Simin

2013-01-01

175

The association between low physical fitness and high body mass index or waist circumference is increasing with age in children: the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate physical fitness and body composition of children involved in the ‘Québec en Forme’ (QEF) Project and to compare data obtained to the reference values of the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS).Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 1140 children (591 boys and 549 girls) of first (7 years), second (8 years) and fourth (10 years) grade from primary schools in the

M Brunet; J-P Chaput; A Tremblay

2007-01-01

176

BMI, lipid profile, physical fitness and smoking habits of young male adults and the association with parental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have focused on the potential relationship between parental educational level and cardiovascular risk factors among young male adults. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiovascular disease risk factors among young men and whether body mass index (BMI), serum lipids, physical fitness and smoking habits were related to paternal and maternal education. Methods: In this cross-sectional

Tonje Holte Stea; Margareta Wandel; Mohammad Azam Mansoor; Solveig Uglem; W. Frolich

2008-01-01

177

Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

2004-01-01

178

Influence of anesthetic agent, depth of anesthesia and body temperature on cardiovascular functional parameters in the rat.  

PubMed

Sedating animals is sometimes necessary in experimental research. This paper presents and discusses the influence of four of the most common anesthetic agents on cardiovascular parameters in rats. We also studied the influence of body temperature. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane, pentobarbital, ketamine/xylazine or tiletamine/zolazepam (n?=?12 in each group). A pressure-sensing catheter was placed in the right carotid artery for the continuous measurement of arterial pressure, and echocardiography was performed. Indices of cardiac function were significantly higher in the tiletamine/zolazepam rats compared with the other groups. Heart rate was highest but stroke volume lowest with pentobarbital. Left ventricular diastolic dimension was lower in the pentobarbital and tiletamine/zolazepam rats compared with the isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine rats. Intraventricular diastolic pressure was similar in all groups whereas intraventricular systolic pressure, as well as both systolic and diastolic aortic pressures, was significantly higher in the tiletamine/zolazepam rats compared with the other groups. No hemodynamic indices differed significantly among the isoflurane, pentobarbital and ketamine/xylazine rats. Lowering body temperature significantly reduced heart rate and cardiac output but had no apparent effect on hemodynamic parameters. In conclusion, although cardiac functional parameters differed between the different anesthetic agents in ways that could be of relevance to the researcher, they may all have a role in experimental cardiology. Importantly, tiletamine/zolazepam anesthesia resulted in significantly higher indices of cardiac function and elevated blood pressures compared with the other anesthetic agents, a finding that should be kept in mind when interpreting data obtained in rats sedated on this regimen. PMID:23985835

Redfors, Bjorn; Shao, Yangzhen; Omerovic, Elmir

2014-01-01

179

Cardiovascular Risk Factors Have Larger Impact on Endothelial Function in Self-Reported Healthy Women than Men in the HUNT3 Fitness Study  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have larger effects on the development of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. A recent study in self-reported healthy subjects demonstrated a marked gender difference in endothelial dysfunction that may be an important precursor of manifest cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors is different in self-reported healthy women compared to self-reported healthy men. Methods and Results Associations between endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, FMD, of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound), anthropometric variables, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood pressure, serum lipids, blood glucose and a questionnaire on general health and lifestyle including smoking status were studied by logistic and linear regression in 2 528 women and 2 211 men aged 20–89 years, free from self-reported cardiovascular disease. In women with hyperglycemia, endothelial dysfunction (FMD ?0%) occurred twice as frequently as in male counterparts. The presence of the metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and low VO2peak increased the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction more in women than in men. Conclusion Endothelial dysfunction is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors in self-reported healthy women than in self-reported healthy men. This finding could explain why the metabolic syndrome, and especially hyperglycemia, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and a worse prognosis in women.

Skaug, Eli-Anne; Madssen, Erik; Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Wisl?ff, Ulrik; Ellingsen, ?yvind

2014-01-01

180

Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ? 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W.; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2012-01-01

181

Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

2012-01-01

182

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults,

Siobhan T O'Dwyer; Nicola W Burton; Nancy A Pachana; Wendy J Brown

2007-01-01

183

Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

2005-01-01

184

Waist circumference, body mass index, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate waist circumference (WC), waist–hip ratio, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal Australians.Methods: This cohort study included 836 adults aged 20–74 y in a remote Aboriginal community. WC, waist–hip ratio, hip circumference and BMI were obtained from a screening program. The participants were followed for up to 10 y

Z. Wang; W. E. Hoy

2004-01-01

185

Volumetric and Areal Bone Mineral Density Measures Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Men and Women: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of volumetric (vBMD) and areal (aBMD) bone mineral density measures with prevalent cardiovascular disease\\u000a (CVD) and subclinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were investigated in a cohort of older men and women enrolled in the\\u000a Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Participants were 3,075 well-functioning white and black men and women (42% black,\\u000a 51% women), aged 68–80 years. Total

G. N. Farhat; E. S. Strotmeyer; A. B. Newman; K. Sutton-Tyrrell; D. C. Bauer; T. Harris; K. C. Johnson; D. R. Taaffe; J. A. Cauley

2006-01-01

186

Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity. PMID:21170802

Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

2011-01-01

187

Potential energy surface fitting by a statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares method for the many-body potential: method and application to N4.  

PubMed

Fitting potential energy surfaces to analytic forms is an important first step for efficient molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we present an improved version of the local interpolating moving least squares method (L-IMLS) for such fitting. Our method has three key improvements. First, pairwise interactions are modeled separately from many-body interactions. Second, permutational invariance is incorporated in the basis functions, using permutationally invariant polynomials in Morse variables, and in the weight functions. Third, computational cost is reduced by statistical localization, in which we statistically correlate the cutoff radius with data point density. We motivate our discussion in this paper with a review of global and local least-squares-based fitting methods in one dimension. Then, we develop our method in six dimensions, and we note that it allows the analytic evaluation of gradients, a feature that is important for molecular dynamics. The approach, which we call statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares fitting of the many-body potential (SL-PI-L-IMLS-MP, or, more simply, L-IMLS-G2), is used to fit a potential energy surface to an electronic structure dataset for N4. We discuss its performance on the dataset and give directions for further research, including applications to trajectory calculations. PMID:24511935

Bender, Jason D; Doraiswamy, Sriram; Truhlar, Donald G; Candler, Graham V

2014-02-01

188

Ames Fitness Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exerc...

R. Pratt

1993-01-01

189

Health-related fitness in school children: compliance with physical activity recommendations and its relationship with body mass index and diet quality.  

PubMed

This study establishes the relationship between the compliance with the governmental physical activity guidelines (at least a minimum of one hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA, five times a week), health-related physical fitness and different health related lifestyle variables in a representative sample of Spanish children. Subjects were a representative group of scholars from five schools randomly selected in Extremadura, a mainly rural region with a very low population density. Statistical analysis comprises a t-test to calculate physical fitness differences between groups, according to the compliance with the mentioned physical activity guidelines. A multinomial logistic regression coefficient is established to determine the differences between the better physical fitness status group (= percentile 75) and the poorer physical fitness status group (= percentile 25) for each fitness test and gender, body mass index, physical activity, Mediterranean diet index and population size. Main findings show that the compliance with physical activity guidelines result in a better handgrip strength in left hand (p < 0.05), leg strength (p < 0.000), speed-agility run (p < 0.000) and 20 m endurance shuttle run (p < 0.000). Being a girl, being overweighed and living in an urban setting are associated with a lower physical fitness (= percentile 25), whereas there is no relationship between diet quality and subjects' performance in all physical fitness test evaluated. As a conclusion, this study emphasizes the need to promote an active lifestyle in which physical activity suppose a minimum of one hour of regular MVPA, at least five times a week, to achieve a healthy fitness status. PMID:21866688

Pino-Ortega, José; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Martínez-Santos, Raúl

2010-12-01

190

Effect of Supervised, Periodized Exercise Training vs. Self-Directed Training on Lean Body Mass and Other Fitness Variables in Health Club Members.  

PubMed

Storer, TW, Dolezal, BA, Berenc, MN, Timmins, JE, and Cooper, CB. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members. J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 1995-2006, 2014-Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training. PMID:24276303

Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

2014-07-01

191

Body mass index and incident hospitalisation for cardiovascular disease in 158 546 participants from the 45 and Up Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the relationship between fine gradations in body mass index (BMI) and risk of hospitalisation for different types of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design, Subjects and Methods: The 45 and Up Study is a large-scale Australian cohort study initiated in 2006. Self-reported data from 158?546 individuals with no history of CVD were linked prospectively to hospitalisation and mortality data. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hospitalisation for specific CVD diagnoses in relation to baseline BMI categories were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, region of residence, income, education, smoking, alcohol intake and health insurance status. Results: There were 9594 incident CVD admissions over 583?100 person-years among people with BMI?20?kg?m?2, including 3096 for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), 1373 for stroke, 411 for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and 320 for heart failure. The adjusted HR of hospitalisation for all CVD diagnoses combined increased significantly with increasing BMI (P(trend) <0.0001)). The HR of IHD hospitalisation increased by 23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 18–27%) per 5?kg?m?2 increase in BMI (compared to BMI 20.0–22.49?kg?m?2, HR (95% CI) for BMI categories were: 22.5–24.99=1.25 (1.08–1.44); 25–27.49=1.43 (1.24–1.65); 27.5–29.99=1.64 (1.42–1.90); 30–32.49=1.63 (1.39–1.91) and 32.5–50=2.10 (1.79–2.45)). The risk of hospitalisation for heart failure showed a significant, but nonlinear, increase with increasing BMI. No significant increase was seen with above-normal BMI for stroke or PVD. For other specific classifications of CVD, HRs of hospitalisation increased significantly with increasing BMI for: hypertension; angina; acute myocardial infarction; chronic IHD; pulmonary embolism; non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders; atrioventricular and left bundle-branch block; atrial fibrillation and flutter; aortic aneurysm; and phlebitis and thrombophlebitis. Conclusion: The risk of hospitalisation for a wide range of CVD subtypes increases with relatively fine increments in BMI. Obesity prevention strategies are likely to benefit from focusing on bringing down the mean BMI at the population level, in addition to targeting those with a high BMI.

Joshy, G; Korda, R J; Attia, J; Liu, B; Bauman, A E; Banks, E

2014-01-01

192

Body mass index and incident hospitalisation for cardiovascular disease in 158?546 participants from the 45 and Up Study.  

PubMed

Objective:To investigate the relationship between fine gradations in body mass index (BMI) and risk of hospitalisation for different types of cardiovascular disease (CVD).Design, Subjects and Methods:The 45 and Up Study is a large-scale Australian cohort study initiated in 2006. Self-reported data from 158?546 individuals with no history of CVD were linked prospectively to hospitalisation and mortality data. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hospitalisation for specific CVD diagnoses in relation to baseline BMI categories were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, region of residence, income, education, smoking, alcohol intake and health insurance status.Results:There were 9594 incident CVD admissions over 583?100 person-years among people with BMI?20?kg?m(-2), including 3096 for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), 1373 for stroke, 411 for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and 320 for heart failure. The adjusted HR of hospitalisation for all CVD diagnoses combined increased significantly with increasing BMI (P(trend) <0.0001)). The HR of IHD hospitalisation increased by 23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 18-27%) per 5?kg?m(-2) increase in BMI (compared to BMI 20.0-22.49?kg?m(-2), HR (95% CI) for BMI categories were: 22.5-24.99=1.25 (1.08-1.44); 25-27.49=1.43 (1.24-1.65); 27.5-29.99=1.64 (1.42-1.90); 30-32.49=1.63 (1.39-1.91) and 32.5-50=2.10 (1.79-2.45)). The risk of hospitalisation for heart failure showed a significant, but nonlinear, increase with increasing BMI. No significant increase was seen with above-normal BMI for stroke or PVD. For other specific classifications of CVD, HRs of hospitalisation increased significantly with increasing BMI for: hypertension; angina; acute myocardial infarction; chronic IHD; pulmonary embolism; non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders; atrioventricular and left bundle-branch block; atrial fibrillation and flutter; aortic aneurysm; and phlebitis and thrombophlebitis.Conclusion:The risk of hospitalisation for a wide range of CVD subtypes increases with relatively fine increments in BMI. Obesity prevention strategies are likely to benefit from focusing on bringing down the mean BMI at the population level, in addition to targeting those with a high BMI. PMID:24149770

Joshy, G; Korda, R J; Attia, J; Liu, B; Bauman, A E; Banks, E

2014-06-01

193

Fitness and Fatness as Predictors of Mortality from All Causes and from Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women in the Lipid Research Clinics Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative size of the effects of fitness and fatness on longevity has been studied in only one cohort. The authors examined this issue using data from 2,506 women and 2,860 men in the Lipid Research Clinics Study. The mean age was 46.6 years in women and 45.1 years in men at baseline (1972-1976). Fitness was assessed using a treadmill

June Stevens; Jianwen Cai; Kelly R. Evenson; Ratna Thomas

194

Pondering the puzzle of PML (promyelocytic leukemia) nuclear bodies: Can we fit the pieces together using an RNA regulon?  

PubMed Central

Summary The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML and its associated nuclear bodies are hot topics of investigation. This interest arises for multiple reasons including the tight link between the integrity of PML nuclear bodies and several disease states and the impact of the PML protein and PML nuclear bodies on proliferation, apoptosis and viral infection. Unfortunately, an understanding of the molecular underpinnings of PML nuclear body function remains elusive. Here, a general overview of the PML field is provided and is extended to discuss whether some of the basic tenets of “PML-ology” are still valid. For instance, recent findings suggest that some components of PML nuclear bodies form bodies in the absence of the PML protein. Also, a new model for PML nuclear body function is proposed which provides a unifying framework for its effects on diverse biochemical pathways such as Akt signaling and the p53-Mdm2 axis. In this model, the PML protein acts as an inhibitor of gene expression post-transcriptionally via inhibiting a network node in the eIF4E RNA regulon. An example is given for how the PML RNA regulon model provided the basis for the development of a new anti-cancer strategy being tested in the clinic.

Borden, Katherine L.B.

2008-01-01

195

Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

Kravik, Stein E.

