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1

Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

1984-01-01

2

Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

2014-01-01

3

Relationship of Body Fat and Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds\\/ObjectivesCardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren.MethodsThe study subjects comprised 676

Pei-gang Wang; Jie Gong; Su-qing Wang; Evelyn O. Talbott; Bo Zhang; Qi-qiang He

2011-01-01

4

Factors affecting fibrinolytic potential: Cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and lipoprotein(a)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that affect basal (resting) and poststressor fibrinolytic activity or potential. Variables of interest included cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [V?o2max]), body fat, body mass index (BMI), and lipids\\/lipoproteins, including lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Blood was collected from 46 middle-aged men before and after a maximal exercise test. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients

Linda M. Szymanski; J. Larry Durstine; Paul G. Davis; Marsha Dowda; Russell R. Pate

1996-01-01

5

Lipid and lipoprotein profiles, cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and diet during and after resistance, aerobic and combination training in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various modes of training on the time-course of changes in lipoprotein-lipid\\u000a profiles in the blood, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition after 16?weeks of training and 6?weeks of detraining in\\u000a young women. A group of 48 sedentary but healthy women [mean age 20.4?(SD?1)?years] were matched and randomly placed into\\u000a a

Linda M. LeMura; Serge P. von Duvillard; Joseph Andreacci; Jodi M. Klebez; Sara A. Chelland; Joseph Russo

2000-01-01

6

Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067

Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

2011-01-01

7

Cardiovascular Fitness Education for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cardiovascular fitness program for grades 1-6 (with emphasis on grades 5 and 6) consists of (1) discussion classes and exercise experiments, (2) discussion of exercise effects during regular activity sessions, (3) required cardiovascular warmup exercises, and (4) evaluation of cardiovascular fitness. (Author/MJB)

Jenkins, David

1978-01-01

8

A comparison of the self-concept and body-cathexis of selected high school students of high and low cardiovascular fitness  

E-print Network

, reaction time, balance, and agility. A need is seen, therefore, to test the aspects of physical fitness separately, and compare each to self-concept. This study was concerned with cardiovascular fitness, an important health- related aspect of physical... subject who scored in the upper 25 percent was designated as possessing a high level of cardiovascular fitness, CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The review of literature of importance to this study has been divided into seven categories: (1...

Crenwelge, Terry Alfred

1974-01-01

9

Enhancing Cardiovascular Fitness of Children and Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though coronary artery disease concerns the majority of our population, there is much evidence that its effects can be reduced or prevented through effective cardiovascular fitness programs. Important components of such programs for children are discussed in this artlce, followed by a description of the Feelin' Good program which is intended to promote cardiovascular fitness. Issues in developing and implementing

Chalres T. Kuntzleman

1985-01-01

10

Prospective BMI category change associated with cardiovascular fitness change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship of change in body mass index (BMI) percentile score group (from 6th to 8th grade) with change in cardiovascular fitness (CVF), baseline BMI z-score and CVF was tested. 3,998 (92%) children in the HEALTHY trial provided complete data at the beginning of 6th and end of 8th grades. Hei...

11

Neurocognitive aging and cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first century, ce, the Roman satirist Juneval famously observed Orandum est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano, or “A sound mind in a sound body is something to be prayed for.” This implicit link between mental and physical health,\\u000a also paralleled by Eastern philosophies and practices such as tai chi, has survived the millennia since Juneval and

Stan J. Colcombe; Arthur F. Kramer; Edward McAuley; Kirk I. Erickson; Paige Scalf

2004-01-01

12

Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular fitness is thought to offset declines in cognitive performance, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in humans. Research using animal models shows that aerobic training increases cortical capillary supplies, the number of synaptic connections, and the development of new neurons. The end result is a brain that is more efficient, plastic, and adaptive,

Arthur F. Kramer; Kirk I. Erickson; Paige Scalf; Edward McAuley; Neal J. Cohen; Andrew Webb; Gerry J. Jerome; David X. Marquez; Steriani Elavsky

2004-01-01

13

Cardiovascular fitness and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise has long been recognized as a cornerstone in diabetes care. Even so, modern science is just beginning to understand\\u000a the physiologic impact cardiovascular fitness has on long-term diabetes management, and the prevention or delay, of type 2\\u000a diabetes. Recent advances in research are defining the metabolic pathways involved in insulin signaling and in reducing insulin\\u000a resistance. Tools and guidelines

Cathy Mullooly

2002-01-01

14

Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

EISENMANN, J. C., G. J. WELK, M. IHMELS, and J. DOLLMAN. Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 8, pp. 1251-1256, 2007. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors across four cross-tabulated groups of cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in

JOEY C. EISENMANN; GREGORY J. WELK; MICHELLE IHMELS; JAMES DOLLMAN

2007-01-01

15

Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

2008-01-01

16

Perspectives on cardiovascular fitness and SCI.  

PubMed

The purpose of these papers is to review and discuss the fundamental concepts and problems underlying cardiovascular fitness and spinal cord injury. Particular attention is paid to several modes of exercise available to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)--voluntary arm-crank and wheelchair ergometry, electrical stimulation leg cycle ergometry, and combined voluntary arm-cranking and electrical stimulation leg (hybrid) exercise. The effects of level of injury, active muscle mass, and sympathetic dysfunction upon acute central hemodynamic adjustments during exercise testing and chronic training adaptations are discussed for both quadriplegics and paraplegics. Several topics for future research are suggested. PMID:2258731

Figoni, S F

1990-10-01

17

Changes in Physical Fitness Predict Improvements in Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors Independently of Body Weight Loss in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Participating in the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Physical fitness is inversely related to mortality in the general population and in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Here, we present data concerning the relationship between changes in physical fitness and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 606) were enrolled in 22 outpatient diabetes clinics and randomized to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling versus counseling alone for 12 months. Baseline to end-of-study changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and flexibility, as assessed by Vo2max estimation, a 5–8 maximal repetition test, and a hip/trunk flexibility test, respectively, were calculated in the whole cohort, and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS Changes in Vo2max, upper and lower body strength, and flexibility were significantly associated with the variation in the volume of physical activity, HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score, and inversely, HDL cholesterol. Changes in fitness predicted improvements in HbA1c, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, hs-CRP, and CHD risk score, independent of study arm, BMI, and in case of strength, also waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity/exercise-induced increases in fitness, particularly muscular, predict improvements in cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss, thus indicating the need for targeting fitness in these individuals, particularly in subjects who struggle to lose weight. PMID:22399699

Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Mazzitelli, Giulia; Bazuro, Alessandra; Iacobini, Carla; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

18

The Effect of Group Counseling and Physical Fitness Programs on Self-Esteem and Cardiovascular Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made to determine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and self-esteem. Ninth grade boys were divided into four groups: (1) the cardiovascular fitness group; (2) the counseling group; (3) the cardiovascular fitness and counseling group; and (4) the control group. All were administered a pretest and posttest measuring…

Neal, Robert B.

19

Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

1998-01-01

20

Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAIBI, G. Q., M. L. CRUZ, G. D. C. BALL, M. J. WEIGENSBERG, H. A. KOBAISSI, G. J. SALEM, and M. I. GORAN. Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 922-928, 2005. Purpose: To determine whether cardiovascular fitness (V ú O2max) is associated with the metabolic syndrome and

GABRIEL Q. SHAIBI; MARTHA L. CRUZ; GEOFF D. C. BALL; MARC J. WEIGENSBERG; HASSAN A. KOBAISSI; GEORGE J. SALEM; MICHAEL I. GORAN

21

The role of obesity and cardiovascular fitness in the impaired glucose tolerance of aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) increases with aging. Although some data suggest that age is independently associated with IGT, other studies suggest that age-associated changes in body composition and reduced cardiovascular fitness are responsible for the development of IGT. We, therefore, examined the relationship of age, total and regional adiposity, and level of fitness (VO2max) to the presence

Eric Colman; Leslie I. Katzel; John Sorkin; Patricia J. Coon; Susan Engelhardt; Ellen Rogus; Andrew P. Goldberg

1995-01-01

22

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness  

E-print Network

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness Laura L. Ten Eyck1 Children exercise significantly increased time spent on exercising and cardiovas- cular fitness. The results with solutions to improve our overall fitness and health. Television com- mercials hawk everything from special

Cooper, Brenton G.

23

Effect of total hip arthroplasty on cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty and 18 patients with medically treated arthritis participated in this study. Both groups of patients underwent a cardiovascular fitness exercise test on entering the study and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years later. Fitness was assessed by patient performance on a graded maximal exercise test using a bicycle ergometer and metabolic cart.

Michael D. Ries; Edward F. Philbin; Gerald D. Groff; Karen A. Sheesley; Jonathan A. Richman; Franklin Lynch

1997-01-01

24

Cardiovascular Fitness, Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Severely Obese Prepubertal Italian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate if insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) were associated with poor cardiovascular fitness in very obese prepubertal Italian subjects. Methods: Children referred to the Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit of Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital underwent an OGTT with glucose and insulin assays. QUICKI, ISI and HOMA-IR were calculated. Total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and percentage of body

Claudia Brufani; Armando Grossi; Danilo Fintini; Rossana Fiori; Graziamaria Ubertini; Diego Colabianchi; Paolo Ciampalini; Alberto Tozzi; Fabrizio Barbetti; Marco Cappa

2008-01-01

25

Constructing Cardiovascular Fitness Knowledge in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on…

Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

2014-01-01

26

Snacking, Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness and Television Viewing Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible relationships among snacking, obesity, cardiovascular fitness and television viewing were examined in a group of 54 14-and 15-year old adolescents. Dietary intake was estimated using a 24-hour recall and 2-day food record for which subjects were asked to identify all foods and beverages consumed as either a meal or snack. The three days of intake were analyzed by the

J. D. Anding; K. S. Kubena; A. M. McIntosh

1995-01-01

27

Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

2002-01-01

28

National physical education curriculum: motor and cardiovascular health related fitness in Greek adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: State school physical education (PE) programmes are common throughout Greece. However, it is not known if the main objectives of the Greek PE curriculum are achieved. Objective: To assess the current national PE curriculum in relation to selected motor and cardiovascular health related fitness parameters. Methods: A sample of 84 Greek schoolboys (mean (SD) age 13.6 (0.3) years, height 160.7 (8.6) cm, weight 50 (10.8) kg) volunteered. Forty three indicated participation only in school PE classes and habitual free play (PE group). The remaining 41 were involved in extracurricular organised physical activities in addition to school PE and habitual free play (PE+ group). The subjects underwent anthropometric, motor (flexibility, balance, standing broad jump, hand grip, sit ups, and plate tapping), and cardiovascular health related (percentage body fat, aerobic fitness, and physical activity) fitness assessments. Results: Children in the PE group had inferior motor and cardiovascular health related fitness profiles compared with those in the PE+ group. Body fat (20.3 (8.8) v 13.9 (3.5); p<0.001), aerobic fitness (34.7 (3.7) v 43.9 (4.2); p<0.001), and time spent in intensive physical activity (0.2 (0.2) v 0.7 (0.3); p<0.001) showed the greatest differences between the two groups. In the pupils in the PE group, these were lower than the levels proposed to be necessary to combat future health risks. Adjustments for confounding variables showed a decrease in the significance of motor fitness, but not in cardiovascular health related parameters. Conclusions: The national PE curriculum for Greek secondary schools does not achieve the required levels of motor and cardiovascular health related fitness and should be reconsidered. PMID:12893715

Koutedakis, Y; Bouziotas, C

2003-01-01

29

Independent associations of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness with cardiovascular risk in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Uncertainty still exists whether physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular fitness (CF) contribute separately to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study examined the associations of PA and CF on individual as well as clustered CVD risk factors.Design Cross-sectional.Methods Seven hundred and eighty-one men and 890 women, aged 20–65 years, from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men were

Elin Ekblom-Bak; Mai-Lis Hellénius; Örjan Ekblom; Lars-Magnus Engström; Björn Ekblom

2010-01-01

30

Cardiovascular Fitness as a Predictor of Mortality in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relations of cardiorespira- tory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake and exercise test duration at the initiation of the study, with overall, cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related, and non- CVD-related mortality. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 1294 men with no CVD, pulmonary disease, or cancer at baseline in Kuopio and surrounding communities in eastern Finland. During

Jari A. Laukkanen; Timo A. Lakka; Rainer Rauramaa; Raimo Kuhanen; Juha M. Venal; Riitta Salonen; Jukka T. Salonen

2001-01-01

31

Exercise-induced asthma and cardiovascular fitness in asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of physical training in the management of children with exercise-induced asthma is controversial. A study was undertaken to determine whether a relationship could be found between the occurrence of exercise-induced asthma and the degree of cardiovascular fitness in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty eight children aged 6-13 with mild to moderate asthma and dyspnoea during or after physical

B. J. Thio; A. F. Nagelkerke; A. G. Ketel; B. L. van Keeken; J. E. Dankert-Roelse

1996-01-01

32

Impact of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity level on health outcomes in older persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

It remains unclear whether health recommendations should focus on improving cardiovascular fitness or physical activity energy expenditure in older persons. Although the literature is not abundant in this area, we first examined the association between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity. It appears that cross-sectional studies support a positive association between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity energy expenditure, whereas intervention studies

Isabelle J Dionne; Philip A Ades; Eric T Poehlman

2003-01-01

33

Original Research Article Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in  

E-print Network

Original Research Article Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max: Objectives: This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are simi- lar- mane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness

Gurven, Michael

34

Fitting Percentage of Body Fat to Simple Body Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dataset, created by Roger W. Johnson of Carleton College, presented in this article, contains body measurements for 252 men and can be used to illustrate multiple regression and to provide practice in model building. Some of these measurements include: body fat, age, weight, height and ten different body circumference measurements. The author shows how to "fit body fat to the other measurement using multiple regression" and provide a easy method to estimating body fat percentage. This is a good example of using regression and also model building.

Johnson, Roger W.

35

Differences in Physical Fitness and Cardiovascular Function Depend on BMI in Korean Men.  