1989-01-01

196

The Effects of Manual Resistance Training on Fitness in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Manual Resistance Training (MRT), an alternative to traditional resistance training, requires minimal equipment and may be effective when applied in school-based physical education (PE) classes. The purpose of this study was to document the physical changes in adolescents (N = 222) using MRT in school-based PE settings. Six fitness tests from the Fitnessgram assessment tool were selected to assess students' cardiovascular and muscular fitness and skin-fold tests were used to assess body composition. One Control and two Experimental Groups were defined. The Control group of students (N = 129) attended regular PE classes. One Experimental group (N = 63) attended PE that was complemented by the MRT system. A second Experiment group (N = 30) attended PE complemented by MRT and cardiovascular endurance training. Using the selected Fitnessgram tests post-test measurements were done after 9 and 18 weeks of PE. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the three groups for most measures. Compared to baseline, experimental groups improved significantly in all six fitness measures and showed more improvements than the Control group in most fitness measures both at 9 and 18 weeks. None of the groups showed significant improvement in body composition. The results documented that an MRT complemented PE program was effective in improving adolescents' muscular fitness. An 18-week combined MRT and cardiovascular endurance training program effectively improved cardiovascular and muscular fitness but was ineffective in improving adolescent body composition. An MRT based exercise session requires minimal equipment and set-up, and can be performed in a short period of time, therefore it is suitable for application in regular PE settings.

Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A.; Candelaria, Norma; Bader, Julia O.; Brickey, Gregory D.; Adams, Carolyn E.

2010-01-01

197

Use of numerically generated body-fitted coordinate systems for solution of the Navier-Stokes equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that can treat the unsteady laminar flow about bodies of arbitrary shape, such as two-dimensional airfoils, multiple airfoils, and submerged hydrofoils, as naturally as it can deal with the flow about simple bodies. The solution is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. The curvilinear coordinates are generated as the solution of two elliptical partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, one coordinate being specified to be constant on each of the boundaries, and a distribution of the other being specified along the boundaries. The solution compares excellently with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semiinfinite flat plate.

Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Thames, F. C.; Shanks, S. P.

1975-01-01

198

Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26–40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. Results PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P?body fat percentage (P?=?0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P?=?0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P?=?0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. Conclusions PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.

2014-01-01

199

Numerical Simulation of Shock-Induced Combustion Past Blunt Bodies Using Shock-Fitting Technique. Appendix A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

1994-01-01

200

The Effects of Free-Living Interval-Walking Training on Glycemic Control, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a control (n = 8), continuous-walking (n = 12), or interval-walking group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed five sessions per week (60 min/session) and were controlled with an accelerometer and a heart-rate monitor. Continuous walkers performed all training at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO2max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]). RESULTS Training adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO2max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P < 0.05), whereas no changes were observed in the continuous-walking or control group. Body mass and adiposity (fat mass and visceral fat) decreased in the interval-walking group only (P < 0.05). Glycemic control (elevated mean CGM glucose levels and increased fasting insulin) worsened in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas mean (P = 0.05) and maximum (P < 0.05) CGM glucose levels decreased in the interval-walking group. The continuous walkers showed no changes in glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS Free-living walking training is feasible in type 2 diabetic patients. Continuous walking offsets the deterioration in glycemia seen in the control group, and interval walking is superior to energy expenditure–matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.

Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H.; Nielsen, Jens S.; Thomsen, Carsten; Pedersen, Bente K.; Solomon, Thomas P.J.

2013-01-01

201

Developing a Self-Reported Physical Fitness Survey  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness measures indicate health status and could be used to improve management of overall health. Purpose To describe the development of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey intended to estimate fitness in adults aged ?40 years across four domains; 1) muscular strength and endurance, 2) cardiovascular fitness, 3) flexibility, and 4) body composition. Methods SRFit items were developed from the previously validated Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. Face-to-face participant interviews were used to refine SRFit item wording. Data from a pilot administration of the SRFit survey were used to guide further revisions of SRFit items. The Senior Fitness Test battery was used to evaluate the four fitness domains. The BodPod was used to measure body composition. Height, weight, and resting blood pressure were measured and the revised SRFit survey was administered to 108 participants. Results Forty-five percent of the participants were female and 37% reported being Black or in the “other” race category. Mean age was 53.5±8.0 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.6±8.8 kg/m2. SRFit summary score means (SD) and correlations found between summary score means (SD) and fitness test scores were: Upper body strength m=12.8 (2.4), r=0.59, p<0.001; lower body strength m=12.6 (2.6), r=0.68, p<0.001; upper body flexibility left-side m=12.3 (2.8), r=0.47, p<0.001; right-side m=12.4 (2.8), r=0.67, p<0.001; lower body flexibility m=17.4 (3.8), r = 0.55, p<0.001; cardiovascular endurance m=12.9 (2.6), r=0.66, p<0.001; BMI m=7.7 (2.23), r=0.79, p<0.001; and percent body fat m=7.7 (2.2), r=0.78, p<0.001. Conclusion SRFit survey items in each fitness domain were correlated with analogous Senior Fitness Test items indicating that participants could accurately use the SRFit survey to self-report physical fitness.

Keith, NiCole R.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.

2012-01-01

202

Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity.  

PubMed

Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fábio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2011-01-01

203

Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity  

PubMed Central

Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes.

Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fabio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2011-01-01

204

Comparison of cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters of supine lower body negative pressure and upright lower body positive pressure to simulate activity in 1/6 G and 3/8 G  

PubMed Central

For future space exploration missions, it is important to determine the best method of simulating on Earth cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions for lunar and Martian gravities. For this purpose, we compared exercise performed within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber. Twelve subjects underwent a protocol of resting and walking (0.25 Froude) within supine LBNP and upright LBPP simulation. Each protocol was performed in simulated 1/6 G and 3/8 G. We assessed heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V?o2), normalized stride length, normalized vertical peak ground reaction force, duty factor, cadence, perceived exertion (Borg), and comfort of the subject. A mixed linear model was employed to determine effects of the simulation on the respective parameters. Furthermore, parameters were compared with predicted values for lunar and Martian gravities to determine the method that showed the best agreement. During walking, all cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters were unaffected by the simulation used for lunar and Martian gravities. During rest, HR and V?o2 were lower in supine LBNP compared with upright LBPP. HR, V?o2, and normalized vertical peak ground reaction force obtained with supine LBNP and upright LBPP showed good agreement with predicted values. Since supine LBNP and upright LBPP are lacking significant differences, we conclude that both simulations are suited to simulate the cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions during activity in lunar and Martian gravities. Operational characteristics and the intended application should be considered when choosing either supine LBNP or upright LBPP to simulate partial gravities on Earth.

Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Stahn, Alexander C.; Hargens, Alan R.

2013-01-01

205

Cross-sectional study of the association of body composition and physical fitness with bone status in children and adolescents from 11 to 16 years old  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to verify the association between body composition and physical fitness with bone status in children and adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 healthy students (148 boys, 152 girls). Weight, height, fat and fat-free mass, and percentage of body fat (%BF) were evaluated, as were physical fitness (abdominal exercise, flexibility, and horizontal jump tests) and maximum oxygen consumption. Bone parameters (amplitude-dependent speed of sound; AD-SoS) and the Ultrasound Bone Profile Index (UBPI) were evaluated using DBM Sonic BP ultrasonography. Results In the study group, girls had higher bone parameter values than boys. A univariate analysis assessed in a stepwise multiple regression model was conducted. It showed that for boys, the %BF and height were significant independent variables for AD-SoS and UBPI, but the horizontal jump test only for AD-SoS (adjusted r2?=?0.274; p?fitness related to the neuromotor system can influence the amount of bone present.

2013-01-01

206

Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to provide a clear, accurate, public health message to the many groups now using AS for performance and image enhancement. PMID:22229259

Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

2012-02-01

207

Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring’s weight and cardiovascular performance at ?7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten’s medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 ± 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (p<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (p<0.05) and diet (p<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (p=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed.

Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramirez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Rocio Melissa

2013-01-01

208

Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective Body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50?±?8.8?years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.8?±?3.7 and 25.5?±?4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm) 94.1?±?9.7 and 84.3?±?10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5?hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r?=??0.280 and r?=??0.377, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both) and in women (r?=??0.514 and r?=??0.491, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both). In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

2013-01-01

209

Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels  

PubMed Central

Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

2014-01-01

210

Fun Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

Printer Friendly F un Fitness Fitness is fun! It's a great way to experience health and wellness. Enjoying fitness is the key to keeping exercise a part of your life. Fun Fitness will teach you all about the right way ...

211

Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MusS) has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of MusS in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. MusS has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension (HTN) and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of HTN, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training (RT) are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival.

Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.; Espana-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2012-01-01

212

Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cycle ergometry high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with and without beta-alanine supplementation on maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2 peak), cycle ergometer workload at the ventilatory threshold (VT W), and body composition. Forty-four women (mean +/- SD age = 21.8 +/- 3.7 years; height = 166.5 +/- 6.6 cm; body mass (BM) = 65.9 +/- 10.8 kg; VO2 peak = 31.5 +/- 6.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: beta-alanine (BA, n = 14) 1.5 g + 15 g dextrose powder; placebo (PL, n = 19) 16.5 g dextrose powder; or control (CON, n = 11). Testing was conducted at baseline (week 0), after 3 weeks (week 4), and after 6 weeks (week 8). VO2 peak (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and VT W were measured with a metabolic cart during graded exercise tests on a corival cycle ergometer, and body composition (percent fat = % fat and fat-free mass = FFM) were determined by air displacement plethysmography. High-intensity interval training was performed on a corival cycle ergometer 3 times per week with 5 2-minute work intervals and 1-minute passive recovery with undulating intensities (90-110% of the workload recorded at VO2 peak) during each training session. VO2 peak increased (p 0.05) for the CON group. VT W increased (p Body mass increased (p

Walter, Ashley A; Smith, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Stout, Jeffrey R; Cramer, Joel T

2010-05-01

213

Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk of first-onset cardiovascular disease. Methods We used individual records from 58 cohorts to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) per 1 SD higher baseline values (4·56 kg/m2 higher BMI, 12·6 cm higher waist circumference, and 0·083 higher waist-to-hip ratio) and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification. Serial adiposity assessments were used to calculate regression dilution ratios. Results Individual records were available for 221?934 people in 17 countries (14?297 incident cardiovascular disease outcomes; 1·87 million person-years at risk). Serial adiposity assessments were made in up to 63?821 people (mean interval 5·7 years [SD 3·9]). In people with BMI of 20 kg/m2 or higher, HRs for cardiovascular disease were 1·23 (95% CI 1·17–1·29) with BMI, 1·27 (1·20–1·33) with waist circumference, and 1·25 (1·19–1·31) with waist-to-hip ratio, after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. After further adjustment for baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total and HDL cholesterol, corresponding HRs were 1·07 (1·03–1·11) with BMI, 1·10 (1·05–1·14) with waist circumference, and 1·12 (1·08–1·15) with waist-to-hip ratio. Addition of information on BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio to a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model containing conventional risk factors did not importantly improve risk discrimination (C-index changes of ?0·0001, ?0·0001, and 0·0008, respectively), nor classification of participants to categories of predicted 10-year risk (net reclassification improvement ?0·19%, ?0·05%, and ?0·05%, respectively). Findings were similar when adiposity measures were considered in combination. Reproducibility was greater for BMI (regression dilution ratio 0·95, 95% CI 0·93–0·97) than for waist circumference (0·86, 0·83–0·89) or waist-to-hip ratio (0·63, 0·57–0·70). Interpretation BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, whether assessed singly or in combination, do not importantly improve cardiovascular disease risk prediction in people in developed countries when additional information is available for systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and lipids. Funding British Heart Foundation and UK Medical Research Council.

The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration

2011-01-01

214

Portable two-channel PPG cardiovascular sensor device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable sensor device for simultaneous detection and processing of skin-remitted optical signals from any two sites of the body has been developed and tested. The photoplethysmography (PPG) principle was applied to follow the dilatation and contraction of skin blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. The newly developed two-channel approach allows to estimate the vascular blood flow resistance by analysis of time shifts between the PPG pulses detected at different body sites. Potential of the sensor device for express-assessment of human cardio-vascular condition and for body fitness tests has been demonstrated.

Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Ozols, Maris

2003-10-01

215

Firefighters' cardiovascular risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Cardiac events are strongly associated with line-of-duty deaths among firefighters. The frequency with which firefighters succumb to cardiovascular events while on duty is well documented. Many firefighters have undiagnosed or undertreated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, as well as poor dietary habits and marginal physical fitness. Extremely high heart rates while engaged in fire suppression increase the risk for cardiovascular risk within the fire service. Cultural factors such as shift work and crew cohesion create multiple levels of influence on firefighters' decisions about engaging in positive health behaviors. This review highlights the significance of primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases that is culturally congruent with the fire service. PMID:24571052

Banes, Catherine J

2014-01-01

216

Body heating induced by sub-resonant (350 MHz) microwave irradiation: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses in anesthetized rats  

SciTech Connect

These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of sub-resonant microwave (MW) exposure (350 MHz, E orientation, average power density 38 mW/cm{sup 2}, average whole-body specific absorption rate 13.2 W/kg) on selected physiological parameters. The increase in peripheral body temperature during 350 MHz exposure was greater than that in earlier experiments performed at 700 MHz (resonance). Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated during a 1 C increase in colonic temperature due to 350 MHz exposure; respiratory rate showed no significant change. The results are consistent with other investigator`s reports comparing sub-resonance exposures with those at resonance and above.

Jauchem, J.R. [Air Force Armstrong Lab., Brooks AFB, TX (United States)] [Air Force Armstrong Lab., Brooks AFB, TX (United States); Frei, M.R. [Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology] [Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

1997-06-01

217

Certain peculiarities of the functioning of the cardiovascular system in bedrest conditions during horizontal and antiorthostatic body positions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adequate modeling of physiological reactions inherent to the state of weightlessness has become a matter of particular urgency in space medicine. This modeling is necessary for studying the phenomenology and degree of disorders, prognostication of the crew's health, and developing the various preventive measures employed in space flights. A comparison is made of the physiological effects brought about by bed rest in a horizontal and antiorthostatic body position. A study is done of the influence of brief antiorthostatic hypokinesia, simulating the acute period of adaptation to weightlessness, on circulation and on a number of involved analytical systems. The basic model accepted is antiorthostatic hypokinesia with a body position declination angle of 4 deg (head lower than feet). The experiment's duration is dictated by the objectives of the research.

1978-01-01

218

Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Limited evidence suggests that a higher ratio of pro- tein to carbohydrate during weight loss has metabolic advantages. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of a diet with a high ratio of protein to carbohydrate during weight loss on body composition, cardiovascular disease risk, nutritional status, and markers of bone turnover and renal function in overweight women.

Manny Noakes; Jennifer B Keogh; Paul R Foster; Peter M Clifton

219

A Small-scale Cross-sectional Study for the Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Relation to Body Composition and Morphometric Characters in Fishermen of Araku Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The people residing in coastal areas of Visakhapatnam are mostly engaged in fishery, which is always been a physically demanding job, and numerous factors have direct or indirect impact on the health of fishermen; but, the data about their physical fitness or health status is quite scanty. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness pattern, as well as morphometric characters, which may be influenced by their occupation. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 25 young fishermen (mean age of 22.8 ± 1.92 years) were randomly selected from Araku valley of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh and compared with 25 subjects who were randomly selected from college students (mean age of 21.9 ± 2.25 years) of Kolkata, West Bengal. Some physical and physiological fitness variables including height, weight, body mass index, body surface area, physical fitness index, anaerobic power, and energy expenditure were measured along with their morphometric characters. Results: Analysis of data indicated a significant difference in blood pressure, physical fitness index, energy expenditure, body fat percent and anaerobic power among fishermen compared to controls. However, there were no changes in morphometric characters between the two groups. Conclusions: Findings of this small-scale population-based study indicated that health and physical fitness of young fishermen is under the influence of both occupational workload and nutritional status, as found by body composition and morphometric characters.

Sengupta, Pallav

2014-01-01

220

Men's Fitness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It seems that people in the United States are going through a new and renewed commitment to getting back in shape, and there are a variety of helpful online resources to make this a viable possibility for millions of Americans. This particular site (sponsored by a number of fitness-related publications) brings together information on a host of timely topics, including weight loss, healthy eating, building muscle mass, and seasonal training suggestions. The homepage contains links on such topics as diminishing cellulite and eating organic, and also contains a number of online calculators. These calculators can help individuals determine their body mass index, their weight loss potential, and their ideal weight. The site also has an area where visitors can sign up to receive any number of free electronic newsletters from some of the magazines that sponsor the site.

221

Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.  

PubMed

Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

2013-01-01

222

Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study  

PubMed Central

Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies.

2014-01-01

223

Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees  

PubMed Central

Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance.

2011-01-01

224

Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (?1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (?1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (?1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (?1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups.

Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

2010-01-01

225

Effect of consuming salad and yogurt as preload on body weight management and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Few investigations reported the reductive effect of preload consuming on energy intake. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of consuming a mix of low glycaemic index foods such as vegetable salad, yogurt and water before or with meal on anthropometric measures and cardio vascular diseases (CVD) risks. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 25 men and 35 women were recruited to consume similar amounts of macronutrients within a hypocaloric diet for 3 months. Although subjects in the preload group consumed preload 15 min before the main meal, subjects in the control group consumed them with meal. The results showed that body weight, waist circumference, triglyceride, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure decreased in more amount in the preload group ( - 7.8 ± 0.5%, - 2.7 ± 0.2%, - 5.7 ± 1.1%, - 3.1 ± 0.53% and - 4.4 ± 0.4%, respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Fasting blood sugar and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly only in the preload group. Consuming vegetable salad, yogurt and water as preload leads to greater changes in anthropometric measures and CVD risks. PMID:23249429

Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Karimi, Golgis; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

2013-06-01

226

Effect of intravenous infusion of adrenaline on the cardiovascular responses to distal body subatmospheric pressure in man.  

PubMed

1. On two separate occasions, at least 1 week apart, seven young healthy male subjects received intravenous infusions of either adrenaline [0.27 nmol (50 ng) min-1 kg-1] or saline (154 mmol/l NaCl), plus ascorbic acid (5.68 mmol/l), over 30 min. 2. On each occasion, the subjects were exposed to distal body subatmospheric pressure (DBSP), 0 to 50 mmHg (0 to 6.65 kPa) in 10 mmHg (1.33 kPa) steps, before infusion, during the final 15 min of the infusion, and at 15 min and 30 min after the cessation of the infusion. 3. Venous adrenaline concentrations of 2.85 +/- 0.22 nmol/l were achieved during the adrenaline infusion, compared with 0.49 +/- 0.07 nmol/l during the saline infusion (P less than 0.001). At 15 min and at 30 min after cessation of the adrenaline infusion, venous adrenaline concentrations had fallen to levels similar to those achieved after the cessation of the saline infusion. 4. Heart rate rose significantly from 58 +/- 4 beats/min to 67 +/- 4 beats/min during the adrenaline infusion (P less than 0.05), but there was no further significant change in response to 50 mmHg (6.65 kPa) DBSP. At 30 min after the cessation of the adrenaline infusion, heart rate rose from 60 +/- 4 beats/min to 78 +/- 7 beats/min in response to 50 mmHg DBSP. This increase was significantly greater than that observed before the adrenaline infusion [58 +/- 4 beats/min to 69 +/- 7 beats/min during 50 mmHg (6.65 kPa) DBSP; P less than 0.01].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3197373

Fellows, I W; MacDonald, I A; Bennett, T; O'Donoghue, D P

1988-10-01

227

Body Mass Index, Waist-circumference and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Iranian Adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC alone.

Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

2013-01-01

228

Cardiovascular Deconditioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise...

J. B. Charles J. M. Fritsch-Yelle P. A. Whitson M. L. Wood T. E. Brown G. W. Fortner

1999-01-01

229

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001) and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001) than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents.

O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

230

Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Diabetes Prevention Program within African-American Churches: The Fit Body and Soul Study  

PubMed Central

Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster- randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12-weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination.

Williams, Lovoria B.; Sattin, Richard W.; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T.; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M. Kaye; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Freeman, Arin; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

2013-01-01

231

North York Fall Norms for Boys and Girls Age 12-14 for: CAHPER Tests; Measures of Aerobic Fitness; Peak Flow; Muscle Strength; Percent Body Fat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests are described that were given to 1,000 students randomly selected at grade 7-9 levels with an equal representation from both sexes. Participants were selected from two junior high schools in North York for a study comparing students in a regular physical education program to those in a program to develop cardiovascular endurance. The first…

Thompson, Patricia

232

Cardiovascular MR Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows 2D, 3D, and 4D imaging of living bodies. The chapter1 briefly introduces the major principles of magnetic resonance image generation, and focuses on application of computer vision techniques and approaches to several cardiovascular image analysis tasks. The enormous amounts of generated MR data require employment of automated image analysis techniques to provide quantitative indices of

Milan Sonka; Daniel R. Thedens; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt; Steven C. Mitchell; Rob J. van der Geest; Johan H. C. Reiber

233

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Long-Term Survival in "Low-Risk" Adults  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to establish whether cardiorespiratory fitness had important implications for long-term cardiovascular risk among individuals classified as low risk by the Framingham Risk Score (10-year coronary heart disease risk <10%). Prognostic factors of long-term cardiovascular risk are needed for low-risk subjects who make up the largest percentage of the US population. Methods and Results The study population was composed of men and women, 30 to 50 years of age, who had a baseline medical exam at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, TX, between 1970 and 1983. Eligible individuals were defined as at low risk for coronary heart disease by Framingham Risk Score at the time of study entry and had no history of diabetes (n=11 190). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by maximum graded exercise treadmill tests. Over an average 27±2-year period, 15% of low-fit (quintile 1) compared to 6% of high-fit (quintile 5) individuals died (P<0.001). A 1–metabolic equivalent level increase in baseline fitness was associated with an 11% reduction in all-cause deaths and an 18% reduction in deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, blood glucose levels, smoking, and early family history of coronary disease. There was an incremental decrease in CVD risk with increasing fitness quintile, such that the high fit had the lowest adjusted 30-year CVD mortality rate (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% CI: 0.16–0.51) compared to the low fit. Conclusions Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a significant reduction in long-term CVD among individuals identified as low risk by Framingham Risk Score. These data suggest that preventive lifestyle interventions geared to optimize cardiorespiratory fitness, even among a “low-risk” subset, should be considered to improve CVD-free survival. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001354 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001354.)

Barlow, Carolyn E.; DeFina, Laura F.; Radford, Nina B.; Berry, Jarett D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.; Haskell, William L.; Jones, Lee W.; Lakoski, Susan G.

2012-01-01

234

Cardiovascular Deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

1999-01-01

235

Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey  

PubMed Central

Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ?20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

2013-01-01

236

Ames Fitness Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

Pratt, Randy

1993-01-01

237

Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

1996-01-01

238

ACSM Fit Society Page  

MedlinePLUS

... Aging 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause 2009 -- Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- Alternative Medicine & Mind/Body Exercise 2008 -- The Heart 2008 -- Managing Chronic Disease ...

239

Air Force Physical Fitness Program is it Adequate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the author defines four components of physical fitness . muscular fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility and body composition. Potential individual and organizational benefits of physical fitness are discussed. A brief history of mi...

R. T. Gindhart

1999-01-01

240

The Association of Race and Socioeconomic Status With Cardiovascular Disease Indicators Among Older Adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives . We hypothesized that older Black adults would have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than White adults, as indicated by elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), low ankle-arm blood pressure index (AAI), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). But, accounting for a broad interpretation of socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., education, family income, home ownership, and other assets) would reduce

Ronica N. Rooks; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Toni Miles; Anne Newman; Stephen B. Kritchevsky; Richard Schulz; Tamara Harris

2002-01-01

241

Hermaphrodite sex role preferences: the role of partner body size, mating history and female fitness in the sea slug Chelidonura sandrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Costs and benefits associated with matings and the effects of mating frequency on fitness commonly differ between the sexes. As a result, outcrossing simultaneous hermaphrodites may prefer to copulate in the more rewarding sex role, generating conflicts over sperm donation and sperm receipt between mates. Because recent sex role preference models remain controversial, we contrast here some of their assumptions

Nils Anthes; Annika Putz; Nico K. Michiels

2006-01-01

242

Electronic Applications in Cardiovascular Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of electronics for diagnostic and therapeutic use in heart surgery at lowered body temperature (hypothermia) is discussed. The current trend of lowered-temperature anesthesia offers distinct advantages to the cardiovascular surgeon in reducing anesthetic shock and extending tolerance to interrupted oxygenated blood circulation. However, lowered body temperatures impose critical demands on monitoring instruments and on equipment for countering ventricular

J. A. Hopps

1957-01-01

243

Crisis in Youth Fitness and Wellness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current studies suggest that children today are less physically fit, are more obese, and have less healthy cardiovascular systems than their peers of 10 years ago. Obesity affects more than fitness; it is a major health problem. Physical education specialists, teachers, administrators, parents, and business leaders can cooperate to change this…

Vogel, Paul R.

1991-01-01

244

The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

1992-01-01

245

Fitness Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners partner up to complete several physical exercises and assess their starting fitness level. Over the course of 6 weeks, learners practice the activities and record their improvement. This is a simple way to get young learners interested in practicing fitness. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. They can also keep track of their progress in all of the Kinetic City activities, and compare their progress to other participants worldwide.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

246

Fitness landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fitness landscapes are a valuable concept in evolutionary biology, combinatorial optimization, and the physics of disordered systems. A fitness landscape is a mapping from a configuration space that is equipped with some notion of adjacency, nearness, distance or accessibility, into the real numbers. Landscape theory has emerged as an attempt to devise suitable mathematical structures for describing the "static" properties of landscapes as well as their influence on the dyn amics of adaptation. This chapter gives a brief overview on recent developments in this area, focusing on "geometrical" properties of landscapes.

Stadler, Peter F.

247

Augmented limb blood flow during neurovascular stress in physically fit women.  

PubMed

The study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies cardiovascular responses by normotensive men and women during the Stroop color-word interference test. Independent of age and an estimate of body fatness, fitness level was positively related (R² ?=?.39 and .51) to increases in limb blood flow and vascular conductance, coherent with cardiac-vagal withdrawal and a decrease in heart period, among women but not men. Fitness was unrelated to changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The augmented hemodynamic responses among fitter women were not consistent with passive vasodilation via withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone. The results encourage further gender comparisons testing whether fitness augments limb blood flow during mental stress by neurohumoral and flow-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms or by increased cardiac output. PMID:23802906

Dishman, Rod K; Jackson, Erica M; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ray, Chester A

2013-09-01

248

Cardiovascular Genomics  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article provides an update on cardiovascular genomics using three clinically relevant exemplars, including myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Organizational Construct Recent advances in cardiovascular genomic research, testing, and clinical implications are presented. Methods Genomic nurse experts reviewed and summarized recent salient literature to provide updates on three selected cardiovascular genomic conditions. Findings Research is ongoing to discover comprehensive genetic markers contributing to many common forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including MI and stroke. However, genomic technologies are increasingly being used clinically, particularly in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who are at risk for SCD. Conclusions Currently, there are no clinically recommended genetic tests for many common forms of CVD even though direct-to-consumer genetic tests are being marketed to healthcare providers and the general public. On the other hand, genetic testing for patients with certain single gene conditions, including channelopathies (e.g., LQTS) and cardiomyopathies (e.g., HCM), is recommended clinically. Clinical Relevance Nurses play a pivotal role in cardiogenetics and are actively engaged in direct clinical care of patients and families with a wide variety of heritable conditions. It is important for nurses to understand current development of cardiovascular genomics and be prepared to translate the new genomic knowledge into practice.

Wung, Shu-Fen; Hickey, Kathleen T.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Gallek, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

249

Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous M?ori and non-M?ori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

2014-01-28

250

Cardiovascular disease and menopause.  

PubMed

Aim: The aim of the study was to study the abnormalities in the cardiovascular profile in postmenopausal Indian women and to compare the same with the cardiovascular profile of pre menopausal Indian women belonging to the same age group; taken as controls. The goal was to throw some light on the cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women of the Indian population as this population is thought to be at higher risk than their western counterparts and significant studies of the same kind in this population have been few. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study on 100 women who were either postmenopausal or premenopausal and were between the age group of 40 to 55 years was carried out over a period of ten months at our hospital. The variations in the cardiovascular profile between both groups were studied. All the women were subjected to a detailed history, thorough examination, investigations and imaging studies. Results: The evaluation revealed that Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), hypertension, abnormal Body Mass Index (BMI) and abnormal Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group as compared to the premenopausal group. The post menopausal women had significantly higher prevalence of abnormal lipid profiles as compared to their premenopausal counterparts. The postmenopausal women with a normal lipid profile also had increased prevalence of CAD and SAHT, which emphasizes the non-lipid cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that cardiovascular disease was more common in postmenopausal women of age group 40-55 years as compared to those not yet achieved menopause in a population of western Indian women. And this risk was significantly associated with central obesity, an abnormal lipid profile and the postmenopausal state in itself. PMID:24701484

Dosi, Rupal; Bhatt, Nikita; Shah, Priyanki; Patell, Rushad

2014-02-01

251

The applicability of nonlinear systems dynamics chaos measures to cardiovascular physiology variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

Hooker, John C.

1991-01-01

252

Cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a major, growing, worldwide problem. It is important that individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease can be effectively identified and appropriately stratified according to risk. This review examines what we understand by the term risk, traditional and novel risk factors, clinical scoring systems, and the use of risk for informing prescribing decisions. Many different cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. Established, traditional factors such as ageing are powerful predictors of adverse outcome, and in the case of hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. Numerous novel biomarkers have also been described, such as inflammatory and genetic markers. These have yet to be shown to be of value in improving risk prediction, but may represent potential therapeutic targets and facilitate more targeted use of existing therapies. Risk factors have been incorporated into several cardiovascular disease prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham equation, SCORE and QRISK. These have relatively poor predictive power, and uncertainties remain with regards to aspects such as choice of equation, different risk thresholds and the roles of relative risk, lifetime risk and reversible factors in identifying and treating at-risk individuals. Nonetheless, such scores provide objective and transparent means of quantifying risk and their integration into therapeutic guidelines enables equitable and cost-effective distribution of health service resources and improves the consistency and quality of clinical decision making.