PubMed

We investigated the associations between cardiovascular function and both body mass index and physical fitness in Korean men. The subjects were 2,013 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who visited a health promotion center for a comprehensive medical and fitness test during 2006-2009. The WHO's Asia-Pacific Standard Report definition of BMI was used in this study. Fitness assessment of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and balance were evaluated by VO2max (ml/kg/min), grip strength (kg), sit-ups (reps/min), sit and reach (cm), vertical jump (cm), side steps (reps/30s), and standing on one leg with eyes closed (sec), respectively. For cardiovascular function, we evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), resting heart rate (RHR), double product (DP), and vital capacity. There were significant decreases in cardiorespiratory endurance (p < 0.001), power (p < 0.001), and balance (p < 0.001), and increases in muscular strength (p < 0.001). Further, cardiovascular function, including SBP (p < 0.001), DBP (p < 0.001), double product (p < 0.001), and vital capacity (p=0.006) appeared to be lower for the obesity group. We conclude that an obese person exhibits lower fitness level and weaker cardiovascular function than a normal person. Key pointsThe obese group had a lower fitness level, including cardiorespiratory endurance, power, and balance.Obese group demonstrated an increase in muscular strength.Obese group had higher blood pressure and weaker cardiovascular function, including DP and vital capacity, than the normal group. PMID:24149691

So, Wi-Young; Choi, Dai-Hyuk

2010-01-01

36

Cardiovascular program to improve physical fitness in those over 60 years old – pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background In Spain, more than 50% of 60-year-olds are obese. Obesity is a disease with serious cardiovascular risks. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in Spain is 31.1%. Objectives To improve aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility and balance, and body composition (BC) in persons over 60 years old. Materials and methods A clinical intervention study of 24 participants was carried out over a period of 3 months. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test. Upper-body strength was evaluated with an ad hoc test. Flexibility and balance were evaluated using the Sit and Reach Test and the Stork Balance Stand Test, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken by bioelectrical impedance. Results After 3 months of training, aerobic fitness was improved, as demonstrated by improved test times (pretest 13.04 minutes, posttest 12.13 minutes; P<0.05). Body composition was also improved, but the results were not statistically significant (fat mass pretest 31.58%±5.65%, posttest 30.65%±6.31%; skeletal muscle mass pretest 43.99±9.53 kg, posttest 46.63±10.90 kg). Conclusion Our data show that in subjects over 60 years old, aerobic fitness was improved due to program intervention. However, these results should be treated with caution, because of the limited sample size and the brief time period of this pilot study. A more rigorous study would include a sample of at least 100 participants. PMID:25143714

Castillo-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Minguet, José Luis

2014-01-01

37

Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned

Barbara Sassen; Gerjo Kok; Herman Schaalma; Henri Kiers; Luc Vanhees

2010-01-01

38

Low-density lipoprotein particle size, central obesity, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin resistance syndrome markers in obese youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine the prevalence of small dense low-density lipoprotein (SDLDL) particles in obese youths and (2) to compare youths with SDLDL and large buoyant LDL (LBLDL) subclass phenotypes in total body and abdominal fatness, cardiovascular (CV) fitness, and markers of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS).DESIGN: For group comparisons, subjects were dichotomized into either SDLDL phenotype group or LBDL

H-S Kang; B Gutin; P Barbeau; Litaker; J Allison; N-A Le

2002-01-01

39

Emphasis on Cardiovascular Fitness as a Barrier toward Mobilizing the Sedentary Individual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing cardiovascular fitness may be a barrier to mobilizing the sedentary individual. Instead, encouraging low-level physical activity may be an effective first step. Beliefs held toward cardiovascular fitness are presented, and ways in which these beliefs may present barriers to adoption of any level of physical activity are discussed. (IAH)

Kasper, Mark J.

1990-01-01

40

COMPARISON OF CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS IN HOME SCHOOL AND PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuville AL, Mohr CE, Pierquet MF Comparison of Cardiovascular Fitness in Home School and Public School Children. Journal of Undergraduate Kinesiology Research. 2006; 2(1):32-40. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in cardiovascular fitness between home school and public school children by using the mile run. Methods: Twenty six healthy subjects (14 boys, 12 girls) ages

ANDREA NEUVILLE; CHRISTINE MOHR; MICHELLE PIERQUET

41

Exercise, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights research supporting the concept that increased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness attenuate\\u000a risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Increased activity and fitness also attenuate\\u000a risk of developing cardiovascular disease in persons who have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Although controversial,\\u000a relationships between physical activity\\/physical fitness and type 2 diabetes\\/metabolic syndrome

Glen E. Duncan; RCEP SM

2006-01-01

42

Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: a brief review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a brief review of the extant research on the influence of cardiovascular fitness training on brain and cognition. The review includes an examination of the non-human animal literature that has reported molecular, cellular, and behavioral consequences of fitness interventions. We relate this literature to human studies of the relationship between fitness and cognition, as well as the nascent

Edward McAuley; Arthur F. Kramer

2004-01-01

43

Cardiovascular fitness modifies the associations between physical activity and abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the associations between physical activity (PA) and abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference, in children and adolescents, and to test whether cardiovascular fitness (CVF) modifies these associations.MethodsPA components were measured by accelerometry in 1075 individuals aged 9 or 15 years old. CVF was measured by a maximal cycling test. Self-reported maternal educational level, body mass index, children's

F. B. Ortega; J. R. Ruiz; A. Hurtig-Wennlof; G. Vicente-Rodriguez; N. S. Rizzo; M. J. Castillo; M. Sjostrom

2010-01-01

44

Potential for Cardiovascular Exercise Dosing to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Survivors  

E-print Network

testing on a treadmill and elliptical trainer had a strong correlation to the gold standard test for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness on a treadmill. Next, we undertook study to investigate the feasibility of using cardiovascular exercise dosing during...

Burnett, Dave

2013-05-31

45

Cardiovascular fitness and executive control during task-switching: An ERP study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular fitness recently has been linked to executive control function in older adults. The present study examined the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and executive control in young adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants completed a two-part experiment. In part one, a graded exercise test (GXT) was administered using a cycle ergometer to obtain VO2max, a measure of maximal oxygen uptake.

Jenna L. Scisco; P. Andrew Leynes; Jie Kang

2008-01-01

46

Teaching Ideas. Cardiovascular Health. Physical Activity: Fit to be Tried.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of a physical fitness unit within the health education curriculum is to help students understand the importance of physical fitness. Four physical activities for fourth to sixth grade students are described. (CJ)

Osness, Donna L.

1982-01-01

47

Jump Start the Heart: Teaching Children Cardiovascular Fitness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality physical education classes are an important avenue for teaching children about lifetime fitness participation. Specific fitness information and habits can be taught as part of physical education classes. Physical education, however, should not be the only source of physical activity for children. Children need opportunities to participate…

McCollum, Starla; Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Griffin, Mike

2004-01-01

48

Cardiovascular Fitness and the Psychophysics of Perceived Exertion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptual responses of individuals at different levels of physical fitness to absolute exercise intensities were compared. Perceived exertion, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, did not discriminate between subjects who were physically fit and those who were not, despite differences in physiological strain. (Author/PP)

Mihevic, Patricia M.

1983-01-01

49

Cardiovascular Fitness of Young Canadian Children with and without Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared cardiovascular fitness of 60 children (mean age 95 months) either with or without mental retardation (MR). Results indicated that nondisabled children exhibited significantly greater levels of aerobic fitness than those with MR and supported the need for a critical examination of physical activity programs for children with MR.…

Gillespie, Mike

2003-01-01

50

Cardiovascular Health Promotion—Physical Fitness in the School Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Physical activity is a major lifestyle behavior related to cardiovascular disease. Lack of energy expenditure is considered\\u000a an important contributor to the epidemic of obesity. Schools are an obvious area of interest in health promotion due to their\\u000a centrality in the life of children. Over the course of the school day, physical education, recess, extracurricular activities,\\u000a and classroom activities provide

Marietta Orlowski; James Ebert; Arthur Pickoff

51

Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

1986-01-01

52

Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

1983-01-01

53

Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75?RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients. PMID:24808969

Popescu, Claudiu; Bojinc?, Violeta; Opri?, Daniela

2014-01-01

54

Links Between Physical Fitness and Cardiovascular Reactivity and Recovery to Psychological Stressors: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of published studies with adult human participants was conducted to evaluate whether physical fitness attenuates cardiovascular reactivity and improves recovery from acute psychological stressors. Thirty-three studies met selection criteria; 18 were included in recovery analyses. Effect sizes and moderator influences were calculated by using meta-analysis software. A fixed effects model was fit initially; however, between-studies heterogeneity could not

Kathleen Forcier; Laura R. Stroud; George D. Papandonatos; Brian Hitsman; Meredith Reiches; Jenelle Krishnamoorthy; Raymond Niaura

2006-01-01

55

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk of Nonfatal Cardiovascular Disease in Women and Men With Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whether the cardioprotective characteristic of higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) extends to adults with manifest hypertension (HTN) is poorly understood.Methods: We examined the association between CRF and nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in 8147 men and 1268 women, who, at baseline, were free of known CVD and had HTN based on a history of physician diagnosis or a measured resting

Xuemei Sui; Michael J. LaMonte; Steven N. Blair

2007-01-01

56

The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

2009-01-01

57

Interactive Information Environment for the controlled practice of physical training to improve cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease. Physical activity protects against the development of CVD and also favorably modifies other risk factors, however a huge part of the population lead a relatively sedentary lifestyle. Virtual trainer (vt) concept is a technological platform for the controlled practice of physical training to achieve better cardiovascular fitness results

Sergio G. Guillén; María T. Arredondo; Vicente Traver; Pilar Sala; Marco Romagnoli; Manuel Traver; Alessandro Arduini

2005-01-01

58

Cardiovascular Fitness and Maximal Heart Rate Differences Among Three Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of differences in maximal heart rate and treadmill time among three ethnic groups revealed no significant age-adjusted differences among white, black, and Mexican-American males, and suggested that black females' lower maximal heart rate may be explained by their lower cardiovascular fitness level when compared to those of other…

Farrell, S. W.

1988-01-01

59

Differences emerge in visceral adipose tissue accumulation after selection for innate cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been reported to be inversely associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, independent of body weight. However, the confounding effect of physical activity on the association between CRF and VAT remains inadequately addressed. On the basis of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 143 sedentary, overweight women were dichotomized into high-fit (HF) and low-fit (LF) groups. Body composition

D W Brock; B A Irving; B Gower; G R Hunter

2011-01-01

60

An analysis of three methods of teaching physical fitness and their effect on strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze three methods of teaching physical fitness and their effect on strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance. To determine these effects, group means on hand strength, leg strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance tests were determined. Physical fitness changes from pretesting to posttesting were determined for the total group, females, and males, physical education majors

Catana Rhoda Starks

1989-01-01

61

Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed???20?hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12?months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively measured relative workload, in a population with high physical work demands. Previous intervention studies have lacked robust objective measurements of the relative workload and physical work demands. This study will monitor the relative workload and general physical activity before, during after the intervention, and contribute to the understanding of the previously observed opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity. Trial registration The study is registered as ISRCTN86682076. PMID:22888833

2012-01-01

62

Relation between Body Iron Status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between iron stores and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study aimed to investigate the association between body iron indices and some cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In a case–control study conducted in the south of Shiraz, Iran, we determined ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), metabolic risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), and anthropometric measurements in 100 men aged 45 years and higher with newly diagnosed CVD and 100 adjusted controls without evidence for CVD. Results: The mean of low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), CRP, and ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in cases than controls, and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) was significantly lower in cases than controls. Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and the other risk factors in case group showed that only ferritin, serum iron, waist circumference, and LDL-c significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.32 with P < 0.001, r = 0.29 with P < 0.05, r = 0.41 with P < 0.01, and r = 0.36 with P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicated an association between a positive balance of body iron and CVD. Hence, caution should be exercised in administration of iron supplements to patients with CVD and in consumption of food rich in iron by them. PMID:24049617

Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Shidfar, Farzad; Zamani, Atefeh

2013-01-01

63

Cardiorespiratory Fitness as a Predictor of Nonfatal Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective data relating cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are limited to studies in men or studies of combined fatal and nonfatal CVD endpoints. The authors examined the association between CRF and nonfatal CVD events in 20,728 men and 5,909 women without CVD at baseline. All participants performed a maximal treadmill exercise test and completed a follow-up

Xuemei Sui; Michael J. LaMonte; Steven N. Blair

64

National physical education curriculum: motor and cardiovascular health related fitness in Greek adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: State school physical education (PE) programmes are common throughout Greece. However, it is not known if the main objectives of the Greek PE curriculum are achieved.Objective: To assess the current national PE curriculum in relation to selected motor and cardiovascular health related fitness parameters.Methods: A sample of 84 Greek schoolboys (mean (SD) age 13.6 (0.3) years, height 160.7 (8.6)

Y Koutedakis; C Bouziotas

2003-01-01

65

Cardiovascular fitness and physical activity in children with and without impaired glucose tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine differences in cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) and physical activity levels in overweight Hispanic children with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) vs impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Participants:A total of 173 overweight (BMI percentile 97.0±3.1) Hispanic children ages 8–13 years with a family history of type 2 diabetes.Methods:VO2max was measured via a maximal effort treadmill test and open circuit spirometry. Physical activity was

G Q Shaibi; G D C Ball; M L Cruz; M J Weigensberg; G J Salem; M I Goran

2006-01-01

66

The relationship of age and cardiovascular fitness to cognitive and motor processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Older and younger aerobically trained and sedentary adults participated in an S1-S2-S3 paradigm designed to elicit event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral responses to determine the influence of cardiovascular fitness on cognitive and motor processes. The paradigm provided warning (S1) as to the difficulty level of an upcoming,decision task (S2). Participants had to decide the taller of two bars on

CHARLES H. HILLMAN; EDWARD P. WEISS; JAMES M. HAGBERG; BRADLEY D. HATFIELD

2002-01-01

67

Cardiovascular Fitness Is Negatively Associated With Homocysteine Levels in Female Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Mean values of homocysteine were significantly higher in the MTHFR 677CT and TT genotype subgroups compared with the CC genotype subgroup in adolescent boys, whereas in adolescent girls, mean values of homo- cysteine were significantly higher in theMTHFR677CT and TT genotype subgroup compared with theCC andCT geno- type subgroups. Multiple regression analyses showed that cardiovascular fitness was significantly associated

Jonatan R. Ruiz; Ricardo Sola; Marcela Gonzalez-Gross; Francisco B. Ortega; German Vicente-Rodriguez; Miguel Garcia-Fuentes; Angel Gutierrez; Michael Sjostrom; Klaus Pietrzik; Manuel J. Castillo

2007-01-01

68

Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

2014-01-01

69

Cardiovascular dynamics associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this investigation was to identify cardiovascular responses associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Eighteen men, ages 29-51 years, were categorized as high (HT) or low (LT) LBNP-tolerant based on a graded presyncopal-limited LBNP exposure criterion of -60 mm Hg relative to ambient pressure. Groups were matched for physical characteristics and pre-LBNP cardiovascular measurements, with the exceptions of greater (p less than 0.05) end-diastolic volume and cardiac output in the HT group. During peak LBNP, cardiac output was similar in both groups, although the HT group displayed a greater heart rate (p less than 0.05). In both groups, venous return appeared to limit cardiac output resulting in decreased arterial pressure. Tolerance to LBNP did not appear solely dependent on the absolute amount of blood pooled in the legs since the HT group demonstrated a greater (p less than 0.05) peak LBNP-induced increase in midthigh-leg volume. Greater tolerance to LBNP was associated with a larger pre-LBNP cardiac output reserve and higher compensatory increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance.