Payne, Rupert A

2012-01-01

253

Gender and race influence metabolic benefits of fitness in children: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing obesity and poor cardiovascular fitness (CVF) contribute to higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children. While the relative contributions of fitness and body fat on development of insulin resistance (IR) in children and adolescents remains unresolved, gender- and race-specific differences likely exist in the degree to which CVF influences IR and risk for T2DM. Better understanding of how gender and race affect interactions between body fat, CVF, and metabolic health would be helpful in designing effective and targeted strategies to reduce obesity-associated disease risk. We evaluated whether metabolic benefits of fitness on reducing inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) are affected by gender and race. Methods This cross-sectional study included 203 healthy children (mean age 12.2 y, 50% male, 46% non-Hispanic white (NHW), 54% racially diverse (RD)). Fasting insulin, glucose, hsCRP, and adiponectin were measured; race was self-reported; cardiovascular fitness (CVF) was evaluated by the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. Associations between inflammation and gender, race, and CVF were evaluated using analysis of covariance. Multivariate regression analysis identified independent predictors of IR. Results Fitness and inflammation were inversely related in both males and females (p < 0.01); this effect was marginally stronger in RD children (p = 0.06) and non-overweight males (p = 0.07). High BMI (p < 0.001), low fitness (p = 0.006), and (female) gender (p = 0.003) were independently associated with higher HOMA-IR. In males, BMI and fitness, but not race independently predicted HOMA-IR. In females, BMI and race, but not fitness independently predicted HOMA-IR. Conclusions In middle school children, the beneficial effects of fitness vary based on gender and race. High CVF has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect in male and RD children. While BMI is the strongest predictor of IR in the study group as a whole, fitness is a significant predictor of IR only in males, and race is a significant predictor of IR only in females.

2012-01-01

254

The ageing Australian firefighter: an argument for age-based recruitment and fitness standards for urban fire services.  

PubMed

Currently, there is no enforcement of physical standards within Australian fire services post-recruitment, possibly leading to inappropriate fitness and body composition. This study evaluated the impacts of ageing on physical standards of Australian firefighters. Seventy-three firefighters from three different 10-year age groups [25-34 years (n = 27), 35-44 years (n = 27), 45-54 years (n = 19)] volunteered for physical testing using dual-energy X-ray analysis and existing fitness tests used for recruitment by an Australian fire service. Older (45-54 years) participants demonstrated significantly poorer physical standards compared with younger participants including cardiovascular fitness (p < 0.05), strength (p = 0.001) and simulated operational power testing tasks (p < 0.001). Age-related body composition changes were also observed independent of body mass index. Minimum recruitment standards and fitness programs need to account for age-related declines in physical capabilities to ensure that the minimum standard is maintained regardless of age. Practitioner Summary: Using dual-energy X-ray analysis and established fitness testing protocols, this study aimed to gain an appreciation of the current standards of body composition and fitness of Australian firefighters and the effects of ageing on their physical abilities post-recruitment. The study demonstrated a significant decline in physical standards due to age. PMID:24588283

Walker, Anthony; Driller, Matthew; Argus, Christos; Cooke, Julie; Rattray, Ben

2014-04-01

255

[Dietary habits and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. They are the main cause of death in industrialized countries, while the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease is increasing in less developed countries. The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are cigarette smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Obesity has been recorded in 10%-25% of the population, indicating that poor or inappropriate diet is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy dietary habits including place and way of taking meals, number of daily meals and excessive salt intake from processed foods also contribute to body mass gain. In the present study, dietary habits were assessed in cardiovascular patients versus control group by use of Dietary Habits Questionnaire. Study results showed a statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of inappropriate eating habits in cardiovascular patients (lower number of daily meals, more often skipping breakfast and having dinner) than in control group. In conclusion, many lifestyle and individual behavior modifications are needed in most patients with or at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20649073

Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelini?, Jagoda; Bergovec, Mijo; Ruzi?, Alen; Persi?, Viktor

2010-05-01

256

Boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for solution of partial differential equations on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multi-connected two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. No restrictions are placed on the shape of the boundaries, which may even be time-dependent, and the approach is not restricted in principle to two dimensions. With this procedure the numerical solution of a partial differential system may be done on a fixed rectangular field with a square mesh with no interpolation required regardless of the shape of the physical boundaries, regardless of the spacing of the curvilinear coordinate lines in the physical field, and regardless of the movement of the coordinate system in the physical plane. A number of examples of coordinate systems and application thereof to the solution of partial differential equations are given. The FORTRAN computer program and instructions for use are included.

Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

1977-01-01

257

Comparative levels and time trends in blood pressure, total cholesterol, Body Mass Index and smoking among Caucasian and South-Asian participants of a UK primary-care based cardiovascular risk factor screening programme  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals of South-Asian origin have a comparatively higher cardiovascular disease burden, but there is uncertainty about whether this is due to differences in risk factor levels and trends. We therefore studied comparative levels and time trends in blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking among UK Caucasian and South-Asian individuals. Methods Repeatable cross-sectional survey of men and women aged 35–60 attending for first screening as part of a primary-care based cardiovascular risk factor screening programme 1989 and 1999. Results Of 34,122 men and 37,294 women participants, 499 men (1.5%)and 381 women (1%) were of South-Asian origin. South-Asian men had lower systolic [(-4.91 mmHg (95% Confidence Iterval (CI): -3.58 to -6.23)] and diastolic BP [-2.87 mmHg (-2.02 to -3.72)], with no significant differences in cholesterol and BMI. South-Asian women had lower systolic BP [-1.77 mmHg, 95% (-0.21 to -3.33)], diastolic BP [-1.87 mmHg (-0.92 to -2.82)], cholesterol [-0.24 mmol/l (-0.08 to -0.39)]; and higher BMI [+0.78 kg/m2 (0.25 to 1.3)]. South-Asian men and women had significantly lower prevalence of self-reported current smoking (29.0% and 1.8% respectively). With the exception of self-reported current smoking, between ethnic group risk factor trends were not converging. Conclusion With the exception of women's BMI, South-Asian individuals had either lower or similar levels of the examined cardiovascular risk factors, compared with Caucasian individuals. Although time trends in smoking were converging, other risk factors trends were similar between the two ethnic groups. Overall the findings do not support the hypothesis that the relatively high cardiovascular disease burden in UK South-Asians is due to higher levels exposure to the examined risk factors. Other hypotheses, such as higher frequency of diabetes and increased genetic predisposition, require further exploration.

Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; McElduff, Patrick; Heller, Richard F; Hanily, Margaret; Lewis, Philip S

2005-01-01

258

Cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac societies recommend the intake of 1 g\\/day of the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment after a myocardial infarction, prevention of sudden death, and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. These recommendations are based on a body of scientific evidence that encompasses literally thousands of publications. Of four large scale

Clemens von Schacky; William S. Harris

2007-01-01

259

Physical fitness programming for health promotion at the worksite.  

PubMed

Exercise enthusiasts and health professionals have recommended that physical fitness programs be implemented in the occupational setting. Such programs are promoted on the basis of expected benefits to both the employee and employer. The potential for benefit to the employee seems substantial, since a sizable body of knowledge links regular exercise to improved functional capacity and reduced risk for development of certain chronic diseases. The available literature provides some direct evidence that exercise programs can improve the health status of employee groups. Specifically, programs may generate improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular health and promote long-term adherence to exercise. The physiological goals can be attained with programs that provide 20-30 min of moderately intense "aerobic" activity 3 or more days per week. Several factors are known to affect adherence of employees to company-sponsored fitness programs. Of particular importance are program leadership, motivational schema, program activities, convenience of participation, and social support. It is recommended that, where feasible, supervisors of employee fitness programs (a) secure professional leadership, (b) provide on-site or other facilities that maximize convenience, (c) allow participation across the widest possible time span, (d) provide programs offering a wide range of activities, (e) attend carefully to evaluation, recognition, and other motivational concerns, and (f) incorporate a comprehensive health promotion perspective. PMID:6657628

Pate, R R; Blair, S N

1983-09-01

260

[Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical practice takes into account information based on population studies and benefits observed in large populations or cohorts. However, individual patients present great differences in both toxicity and clinical efficacy that can be explained by variations in adherence, unknown drug to drug interactions and genetic variability. The latter seems to explain from 20% up to 95% of patient to patient variability. Treating patients with cardiovascular disorders faces the clinician with the challenge to include genomic analysis into daily practice. There are several examples within cardiovascular disease of treatments that can vary in toxicity or clinical usefulness based on genetic changes. One of the main factors affecting the efficacy of Clopidogrel is the phenotype associated with polymorphisms in the gene CYP 2C9. Furthermore, regarding oral anticoagulants, changes in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play an important role in changing the clinical response to anticoagulation. When analyzing statin treatment, one of their main toxicities (myopathy) can be predicted by the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. The potential for prediction of toxicity and clinical efficacy from the use of genetic analysis warrants further studies aiming towards its inclusion in daily clinical practice. PMID:24636047

Scibona, Paula; Angriman, Federico; Simonovich, Ventura; Heller, Martina M; Belloso, Waldo H

2014-01-01

261

Expanded Air Force Physical Fitness Battery: Muscle Strength, Muscle Endurance, and Flexibility Considered. Volume I, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current Air Force fitness test is a submaximal cycle ergometry test which is used to estimate cardiovascular fitness. Interest in adding to this fitness requirement has arisen from several quarters. CSERIAC, the Crew System Ergonomics Information Anal...

B. Palmer J. Soest

1997-01-01

262

Physical fitness and adults with mental retardation. An overview of current research and future directions.  

PubMed

The deinstitutionalization movement of the past 25 years has focused on the placement of people with mental retardation into community-based settings. There is a need for exercise- and health-related professionals to demonstrate a thorough understanding of the term mental retardation and all of the intellectual and behavioural ramifications that coexist with this condition before addressing the 'how to' of fitness evaluation. Therefore, the article outlines the range of intellectual and behavioural characteristics of this population, based on the level of retardation. Many researchers investigating body composition have reported that a disproportionate number of adults with mental retardation carry a percentage of body fat that would be considered unhealthy (e.g. it increases the risk of early onset of such diseases as hypertension and adult onset diabetes mellitus). Living arrangements (i.e. institution vs smaller residences) play a role in the prevalence of obesity. Many attempts of researchers to control weight in adults with mental retardation through caloric restriction, exercise, and a combination of diet and exercise, have had a varied outcome. Cardiovascular capacity is considered by most exercise physiologists as the major physiological indicator for overall fitness. The majority of researchers who have evaluated the cardiovascular fitness levels of adults with mental retardation have reported fitness levels representative of a very sedentary population. Therefore, one would expect a keen sense of urgency among researchers to develop training regimens targeted specifically for people with mental retardation. Many have been developed, but to date only 2 cardiovascular training regimens have been reported that specifically describe the necessary components of an exercise programme (i.e. frequency, duration, intensity) that would allow for reproducibility--a stationary bicycle routine using the Schwinn 'Air-Dyne' ergometer and a run/walk programme. Of these, only the programme using the Schwinn 'Air-Dyne' ergometer reported significant improvements in cardiopulmonary fitness. Researchers have demonstrated that: (1) body strength is valuable for recreation activities and activities of daily living; (2) competence in upper body muscular skills is a prerequisite for many available vocational opportunities; and (3) positive correlations have been established between muscular strength and industrial work performance in people with mental retardation. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate evaluation procedures for determining the muscular strength and endurance of people with mental retardation. The future directions for researchers and professionals concerned with the fitness status of people with mental retardation includes answering question such as: What will be the effect of obesity on general health status?(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8356375

Pitetti, K H; Rimmer, J H; Fernhall, B

1993-07-01

263

The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

2013-01-01

264

Effects of soya isoflavones and exercise on body composition and clinical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in overweight postmenopausal women: a 6-month double-blind controlled trial.  

PubMed

Results from a pilot project indicate that isoflavones and exercise could have an additive effect on body composition and clinical risk factors of CVD in postmenopausal women. The objective of the present study was to assess the combined effect of exercise and isoflavones in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women. In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, 100 overweight-to-obese (BMI 29·9 (sd 3·2) kg/m2) postmenopausal women were assigned to four groups: (1) placebo (PLA); (2) isoflavones (ISO); (3) exercise and placebo (Ex+PLA); (4) exercise and isoflavones (Ex+ISO). The supplementation contained 70 mg/d of isoflavones. Exercise consisted of three weekly sessions of resistance training and aerobics. Outcome measures included fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density, lipid profile, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis assessment model). The main effects of exercise were observed for total FM (P = 0·02), FM% (P < 0·01), trunk FM% (P = 0·05), arm FM% (P < 0·01), leg FM% (P = 0·02), arm LBM (P < 0·01), leg LBM (P = 0·02) and C-reactive protein (P < 0·01). A main effect was detected for isoflavones in improving leg FM% (P = 0·05). No interactions were observed between isoflavones and exercise. In conclusion, it was observed that 6 months of exercise brought favourable changes in total FM, FM% and LBM in overweight postmenopausal women. No synergistic effects were observed between exercise and isoflavones. However, isoflavones could have a beneficial effect on leg FM%. PMID:21205384

Choquette, Stéphane; Riesco, Éléonor; Cormier, Éric; Dion, Tommy; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Dionne, Isabelle J

2011-04-01

265

Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

1997-01-01

266

Multimodality Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Technology  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a new discipline that integrates scientific advances in both functional imaging and molecular probes to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the cardiovascular system. These advances are driven by in vivo imaging of molecular processes in animals, usually small animals, and are rapidly moving toward clinical applications. Molecular imaging has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The 2 key components of all molecular imaging systems are the molecular contrast agents and the imaging system providing spatial and temporal localization of these agents within the body. They must deliver images with the appropriate sensitivity and specificity to drive clinical applications. As work in molecular contrast agents matures and highly sensitive and specific probes are developed, these systems will provide the imaging technologies required for translation into clinical tools. This is the promise of molecular medicine.

O'Donnell, Matthew; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Strauss, H. William; Tanaka, Atsushi; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Guttman, Michael A.; Garcia, Ernest V.