Sather, T. M.; Goldwater, D. J.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.

1986-01-01

70

Predictors of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase in middle-aged and older men: Relationship to leptin and obesity, but not cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of long-term endurance exercise training, body composition, and cardiovascular fitness (Vo2max) on the activity of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (AT-LPL) and lipoprotein lipids were examined in 66 healthy age-matched middle-aged and older men (mean ± SE, 61 ± 1 years). We compared subcutaneous abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLT) heparin-elutable AT-LPL activity in 19 master athletes (Vo2max > 40

Dora M. Berman; Ellen M. Rogus; M. Jan Busby-Whitehead; Leslie I. Katzel; Andrew P. Goldberg

1999-01-01

71

Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

2014-09-29

72

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (?6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (?0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

2014-01-01

73

Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1995-01-01

74

Physical activity versus cardiorespiratory fitness: two (partly) distinct components of cardiovascular health?  

PubMed

Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) both have inverse relationships to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recent position papers and guidelines have identified the important role of both of these factors in CV health. The benefits of PA and CRF in the prevention of CV disease and risk factors are reviewed. In addition, assessment methodology and utilization in the research and clinical arenas are discussed. Finally, the benefits, methodology, and utilization are compared and contrasted to better understand the two (partly) distinct components and their impact on CV health. PMID:25269066

DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Willis, Benjamin L; Barlow, Carolyn E; Finley, Carrie E; Levine, Benjamin D; Cooper, Kenneth H

2015-01-01

75

Matrix Rigidity-Modulated Cardiovascular Organoid Formation from Embryoid Bodies  

PubMed Central

Stem cell clusters, such as embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells, are extensively studied for creation of multicellular clusters and complex functional tissues. It is common to control phenotypes of ES cells with varying molecular compounds; however, there is still a need to improve the controllability of cell differentiation, and thus, the quality of created tissue. This study demonstrates a simple but effective strategy to promote formation of vascularized cardiac muscle - like tissue in EBs and form contracting cardiovascular organoids by modulating the stiffness of a cell adherent hydrogel. Using collagen-conjugated polyacrylamide hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli, we discovered that cellular organization in a form of vascularized cardiac muscle sheet was maximal on the gel with the stiffness similar to cardiac muscle. We envisage that the results of this study will greatly contribute to better understanding of emergent behavior of stem cells in developmental and regeneration process and will also expedite translation of EB studies to drug-screening device assembly and clinical treatments. PMID:24732893

Shkumatov, Artem; Baek, Kwanghyun; Kong, Hyunjoon

2014-01-01

76

Cardiovascular Fitness and Exercise as Determinants of Insulin Resistance in Postpubertal Adolescent Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In obese adolescents, body mass index (BMI) is a poor predic- tor of insulin resistance, and the potential role of diminished physical activity has not been quantitated. We measured pos- sible determinants of sensitivity to insulin in 53 adolescent females with a BMI between the 10th and the 95th percentile. We hypothesized that across weight and fitness spectra, rel- ative

J. Z. Kasa-Vubu; C. C. Lee; A. Rosenthal; K. Singer; J. B. Halter

2004-01-01

77

Cardiovascular fitness after stroke: Role of muscle mass and gait deficit severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional disability after hemiparetic stroke may be compounded by physical deconditioning and muscular wasting, factors related to disuse and advancing age. However, the role of body composition, severity, and chronicity of gait deficits as determinants of exercise fitness after stroke is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether oxygen consumption during peak exercise (VO2 peak) is associated

Alice S. Ryan; C. Lynne Dobrovolny; Kenneth H. Silver; Gerald V. Smith; Richard F. Macko

2000-01-01

78

Relationship of physical activity with motor skills, aerobic fitness and body fat in preschool children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study (Ballabeina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Adiposity, low aerobic fitness and low levels of activity are all associated with clustered cardiovascular disease risk in children and their high prevalence represents a major public health concern.Objective:The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with motor skills (agility and balance), aerobic fitness and %body fat in young children.Design:This study is

F Bürgi; U Meyer; U Granacher; C Schindler; P Marques-Vidal; S Kriemler; J J Puder

2011-01-01

79

The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors and CV risk factors in young Australian men. Methods Thirty five healthy men aged 18–25 years had their blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity, dietary intake and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed. Results Participants were categorised according to the percentage of body fat into two groups: lean and overweight men. There were no between-group differences in the biochemical indicators except that overweight men had lower HDL-C compared to lean men. Both groups had similar mean energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol intake, RMR, physical activity level (PAL) and energy expenditure (EE). Most of the participants (65.7%) had LDL?2.5 mmol/L. Other common individual risk factors were body fat?20% (42.9%), waist circumference?88 cm (28.6%), PAL<1.8 (22.9%) and systolic BP?130 mmHg (20%). The mean number of CV risk factors was lower among men having a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, >12% of the energy intake) regardless of whether they were overweight or lean and did not seem to differ according to the source of MUFA consumed. Conclusions It is a serious concern to observe such a high percentage of CV risk factors in a group of apparently healthy young men. The likelihood of multiple CV risk factors is greater among those with high body fatness and low MUFA intake. Intake of MUFA favorably affects CV risk factors regardless of the source. PMID:23902697

2013-01-01

80

Benefit of Repeated Receptor Stimulation as a Spaceflight Medical Tool to Promote Cardiovascular Fitness: Different Orthostatic Paradigms Compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used various orthostatic stimulus combinations to better understand the physiology and countermeasure potential of repeated change of body position in humans. The purpose of the investigations reported was threefold: To investigate cardiovascular and hormonal effects of repeated transition between partially antiorthostatic (-30° HDT) and partially head-up passive body tilt (+30° HUT). Protocol Y denotes the repeated transition between these

Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay; A. Rossler

2005-01-01

81

Body adiposity index and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of body adiposity index (BAI) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. Design and Methods The current analysis comprised 19 756 adult men who enrolled in the Aerobics Centre Longitudinal Study and completed a baseline examination during 1988-2002. All-cause and CVD mortality was registered till December 31, 2003. Results During an average follow-up of 8.3 years (163 844 man-years), 353 deaths occurred (101 CVD deaths). Age- and examination year-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality risk were higher for men with high values of BMI (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19–2.23), waist circumference (1.55, 1.22-1.96) and percentage of body fat (%BF) (1.36, 1.04-1.31), but not for men with high values of BAI (1.28, 0.98-1.66). The HRs for CVD mortality risks were higher for men with high values in all adiposity measures (HRs ranged from 1.73 to 2.06). Most of these associations, however, became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple confounders including cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion BAI is not a better predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality risk than BMI, waist circumference or %BF. PMID:23512375

Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

2013-01-01

82

Differences Emerge in Visceral Adipose Tissue Accumulation After Selection for Innate Cardiovascular Fitness  

PubMed Central

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been reported to be inversely associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, independent of body weight. However, the confounding effect of physical activity on the association between CRF and VAT remains inadequately addressed. Based on VO2max, 143 sedentary, overweight women were dichotomized into high-fit (HF) and low-fit (LF) groups. Body composition and VAT were measured using DEXA and CT, respectively, and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated using the doubly-labeled water technique. No differences were observed between HF and LF for BMI (HF: 28.2 ± 1.3; LF: 28.3 ± 1.31 kg/m2), total body weight (HF: 77.5 ± 6.8; LF: 77.9 ± 7.3 kg), total fat mass (HF: 33.5 ± 5.1; LF: 33.9 ± 4.4 kg), or AEE (HF: 439.9 ± 375.4; LF: 517.9 ± 298.7 kcal/day). Significant differences in visceral adiposity (HF: 68.5 ± 30.4; LF: 91.2 ± 31.8 cm2; P < 0.001) and insulin sensitivity (HF: 5.1 ± 1.8; LF: 3.1 ± 2.4 SI ×10?4min?1/?IU/ml; P < 0.01) were observed between the high- and low-fitness groups, independent of age, race, and AEE. This study affirms previous findings that CRF is an important determinant of the accumulation of VAT, and this relationship is independent of physical activity. PMID:20644556

Brock, David W.; Irving, Brian A; Gower, Barbara; Hunter, Gary R.

2010-01-01

83

Dancers' Body Esteem, Fitness Esteem, and Self-Esteem in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-two college-aged, ballet and modern dancers evaluated their bodies and themselves in different dance and non-dance settings. In a self-report survey design, dancers' body esteem, fitness esteem, and self-esteem (an overall self-evaluation) were measured in three different contexts. Dancers rated their body esteem, fitness esteem, and…

Van Zelst, Laura; Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

2004-01-01

84

High fitness is associated with a better cardiovascular risk profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel cardiovascular risk markers, such as ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and aortic stiffness, have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness and some of these risk markers in 575 type 2 diabetic patients. In a cross-sectional design, clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, aortic pulse wave velocity and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring data were obtained.

Claudia RL Cardoso; Maicon DL Maia; Fátima P de Oliveira; Nathalie C Leite; Gil F Salles

2011-01-01

85

Respiratory Fitness, Free Living Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Older Individuals: A Doubly Labeled Water Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the importance of car- diorespiratory fitness vs. physical activity energy expenditure on se- lected cardiovascular disease risk factors in older individuals. One hundred and seventeen older individuals, 53 men (68 6 9 yr) and 63 women (67 6 7 yr), participated in the study. This cohort was divided into 4 groups: 1)

ROMAN V. DVORAK; RAYMOND D. STARLING; PHILIP A. ADES; LORETTA DIPIETRO; ERIC T. POEHLMAN; John D. Pierce

2009-01-01

86

Cardiovascular Fitness and Lung Function of Adult Men and Women in the United States: NHANES 1999-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a distinct disparity between adult males and females in lung function and cardiovascular fitness in the United States. This study utilizes a nationally representative sample in order to determine predictors of lung function between men and women. Simple means analysis, logistic and linear regressions were utilized in order to determine predictors of lung function between genders. Continuous analyses

Hannah Jackson

2008-01-01

87

Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs

Marshall Hagins; Wendy Moore; Andrew Rundle

2007-01-01

88

Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Effects of the Metabolic Syndrome on All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The metabolic syndrome is a prevalent condition that carries with it an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mor- tality. Objective: To determine the relationship between car- diorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality in healthy men and in those with the metabolic syndrome. Methods: The sample included 19223 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who

Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Timothy S. Church; Steven N. Blair

2004-01-01

89

A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

1971-01-01

90

Cardiovascular model for the simulation of exercise, lower body negative pressure, and tilt experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model and digital computer simulation of the human cardiovascular system and its controls have been developed to simulate pulsatile dynamic responses to the cardiovascular experiments of the Skylab missions and to selected physiological stresses of manned space flight. Specific model simulations of the bicycle ergometry, lower body negative pressure, and tilt experiments have been developed and verified for 1-g response by comparison with available experimental data. The zero-g simulations of two Skylab experiments are discussed.

Croston, R. C.; Fitzjerrell, D. G.