2010-01-01

267

Lifetime body mass index and later atherosclerosis risk in young adults: examining causal links using Mendelian randomization in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study  

PubMed Central

Aims Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants related to environmentally modifiable risk factors in an attempt to improve causal inference from observational data. We examined the effect of lifetime body mass index (BMI) on adult carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and various atherosclerotic risk factors by using both Mendelian randomization and conventional analyses. Methods and results A total of 2230 individuals (1218 women), aged 3–18 at study induction, took part in clinical examinations in 1980, 1983, 1986, and, most recently, 2001 when they were aged 24–39. In these analyses we utilized the known relation between FTO polymorphism rs9939609 and BMI. The dose–response association between the number of A alleles in FTO and higher mean BMI from childhood to adulthood was confirmed, but no associations with potential confounding factors were observed. In standard regression models, lifetime BMI was associated with adult CIMT, lifetime systolic blood pressure, adult fasting glucose, and adult HOMA-index. When variation in FTO was used as an instrument for unconfounded BMI levels, similar or larger effects of lifetime BMI on all these phenotypes were found, although with wider confidence intervals. Conclusion Mutually supportive results from Mendelian randomization and standard regression models strengthen the evidence of the effect of lifetime BMI on atherosclerosis risk in young adults.

Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nic J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Batty, G. David; Kahonen, Mika; Juonala, Markus; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S.A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.

2008-01-01

268

A journey toward wholeness, a journey to God: physical fitness as embodied spirituality.  

PubMed

Physical fitness expressed through exercise can be, if done with the right intention, a form of spiritual discipline that reflects the relational love of humanity to God as well as an expression of a healthy love of the embodied self. Through an analysis of the physiological benefits of exercise science applied to the human body, this paper will demonstrate how such attention to the optimal physical fitness of the body, including weight and cardiovascular training and nutrition, is an affirmation of three foundational theological principles of human embodiment: as created in the "imago Dei", as unified body/spirit, and as part of God's creation calling for proper stewardship. In a contemporary climate where women's bodies in particular are viewed through the lens of commodification-as visual objects for sale based on prescribed notions of superficial esthetics and beauty-as well as the consistently high rates of eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and obesity, authors Greenwood and Delgado offer a vision of how women and men can imagine a subjective relationship with their own bodies that reflects the abundant love of God for God's creation. Spoken from the lived experience of professional fitness competitor and trainer, as well as trained biokineticist, Dr. Greenwood presents the most current scientific data in the field of biokinetics that grounds the theological analysis offered by Dr. Delgado, whose personal journey through anorexia and scholarly emphasis on Christian theological anthropology inform this work. Taken together, Greenwood and Delgado suggest a response to God's love for humanity, including our physical bodily humanity, which entails a responsibility to attend to the physical fitness of our bodies in order to live into the fullness, flourishing and love of God's creation as God intended. PMID:22005967

Greenwood, Tracey C; Delgado, Teresa

2013-09-01

269

Cardiovascular system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. Most of the blood is made up of a watery, protein-laden fluid called plasma. A little less than half of this blood volume is composed of red and white blood cells, and other solid elements called platelets.

270

Effect of lower body negative pressure on orthostatic tolerance and cardiovascular function during 21 days head-down tilt bed rest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Orthostatic intolerance commonly occurs when the astronauts return to Earth or just after landing of the Space Shuttle or the airship cabin The decreased orthostatic tolerance is thought to represent one of the dangers of space flight Lower body negative pressure LBNP sessions have shown beneficial effects to counter orthostatic intolerance in previous studies The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes of orthostatic tolerance and cardiac function during 21 d head-down tilt HDT bed rest and effect of LBNP in the first and the last week in humans Methods Twelve healthy male volunteers were exposed to -- 6 r HDT bed rest for 21 d Six subjects received --30 mmHg LBNP sessions for 1h per day from the 1st to the 7th day and from 15th to the 21st day of the HDT and six others served as control Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by means of standard tilt test Stroke volume SV cardiac output CO preejection period PEP and left ventricular ejection time LVET were measured before and during HDT Results Before HDT all the subjects in the two groups completed the tilt tests After 10 d and 21 d of HDT all the subjects of the control group and one subject of the LBNP group could not complete the tilt test due to presyncopal or syncopal symptoms The mean upright time in the control group 15 0 pm 3 2 min was significantly shorter than those in the LBNP group 19 7 pm 0 9 min SV and CO decreased significantly in the control group on days 3 and 10 of HDT but remained

Sun, X. Q.; Yao, Y. J.; Yang, C. B.

271

Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background—Tai Chi Chuan (TTC) exercise has beneficial effects on the components of physical condition and can produce a substantial reduction in the risk of multiple falls. Previous studies have shown that short term TCC exercise did not improve the scores in the single leg stance test with eyes closed and the sit and reach test. There has apparently been no research into the effects of TCC on total body rotation flexibility and heart rate responses at rest and after a three minute step test. Methods—In this cross sectional study, 28 male TCC practitioners with an average age of 67.5 years old and 13.2 years of TCC exercise experience were recruited to form the TCC group. Another 30 sedentary men aged 66.2 were selected to serve as the control group. Measurements included resting heart rate, left and right single leg stance with eyes closed, modified sit and reach test, total body rotation test (left and right), and a three minute step test. Results—Compared with the sedentary group, the TCC group had significantly better scores in resting heart rate, three minute step test heart rate, modified sit and reach, total body rotation test on both right and left side (p<0.01), and both right and left leg standing with eyes closed (p<0.05). According to the American Fitness Standards, the TCC group attained the 90th percentile rank for sit and reach and total body rotation test, right and left. Conclusion—Long term regular TCC exercise has favourable effects on the promotion of balance control, flexibility, and cardiovascular fitness in older adults. Key Words: Tai Chi; balance; falls; flexibility; cardiovascular fitness; aged

Hong, Y.; Li, J. X.; Robinson, P

2000-01-01

272

Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity  

PubMed Central

Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

2013-01-01

273

Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate ('Eco-Atkins') diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6?months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4?kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to ?6.9?kg on low-carbohydrate and ?5.8?kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) ?1.1?kg (?2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) ?0.49?mmol/L (?0.70 to ?0.28), p<0.001 and ?0.34?mmol/L (?0.57 to ?0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (?0.57 (?0.83, ?0.32), p<0.001 and ?0.05 (?0.09, ?0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516.

Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

2014-01-01

274

PyFITS: Python FITS Module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PyFITS provides an interface to FITS formatted files in the Python scripting language and PyRAF, the Python-based interface to IRAF. It is useful both for interactive data analysis and for writing analysis scripts in Python using FITS files as either input or output. PyFITS is a development project of the Science Software Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Barrett, Paul; Hsu, J. C.; Hanley, Chris; Taylor, James; Droettboom, Michael; Bray, Erik M.; Hack, Warren; Greenfield, Perry; Wyckoff, Eric; Jedrzejewski, Robert; De La Pena, Michele; Hodge, Phil

2012-07-01

275

A Survey Assessment of Florida's Fit To Achieve Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of a Florida State Department of Education project entitled Fit to Achieve--a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary school children. Of the teachers implementing the program, 24 elementary physical educators and 134 elementary classroom teachers responded to a survey that asked for information on…

Sander, Allan N.; And Others

276

Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

1996-01-01

277

Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Magnesium, the fourth most abundant cation in the human body, is involved in several essential physiological, biochemical, and cellular processes regulating cardiovascular function. It plays a critical role in modulating vascular smooth muscle tone, endothelial cell function, and myocardial excitability and is thus central to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses the vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-ischemic, and antiarrhythmic properties of magnesium and its current role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:24896250

Kolte, Dhaval; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Khera, Sahil; Sica, Domenic A; Frishman, William H

2014-01-01

278

Rationale, design and baseline data for the Activating Consumers to Exercise through Peer Support (ACE trial): A randomized controlled trial to increase fitness among adults with mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background The benefits of regular physical activity are particularly salient to persons with serious mental illness (SMI) who have increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and earlier mortality from cardiovascular disease. Methods The Activating Consumers to Exercise through Peer Support (ACE) trial will examine the effectiveness of peer support on adherence to a 4-month pilot exercise program for adults with SMI. Design, rationale and baseline data are reported. Baseline measures included: graded treadmill test; six-minute walk; height, weight and blood pressure; body composition; fasting blood; and self-reported psychiatric symptoms. Fitness levels were compared with national data and relationships among fitness parameters, psychological factors and cardiovascular disease risk factors were examined. Results There were 93 participants and 18 peer leaders recruited from community psychiatry programs with an average age of 47 years (SD 10). There were no differences in demographics (76% female, 72% African American) or mental health symptoms between participants and peer leaders. Ninety-five percent of the sample had below average fitness levels for their age and sex with average MET levels of 5.9(SD 2.2) for participants and 6.2(SD 2.3) for peer leaders. Fitness evaluated during the treadmill test and the six-minute-walk were associated (rs = 0.36, p<.001). Lower MET levels were associated with a higher BMI (rs = ?0.35, p<.001) and percent body fat (rs = ?0.36, p <.001). Conclusion The uniformly low baseline cardiovascular fitness and the association of fitness with BMI and adiposity underscore the importance of suitably tailored programs to increase physical activity among adults with SMI.

Jerome, Gerald J.; Dalcin, Arlene T.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Stewart, Kerry J.; Crum, Rosa M.; Latkin, Carl; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Charleston, Jeanne; Leatherman, Elisabeth; Appel, Lawrence J.; Daumit, Gail L.

2012-01-01

279

Reaching Your Fitness Goals  

MedlinePLUS

Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

280

Fit-testing for firefighters.  

PubMed

When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect respirator fit, such as facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight. PMID:9891408

Brickman, C P

1999-01-01

281

CARDIOVASCULAR AND METABOLIC RESPONSES TO WALKING WITH AND WITHOUT LEG BLOOD FLOW REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-intensity walking with leg blood flow reduction has been shown to elicit a significant increase in skeletal muscle size and strength, and may also improve cardiovascular fitness. However, the cardiovascular and respiratory response to walking with blood flow reduction has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular and metabolic responses during a graded maximum

Hayao Ozaki; Keiko Kusuhara; Yoshiaki Sato; William F. Brechue; Futoshi Ogita

282

Standards on medical fitness examinations for Navy divers.  

PubMed

The German Navy employs approximately 480 divers in their primary and secondary role. Before entering diving training, every diver has to pass an intensive physical examination programme at the German Naval Medical Institute (NMI) in Kiel-Kronshagen. Annual follow-ups ensure the currency of the medical findings. Criteria of medical fitness for diving reflect industrial medical standards for hyperbaric workers as well as the general medical guidelines for NATO divers. A diving examination consists of the individual medical history, a physical examination including the neurological status and the assessment of the cardiovascular fitness by ECG and bicycle ergometry. The respiratory system is screened by regular chest x-rays and spirometry or body plethysmography. Blood and urine samples are taken to look for abnormal haematological and metabolic conditions as well as disorders of the genito-urinary system. In order to determine visual fitness, diver's visual acuity, colour vision and stereopsis as well as eye fundi are examined by an eye specialist. Also the ENT examination involves a speciality consultant and consists of audiometry, inspection of the external ear and tympanic membrane and functional tests. To ensure a high standard of dental fitness, screening by a dental officer is part of the annual check-up. Every routine diving medical examination at the NMI includes a pressure test in the hyperbaric chamber. Divers who use nitrox or oxygen-rebreather devices have to pass successfully an oxygen tolerance test under hyperbaric conditions. The annual routine diving medical examination contributes to minimize the risk of accidents in military diving operations. PMID:14974787

Weiss, Michael

2003-01-01

283

Development of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills, soccer skills and on-the-ball performance in soccer-specific laboratory test among adolescent soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key pointsPhysical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players.Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities.Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities.Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

2010-01-01

284

FITS Foreign File Encapsulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FITS FOREIGN is a new FITS extension type that has been submitted to the FITS Registry {http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/fits_registry.html} as a standard way to wrap an arbitrary file, allowing a file or tree of files to be wrapped up in FITS and later restored to disk. Certain of the file attribute keywords can be included in the header of any FITS file or extension to support such things as storing a directory tree containing images, tables, and other non-FITS types of files in a multi-extension FITS (MEF) file, and later restoring the whole tree to disk. The motivation for this extension was to allow an implementation that is based on the FITS multi-extension mechanism to encapsulate and pass non-FITS data.

Zárate, N.; Seaman, R.; Tody, D.

2007-10-01

285

Physical Fitness Training Program for Research Saturation Divers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physical fitness training program is descrived for diver research subjects. THe program incorporates the concepts of strength and endurance into total body fitness. Special emphasis is placed upon specificity training for appropriate research projects. ...

T. J. Doubt F. M. Mecocci

1985-01-01

286

Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students  

PubMed Central

Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (Mage?=?12.3?±?0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR?=?2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p?fitness and weight status were independently and combined related to academic achievement in seventh-grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born.

2014-01-01

287

Ghrelin and the cardiovascular system.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is a peptide that was originally isolated from the stomach. It exerts potent growth hormone (GH)-releasing and orexigenic activities. Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic benefits of ghrelin for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In animal models of chronic heart failure, the administration of ghrelin improved cardiac function and remodeling; these findings were replicated in human patients with heart failure. Moreover, in an animal study, ghrelin administration effectively reduced pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia. In addition, repeated administration of ghrelin to cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had positive effects on overall body function, including muscle wasting, functional capacity and sympathetic activity. The administration of ghrelin early after myocardial infarction (MI) reduced fatal arrhythmia and related mortality. In ghrelin-deficient mice, both exogenous and endogenous ghrelin were protective against fatal arrhythmia and promoted remodeling after MI. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of ghrelin on the cardiovascular system remain unclear, there are indications that its beneficial effects are mediated through both direct physiological actions, including increased GH levels, improved energy balance and direct actions on cardiovascular cells, and regulation of autonomic nervous system activity. Therefore, ghrelin is a promising novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24943303

Tokudome, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenj

2014-01-01

288

A Pretty Good Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We often look for a best-fit function to a set of data. This article describes how a "pretty good" fit might be better than a "best" fit when it comes to promoting conceptual understanding of functions. In a pretty good fit, students design the function themselves rather than choosing it from a menu; they use appropriate variable names; and they…

Erickson, Tim

2008-01-01

289

APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... cardiovascular disease (CVD) . However, there is a wide variability in the response to these lipid-lowering drugs ... normal" lipid metabolism, thus may not have any genetic impact on risk of developing cardiovascular disease . APOE ...