1974-01-01

91

Effects of Training and Detraining on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity Patterns, Cardiovascular Variables, and HRQoL after 3 Health-Promotion Interventions in Institutionalized Elders.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of different strategies of health on the levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and quality of life (QoL) of the institutionalized elderly. Concurrently studies were made of the effect of detraining on these same variables. In this investigation we carried out a prospective longitudinal study with an experimental design, with 1 year plus 3 months of a detraining period. Methodology. (a) A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics and a QoL scale (MOS SF-36); (b) Functional Fitness Test to assess PF; (c) An MTI Actigraph to evaluate the PA; (d) Biochemical analysis of blood, blood pressure and bio-impedance. The Main Results Indicated That: (i) ST significantly improved strength and body flexibility and AT the aerobic endurance, agility/dynamic balance and lower strength and flexibility; (ii) Implications of detraining were more evident on the PA groups in the lower body flexibility, which is associated with agility/dynamic balance and lower strength in the AT group; (iii) Cardiovascular variables improved significantly especially blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose in the ST and HDL in the AT group; not having undergone significant changes with the detraining. The results of this thesis contribute positively to highlight the importance of PA in the promotion of health, prevention and reduction of CVD risk factors and the improvement of the PF and QoL. PMID:22332008

Lobo, Alexandrina; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Paula

2010-01-01

92

Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

2014-01-01

93

Female Collegiate Basketball Players' Perceptions About Their Bodies, Garment Fit and Uniform Design Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing basketball uniforms for female athletes is a challenge for soft goods manufacturers. Data were collected from 503 female collegiate basketball players concerning body cathexis, body form, garment fit satisfaction, uniform design preferences and demographic characteristics. Of the three areas of the body (upper, lower and total), players indicated they were most dissatisfied with parts of the lower body. Being

Betty L. Feather; Sheila Ford; David G. Herr

1996-01-01

94

Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10?±?2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

2015-03-01

95

Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

2010-01-01

96

Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

2007-01-01

97

Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

1979-01-01

98

Treadmill Exercise Rehabilitation Improves Ambulatory Function and Cardiovascular Fitness in Patients With Chronic Stroke A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Physical inactivity propagates disability after stroke through physical deconditioning and learned nonuse. We investigated whether treadmill aerobic training (T-AEX) is more effective than conventional rehabilitation to improve ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke. Methods—Sixty-one adults with chronic hemiparetic gait after ischemic stroke (6 months) were randomized to 6 months (3\\/week) progressive T-AEX or a

Richard F. Macko; Frederick M. Ivey; Larry W. Forrester; Daniel Hanley; John D. Sorkin; Leslie I. Katzel; Kenneth H. Silver; Andrew P. Goldberg

2010-01-01

99

Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

1985-01-01

100

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

101

Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and fainting. Various pre-reentry hyperhydration procedures have been utilized to counteract the GRS. Thus, the somewhat decreased central venous pressure and lack of diuresis early in spaceflight suggests mechanisms other than the Gauer-Henry reflex are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts. Inflight hypohydration and hypovolemia are more important for maintaining fluid volume homeostasis in astronauts.

Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

102

Application of the IAP cardiovascular fitness test protocol for Austromars candidate screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rationale: The purpose of our research was to test for cardiovascular stability within 16 Austromars candidates, and to determine hemodynamic variables and hormones in a presyncopal state as evoked by a specific test protocol. Procedures and methods: We used a graded orthostatic stress (GOS) paradigm consisting of head-up tilt (HUT) combined with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to a presyncopal end-point on 15 males and one healthy female. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored and venous blood samples taken. Results: From supine control to presyncope, mean standing time was 12.3 ± 1.2 min, heart rate (HR) increased by 68 ± 12% (p < 0.0001) and thoracic impedance (TI) rose by 12 ± 1% (p < 0.0001), whereas following parameters decreased: stroke volume index (SI) 44 ± 4% (p < 0.0001), systolic pressure (SBP) 26 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), diastolic pressure (DBP) 16 ± 5% (p = 0.004), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 19 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), pulse pressure 41 ± 8% (p = 0.0003) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) 11 ± 5% (p = 0.03). Heart rate and blood pressure variabilities decreased together with pulse pressure. Plasma volume decreased by 11 ± 2% (p = 0.0004). Plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased by 86 ± 16% (p = 0.0001), epinephrine (E) by 460 ± 266% (p = 0.06), cortisol by 10 ± 6% (p = 0.02), plasma renin activity by 147 ± 26% (p = 0.002) and aldosterone by 24 ± 21% (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Our combined HUT- graded LBNP paradigm is useful to study CV regulation and hormonal responses under severe stress conditions.

Grasser, E. K.; Goswami, N.; Jantscher, A.; Roessler, A.; Vrecko, K.; Groemer, G.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

2007-10-01

103

Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier

2014-01-01

104

The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.  

PubMed

In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother. PMID:21751481

Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

2011-01-01

105

Improving cardiovascular fitness by strength or endurance training in women aged 76-78 years. A population-based, randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: there have been few population-based, randomized controlled trials on the effects of strength or endurance training on cardiovascular fitness in older women. Objective: to study the effects of strength or endurance training on cardiovascular fitness in women aged 76-78 years. Design: a population-based, randomized controlled trial. Setting: exercise laboratory in a university faculty of sport and health sciences. Subjects:

MAURI KALLINEN; S ARIANNA SIPILA; M ARKKU ALEN; H ARRI SUOMINEN

106

Effects of body image on college students' attitudes toward diet/fitness apps on smartphones.  

PubMed

Considering the increasing use of diet/fitness apps, this study aimed to investigate how four factors related to body image--evaluations of and orientations toward both appearance and fitness--impact college students' perception of the usefulness of such apps. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study tested a path model examining the relationships among the four body-image-oriented factors, perceived usefulness (PU) of diet/fitness apps, and behavioral intention to use such apps. Results from a path analysis revealed that while college students' evaluation of appearance and fitness decreased the PU of diet/fitness apps, their orientation toward fitness increased the same outcome variable. PMID:25584729

Cho, Jaehee; Lee, H Erin; Kim, Sun Jin; Park, Dongjin

2015-01-01

107

Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

2000-01-01

108

Body Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular Health Risk Factors in Caucasians: A Comparison with the Body Mass Index and Others  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown a relation between the adipose tissue accumulation and a higher risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, body fat content and, mainly, the fat distribution or adiposity could be considered as important indicators of health risk. In spite of presenting several limitations, BMI is the most widely used and accepted index for classifying overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlations between Body Adiposity Index (BAI), BMI and other adiposity indexes such as WC, WHR and WHtR with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Furthermore, the behavior of BAI and BMI regarding the ability to discriminate overweight or obese individuals was also analyzed. Research Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adult workers. Participants in the study (29.214 men and 21.040 women, aged 20–68 years) were systematically selected during their work health periodic examinations. BAI, BMI, WHR, WHtR, body weight, hip and waist circumference (WC) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and glucose were also determined. Results of the study indicated that BAI was less correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic risk factors than other adiposity indexes (BMI, WC and WHtR). The best correlations were found for WHtR. In addition, the BAI presented lower discriminatory capacity than BMI for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS) using both IDF and ATP III criteria. A different behavior of the BAI in men and women when considering the ability to discriminate overweight or obese individuals was also observed. Conclusions The adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (WHtR and WC) may be better candidates than BAI and BMI to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular risk in both clinical practice and research. PMID:23734182

Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Angel A.; Tauler, Pedro; Cespedes, Mey L.; Vicente-Herrero, Teofila; Yañez, Aina; Tomas-Salva, Matias; Aguilo, Antoni

2013-01-01

109

Color 3D bodies and judgements of human female attractiveness Kathryn L. Smith, Piers L. Cornelissen, Martin J. Tovee4  

E-print Network

, but is not significantly related to their cardiovascular fitness (a key health measure). Although evolutionary psychology that cardiovascular fitness may be a weak cue, at least in bodies not undergoing cardiovascular exercise. Instead health; Cardiovascular fitness 1. Introduction What drives attractiveness judgements? Some evolution- ary

Cornelissen, Piers

110

The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

111

Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis  

PubMed Central

The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI) centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT) was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

2015-01-01

112

Short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of mindfulness body scan meditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent research suggests that the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program has positive effects on health, but little\\u000a is known about the immediate physiological effects of different components of the program.Purpose: To examine the short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of one of the techniques employed in mindfulness meditation\\u000a training, a basic body scan meditation.Methods: In Study 1, 32 healthy young adults

Blaine Ditto; Marie Eclache; Natalie Goldman

2006-01-01

113

Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

Hooker, John C.

1990-01-01

114

Body composition, not body weight, is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex hormone levels in men.  

PubMed Central

To clarify the independent relationships of obesity and overweight to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex steroid levels, three age-matched groups of men were studied: (i) 8 normal weight men, less than 15% body fat, by hydrostatic weighing; (ii) 16 overweight, obese men, greater than 25% body fat and 135-160% of ideal body weight (IBW); and (iii) 8 overweight, lean men, 135-160% IBW, but less than 15% fat. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater for the obese (mean +/- SEM, 82 +/- 2 mmHg) than the normal (71 +/- 2) and overweight lean (72 +/- 2) groups, as were low density lipoprotein levels (131 +/- 9 vs. 98 + 11 and 98 + 14 mg/dl), the ratio of high density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (0.207 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.308 +/- 0.03 and 0.302 +/- 0.03), fasting plasma insulin (22 +/- 3 vs. 12 +/- 1 and 13 +/- 2 microU/ml), and the estradiol/testosterone ratio (0.076 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.042 +/- 0.02 and 0.052 +/- 0.02); P less than 0.05. Estradiol was 25% greater for the overweight lean group (40 +/- 5 pg/ml) than the obese (30 +/- 3 pg/ml) and normal groups (29 +/- 2 pg/ml), P = 0.08, whereas total testosterone was significantly lower in the obese (499 +/- 33 ng/dl) compared with the normal and overweight, lean groups (759 +/- 98 and 797 +/- 82 ng/dl). Estradiol was uncorrelated with risk factors and the estradiol/testosterone ratio appeared to be a function of the reduced testosterone levels in obesity, not independently correlated with lipid levels after adjustment for body fat content. Furthermore, no risk factors were significantly different between the normal and overweight lean groups. We conclude that (a) body composition, rather than body weight per se, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk factors; and (b) sex steroid alterations are related to body composition and are not an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:3654969

Segal, K R; Dunaif, A; Gutin, B; Albu, J; Nyman, A; Pi-Sunyer, F X

1987-01-01

115

Effect of Land-Based and Water-Based Fitness Programs on the Cardiovascular Fitness, Strength and Flexibility of Women Aged 65–75 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a generalized water-based exercise program (WBE) compared to a land-based exercise program (LBE) on improving cardio-respiratory fitness, body composition, forward trunk flexion and strength measurements of elderly women aged 70 ± 3.2 years (mean ± SD). Forty-one healthy, sedentary women were selected to participate in the study and were

J. E. Taunton; E. C. Rhodes; L. A. Wolski; M. Donelly; J. Warren; J. Elliot; L. McFarlane; J. Leslie; J. Mitchell; B. Lauridsen

1996-01-01

116

Cardiovascular fitness is associated with altered cortical glucose metabolism during working memory in ?4 carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe possibility that ?4 may modulate the effects of fitness in the brain remains controversial. The present exploratory FDG-PET study aimed to better understand the relationship among ?4, fitness, and cerebral metabolism in 18 healthy aged women (nine carriers, nine noncarriers) during working memory.

Sean P. Deeny; Jeanna Winchester; Kathryn Nichol; Stephen M. Roth; Joseph C. Wu; Malcolm Dick; Carl W. Cotman

117

A novel approach for fit analysis of thermal protective clothing using three-dimensional body scanning.  

PubMed

The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30 mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden. PMID:24793820

Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

2014-11-01

118

The effect of viewing ultra-fit images on college women's body dissatisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern ideals of female attractiveness include an extremely toned and fit appearance in addition to extreme thinness. Although viewing thin models has a negative effect on women's body image, research has not tested the effect of exposure to the ultra-fit physique separate from the thin-ideal. This randomized, posttest-only experiment tested the effects of the athletic aspect of the current ideal

Kristin Homan; Erin McHugh; Daniel Wells; Corrinne Watson; Carolyn King

119

Fitness Level and Body Composition are Associated with Inflammation in Non-obese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity and poor fitness are associated with insulin resistance (IR), risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Elevated markers of inflam- mation (e.g. C-reactive protein (CRP)) are independent predictors of CHD. Whether higher percent body fat and poor fitness in non-obese children are associated with evidence of inflam- mation and IR is unclear. We evaluated

Jennifer J. F. McVean; Aaron L. Carrel; Jens C. Eickhoff; David B. Allen

2009-01-01

120

Examining the Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Weight Status: Empirical Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Adults in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Meanwhile, obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic. This study aims to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with body mass among adult males and females in Taiwan. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative dataset consisting of 68,175 adults aged 18–60, including 31,743 males and 36,432 females, was used. Several multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status, after controlling for adults' sociodemographic status. Results. A one-unit increase in the BMI lowered the cardiorespiratory fitness score by 0.316 and 0.368 points for adult males and females, respectively. Among adult males, compared to those of normal weight, adult males who were underweight, overweight, or obese had a lower cardiorespiratory fitness score by 1.287, 0.845, and 3.353 points, respectively. Similar results could be found in female samples. Conclusion. The overweight and obese adults had much lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness as compared to their normal weight counterparts. Given the upward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, it is important to help overweight and obese people to become more fit and reach their healthy weight. PMID:25386600

Hung, Tai-Hsiung; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

2014-01-01

121

Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

2013-11-01

122

On the Trail to Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Hartford planned fitness trail will allow students to develop their bodies by providing a jogging route to improve cardiovascular fitness and exercise stations designed to provide warm-up exercises and improve strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance. (Author/MLF)

American School and University, 1979

1979-01-01

123

Fitness and Health CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS FOR PARTICIPANTS OF A UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STAFF WELLNESS PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS FOR PARTICIPANTS OF A UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STAFF WELLNESS PROGRAM. Frank Essig, Dean Sinclair, Jennifer Hare, Jennifer Moreillon, Daniel Funk, Ann Marie Swank. JEPonline 2004;7(4):37-43. Reducing the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and enhancing physical fitness are important components of worksite wellness programs. Effective programs have the potential to significantly reduce

FRANK ESSIG; DEAN SINCLAIR; JENNIFER HARE; JENNIFER MOREILLON; DANIEL FUNK

124

Size -specific Analysis of Body Scan Data to Improve Apparel Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how size-specific analyses of body scan data of an apparel company's target market can provide information that can be used to adjust ready-to -wear sizing to improve apparel fit. We describe a variety of size-based statistical and visual analysis methods that can be applied to target market body scan data. These analyses begin to describe and address

Suzanne Loker; Susan Ashdown; Katherine Schoenfelder

2005-01-01

125

Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

2013-01-01

126

The Body Revolution. Revolutionize Your Life Through Nutrition, Behavior Change and Fitness. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed for teachers of the "Body Revolution" weight control program. The program may be used either in conjunction with a school program or as an activity for adults in community education programs. The emphasis of the program is on weight loss. Activities are outlined that focus on behavior change, nutrition, and physical fitness.…

Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others

127

The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

2002-01-01

128

Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments  

PubMed Central

For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

2014-01-01

129

Entering a New Era of Body Indices: The Feasibility of a Body Shape Index and Body Roundness Index to Identify Cardiovascular Health Status  

PubMed Central

Background The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. Objective This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC. Design and Methods 4627 Participants (54±12 years) of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors) and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index. Results 1332 participants (27.7%) reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.4–7.2), BMI 2.4 (1.9–3.1), and WC 3.0 (1.6–5.6). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.0–3.3), BMI 3.3 (1.6–6.8), and WC 2.0 (1.6–2.5). No association was observed for ABSI in both groups. Conclusions BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC. PMID:25229394

Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J. H. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Verbeek, André L. M.; de Vegt, Femmie

2014-01-01

130

Fitness for Life Reebok Sports Club/NY presents  

E-print Network

of the basic components of fitness: body composition, the cardiovascular system, muscular strength, flexibilityFitness for Life Reebok Sports Club/NY presents Sundays, January 24th ­ February 14th 4:00 ­ 5:30pm the fundamentals as well as how to adapt any group exercise class to your body and fitness goals. Each of the four

Qiu, Weigang

131

Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

2015-01-01

132

Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

2015-01-01

133

Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

1990-01-01

134

Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

1992-01-01

135

Importance of physical fitness on predictive effect of body mass index and weight gain on incident atrial fibrillation in healthy middle-age men.  

PubMed

The incidence of both atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity is increasing in the community, and lifestyle intervention is recommended. We aimed to test whether the predictive effect of body mass index (BMI) and weight change from age 25 years to midlife on incident AF were influenced by physical fitness. In 1972 to 1975, 2,014 healthy middle-age men conducted a bicycle exercise electrocardiographic test as a part of a cardiovascular survey program, defining physical fitness as work performed divided by body weight. During 35 years of follow-up, 270 men developed AF, documented by scrutiny of the health files in all Norwegian hospitals. Risk estimation was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models and tested for age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median. The mean BMI of 24.6 kg/m(2) defined a lean baseline cohort. The men with a baseline BMI of ?28 kg/m(2) (11%) compared to a BMI <28 kg/m(2) had a 1.68-fold risk of AF (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.40) and men reporting weight gain of ?10 kg (24%) compared to weight loss (11%) of 1.66-fold (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.89), respectively. The dichotomy into men with age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median, demonstrated statistically significant risk associations only for men with low fitness. The overall risk of AF was reduced by 23% in the fit men. In conclusion, within our lean baseline cohort of healthy middle-age men, a BMI of ?28 kg/m(2) and weight gain of ?10 kg from age 25 to midlife were long-term predictors of incident AF in men with physical fitness below the population median. The fit men had an overall slightly reduced risk of AF. PMID:22579085

Grundvold, Irene; Skretteberg, Per Torger; Liestøl, Knut; Gjesdal, Knut; Erikssen, Gunnar; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Arnesen, Harald; Erikssen, Jan; Bodegard, Johan

2012-08-01

136

Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. Methods Using data collected in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (? 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and ? 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. Results Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p?cardiovascular risk factors, despite associated dietary differences. Given the cross-sectional study design, however, it cannot be concluded that candy consumption does not cause obesity or untoward levels of cardiovascular risk markers. The lack of an association between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors could be due to reduced intake of candy among the overweight due to dieting or a health professional’s recommendations. Additionally, it is important to note that the analysis was based on frequency of candy consumption and not amount of candy consumed. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the lack of associations between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23631725

2013-01-01

137

Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (?2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2013-01-01

138

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

2004-01-01

139

The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject's tolerance to LBNP.

Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A.; Sanders, Gabriel J.; McDaniel, John; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; Glickman, Ellen L.

2015-01-01

140

A cardiod based technique to identify cardiovascular diseases using mobile phones and body sensors.  

PubMed

To prevent the threat of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) related deaths, the usage of mobile phone based computational platforms, body sensors and wireless communications is proliferating. Since mobile phones have limited computational resources, existing PC based complex CVD detection algorithms are often unsuitable for wireless telecardiology applications. Moreover, if the existing Electrocardiography (ECG) based CVD detection algorithms are adopted for mobile telecardiology applications, then there will be processing delays due to the computational complexities of the existing algorithms. However, for a CVD affected patient, seconds worth of delay could be fatal, since cardiovascular cell damage is a totally irrecoverable process. This paper proposes a fast and efficient mechanism of CVD detection from ECG signal. Unlike the existing ECG based CVD diagnosis systems that detect CVD anomalies from hundreds of sample points, the proposed mechanism identifies cardiac abnormality from only 5 sample points. Therefore, according to our experiments the proposed mechanism is up to 3 times faster than the existing techniques. Due to less computational burden, the proposed mechanism is ideal for wireless telecardiology applications running on mobile phones. PMID:21096293

Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Tari, Zahir

2010-01-01

141

Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

Nerem, R. M.

1973-01-01

142

Body Water Distribution and Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in a Healthy Population: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. Objective This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. Method Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n?=?2120) of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993–1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R?/R0) was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R?/R0?=?0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. Conclusion Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R?/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. However, more studies are needed before it can be concluded that bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy improves clinical risk prediction. PMID:24498327

Ward, Leigh Cordwin; Sæbye, Ditte; Holst, Claus; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

2014-01-01

143

Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.  

PubMed

The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. PMID:25269064

Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

2015-01-01

144

Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

2012-01-01

145

Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

Kumar, D.

1980-01-01

146

Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability) is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activity in supine and prone positions, postures commonly assumed by patients in manual therapy. We intend to redress this deficiency. Methods Heart rate, heart rate variability, and beat-to-beat blood pressure were measured in young, healthy non-smokers, during prone, supine, and sitting postures and with breathing paced at 0.25 Hz. Data were recorded for 5 minutes in each posture: Day 1 – prone and supine; Day 2 – prone and sitting. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate posture-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Results Prone versus supine: blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher in the prone posture (p < 0.001). Prone versus sitting: blood pressure was higher and heart rate was lower in the prone posture (p < 0.05) and significant differences were found in some components of heart rate variability. Conclusion Cardiac autonomic activity was not measurably different in prone and supine postures, but heart rate and blood pressure were. Although heart rate variability parameters indicated sympathetic dominance during sitting (supporting work of others), blood pressure was higher in the prone posture. These differences should be considered when autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function is studied in different postures. PMID:18045493

Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Reece, John; Polus, Barbara I

2007-01-01

147

Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

2005-01-01

148

Functional electric stimulation[ndash ]assisted rowing: Increasing cardiovascular fitness through functional electric stimulation rowing training in persons with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheeler GD, Andrews B, Lederer R, Davoodi R, Natho K, Weiss C, Jeon J, Bhambhani Y, Steadward RD. Functional electric stimulation[ndash ]assisted rowing: increasing cardiovascular fitness through functional electric stimulation rowing training in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1093-9. Objectives: To assess changes in peak functional aerobic power after a 36-session, progressive functional electric stimulation (FES)

Garry D. Wheeler; Brian Andrews; Robert Lederer; Rhahman Davoodi; Karen Natho; Christina Weiss; Justin Jeon; Yagesh Bhambhani; Robert D. Steadward

2002-01-01

149

Comparison of Effect of Regular Unstructured Physical Training and Athletic Level Training on Body Composition and Cardio Respiratory Fitness in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12–17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student’s t–test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regular unstructured physical activity for 60 minutes daily for the duration of one year can help the students to maintain their anthropometric parameters, body composition measures and CRF at par with the athletes of the same age and gender. However, athletic level training further reduces the cardiovascular load of the adolescent students. PMID:24179887

Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

2013-01-01

150

Numerical Simulations of Glow Discharge between Two dissimilar electrodes in a Body Fitted Coordinate System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, heat transfer to the electrodes, current growth and potential drop between the electrodes have been calculated by a complete numerical simulation of the discharge between a cylindrical wire and a planar wand electrode with a body fitted coordinate system. The body fitted coordinate system was generated by solving a set of elliptic equations. The simulation includes investigation of the discharge development and ionization growth from the initial electrostatic field between the electrodes. In the computations, the conservation equations for ions and electrons, Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field, and the energy conservation equation for electrons have been solved until the steady state is reached; the voltage between the two electrodes is adjusted after each time step depending on the current flow in the gap. Results for current growth, potential drop in the gap as well as heat transfer to the wire are presented for two different current levels. The heat transfer to the electrode as well as the charge particle densities were found to be proportional to the current level. The temperature of the electrons in the gap during the discharge does not vary significantly with current. The numerical results compare favorably with those of experiments.

Qin, Wei Ivy; Cohen, Ira M.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.

1996-10-01

151

Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

2010-01-01

152

The Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Fitness from Physical Education in Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education (PE) can improve physical fitness; however, little research has evaluated PE's long-term influence. The purpose is to determine PE's longitudinal effects on fitness in a group of adolescent girls and to determine whether body mass index (BMI) status influenced any potential effects. Methods: Participants were…

Camhi, Sarah M.; Phillips, Jennie; Young, Deborah R.

2011-01-01

153

Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

1977-01-01

154

Increased Dietary Protein and Combined High Intensity Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Improves Body Fat Distribution and Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body com- position and disease risk in overweight\\/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: 1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a bal- anced diet (RC+BD, 40%

Paul J. Arciero; Christopher L. Gentile; Roger Martin-Pressman; Michael J. Ormsbee; Meghan Everett; Lauren Zwicky; Christine A. Steele

155

Effects of an 8-week weight-loss program on cardiovascular disease risk factors and regional body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the influence of weight loss on multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.Design: Overweight women (n=12; mean 44.2% fat) and men (n=10; mean 30.7% fat) participated in an 8 week weight-loss program that included dietary, exercise, multi-vitamin\\/mineral supplementation, and behavior modification components. Measurement of total and regional body composition assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), circumferences and

JS Volek; AL Gómez; DM Love; AM Weyers; R Hesslink; JA Wise; WJ Kraemer

2002-01-01

156

The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)

Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

1995-01-01

157

Aerobic fitness in women and responses to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of tolerance to orthostatic stress in the maintenance of high aerobic fitness in women was investigated by examining the responses of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, Heather index of contractility, arterial pressure, peripheral resistance, change in calf circumference, and thoracic impedance of healthy female subjects to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) applied for 5 min at -50 mm Hg or until a subject became presyncopal. The testing protocol involved a stepwise reduction in pressure and consisted of two parts: an LBNP test in supine position followed by a treadmill test to peak aerobic capacity. Women were found to exhibit the same response pattern to LBNP as was previously reported by Convertino et al. (1984) for men. The results do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance in women is inversely related to aerobic fitness, as demonstrated by a finding that the peak aerobic capacity of subjects who became presyncopal did not differ from the peak of the tolerant subjects, and that hemodynamic responses to LBNPL were not a function of aerobic capacity.

Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Mathes, Karen L.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

1987-01-01

158

Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

1994-01-01

159

Association of Body Mass Index with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and expanded CVD mortality in the elderly. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Annual physical examination program for the elderly from 2006 to 2010. Participants We included 77,541 Taipei residents aged ?65 years (39,365 men and 38,176 women). Measurements BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5), normal weight (18.5?BMI<25), overweight (25?BMI<30), grade 1 obesity (30?BMI<35), or grade 2–3 obesity (BMI?35). Mortality was ascertained by national death files. Results Underweight (hazard ratios [HRs] of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 1.92, 1.74, and 1.77, respectively), grade 2–3 obesity (HRs: 1.59, 2.36, and 2.22, respectively), older age, male sex, smoking, and high fasting blood sugar were significant predictors of mortality. Meanwhile, being married/cohabitating, higher education, alcohol consumption, more regular exercise, and high total cholesterol were inversely associated with mortality. Multivariate stratified subgroup analyses verified smokers (HRs of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 3.25, 10.71, and 7.86, respectively, for grade 2–3 obesity), the high triglyceride group (HRs: 5.82, 10.99, and 14.22, respectively for underweight), and patients with 3–4 factors related to metabolic syndrome (HRs: 4.86, 12.72, and 11.42, respectively, for underweight) were associated with mortality. Conclusion The associations of BMI with all-cause, CVD, expanded CVD mortality in the elderly are represented by U-shaped curves, suggesting unilateral promotions or interventions in weight reduction in the elderly may be inappropriate. Heterogeneous effects of grades 1 and 2–3 obesity on mortality were observed and should be treated as different levels of obesity. PMID:25014070

Wu, Chen-Yi; Chou, Yi-Chang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Li, Chung-Pin

2014-01-01

160

Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

2014-01-01

161

The Effect of a Virtual Reality Exercise Program on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Fatigue in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program (VREP) on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal failure. [Subjects and Methods] A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Forty-six HD patients were divided into exercise (n=23) and control groups (n=23); while waiting for their dialyses, the exercise group followed a VREP, and the control group received only their usual care. The VREP was accomplished using Nintendo’s Wii Fit Plus for 40 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks during the period of May 27 to July 19, 2013. Physical fitness (muscle strength, balance, flexibility), body composition (skeletal muscle mass, body fat rate, arm and leg muscle mass), and fatigue were measured at baseline and after the intervention. [Results] After the VREP, physical fitness and body composition significantly increased, and the level of fatigue significantly decreased in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a VREP improves physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in HD patients. Based on the findings, VREPs should be used as a health promotion programs for HD patients. PMID:25364137

Cho, Hyeyoung; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae

2014-01-01

162

Changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profile, and body composition at high altitude in two different ethnic groups.  