290

Changes in physical activity and fitness after 3 months of home Wii Fit™ use.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in physical activity and fitness variables in members of 8 volunteer families after 3 months of home use of the Wii Fit™ interactive video game. Pre and postintervention measurements were obtained from 21 subjects relative to physical activity (5 days of accelerometry), aerobic fitness (graded treadmill test), muscular fitness (push-ups), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), balance (composite equilibrium score), and body composition (body mass index and % body fat). Use characteristics of the Wii Fit™ device were also determined. A series of 2 (age group) × 2 (time) repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess changes over time and between adults and children. Three months of home Wii Fit™ use revealed no significant age group × time interactions or main effects of group or time for daily physical activity, muscular fitness, flexibility, balance, or body composition. An age group × time interaction (p = 0.04) was observed in peak VO2 (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) with children displaying a significant (p = 0.03) increase after 3 months of Wii Fit™ use, whereas adults showed no significant (p = 0.50) change. Daily Wii Fit™ use per household declined by 82% (p < 0.01) from 21.5 ± 9.0 min·d(-1) during the first 6 weeks to 3.9 ± 4.0 min·d(-1) during the second 6 weeks. Most measures of health-related fitness in this exploratory study remained unchanged after 3 months of home use of the popular Wii Fit™ whole-body movement interactive video game. Modest daily Wii Fit™ use may have provided insufficient stimulus for fitness changes. PMID:21993031

Owens, Scott G; Garner, John C; Loftin, J Mark; van Blerk, Natalie; Ermin, Kevser

2011-11-01

291

Infection and Cardiovascular Disease  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

2005-06-23

292

Effects of nordic walking compared to conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on fitness in older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day(-1) (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week(-1) (NW and CW) or 2 day·week(-1) (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key PointsNordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults.Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not.Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking.Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Rogers, Nicole L; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

2013-01-01

293

Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson

2002-01-01

294

Cardiovascular benefits of exercise.  

PubMed

Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460-377 BC) wrote "in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise." Plato (427-347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129-217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

Agarwal, Shashi K

2012-01-01

295

Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.  

PubMed

During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent. PMID:22171877

Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

2011-12-19

296

Physical activity, fitness and serum leptin concentrations in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the association of physical activity and fitness with leptin concentrations in European adolescents, after taking into account several potential confounders including total body fat.

Jiménez-Pavón David; B. Ortega Francisco; G. Artero Enrique; Labayen Idoia; Vicente-Rodriguez German; Huybrechts Inge; A. Moreno Luis; Manios Yannis; Béghin Laurent; Polito Angela; De Henauw Stefaan; Sjöström Michael; J. Castillo Manuel; González-Gross Marcela; R. Ruiz Jonatan

297

Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

2014-04-01

298

Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.

Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell

1991-01-01

299

Physical fitness, fatigue, and quality of life after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue is often experienced after liver transplantation. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess physical fitness\\u000a (cardiorespiratory fitness, neuromuscular fitness, body composition) in liver transplant recipients and to explore whether\\u000a physical fitness is related to severity of fatigue. In addition, we explored the relationship between physical fitness and\\u000a health-related quality of life. Included were 18 patients 1–5 years after

Berbke T. J. van Ginneken; Rita J. G. van den Berg-Emons; Geert Kazemier; Herold J. Metselaar; Hugo W. Tilanus; Henk J. Stam

2007-01-01

300

Lower serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults  

PubMed Central

Lower levels of serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap have been associated with insulin resistance and hypertension in the general population. Whether these associations extend to other cardiovascular disease risk factors is unknown. To clarify this, we examined the association of serum bicarbonate and anion gap with cardiorespiratory fitness in 2714 adults aged 20–49 years in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.6 mEq/L and the mean anion gap was 10.26 mEq/L, with fitness determined by submaximal exercise testing. After multivariable adjustment, gender, length of fasting, soft drink consumption, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphate, and hemoglobin were independently associated with both the serum bicarbonate and the anion gap. Low fitness was most prevalent among those in the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate or highest quartile of anion gap. After multivariable adjustment, a one standard deviation higher serum bicarbonate or anion gap was associated with an odds ratio for low fitness of 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.91) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.48), respectively. The association of bicarbonate with fitness may be mediated by differences in lean body mass. Thus, lower levels of serum bicarbonate and higher levels of anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in adults aged 20–49 years in the general population.

Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

2012-01-01

301

MAGNESIUM AND THE TREATMENT OF SOME CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short article the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases with magnesium is reviewed. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in almost all physiological systems of the body including the cardiovascular one. The most important functions dependent on magnesium are calcium antagonism, membrane sealing or stabilization, regulation of energy transfer, control of oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, production and function

TEFAN KUJANÍK

302

Family Activities for Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

Grosse, Susan J.

2009-01-01

303

Risk assessment of physical activity and physical fitness in the Canada Health Survey mortality follow-up study.  

PubMed

The effect of physical fitness and physical activity on all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and other causes was examined using a population-based representative sample of the Canadian population. A total of 691 deaths occurred among persons age 30-69 during the 7-year follow-up period. Of these, 37, 33 and 30% died of CVD, cancer and other causes, respectively. The effect of each risk factor on mortality was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Adjustment was made for age, sex, smoking and body mass index in the case of mortality due to CVD, all causes and causes other than CVD and cancer. Models for mortality due to cancer included adjustment for age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption. For all cause mortality, those individuals who did not pass the physical fitness tests had significantly higher risks of death than those that passed. For CVD mortality, subjects whose physical activity was moderate were protected, and those who did not pass the physical fitness tests had substantially higher risks of death due to CVD. The risk of death due to cancer was not significantly related to physical activity or physical fitness. Persons who failed the physical fitness tests had significantly elevated risks of death due to causes other than CVD or cancer. Our findings support the conclusion that persons who are physically fit have an overall reduced risk of death independent of other major risk factors. Moderate levels of physical activity appear to be protective against cardiovascular disease. PMID:1569438

Arraiz, G A; Wigle, D T; Mao, Y

1992-04-01

304

Kids and Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many U.S. children are out of shape. Parents must help them learn to improve their fitness by exercising with them. The U.S. Conference of Mayors recently made physical fitness of the nation's children a primary emphasis. A sidebar presents information on how to contact local mayors to start up programs to help children improve their fitness.…

Corradini, Deedee

1999-01-01

305

Value From Regulatory Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where does value come from? I propose a new answer to this classic question. People experience regulatory fit when the manner of their engagement in an activity sustains their goal orientation or interests regarding that activity. When there is fit, people engage more strongly in what they are doing and “feel right” about it. Fit influences the strength of value

E. Tory Higgins

2005-01-01

306

Construct validation of a non-exercise measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality but is rarely assessed in medical settings due to burdens of time, cost, risk, and resources. The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a regression equation developed by Jurca and colleagues (2005) to estimate CRF without exercise testing in community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants (n = 172) aged 60 to 80 years with no contraindications to submaximal or maximal exercise testing completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) and the submaximal Rockport 1-mile walk test on separate occasions. Data included in the regression equation (age, sex, body mass index, resting heart rate, and physical activity) were obtained via measurement or self-report. Participants also reported presence of cardiovascular conditions. Results The multiple R for the regression equation was .72, p < .001 and CRF estimated from this equation was significantly correlated with the MET value from the GXT (r = 0.66) and with CRF estimated from submaximal field testing (r = 0.67). All three CRF indices were significantly and inversely associated with reporting more cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence that a non-exercise estimate of CRF is at least as valid as field test estimates of CRF and represents a low-risk, low-cost, and expedient method for estimating fitness in older adults.

2010-01-01

307

Role of Inhaled Particles in the Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanisms by which particulate matter (PM) exposure disrupts cardiac function and worsens cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not well understood. There is a growing body of knowledge that suggests that PM exposure can induce inflammatory changes in blo...

M. Kleinman

2010-01-01

308

Comparison of Physical Fitness among Smoker and Non-Smoker Men  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that cigarette smoking has negative impacts on body health, as well as social health, economy, culture, etc. Nowadays, there is a large body of evidence that smoking is the cause of numerous life-threatening diseases like cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases along with different kinds of cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of smokers and non smokers. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 64 non-sportsmen (34 non-smokers and 30 smokers) aging 19-27 years. Both groups were matched for age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The smokers used cigarettes at least 5 cigarettes a day for 2 years. None of them had a musculoskeletal disease. We used a questionnaire and physical fitness tests for data gathering. The tests were used to measure muscle strength, endurance, speed, agility and flexibility in both groups. Findings The muscle strength was significantly different in smokers and non-smokers (P = 0.012). Moreover, smokers had less agility (P = 0.004) and speed (P = 0.008) than non-smokers. However, although smokers were weaker than non- smokers, the differences in muscle endurance (P = 0.066) and flexibility (P = 0.095) were not the statistically significant. Conclusion According to these results, the smokers were less powerful than nonsmokers. In addition, physical activity skills in young smokers were decreased. Therefore, smoking will cause a gradual loss of physical strength and active personal and social power.

Moslemi-Haghighi, Farzaneh; Rezaei, Iman; Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz; Lari, Reza; Pouya, Fatemeh

2011-01-01

309

Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women.

Ramos-Jimenez, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Munoz-Daw, Maria DJ; Torres-Duran, Patricia V; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco A

2009-01-01

310

Imaging in Cardiovascular Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite enormous investment into cardiovascular research on all levels worldwide, cardiovascular events such as myocardial\\u000a infarction, heart failure, tachyarrhythmia or stroke remain the major causes for death and inability in all developed countries.\\u000a Conventional clinical cardiovascular imaging nowadays provides high-resolution visualization of the morphology of vessels\\u000a and the myocardium. To translate the available patient imaging technologies into animals, especially mice

Michael Schäfers; Klaus Tiemann; Michael Kuhlmann; Lars Stegger; Klaus Schäfers; Sven Hermann

311

Exercise, Fitness, and Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults: The “Selective Improvement” and “Cardiovascular Fitness” Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Although basic research has uncovered biological mechanisms by which exercise could maintain and enhance adult brain health,\\u000a experimental human studies with older adults have produced equivocal results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose\\u000a   This randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the hypotheses that (a) the effects of exercise training on the performance\\u000a of neurocognitive tasks in older adults is selective, influencing mainly tasks with

Ann L. Smiley-Oyen; Kristin A. Lowry; Sara J. Francois; Marian L. Kohut; Panteleimon Ekkekakis

2008-01-01

312

Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

2013-03-01

313

Body Fat Measurement Tools  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing Childhood Obesity Pediatric BMI Assessment Overweight Assessment: A Parent's Guide School-Based BMI ...

314

Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness.…

Getchell, Bud

315

Effects of exercise on emerging and traditional cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Common cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., insulin and aerobic fitness) are improved with exercise; however, few studies have addressed the potential for training to modify emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors such as homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.Methods. Sedentary adults (n = 324, 48.9 ± 8.4 years) were randomized to four groups differing in training intensity (moderate = 45–55% or

Glen E. Duncan; Michael G. Perri; Stephen D. Anton; Marian C. Limacher; A. Daniel Martin; David T. Lowenthal; Erland Arning; Teodoro Bottiglieri; Peter W. Stacpoole

2004-01-01

316

Leak test fitting  

DOEpatents

A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

Pickett, Patrick T. (Kettering, OH)

1981-01-01

317

Effect of secular trends on age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors: the Whitehall II longitudinal study 1985-2009  

PubMed Central

Background: Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors have been described, but few studies have examined simultaneously the effects of both ageing and secular trends within the same cohort. Methods: Development of cardiovascular risk factors over the past three decades was analysed using serial measurements from 10 308 participants aged from 35 to 80 years over 25 years of follow-up from five clinical examination phases of the Whitehall II study. Changes of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol distribution characteristics were analysed with quantile regression models in the 57–61 age group. Age-related trajectories of risk factors were assessed by fitting mixed-effects models with adjustment for year of birth to reveal secular trends. Results: Average body mass index and waist circumference increased faster with age in women than in men, but the unfavourable secular trend was more marked in men. Distributions showed a fattening of the right tail in each consecutive phase, meaning a stronger increase in higher percentiles. Despite the higher obesity levels in younger birth cohorts, total cholesterol decreased markedly in the 57–61 age group along the entire distribution rather than in higher extremes only. Conclusion: The past three decades brought strong and heterogeneous changes in cardiovascular risk factor distributions. Secular trends appear to modify age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors, which may be a source of bias in longitudinal analyses.

Hulman, Adam; Tabak, Adam G; Nyari, Tibor A; Vistisen, Dorte; Kivimaki, Mika; Brunner, Eric J; Witte, Daniel R

2014-01-01

318

Introduction: Cardiovascular physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand,

Niels Wessel; Jürgen Kurths; William Ditto; Robert Bauernschmitt

2007-01-01

319

Body Image  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-01-02

320

Modeling and Fitting Tidal Stellar Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss several results on tidal streams from star clusters and satellite galaxies orbiting more massive host galaxies. First, I discuss qualitatively the deviation of the stream from the orbital path and the formation of substructure within the stream; both effects have several distinct regimes. Next, I present an method of fitting models of tidal streams to observations which is more accurate than simple orbital fits and less time-consuming than full N-body simulations. This method allows for a thorough exploration of parameter space. Finally, I present model fits and parameter constraints using a metal-poor tidal stream in M31.

Fardal, Mark A.; Huang, S.; Weinberg, M. D.; PAndAS; SPLASH

2014-01-01

321

Development of an Elliptical Trainer Physical Fitness Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cardiovascular fitness test is one element of the U.S. Navy Physical Readiness Test (PRT). This report presents the results of 3 studies that evaluated the potential use of a commercially available elliptical trainer, the CT 9500 HR, for this testing: (...

S. B. Parker, L. Griswold, J. R. Vickers

2006-01-01

322

Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory muscle function in the obese population.  

PubMed

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the most important health metrics in apparently healthy individuals, those at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and virtually all patient populations. In addition to CRF, a host of other variables obtained from aerobic exercise testing provides clinically valuable information. Individuals classified as obese (i.e. a body mass index ?30 kg/m(2)) have varying degrees of CV, pulmonary and skeletal muscle dysfunction that impact CRF and other key aerobic exercise testing variables. Moreover, there is now evidence indicating inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle function, even in the absence of interstitial lung disease, is potentially compromised as a result of obesity. When obesity-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction is present, it has the potential to contribute to the limitations in CRF. The current review will discuss aerobic exercise testing and the assessment of respiratory muscle function in the obese population. PMID:24438738

Arena, Ross; Cahalin, Lawrence P

2014-01-01

323

Fitness: A Lifestyle Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors contributing to the evolution of fitness are discussed, and some of the challenges these hold for those in the fields of food and nutrition are identified. This includes a discussion of basic concepts of nutrition and exercise, misconceptions of nutrition and exercise, and fitness instructors as nutrition educators. (Author/CT)

Hennyey, Donna J.

1985-01-01

324

Equality of Fitness Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, who has been a personal trainer for the past ten years, recently realized that all fitness centers are not equal. In February, he was able to participate in the grand opening of the Center for Independent Living of Central PA (CILCP), a fitness center that is designed to accommodate persons with disabilities living in the Central…

Swoyer, Jesse O.

2008-01-01

325

Fitness in Disguise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical fitness activities are often viewed as monotonous and tedious, so they fail to motivate students to become more physically active. This tedium could be relieved by using a "learning as play" strategy, widely used in other academic disciplines. This article describes how to incorporate fitness into a variety of games so that students do…

Williams, Neil F.; Germain, Jenna

2008-01-01

326

Fun & Fitness with Balloons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

2010-01-01

327

Fitness and Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

Nordholm, Catherine R.

328

Facing Up To Fitness  

PubMed Central

Becoming fit means preparing ourselves to cope more effectively with environmental stresses. Exercise programs represent one approach to the fitness struggle. There are alternatives for those who find regular exercise unappealing - Yoga, biofeedback training or self hypnosis. At the moment these techniques appear unscientific and spooky - but they work.

Schatz, Douglas

1974-01-01

329

Uncertainty propagation: Curve fitting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn a sample-variance curve fitting method that can be used to determine whether a set of experimental data appears to have been generated by a model. This method is based on minimizing the reduced chi-squared value. This video includes a reminder to inspect normalized residuals before reporting fitted parameters.

Liao, David

330

Fit for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the 1980's fitness craze is wearing off and adults are again becoming "couch potatoes," this trend does not justify expansion of high school compulsory physical education requirements. To encourage commitment to lifetime physical fitness, the Phoenix (Arizona) Union High School District offers students private showers, relaxed uniform…

Klahr, Gary Peter

1992-01-01

331

Sports and fitness activities: the negative consequences.  

PubMed

Participation in sports and fitness activities offers potential health benefits for individuals of all ages, such as combating obesity and osteoporosis, as well as enhancing cardiovascular fitness. Negative consequences of musculoskeletal injuries sustained during sports participation in childhood and adolescence may compromise function in later life, limiting the ability to experience pain-free mobility and engage in fitness-enhancing activity. Increasingly successful management of sports-related injuries has allowed more athletes to return to participation. However, even effective early management of meniscal or anterior cruciate ligament injury does not minimize or preclude the increased likelihood of developing subsequent osteoarthritis. In addition, even in the absence of injury, vigorous participation in sports and fitness activities during childhood and adolescence increases the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis. It is ironic that return to vigorous sports participation has been adopted as an important measure of success of treatment, yet few efforts have been made to document long-term consequences of continued participation. Awareness of the long-term consequences of intensive sport and fitness activities allows the physician to help patients make informed decisions about the types and levels of activity they choose. PMID:14686829

Garrick, James G; Requa, Ralph K

2003-01-01

332

Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stressors in late adulthood is predicted by gestational age at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of body size and gestational age at birth with adult blood pressure (BP) are relatively modest compared to their stronger associations with cardiovascular disease. BP reactivity is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity, and it is possible that reactivity, rather than resting level, is determined in utero. We investigated whether body size and gestational age at birth predict

K Feldt; K Räikkönen; J G Eriksson; S Andersson; C Osmond; D J P Barker; D I W Phillips; E Kajantie

2007-01-01

333

Judging body weight from faces: the height-weight illusion.  

PubMed

Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670

Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian

2012-01-01

334

Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.  

PubMed Central

For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Meusel, H.

1984-01-01

335

Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.  

PubMed

The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners. PMID:17411258

Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

2007-03-01

336

Sudomotor Function as a Tool for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Level Evaluation: Comparison with Maximal Exercise Capacity  

PubMed Central

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = ?0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and ?0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions.

Raisanen, Anu; Eklund, Jyrki; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2014-01-01

337

Sudomotor function as a tool for cardiorespiratory fitness level evaluation: comparison with maximal exercise capacity.  

PubMed

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = -0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and -0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions. PMID:24886754

Raisanen, Anu; Eklund, Jyrki; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2014-01-01

338

A FITS Library Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) Library Package for Linux, and Mac OS X consists of a collection of high and low level routines to carry out various useful functions associated with FITS image files. Besides the source code for the library, a demonstration program, "testfits", which illustrates the library's capabilities and shows how to code the subroutines into your own customized applications, is included. Source code of subroutines from the MIIPS Plot Package and subroutines to display images on Enhanced SAOimage are included as well. The source code and executables can be downloaded from www.chara.gsu.edu/ gudehus/fits_library_package.html.

Gudehus, Donald H.

2009-12-01

339

Body image in middle school children.  

PubMed

The study purpose was to examine the relationship between sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and fitness level on the body image of 388 middle school children. Participants completed affective (social physique anxiety) and subjective evaluation (body dissatisfaction) body image measures and the 1-mile run/walk as an objective fitness measure. It was found that: (a) the females reported more social physique anxiety and body dissatisfaction than the males; (b) body dissatisfaction, especially for the females, was prevalent, (c) BMI was positively related to the body image measures; (d) for the males only, age was negatively related to the body image measures; (e) body dissatisfaction was negatively related to fitness levels; and (f) after controlling for BMI (and age for the males), fitness level was not a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction. The results indicate that body dissatisfaction was prevalent and early interventions with youth may be required. PMID:12452257

Hausenblas, H A; Symons Downs, D; Fleming, D S; Connaughton, D P

2002-09-01

340

Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

2009-01-01

341

Cardiovascular Software Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directory compiled by the Computer Applications Committee of the American College of Cardiology(ACC), is the first edition of a source of information of software for cardiovascular medicine. The scope of the Directory is broad, including software repr...

1988-01-01

342

Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

1986-01-01

343

The universal Higgs fit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a `universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our `universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M h = 124 .4 ± 1 .6 GeV.

Giardino, Pier Paolo; Kannike, Kristjan; Masina, Isabella; Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

2014-05-01

344

Exercise and Physical Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

345

Proper fitting shoes (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Shoes should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch as ... damage, people with diabetes may not feel a shoe rubbing against the skin of their foot. Blisters ...

346

Glasses Fitting for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... and continued good fit for your child. What frame should be chosen? Size is very important. (Figure ... wear spectacles. Children should not be given adult frames to grow into. Some children wear straps to ...

347

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in uremia. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is common in chronic renal failure patients, and may be explained in part by abnormalities in cardiovascular autonomic regulation. This review discusses the results of cardiovascular autonomic function studies in chronic renal failure patients. While covering most methods of assessing autonomic function, we focus particularly on power spectral analysis methods. These

Thompson G Robinson; Susan J Carr

2002-01-01

348

The Langley Fitness Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

1993-01-01

349

Obestatin and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, was first described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin through an interaction with the orphan receptor GPR39. However, the effects of obestatin were not totally contrary to the effects of ghrelin in cardiovascular regulations based on the recent studies. We summarize here the current evidences surrounding the cardiovascular actions of obestatin, and the possible implications of obestatin as a therapeutic agent in common conditions such as hypertension and heart failure. PMID:24333655

Su, Xue-Jia; Dong, Rui-Xin; Li, Yan-Peng; Yang, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhao-Feng

2014-02-01

350

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

351

Fitting Galaxies on GPUs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With ever-growing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementation of the model fitting procedure using freely-available GPU libraries. Early results suggest a speed-up of around 10× over a CPU implementation. We discuss the opportunities such a speed-up could provide, including the ability to use more computationally expensive but better-performing fitting routines to increase the quality and robustness of fits.

Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

2011-07-01

352

Healthy Bodies: Construction of the Body and Health in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be "healthy bodies"--for teachers to be "appropriate" physical, fit, healthy and skillful "role models" and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In teachers' monitoring of students…

Webb, Louisa; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Ohman, Marie

2008-01-01

353

Insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness in a population-based sample of 380 young healthy Caucasians. Analysis of the impact of gender, body fat, physical fitness, and life-style factors.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are traits that are both genetically and environmentally determined. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of the insulin sensitivity index (Si), the acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness (Sg) in young healthy Caucasians and to estimate the relative impact of anthropometric and environmental determinants on these variables. METHODS: The material included 380 unrelated Caucasian subjects (18-32 yr) with measurement of Si, Sg and insulin secretion during a combined intravenous glucose (0.3 grams/kg body weight) and tolbutamide (3 mg/kg body weight) tolerance test. RESULTS: The distributions of Si and acute insulin response were skewed to the right, whereas the distribution of Sg was Gaussian distributed. Sg was 15% higher in women compared with men (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, body mass index, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives were the most important determinants of Si. Approximately one-third of the variation of Si could be explained by these factors. Compared with individuals in the upper four-fifths of the distribution of Si, subjects with Si in the lowest fifth had higher waist circumference, higher blood pressure, lower VO2max, and lower glucose tolerance and fasting dyslipidemia and dysfibrinolysis. Only 10% of the variation in acute insulin response could be explained by measured determinants. CONCLUSION: Estimates of body fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives explain about one-third of the variation in Si in a population-based sample of young healthy Caucasians.

Clausen, J O; Borch-Johnsen, K; Ibsen, H; Bergman, R N; Hougaard, P; Winther, K; Pedersen, O

1996-01-01

354

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds.

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

355

The Extended Relationship between Child Cardiovascular Risks and Academic Performance Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationship between children’s overweight status and other cardiovascular risk fitness factors and academic performance among fifth-grade students.Research Methods and Procedures: Using a sample of 968 fifth-grade students (50.7% boys; mean age = 10.6 years), children’s cardiovascular risks (BMI, blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans) and fitness measures were compared with their mean group performance scores across four subscales

Lesley A. Cottrell; Karen Northrup; Richard Wittberg

2007-01-01

356

Cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities--a review.  

PubMed

Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the circulatory, respiratory and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels have been found in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), which puts them at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. The aims of this review were to update previous reviews about (a) the cardiorespiratory fitness levels and their determinants in individuals with ID, and (b) the validity and reliability of cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with ID. We searched the databases of Pubmed and Embase for relevant studies, resulting in 31 included articles. These studies mainly included younger participants with mild to moderate ID. Results confirmed previous findings of low cardiorespiratory fitness levels in individuals with ID. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels of children and adolescents with ID are already low, with further decline with increasing age. Furthermore, females have lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels than males. Physical inactivity and chronotropic incompetence are most likely to contribute to low cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Peak cardiorespiratory fitness levels of individuals with ID can be assessed with maximal treadmill protocols, after allowing for familiarization sessions. Although, predicting maximal oxygen uptake from field tests is problematic, field tests have been found valid and reliable as indicators of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:23892875

Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

2013-10-01

357

Rules, culture, and fitness  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1

Baum, William M.

1995-01-01

358

Cardiovascular toxicity with highly active antiretroviral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency\\u000a virus (HIV). Specific toxicities cited for HAART include elevations in serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides,\\u000a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alterations in the distribution of body fat, increases in insulin resistance,\\u000a and diabetes, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Biykem Bozkurt

2004-01-01

359

Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

360

Optimization of inclusive fitness.  

PubMed

The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

Grafen, Alan

2006-02-01

361

Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

2001-01-01

362

It's Your Choice: A Program for Cardiovascular Health. Teaching Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to help high school students develop a lifestyle that promotes cardiovascular and overall health; activities are intended to promote total health and wellness. The handbook is composed of a curriculum guide and classroom materials, and is designed to fit into a comprehensive health education program. Multidisciplinary…

Hazlett, Shirley Holder

363

Cardiovascular Endurance Activities for Children in Grades Four Through Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of cardiovascular endurance activities for children in grades four through six was developed to emphasize success and improvement and establish lifelong patterns of concern for and enjoyment of activities that contribute to physical fitness and optimum health. The activities in the program require more teacher preparation than the…

Thompson, Mary Ann

364

The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Findings A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n?=?322; aged 10–14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p?=?0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people.

2014-01-01

365

Asymmetric size effect of sexes on reproductive fitness in an aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on size–fitness relationships focus on females and neglect males. Here, we investigated how body size of both sexes of an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi Haliday, affected the reproductive fitness. Reproductive fitness was generally positively correlated with body size for both sexes in this species. Large individuals of both sexes had greater longevity, large males fathered more progeny, and

Xiong Zhao He; Qiao Wang

2006-01-01

366

Microalbuminuria and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Microalbuminuria is a marker for generalized vascular dysfunction. Its prevalence in United States and European general population surveys ranges from 6% to 10%. Increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality begins with albumin excretion rates that are well within normal limits. Although microalbuminuria interacts with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, it has an independent relationship to renal and cardiovascular outcomes. For example, microalbuminuria doubles the risk for a cardiovascular event in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus even after adjusting for the usual risk factors. Elevated rates of urinary albumin excretion predict target organ damage, notably renal disease, but are also related to left ventricular dysfunction, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Screening for microalbuminuria, which is recommended by several expert committees and associations, has become a readily accessible procedure. Screening can give clinicians prognostic information concerning cardiovascular risk and assist in guiding therapy. The goal of treatment is to prevent progression of, and even to reverse, microalbuminuria. Abundant evidence demonstrates that antihypertensive therapy is an important key to the control of urinary albumin excretion, and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers) is the treatment of choice. These drugs have successfully halted or delayed the progression to nephropathy and have reversed elevated rates of albumin excretion to normal values, even when blood pressure reduction has been minimal. PMID:15485765

Karalliedde, Janaka; Viberti, Giancarlo

2004-10-01

367

Cardiovascular Pharmacology of Cannabinoids  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoids and their synthetic and endogenous analogs affect a broad range of physiological functions, including cardiovascular variables, the most important component of their effect being profound hypotension. The mechanisms of the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in vivo are complex and may involve modulation of autonomic outflow in both the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as direct effects on the myocardium and vasculature. Although several lines of evidence indicate that the cardiovascular depressive effects of cannabinoids are mediated by peripherally localized CB1 receptors, recent studies provide strong support for the existence of as-yet-undefined endothelial and cardiac receptor(s) that mediate certain endocannabinoid-induced cardiovascular effects. The endogenous cannabinoid system has been recently implicated in the mechanism of hypotension associated with hemorrhagic, endotoxic, and cardiogenic shock, and advanced liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, cannabinoids have been considered as novel antihypertensive agents. A protective role of endocannabinoids in myocardial ischemia has also been documented. In this chapter, we summarize current information on the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids and highlight the importance of these effects in a variety of pathophysiological conditions.

Pacher, P.; Batkai, S.; Kunos, G.

2008-01-01

368

Quantum Data Fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently (Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)). In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data is a pure quantum state, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

Wiebe, Nathan

2013-03-01

369

Personal Fitness Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help you create a personal fitness plan that is right for you. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle can help you feel your best and prevent the onset of certain diseases. At the conclusion of this activity, you will: Understand the health benefits of physical activity. Be able to describe three types of exercise. Create a custom plan based on your own preferences. The first step in creating your personal fitness plan is to understand why one is important to have and to maintain. Read ...

Cross, Mrs.