PubMed

High altitude (HA) presents inhospitable environmental conditions that adversely affects human physiology and metabolism. Changes in physiological functions are reported during high altitude exposure, but the changes vary with physical state, culture habits, geographical locations, and genetic variation of individual. The present study was carried out to explore the variation in acclimatization pattern of two different ethnic groups in relation to cardiovascular functions, lipid profile and body composition. The study was carried out on 30 human volunteers (20 Indian and 10 Kyrgyz) initially at Bishkek for basal recording and on day 3, 7, 14, and 21 of high altitude (3200 m) induction and again on day 3 of de-induction. On altitude exposure significant decrease in body weight was observed both in Indian (day 14, p<0.001) and Kyrgyz (day 3, p<0.01) subjects. Decreased levels of total body water, extra cellular and intra cellular body water were also observed in both the groups. Significant reduction in body mass index (p<0.01), fat free mass (p<0.01), body cell mass (p<0.01) and body volume (p<0.01) was also observed in Kyrgyz subjects, whereas in Indian subjects the changes were not significant in these variables on high altitude exposure. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly on day 3 (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) of induction in Indian subjects; whereas in Kyrgyz significant increase was observed on day 14 (p<0.05) in both the cases. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly on day 7 of HA exposure in both the groups. Results indicate that the Indian and Kyrgyz groups report differently, in relation to changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profiles, and body composition, when exposed to HA. The difference observed in acclimatization pattern in the two groups may be due to ethnic/genetic variation of two populations. PMID:23537260

Vats, Praveen; Ray, Koushik; Majumadar, Dhurjati; Amitabh; Joseph, Duraisamy Arul; Bayen, Susovon; Akunov, Almaz; Sarbaev, Akpav; Singh, Shashi Bala

2013-03-01

163

A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age?=?4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (?1.2%, p?body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: ?0.74 seconds, p?body composition and physical fitness. Program efficacy should be tested in a randomized trial. Trial registration ChiCTR-ONRC-14004143. PMID:24886119

2014-01-01

164

Effects of lupin-enriched foods on body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Regular consumption of diets with increased protein or fibre intakes may benefit body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient high in protein and fibre.Objective:To investigate the effects of a lupin-enriched diet, during and following energy restriction, on body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals.Design:Participants (n=131) were

R Belski; T A Mori; I B Puddey; S Sipsas; R J Woodman; T R Ackland; L J Beilin; E R Dove; N B Carlyon; V Jayaseena; J M Hodgson

2011-01-01

165

Acrolein Inhalation Alters Arterial Blood Gases and Triggers Carotid Body Mediated Cardiovascular Responses in Hypertensive Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to air pollution increases risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. While the mechanisms accounting for these effects are unclear, several epidemiological studies have reported decreases in oxygen ...

166

Affordable Exercise Opportunities Improve the Health and Fitness of Inner-City Residents Jordan McIntire, Mitchel Sermersheim, and Tracie Arnold  

E-print Network

evaluated for upper-body (UBS), lower-body (LBS) strength and endurance, cardiovascular fitness (CVF), bodyAffordable Exercise Opportunities Improve the Health and Fitness of Inner-City Residents Jordan Mc students who provide health/fitness assessments and exercise leadership for academic credit, PARCS offers

Zhou, Yaoqi

167

Dress fit and body image: a thematic analysis of women's accounts during and after trying on dresses.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate women's experiences of dress fit and body image. Spontaneous speech of 20 women aged 18-45 years was audio-recorded while they tried on a number of dresses. They were also body-scanned and photographed in their chosen dress and discussed both the scan and the photograph in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and four key themes were found: the slim hourglass ideal, functional aspects of clothes fit, body confidence and clothes fit, and clothes dimensions and size coding. All themes and component sub-themes were ratified in follow-up sessions six months after the original interviews. It was concluded that these women had a complicated relationship with clothes fit and sizing and used well-fitting clothes to increase body confidence, cover perceived flaws, and to try to attain a slender hourglass look. Ideas for future directions for research in these areas are discussed. PMID:23597568

Grogan, Sarah; Gill, Simeon; Brownbridge, Kathryn; Kilgariff, Sarah; Whalley, Amanda

2013-06-01

168

Cardiovascular system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the ... carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...

169

Efficacy of WBV as a modality for inducing changes in body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular strength: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training as a modality for inducing changes in body composition, cardiovascular condition, and muscular strength in sedentary postmenopausal women. WBV training was compared with other training regimens, ie, aerobic training and circuit resistance training, commonly used to promote weight loss, cardiovascular conditioning, and muscular strength. Postmenopausal women (aged 48–60 years) were randomly assigned to WBV training, circuit resistance training, or aerobic training. Participants trained three times per week for 8 weeks. The training regimens were progressive in nature, with increases in training intensity and duration occurring throughout the 8-week period. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. A modified Bruce treadmill protocol was used to assess aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and time to peak exhaustion. Upper and lower body strengths were determined by one repetition maximum (1-RM) chest and leg presses, respectively. Variables were analyzed using separate 3 (exercise mode) × 2 (time) repeated-measures analysis of variance with effect sizes due to the small sample size. No significant main effects or interactions were seen for any body composition variable; however, moderate to large effect sizes (?2=0.243 and ?2=0.257) were detected regarding interactions for percent body fat and lean body mass favoring aerobic training and circuit resistance training. For VO2peak, no significant main effects or interactions were detected (time, ?2=0.150; P=0.11; time × group, ?2=0.139; P=0.30); but a significant time effect was observed for time to peak exhaustion (?2=0.307; P=0.017). A significant interaction for upper body strength (?2=0.464; P=0.007), and main effect for time in lower body strength (?2=0.663; P=0.0001) was detected. Post hoc analysis indicated a significant increase in upper body strength for circuit resistance training (P=0.023) and a decrease for WBV training (P=0.015). Our results indicate that WBV may not be an effective alternative to traditional training with regard to body composition or aerobic capacity, but could have a positive impact on lower body strength. PMID:24399871

Tapp, Lauren R; Signorile, Joseph F

2014-01-01

170

Aerobic fitness level does not modulate changes in whole-body protein turnover produced by unaccustomed increases in energy expenditure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of a sudden increase in energy expenditure (EE) on whole-body protein turnover vary between studies, and the possibility that fitness level modulates those responses has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that aerobically trained individuals may exhibit adaptations that protec...

171

Combined effects of body mass index and cardio\\/respiratory fitness on serum vaspin concentrations in Korean young men  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Little information is available regarding how body fatness and cardio\\/respiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with serum\\u000a vaspin. The purpose of the study was to investigate the combined effect of body mass index (BMI) and CRF on serum vaspin in\\u000a Korean young men. In a cross-sectional study, we examined 490 Korean young men (mean age 23.8 ± 2.5 years) who were voluntarily\\u000a recruited. Body

Jin-Kyung Cho; Tae-Kyung Han; Hyun-Sik Kang

2010-01-01

172

Radiation dose associated with renal failure mortality: a potential pathway to partially explain increased cardiovascular disease mortality observed after whole-body irradiation.  

PubMed

Whole-body and thoracic ionizing radiation exposure are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In atomic bomb survivors, radiation dose is also associated with increased hypertension incidence, suggesting that radiation dose may be associated with chronic renal failure (CRF), thus explaining part of the mechanism for increased CVD. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association of radiation dose with various definitions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. A secondary analysis was performed using a subsample for whom self-reported information on hypertension and diabetes, the two biggest risk factors for CRF, had been collected. We found a significant association between radiation dose and only our broadest definition of CRF among the full cohort. A quadratic dose excess relative risk model [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.091 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.198)] fit minimally better than a linear model. Within the subsample, association was also observed only with the broadest CRF definition [ERR/Gy(2) = 0.15 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.32)]. Adjustment for hypertension and diabetes improved model fit but did not substantially change the ERR/Gy(2) estimate, which was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.35). We found a significant quadratic dose relationship between radiation dose and possible chronic renal disease mortality that is similar in shape to that observed between radiation and incidence of hypertension in this population. Our results suggest that renal dysfunction could be part of the mechanism causing increased CVD risk after whole-body irradiation, a hypothesis that deserves further study. PMID:22149958

Adams, Michael Jacob; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Akahoshi, Masazumi

2012-02-01

173

Physical Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protective effects of physical activity and fitness on cardiovascular health have clearly been shown among normally developed children. However, data are currently lacking pertaining to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fitness measures, body composition, and…

Schott, Nadja; Alof, Verena; Hultsch, Daniela; Meermann, Dagmar

2007-01-01

174

Body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular adjustments during submaximal exercise: influence of chewing coca leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to determine the haematological and cardiovascular status, at rest and during prolonged\\u000a (1?h) submaximal exercise (approximately 70% of peak oxygen uptake) in a group (n?=?12) of chronic coca users after chewing approximately 50?g of coca leaves. The results were compared to those obtained\\u000a in a group (n?=?12) of nonchewers. At rest, coca chewing was accompanied

Hilde Spielvogel; Armando Rodriguez; Brigitte Sempore; Esperanza Caceres; Jean-Marie Cottet-Emard; Laurent Guillon; Roland Favier

1997-01-01

175

Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

2012-01-01

176

Physical Fitness, Physical Activity and Sedentary Activities of 7 to 11 Year Old Boys with Different Body Mass Indexes  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in physical fitness, physical activity, and sedentary activities among 7 to 11 year old boys with varying body mass index in Ardabil, Iran. Methods The sample consisted of 766 boys who participated in eight weight bearing (1 mile walk/run, sit ups, standing long jump, vertical jump, shuttle run 4 × 10 m, 30-meter sprint, pull ups, pushups) and four non-weight-bearing physical fitness tests (flamingo balance, handgrip; sit and reach and finger reaction time). Physical activity and sedentary activities were assessed by questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI) was computed to classify participants into normal weight, underweight, overweight and obese groups. Results The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 10.7%, 14.1% and 4.2% respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) decreased progressively as the BMI increased and differences among the all body mass index categories were significant (P<0.01). Obese subjects performed worse in all weight bearing fitness tests than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Moreover, overweight subjects performed worse in one mile, pushups and pull ups than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Underweight subjects had significantly lower Pushups than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Obese subjects had significantly higher sedentary activities and lower physical activity than other counterparts (P<0.01). Conclusions This study showed that weight bearing physical fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity progressively decreased as the BMI increased and conversely, sedentary activities increased as the BMI increased. PMID:22942996

Esmaeilzadeh, Samad; Ebadollahzadeh, Karim

2012-01-01

177

Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia. PMID:24143082

Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

2013-01-01

178

Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia  

PubMed Central

Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60–74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (?2.1% body weight, ?1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (?4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia. PMID:24143082

Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Manaf, Zahara Abd; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

2013-01-01

179

Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

2012-01-01

180

Measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children from Two Commonly Used Field Tests After Accounting for Body Fatness and Maturity  

PubMed Central

Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8–13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5–7% of the variance. PMID:25031676

Hamlin, Michael J.; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Kimber, Nicholas E.

2014-01-01

181

Physical Fitness in People with Mental Retardation. Arc Q&A #101-49  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to physical fitness in people with mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: a definition of "physical fitness"; the components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition, and cardiovascular endurance);…

Rimmer, James H.

182

The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO{sub 2} max in white, black and Mexican Americans  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO{sub 2} max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO{sub 2} max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO{sub 2} max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation.

Egwuogu, Heartley [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shendell, Derek G. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-School of Public Health (and EOHSI), 683 Hoes Lane West, 3rd Floor, P.O. Box 9, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: shendedg@umdnj.edu; Okosun, Ike S. [Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goodfellow, Lynda [School of Health Professions, College of Health and Human Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2009-04-15

183

Body mass and individual fitness in female ungulates: bigger is not always better.  

PubMed Central

In female vertebrates, differences in fitness often correspond to differences in phenotypic quality, suggesting that larger females have greater fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from variation in life span and/or variation in yearly reproductive success, but no study has yet assessed the relationships between the components of fitness and phenotypic quality while controlling for life span. We tried to fill this gap using data from long-term monitoring (23 years) of marked roe deer and bighorn sheep, two ungulates with very different life histories. In both species, we found a strong positive relationship between an adult female's mass and her probability of reaching old age: over the long term, bigger is indeed better for ungulate females. On the other hand, we found no evidence in either species that heavier females had higher fitness when differences in life span were accounted for: over the short term, bigger is not necessarily better. Our results indicate that, while broad differences in phenotypic quality affect individual fitness, when differences in life span are accounted for phenotypic quality has no residual effect on fitness. Therefore, within a given range of phenotypic quality, bigger is not always better, for reasons which may differ between species. PMID:10737404

Gaillard, J M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Delorme, D; Jorgenson, J

2000-01-01

184

Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

2001-01-01

185

Cardiovascular group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

Blomqvist, Gunnar

1989-01-01

186

The "fit but fat" concept revisited: population-based estimates using NHANES.  