2005-11-26

370

Line of Best Fit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When data is displayed with a scatter plot, it is often useful to attempt to represent that data with the equation of a straight line for purposes of predicting values that may not be displayed on the plot. Such a straight line is called the "line of best fit." In this activity, students discover the relationship between the fat grams and the total calories in fast food by graphing the given data, estimate the line of best fit using a strand of spaghetti, calculate the slope of that line, and translate it into an equation. Then, they use that equation to predict information not originally included in the scatter plot.

Roberts, Donna

371

Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: The Future of Cardiovascular Therapeutics?  

PubMed Central

Responses to drug therapy vary from benefit to no effect to adverse effects which can be serious or occasionally fatal. Increasing evidence supports the idea that genetic variants can play a major role in this spectrum of responses. Well-studied examples in cardiovascular therapeutics include predictors of steady-state warfarin dosage, predictors of reduced efficacy among patients receiving clopidogrel for drug eluting stents, and predictors of some serious adverse drug effects. This review summarizes contemporary approaches to identifying and validating genetic predictors of variability in response to drug treatment. Approaches to incorporating this new knowledge into clinical care, and the barriers to this concept, are addressed.

Roden, Dan M.

2012-01-01

372

Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Methods Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this case–control study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Student’s t-test for independent samples or the Mann–Whitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. Results All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. Conclusion These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk.

2013-01-01

373

Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence suggests that inadequate or disturbed sleep is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. Methods: We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools’ Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario. Participants underwent measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and blood pressure, and they completed questionnaires measuring sleeping habits and nutritional status. We assessed sleep disturbance using the sleep disturbance score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We explored associations between sleeping habits and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Among 4104 adolescents (51% male), the mean hours of sleep per night (± standard deviation) were 7.9 ± 1.1 on weeknights and 9.4 ± 1.6 on weekends. In total, 19% of participants reported their sleep quality as fairly bad or very bad on weeknights and 10% reported it as fairly bad or very bad on weekends. In the multivariable regression models, a higher sleep disturbance score was associated with increased odds of being at high cardiovascular risk (highest v. lowest tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.77], p < 0.001), increased odds of hypertension (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02–2.05], p = 0.05) and increased odds of elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.00–1.64], p = 0.05). The mean duration of sleep was not associated with these outcomes. Interpretation: In healthy adolescents, sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities. Intervention strategies to optimize sleep hygiene early in life may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

2012-01-01

374

Social personality trait and fitness  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. ‘Asocial’ and ‘social’ lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness.

Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

2008-01-01

375

Cardiovascular damage resulting from chronic excessive endurance exercise.  

PubMed

A daily routine of physical activity is highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of many prevalent chronic diseases, especially of the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, chronic, excessive sustained endurance exercise may cause adverse structural remodeling of the heart and large arteries. An evolving body of data indicates that chronically training for and participating in extreme endurance competitions such as marathons, ultra-marathons, Iron-man distance triathlons, very long distance bicycle racing, etc., can cause transient acute volume overload of the atria and right ventricle, with transient reductions in right ventricular ejection fraction and elevations of cardiac biomarkers, all of which generally return to normal within seven to ten days. In veteran extreme endurance athletes, this recurrent myocardial injury and repair may eventually result in patchy myocardial fibrosis, particularly in the atria, interventricular septum and right ventricle, potentially creating a substrate for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, chronic, excessive, sustained, high-intensity endurance exercise may be associated with diastolic dysfunction, large-artery wall stiffening and coronary artery calcification. Not all veteran extreme endurance athletes develop pathological remodeling, and indeed lifelong exercisers generally have low mortality rates and excellent functional capacity. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology of extreme endurance exercise, and make suggestions about healthier fitness patterns for promoting optimal CV health and longevity. PMID:22953596

Patil, Harshal R; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Magalski, Anthony; Vogel, Robert A; McCullough, Peter A

2012-01-01

376

Phosphate and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Hyperphosphatemia is a major risk factor for death, cardiovascular events and vascular calcification among patients with and without kidney disease. Even serum phosphate levels within the “normal laboratory range” associate with a greater risk of death and cardiovascular events. Potential mechanisms by which increased phosphate results in adverse outcomes are incompletely understood but current evidence suggests a direct effect of phosphate on vascular calcification and modulation of key hormones fibroblast growth factor-23 and calcitriol. Despite convincing epidemiologic connections between phosphate excess and cardiovascular disease, no clinical trials have been conducted to establish a causal relationship and large, randomized trials with hard endpoints are urgently needed to prove or disprove the benefits and risks of therapy.

Kendrick, Jessica; Kestenbaum, Brian; Chonchol, Michel

2014-01-01

377

Water Fit to Drink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

Donovan, Edward P.

378

Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

2002-01-01

379

Wheel of Fitness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun activity for any size group, early elementary learners complete physical challenges while playing a game. Learners add new challenges to the "wheel of fitness" that they want to try. During this activity, learners practice their counting skills and discover new ways to get moving. This lesson plan includes extensions, questions to ask learners, and a sample wheel.

Houston, Children'S M.

2007-01-01

380

Talking Sport and Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

2012-01-01

381

Manual for physical fitness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

Coleman, A. E.

1981-01-01

382

Directory of Fitness Certifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the need for certification of fitness instructors in the aerobic dance/dance-exercise industry and presents results of a survey of 18 agencies that certify instructors. Survey data has been compiled and published. An excerpt is included which lists organizations, training, certification and renewal procedures, publications,…

Parks, Janet B.

1990-01-01

383

Measuring Your Fitness Progress  

MedlinePLUS

... you’re becoming more fit, such as increased energy, greater ability to perform daily tasks, or even an improved outlook on life. VISIT www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life l Read more about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise ...

384

Curve Fit Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

2005-01-01

385

Fit for Play?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the findings of a small-scale investigation into the views of children on potential changes to the playground in a large primary school. As a parent, midday supervisor and member of the school Grounds Development Committee I was interested in how views gathered to underpin change to the playground of one school might fit

Smith, Angela

2007-01-01

386

The Right Fit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math activity, learners trace their hands and estimate the number of beans that can fit into their hand tracings. Then, learners glue the beans to the tracing to test out their estimations. This activity guide contains a material list, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2014-04-07

387

An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation?  

PubMed Central

Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compared to age-matched controls, and 2) the effects of a six-month exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation program on CAD-related GMV decline. Compared to controls, significant decreases in regional GMV were found in the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyrus; superior and inferior parietal gyrus; middle and superior temporal gyrus and in the posterior cerebellum of CAD patients. Cardiovascular rehabilitation was associated with the recovery of regional GMV in the superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellum of the CAD patients as well as the increase in GMV in the supplementary motor area. Total and regional GMV correlated with fitness level, defined by the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), at baseline but not after cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study demonstrates that cardiovascular disease can adversely affect age-related decline in GMV; and that these disease-related effects could be mitigated by moderate levels of exercise training as part of cardiovascular rehabilitation.

Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J.K.; Suskin, N.; St. Lawrence, K.S.

2013-01-01

388

Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

1977-01-01

389

Reliability of field-based fitness tests in youth.  

PubMed

The objective of this systematic review was to study the reliability of the existing field-based fitness tests intended for use with children and adolescents. The medical electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS and SPORTS DISCUS were screened for papers published from January 1990 to December 2009. Each study was classified as high, low or very low quality according to the description of the participants, the time interval between measurements, the description of the results and the appropriateness of statistics. 3 levels of evidence were constructed according to the number of studies and the consistency of the findings. 32 studies were finally included in the present review. The reliability of tests assessing cardiorespiratory fitness (9 studies), musculoskeletal fitness (12 studies), motor fitness (3 studies), and body composition (10 studies) was investigated. Although some fitness components warrant further investigation, this review provides an evidence-based proposal for most reliable field-based fitness tests for use with children and adolescents: 20-m shuttle run test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness; handgrip strength and standing broad jump tests to measure musculoskeletal fitness; 4×10 m shuttle run test for motor fitness; and height, weight, BMI, skinfolds, circumferences and percentage body fat estimated from skinfold thickness to measure body composition. PMID:21165805

Artero, E G; España-Romero, V; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Suni, J; Castillo-Garzon, M J; Ruiz, J R

2011-03-01

390

Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.; Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S.

2010-04-01

391

Cardiovascular effects of tadalafil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of tadalafil on the cardiovascular system, safety assessments were performed on a database of >4,000 subjects who received tadalafil in >60 clinical pharmacology, phase 2, phase 3, and open-label studies. In healthy subjects, tadalafil resulted in small changes in blood pressure, which are not believed to be clinically relevant. Daily administration of tadalafil 20 mg for

Robert A Kloner; Malcolm Mitchell; Jeffrey T Emmick

2003-01-01

392

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and

Caren E. Smith; José M. Ordovás

2010-01-01

393

Cardiovascular Actions of Neurotrophins  

PubMed Central

Neurotrophins were christened in consideration of their actions on the nervous system and, for a long time, they were the exclusive interest of neuroscientists. However, more recently, this family of proteins has been shown to possess essential cardiovascular functions. During cardiovascular development, neurotrophins and their receptors are essential factors in the formation of the heart and critical regulator of vascular development. Postnatally, neurotrophins control the survival of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes and regulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Recent studies suggest the capacity of neurotrophins, via their tropomyosin-kinase receptors, to promote therapeutic neovascularization in animal models of hindlimb ischemia. Conversely, the neurotrophin low-affinity p75NTR receptor induces apoptosis of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and impairs angiogenesis. Finally, nerve growth factor looks particularly promising in treating microvascular complications of diabetes or reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarcted heart. These seminal discoveries have fuelled basic and translational research and thus opened a new field of investigation in cardiovascular medicine and therapeutics. Here, we review recent progress on the molecular signaling and roles played by neurotrophins in cardiovascular development, function, and pathology, and we discuss therapeutic potential of strategies based on neurotrophin manipulation.

CAPORALI, ANDREA; EMANUELI, COSTANZA

2010-01-01

394

Tomatoes and Cardiovascular Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet is believed to play a complex role in the development of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the Western world. Tomatoes, the second most produced and consumed vegetable nationwide, are a rich source of lycopene, beta-carotene, folate, potassium, vitamin C, flavonoids, and vitamin E. The processing of tomatoes may significantly affect the bioavailability of these nutrients. Homogenization,

Joye K. Willcox; George L. Catignani; Sheryl Lazarus

2003-01-01

395

Advancing Cardiovascular Research  

PubMed Central

Over the past 50 years, we have seen dramatic changes in cardiovascular science and clinical care, accompanied by marked declines in the morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the world, and its nature is changing as Americans become older, fatter, and ethnically more diverse. Instead of young or middle-aged men with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, the “typical” cardiac patient now presents with acute coronary syndrome or with complications related to chronic hypertension or ischemic heart disease, including heart failure, sudden death, and atrial fibrillation. Analogously, structural heart disease is now dominated by degenerative valve or congenital disease, far more common than rheumatic disease. The changing clinical scene presents cardiovascular scientists with a number of opportunities and challenges, including taking advantage of high-throughput technologies to elucidate complex disease mechanisms, accelerating development and implementation of evidence-based strategies, assessing evolving technologies of unclear value, addressing a global epidemic of cardiovascular disease, and maintaining high levels of innovation in a time of budgetary constraint and economic turmoil.

2012-01-01

396

and cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast number of pharmacological and clinical studies indicate that Pycnogenol ® , a standardised extract of French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster), bears various favourable health benefits for the cardiovascular system. Pycnogenol is primarily composed of phenolic acids, derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acid, and procyanidins. The latter are biopolymers of catechin and epicatechin subunits, which are recognised as

Ronald R Watson

2003-01-01

397

FIT testing: an overview.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common, but preventable, disease and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. CRC screening has proven effective at reducing both the incidence and mortality of this disease, using any of a number of screening tests available. The test options range from the least invasive and least expensive to more invasive and costly options. Fecal occult blood testing is the oldest, least expensive, and least invasive of these options and has evolved from the poorly sensitive standard guaiac test to the newer and diagnostically superior fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for hemoglobin. This article explores the evolutionary history of fecal occult blood testing, examines test performance characteristics among different FOBTs, and evaluates the role of the FIT in programmatic CRC screening. PMID:24218070

Day, Lukejohn W; Bhuket, Taft; Allison, James

2013-11-01

398

Global Fits for PDFs  

SciTech Connect

Constraining the d PDF at large values of x has traditionally relied, in part, on the use of deeply inelastic lepton deuterium scattering data. In order to utilize such data, one must include nuclear corrections which account for Fermi motion, binding, and off-shell effects. The impact of these corrections in the context of a global fit are examined. The uncertainties due to these nuclear effects are large.

Owens, J. F. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4350 (United States); Accardi, A.; Keppel, C. E. [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States); Christy, E.; Melnitchouk, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2011-09-21

399

QCD FITS to Diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most recent H1 and ZEUS data for diffractive structure functions are analyzed under three different theoretical approaches. This includes the Pomeron Structure Function (PSF) framework, Bartels-Ellis-Kowalski-Wüsthoff (BEKW) color dipole approach and the Golec-Biernat-Wüsthoff (GBW) saturation model. The models are shown to successfully fit the set of combined data. Conceptual differences between the models are discussed and, as an example, the prediction for the longitudinal diffractive structure function is presented.

Sapeta, S.

2007-11-01

400

Fitting the correlation function.  

PubMed

The whole correlation function of the intensity of scattered light is usually determined from a single realization of the photocurrent. As a result, the values of the correlation function at different delay times are not statistically independent. A standard least-squares fitting procedure is not optimal for an analysis of such data. However, the benefits of mathematically rigorous but highly nonlinear and less stable methods are not known. We consider the test case of a Gaussian signal with a single-exponential correlation function without shot noise. In this case the fitting procedure, which is based on the maximum-likelihood principle for the observed signal, permits an analytical solution. We demonstrate that such a rigorous statistical analysis produces an approximately two times more-accurate result for the relaxation time than does the standard least-squares fit. This gain, however, is greatly reduced by the presence of shot noise, which introduces additional uncorrelated errors into the values of the correlation function. PMID:18360444

Lomakin, A

2001-08-20

401

Fitting the Correlation Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The whole correlation function of the intensity of scattered light is usually determined from a single realization of the photocurrent. As a result, the values of the correlation function at different delay times are not statistically independent. A standard least-squares fitting procedure is not optimal for an analysis of such data. However, the benefits of mathematically rigorous but highly nonlinear and less stable methods are not known. We consider the test case of a Gaussian signal with a single-exponential correlation function without shot noise. In this case the fitting procedure, which is based on the maximum-likelihood principle for the observed signal, permits an analytical solution. We demonstrate that such a rigorous statistical analysis produces an approximately two times more-accurate result for the relaxation time than does the standard least-squares fit. This gain, however, is greatly reduced by the presence of shot noise, which introduces additional uncorrelated errors into the values of the correlation fu