PubMed

Low cardiovascular fitness is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults. The "fit but fat" concept suggests that cardiovascular fitness attenuates risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease independent of body mass index (BMI), even among the obese. However, the proportion of U.S. adults considered both fit and obese is unknown. Thus, the purposes of this short paper were to estimate the proportion of U.S. adults who are obese yet have a high cardiovascular fitness level (fit but fat), and determine the independent effect of obesity on cardiovascular fitness. The study was a secondary data analysis of 4,675 adults (20-49 years) who completed a submaximal exercise test, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002). Cardiovascular fitness and body weight were expressed as continuous (estimated VO2max [ml.kg-1.min-1] and BMI [kg/m2]) and categorical variables (low, moderate, and high cardiovascular fitness level; normal weight, overweight, and obese), the later using sex and age-specific criteria from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study and standard BMI cut-points, respectively. Using these methods, the prevalence of meeting the fit but fat definition among U.S. adults was 8.9% (95% C.I. = 6.9 - 10.9%), whereas 17.4% were overweight and high fit, and 30% were normal weight and high fit. Importantly, the proportion of low, moderate, and high cardiovascular fitness differed significantly (p < 0.05) by BMI level. Using multiple regression, being obese was associated with a 9.2% lower estimated VO2max compared to being normal weight, even after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income. These results suggest that a small percentage of U.S. adults can be considered fit but fat, and that obesity is independently associated with reduced cardiovascular fitness. The likely explanation for the low proportion of U.S. adults who can be considered fit but fat is a low level of physical activity, which constributes to both a positive energy balance and low fitness. Thus, engaging obese adults in physical activity that is sufficient to improve cardiovascular fitness may help to reduce not only body weight, but the excess health burden in this population. PMID:20497579

Duncan, Glen E

2010-01-01

187

Too Fat to Fit through the Door: First Evidence for Disturbed Body-Scaled Action in Anorexia Nervosa during Locomotion  

PubMed Central

To date, research on the disturbed experience of body size in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) mainly focused on the conscious perceptual level (i.e. body image). Here we investigated whether these disturbances extend to body schema: an unconscious, action-related representation of the body. AN patients (n?=?19) and healthy controls (HC; n?=?20) were compared on body-scaled action. Participants walked through door-like openings varying in width while performing a diversion task. AN patients and HC differed in the largest opening width for which they started rotating their shoulders to fit through. AN patients started rotating for openings 40% wider than their own shoulders, while HC started rotating for apertures only 25% wider than their shoulders. The results imply abnormalities in AN even at the level of the unconscious, action oriented body schema. Body representation disturbances in AN are thus more pervasive than previously assumed: They do not only affect (conscious) cognition and perception, but (unconscious) actions as well. PMID:23734207

Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Dijkerman, H. Chris; Uzunbajakau, Siarhei A.; van Elburg, Annemarie; Postma, Albert

2013-01-01

188

Quantitative Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Skeletal Muscle Function, and Body Composition in Adults with Primary Malignant Glioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness, skeletal muscle function, and body composition of patients with newly diagnosed and untreated, postsurgical primary malignant glioma. Experimental Design Using a cross-sectional design, patients with clinically stable (10 ± 7 days post surgery) high-grade glioma (HGG; n=25) or low-grade glioma (LGG; n=10) were studied. Participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with expired gas analysis to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). Other physiological outcomes included skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; magnetic resonance imaging), isokinetic muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer), and body composition (air displacement plethysmography). Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain scale. Results CPET was a feasible and safe procedure to assess VO2peak with no serious adverse events. VO2peak indexed to total body weight and lean body mass for both groups was 13.0 mL.weight.min?1 and 19 mL.lean.min?1; the equivalent to 59% and 38% below age and sex-predicted normative values, respectively. Skeletal muscle strength and mid-thigh CSA was lower in HGG relative to LGG patients (83 vs. 125 Nm, p=.025; 94 vs. 119 cm2, p=.171, respectively). Skeletal muscle isokinetic strength, CSA, and body composition outcomes predicted VO2peak (r = ?0.59 to 0.68, p<0.05). Conclusions Postsurgical glioma patients have markedly reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, isokinetic strength and CSA. Prospective studies are now required to determine whether such abnormalities influence treatment toxicity and clinical outcome as well as test the effect of appropriately selected interventions to prevent and/or mitigate dysfunction. PMID:20029975

Jones, Lee W.; Friedman, Allan H.; West, Miranda J.; Mabe, Stephanie K.; Fraser, Jennifer; Kraus, William E.; Friedman, Henry S.; Tresch, Maura I.; Major, Nancy; Reardon, David A.

2009-01-01

189

An investigation of pre-activity cardiovascular screening procedures in health/fitness facilities--part II: rationale for low adherence with national standards.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the rationale provided by program directors and general managers of health/fitness facilities for low adherence to nationally accepted standards related to pre-activity cardiovascular screening procedures (PACSPs) for members and clients of personal trainers. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the directors/managers in a Midwest region representing 76 facilities who indicated they did not conduct PACSPs for members and clients of personal trainers. Analysis of the rationale provided revealed 6 major clusters: (1) Purpose or need for screening; (2) time and staffing; (3) barrier to participation; (4) personal responsibility for health and actions; (5) legal issues; and (6) company or franchise policy that categorized the reasons for low adherence to PACSPs. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness of the relevance of PACSPs among health/fitness managers, staff members, and current exercise science students as well as engage those in risk management for informed dialogue for consistent application of the standard of care. PMID:19751481

Springer, Judy B; Eickhoff-Shemek, JoAnn M; Zuberbuehler, Ernest J

2009-01-01

190

Body size adjustments for left ventricular mass by cardiovascular magnetic resonance and their impact on left ventricular hypertrophy classification  

PubMed Central

Methods to index left ventricular (LV) mass, measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), for body size have not been investigated. The purposes of this study were to develop allometric indices for LV mass measured by CMR and compare estimates of the prevalence and predictive value of LV hypertrophy defined by a new allometric height-weight index, LV mass/body surface area (BSA), height indices (a new allometric height index; and previously derived indices from echocardiographic measurements: LV mass/height2, LV mass/height2.7), and non-indexed LV mass. 5,004 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with CMR measurements of LV mass and no clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for a median of 4.1 years. The new indices and limits for hypertrophy (95th percentile) were derived from 822 normal-weight, normotensive, non-diabetic MESA participants. 107 events (coronary heart disease or stroke) were observed. The estimated prevalence of hypertrophy at baseline and hazard ratio for event associated with hypertrophy were 8% and 2.4 with the new allometric height-weight index, 11% and 2.2 with LV mass/BSA, 23–24% and 2.0–2.1 with height indices, and 20% and 1.7 with non-indexed LV mass. A statistically significant difference was detected between the hazard ratios based on the new height-weight index and non-indexed LV mass. The prevalence of hypertrophy is higher for indices that do not account for weight. The predictive value of hypertrophy is significantly better with the new allometric height-weight index than with non-indexed LV mass and may be better than indices without weight. PMID:20107905

Kronmal, Richard; Heckbert, Susan R.; Ni, Hanyu; Hundley, W. Gregory; Lima, João A.; Bluemke, David A.

2011-01-01

191

Numerical solutions for viscous and potential flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies using body-fitted coordinate systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for the flow about arbitrarily shaped two-dimensional bodies is given. This solution is based on a technique of automatic numerical generation of a curvilinear coordinate system having a coordinate line coincident with the body contour regardless of its shape. The implicit solution utilizes the vorticity-stream function formulation with a false-position iterative adjustment of the surface vorticity in satisfaction of the no-slip boundary condition. Excellent agreement with the Blasius boundary layer solution is obtained for a semi-infinite flat plate. Results are presented for Reynolds numbers up to 2000 for several airfoils and a cambered rock.

Thames, F. C.; Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Walker, R. L.

1977-01-01

192

Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.  

PubMed

Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

2014-01-01

193

I B I S 138: 700-709 Body size, fitness and compatibilityin  

E-print Network

-laying and laying periods, northern geeseare largely dependent on stored endogenous nutrient reserves for egg will be able to acquire less reserves than large birds and have less surplus for egg production. Despite of partners may affect the fitness of both individuals. In seabirds. for example. one bird must incu- bate

Black, Jeff

194

Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

195

Physical attractiveness of face and body as indicators of physical fitness in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human physical attractiveness appears to be an important signal of mate value that is utilized in mate choice We argue that performance-related physical fitness (PF) was an important facet of ancestral male mate value and, therefore, that a positive relationship exists between PF and physical attractiveness as well as mating success. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 80

Johannes Hönekopp; Udo Rudolph; Lothar Beier; Andreas Liebert; Constanze Müller

2007-01-01

196

Muscular fitness, body composition and physical self-perception in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between muscular strength, body composition, and physical self-perception in adolescents. Participants (n=106, age 15.0±0.7 years, 51% boys) completed the following assessments: height and weight, bio-electrical impedance analysis (body fat %), muscular strength (1RM bench press and leg press), and the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile. Bivariate correlations

David R. Lubans; Dylan P. Cliff

2011-01-01

197

A Healthy Brain in a Healthy Body: Brain Network Correlates of Physical and Mental Fitness  

PubMed Central

A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely understood. By applying mathematical concepts from ‘network theory’, insights in the organization and dynamics of brain functioning can be obtained. We test the hypothesis that neural network organization mediates the association between cardio respiratory fitness (i.e. VO2 max) and cognitive functioning. A healthy cohort was studied (n?=?219, 113 women, age range 41–44 years). Subjects underwent resting-state eyes-closed magneto-encephalography (MEG). Five artifact-free epochs were analyzed and averaged in six frequency bands (delta-gamma). The phase lag index (PLI) was used as a measure of functional connectivity between all sensors. Modularity analysis was performed, and both within and between-module connectivity of each sensor was calculated. Subjects underwent a maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) measurement as an indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. All subjects were tested with a commonly used Dutch intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was related to VO2 max. In addition, VO2 max was negatively associated with upper alpha and beta band modularity. Particularly increased intermodular connectivity in the beta band was associated with higher VO2 max and IQ, further indicating a benefit of more global network integration as opposed to local connections. Within-module connectivity showed a spatially varied pattern of correlation, while average connectivity did not show significant results. Mediation analysis was not significant. The occurrence of less modularity in the resting-state is associated with better cardio respiratory fitness, while having increased intermodular connectivity, as opposed to within-module connections, is related to better physical and mental fitness. PMID:24498438

Douw, Linda; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dijk, Bob W.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.

2014-01-01

198

Elevated Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percentage Are Associated with Decreased Physical Fitness in Soccer Players Aged 12–14 Years  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adolescents are in increased risk for the development of obesity, while sport has been suggested as an effective means against adolescent obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweightness/obesity, (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BF), and (c) the association between BMI, BF and physical fitness in adolescent soccer players. Methods Members (n=136, aged 13.1±0.6 yr) of competitive soccer clubs were examined for physical and physiological characteristics. Results Based on international BMI cut-off points, 19.9% (n=27) of participants were classified as overweight. BMI was highly correlated with BF (r=0.77, P<0.001). BMI and BF were in inverse relationship with aerobic power (r= ? 0.29, P<0.001; r= ? 0.44, P<0.001, respectively), maximal anaerobic power (r= ? 0.23, P=0.009; r= ? 0.47, P<0.001) and local muscular endurance (r= ? 0.36, P<0.001; r= ? 0.67, P<0.001). Conclusions The strong relationship between BMI and BF suggest the further use of BMI in adolescent soccer players. The findings confirmed previous observations in the general population about the negative effect of overweight and fatness on physical fitness. The prevalence of overweightness among participants was similar with what is observed in general population. Therefore, sport participation cannot guarantee physiological body mass and body composition, and it is necessary to prescribe exercise targeting body mass and fat control. PMID:23012636

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

2012-01-01

199

Cardiovascular responses to a laboratory stressor in women: Assessing the role of body awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body awareness (BA) is characterised by a general tendency towards awareness and recognition of normal, non-emotive bodily processes and physical sensations. BA considers one's sensitivity towards and belief in how well they can sense, predict, and describe their bodily functions and sensations. This study investigated the role of BA in haemodynamic and anxiety responses to a laboratory stressor. Women (n?=?40)

M. Kathleen B. Lustyk; Haley A. C. Douglas; Jacob A. Bentley; Winslow G. Gerrish

2011-01-01

200

Cardiovascular responses to a laboratory stressor in women: Assessing the role of body awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body awareness (BA) is characterised by a general tendency towards awareness and recognition of normal, non-emotive bodily processes and physical sensations. BA considers one's sensitivity towards and belief in how well they can sense, predict, and describe their bodily functions and sensations. This study investigated the role of BA in haemodynamic and anxiety responses to a laboratory stressor. Women (n?=?40)

M. Kathleen B. Lustyk; Haley A. C. Douglas; Jacob A. Bentley; Winslow G. Gerrish

2012-01-01

201

Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features. PMID:24023949

Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

2013-01-01

202

Body mass, cardiovascular risk and metabolic characteristics of young persons presenting for mental healthcare in Sydney, Australia  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young people presenting for mental healthcare. Design Cross-sectional assessments of body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Setting Two primary-care based sites in Sydney, Australia for young people in the early stages of mental disorders. Participants A clinical sample of young people (12–30?years) with mental health problems. Outcome measures Daily smoking rates, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate. Results Of 1005 young people who had their BMI determined (62% female; 19.0±3.5?years), three quarters (739/1005) also had BP recordings and one-third (298/1005) had blood sampling. Clinically, 775 were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories (anxious-depression: n=541; mania-fatigue, n=104; developmental-psychotic n=130). The profile of BMI categories approximated that of the comparable segments of the Australian population. Older age, lower levels of social functioning and higher systolic BP were all associated with high BMI. In a subset (n=129), current use of any psychotropic medication was associated (p<0.05) with increased BMI. Almost one-third of cases were current daily smokers (compared to population rate of 11%). Males had a higher proportion of raised glucose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to females (9.3% and 34.1% vs 2.1% and 5.9%, respectively). Overall, there was no relationship between BMI and fasting glucose but significant relationships with triglycerides and HDL were noted. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between diagnostic subgroup and metabolic profiles. Conclusions Daily smoking rates are increased among young people presenting for mental healthcare. However, these young people do not demonstrate adverse cardiometabolic profiles. The high levels of smoking, and association of BMI with adverse social circumstances, suggest that risk factors for chronic disease are already present and likely to be compounded by medication and social disadvantage. PMID:25818274

Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; GeHue, Jeanne; Whitwell, Bradley G; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

2015-01-01

203

Relations of Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use to Body Mass Index and Selected Biomarkers for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with biomarkers for glucose dysregulation and inflammation, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Methods. Postmenopausal women were recruited into the Women’s Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998, and data were collected at regular intervals through 2005. We used multiple linear regression models to examine whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with BMI, waist circumference, and biomarkers. Results. Analysis of data from 71?809 women who completed all relevant baseline and year 3 assessments showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were significantly associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. Among 1950 women, elevated depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased insulin levels and measures of insulin resistance. Analyses of baseline data from 2242 women showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with higher C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions. Monitoring body habitus and other biomarkers among women with elevated depression symptoms or taking antidepressant medication may be prudent to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23763394

Balasubramanian, Raji; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Hébert, James R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Culver, Annie L.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Beck, James; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Zorn, Martha; Liu, Simin

2013-01-01

204

A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec. PMID:25830145

Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

2015-02-01

205

The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary school students. For the purpose of this study, 20 obese elementary students were selected as subjects. The subjects were then divided into two groups: the swimming group (n= 10) and the control group (n= 10). The subjects were asked to exercise for 60 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 12 weeks with an exercise intensity of 50-70% HRmax. The following results were achieved: first, in terms of body composition, both body fat percentage and fat-free mass showed significant differences within the swimming group. There were also significant differences again in the posttest of difference between the two groups. Second, in terms of changes in physical fitness, there were, again, no significant changes in muscular strength between the two groups. However, muscular endurance, flexibility, and cardiopulmonary endurance showed significant differences in the swimming group's test for difference within groups. Significant differences in both groups for the posttest of differences between groups were also seen. Third, in terms of vascular compliance, there was a significant increase in the right leg for the swimming groups' test of difference within groups, as well as in the posttest of difference between groups. PMID:25061599

Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

2014-06-01

206

A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec.

Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

2015-01-01

207

Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore Cydia pomonella.  

PubMed

The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.). In our first set of experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (1) body size is heritable and (2) parental body size mediates egg production and offspring survival. Midparent-offspring regression analyses revealed that body mass is highly heritable for females and moderately heritable for males. The contribution of fathers to estimates of additive genetic variance was slightly greater than for mothers. Egg production increased with mean parental size, but offspring survival rates were equivalent. Based on this result, we tested two additional hypotheses in a second set of experiments: (3) male size moderates female egg production and egg fertility and (4) egg production, egg fertility, and offspring survival rate are influenced by female mating opportunities. Females paired with large males produced more eggs and a higher proportion of fertile eggs than females paired with small males. Females with multiple mating opportunities produced more fertile eggs than females paired with a single male. However, egg production and offspring survival rates were unaffected by the number of mating opportunities. Our experiments demonstrate that body mass is heritable in C. pomonella and that size phenotypes may mediate fecundity but not fitness. We conclude that male size can influence egg production and fertility, but female mate choice also plays a role in determining egg fertility. PMID:22584427

Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J

2012-06-01

208

Using Situs for Flexible and Rigid-Body Fitting of Multiresolution Single-Molecule Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wedescribe here a set of multiresolution visualization and docking procedures that we refer to as the Situs package. The package was developed to provide an efficient and robust method for the fitting of atomic structures into low-resolution data. The current release was optimized specifically for the visualization and docking of single molecules. A novel 3D graphics viewer, volslice3d, was developed

Willy Wriggers; Stefan Birmanns

2001-01-01

209

CUFit... your way.Enjoy a freelance workout in our fitness centre or cardio room,take an invigorating swim in our 50m pool, or take part in our CUFIT drop-in group fitness  

E-print Network

supervised Fitness Centre.Give yourself a total body workout with cardiovascular machines, weightCUFit... your way.Enjoy a freelance workout in our fitness centre or cardio room,take an invigorating swim in our 50m pool, or take part in our CUFIT drop-in group fitness classes. Our full

Carleton University

210

Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms: Fitting Pieces of a Life-History Puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The majority of ectotherms grow slower but mature at a larger body size in colder environments. This phenomenon has puzzled biologists because classic theories of life-history evolution predict smaller sizes at maturity in environments that retard growth. During the last decade, intensive theoretical and empirical research has generated some plausible explanations based on nonadaptive or adaptive plasticity. Nonadaptive plasticity

TODD D. STEURY; MICHAEL W. S EARS

2004-01-01

211

Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

2014-01-01

212

Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

1994-01-01

213

Aerobic and resistance exercise training effects on body composition, muscular strength, and cardiovascular fitness in an hiv—1 population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although HIV-I infection rates peaked in the 1980s in the United States, advanced stage HIV disease will grow by about 40%\\u000a in the next 40 years. This fact has signaled the need for intervention strategies that go beyond primary prevention and into\\u000a treatment of the complications associated with this chronic disease. Recently, the role of exercise in reversing the wasting

Curt L. Lox; Edward McAuley; R. Shawn Tucker

1996-01-01

214

Evaluation of Racial Differences in Resting and Postprandial Endothelial Function in Postmenopausal Women Matched for Age, Fitness and Body Composition  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated endothelial function at rest and after a high-fat meal challenge in African American (AA) and Caucasian postmenopausal women matched for age, body mass index, percent fat and fitness level. Design Pilot study. Setting University of Virginia General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eight AA and 8 Caucasian postmenopausal women. Intervention Participants underwent a VO2 peak treadmill protocol, percent fat assessment, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation measurements (baseline and 4 hours following a high-fat meal). Main outcomes measures Baseline and postprandial flow mediated dilation (FMD) following a high-fat meal. Results FMD values were similar in AA (5.4%, 95% CI: 3.3, 7.4) and Caucasian women (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.1). There was no significant change in FMD from baseline to four hours following the meal challenge within groups (AA: .9%, P=.397, Caucasian: 2.3%, P=.063) or between groups (P=.449), despite a significant increase in triglycerides (AA: 81.8 mg/dL, P<.001, Caucasian: 99.7 mg/dL, P=.004). Conclusions The present pilot study found that when postmenopausal AA and Caucasian women are matched for age, fitness and body composition, reported racial differences in resting endothelial function were not observed. Additionally, there were no racial differences in postprandial endothelial function or metabolism following a high-fat meal. PMID:23495621

Swift, Damon L.; Weltman, Judith Y.; Patrie, James T.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Gaesser, Glenn A.; Weltman, Arthur

2014-01-01

215

The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

1994-01-01

216

Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart…

Schmidt, Sharon

217

Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

2012-01-01

218

Genetic and environmental transactions underlying the association between physical fitness/physical exercise and body composition.  

PubMed

We examined mean effects and variance moderating effects of measures of physical activity and fitness on six measures of adiposity and their reciprocal effects in a subsample of the population-representative Danish Twin Registry. Consistent with prior studies, higher levels of physical activity suppressed variance in adiposity, but this study provided further insight. Variance suppression appeared to have both genetic and environmental pathways. Some mean effects appeared due to reciprocal influences of environmental circumstances differing among families but not between co-twins, suggesting these reciprocal effects are uniform. Some variance moderating effects also appeared due to biases in individual measures of adiposity, as well as to differences and inaccuracies in measures of physical activity. This suggests a need to avoid reliance on single measures of both physical activity and adiposity in attempting to understand the pathways involved in their linkages, and constraint in interpreting results if only single measures are available. Future research indications include identifying which physical activity-related environmental circumstances have relatively uniform effects on adiposity in everyone, and which should be individually tailored to maximize motivation to continue involvement. PMID:25359086

Johnson, Wendy; de Ruiter, Ingrid; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Murray, Aja L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

2015-01-01

219

Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health. PMID:22236166

2012-01-01

220

Intelligence tests with higher g-loadings show higher correlations with body symmetry: Evidence for a general fitness factor mediated by developmental stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a bgeneral fitness factor.Q If so, then intellectual tests with higher g-loadings should show higher correlations with a composite measure of body symmetry.

Mark D. Prokosch; Ronald A. Yeo; Geoffrey F. Miller

2005-01-01

221

The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

2008-01-01

222

A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 – 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 – 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument “Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool” or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Results Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p?fitness and BMI, supporting the use of holistic interventions to address childhood obesity. PMID:24969618

2014-01-01

223

Effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal profile and muscle damage indices.  

PubMed

There is a huge market for ergogenic supplements for athletes. However, only a few products have been proven to have ergogenic effects and to be effective at improving muscle strength and body composition. One such supplement is beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). Derived from the amino acid leucine and its keto acid alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), HMB has been well documented as an oral ergogenic supplement commonly used by athletes. Several studies have shown that combining exercise training with HMB supplementation leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and there is some anecdotal evidence of aerobic improvement. However, HMB supplementation has been found to be effective mainly for untrained individuals. While previous reviews have emphasized three main pathways for HMB's mode of action: 1) enhancement of sarcolemmal integrity via cytosolic cholesterol, 2) inhibition of protein degradation via proteasomes, and 3) increased protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, more recent studies have suggested additional possible mechanisms for its physiological effects. These include decreased cell apoptosis and enhanced cell survival, increased proliferation, differentiation and fusion via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and enhanced IGF-I transcription. These are described here, and hormonal interactions are discussed, along with HMB dosage and safety issues. PMID:20857835

Portal, Shawn; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Halevy, Orna; Zadik, Zvi

2010-07-01

224

Volumetric and Areal Bone Mineral Density Measures Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Men and Women: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of volumetric (vBMD) and areal (aBMD) bone mineral density measures with prevalent cardiovascular disease\\u000a (CVD) and subclinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were investigated in a cohort of older men and women enrolled in the\\u000a Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Participants were 3,075 well-functioning white and black men and women (42% black,\\u000a 51% women), aged 68–80 years. Total

G. N. Farhat; E. S. Strotmeyer; A. B. Newman; K. Sutton-Tyrrell; D. C. Bauer; T. Harris; K. C. Johnson; D. R. Taaffe; J. A. Cauley

2006-01-01

225

Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1994-01-01

226

Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

Sander, Allan N.; And Others

1993-01-01

227

Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation  

PubMed Central

The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a “size-advantage” hypothesis – that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition – that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density – as well as local density of just reproductive individuals – was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had – in the following growing season – a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a ‘reproductive-economy-advantage’ – that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring – and hence transmitting genes to future generations – despite intense and persistent (cross-generational) crowding/competition from near neighbors. Selection for the latter is expected to favor relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size and hence – as a tradeoff – relatively small (not large) potential body size. PMID:24772274

Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

2014-01-01

228

Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

2004-01-01

229

Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children: the Mysore Parthenon study  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculo-skeletal health in children, but its relationship with offspring metabolic risk is not known. Objective We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometry, body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Design Serum 25-hydroxy D (25(OH)D ) concentrations were measured at 28-32 weeks gestation in 568 women who delivered at Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Anthropometry, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured in the offspring at 5 and 9.5 years of age. Muscle-grip strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer at 9.5 years. Arm-muscle-area was calculated as a measure of muscle mass. Fasting insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. Results 67% of women had vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l). At 5 and 9.5 years, children born to vitamin D deficient mothers had smaller arm-muscle-area compared to children born to mothers without deficiency (P<0.05). There was no difference in grip strength between offspring of women with and without vitamin D deficiency. At 9.5 years, children of vitamin D deficient mothers had higher fasting insulin resistance than children of non-deficient women (P=0.04). There were no associations between maternal vitamin D status and other offspring risk factors at either age. Conclusions Intra-uterine exposure to low 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with lower muscle mass and higher insulin resistance in children. PMID:21228264

Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Winder, Nicola R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Noonan, Kate; Boucher, Barbara J; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

2012-01-01

230

Maternal Diet-induced Obesity Programs Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Adult Male Mouse Offspring Independent of Current Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet–induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the ?1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring. PMID:25051449

Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

2014-01-01

231

Superiority of waist circumference and body mass index in cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. It has been reported in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients that mortality is inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), and directly associated with waist circumference (WC). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the general obesity parameter (BMI) and the adipose tissue discriminator (WC) with cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with CHD established by coronary angiography. Objectives. 1345 subjects with CHD were included in the PROGNOSIS (Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Confirmed by Angiography) study. Patients and methods. A multivariate Cox proportional regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the relative risk of total and CV mortality according to the parameters of general obesity (BMI) and adipose tissue distribution (WC).The mean age of subjects was 63.2 ± 9.2 years, and 57% were men. Results. There was direct relationship between WC and both total mortality [hazard ratio, HR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.10), p < 0.01] and CV mortality [HR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), p < 0.03], but an inverse relationship between BMI and both total mortality [HR = 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.98), p < 0.03] and CV mortality [HR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.87-0.99), p < 0.05]. After combining WC with BMI, the group of subjects with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) and WC ? 104 cm had the highest rates of both total and CV mortality of all CHD patients. Conclusions. Assessment based on a combination of WC and BMI is superior to assessment based on a separate estimation of these parameters in both total and CV mortality risk evaluation. PMID:25668594

Sobiczewski, Wojciech; Wirtwein, Marcin; Jarosz, Daniel; Gruchala, Marcin

2015-04-01

232

Maternal diet-induced obesity programs cardiovascular dysfunction in adult male mouse offspring independent of current body weight.  

PubMed

Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the ?1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring. PMID:25051449

Blackmore, Heather L; Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

2014-10-01

233

Analysis of response to 20 generations of selection for body composition in mice: fit to infinitesimal model assumptions  

PubMed Central

Data were analysed from a divergent selection experiment for an indicator of body composition in the mouse, the ratio of gonadal fat pad to body weight (GFPR). Lines were selected for 20 generations for fat (F), lean (L) or were unselected (C), with three replicates of each. Selection was within full-sib families, 16 families per replicate for the first seven generations, eight subsequently. At generation 20, GFPR in the F lines was twice and in the L lines half that of C. A log transformation removed both asymmetry of response and heterogeneity of variance among lines, and so was used throughout. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability (approximately 50%) obtained using REML with an animal model were very similar, whether estimated from the first few generations of selection, or from all 20 generations, or from late generations having fitted pedigree. The estimates were also similar when estimated from selected or control lines. Estimates from REML also agreed with estimates of realised heritability. The results all accord with expectations under the infinitesimal model, despite the four-fold changes in mean. Relaxed selection lines, derived from generation 20, showed little regression in fatness after 40 generations without selection. PMID:14736404

Martinez, Victor; Bünger, Lutz; Hill, William G

2000-01-01

234

Influence of maternal pre-pregnancy body composition and diet during early-mid pregnancy on cardiovascular function and nephron number in juvenile sheep  

PubMed Central

The prenatal diet can program an individual’s cardiovascular system towards later higher resting blood pressure (BP) and kidney dysfunction but the extent to which these programmed responses are directly determined by the timing of maternal nutritional manipulation is unknown. In this study we examined whether maternal nutrient restriction targeted over the period of maximal placental growth i.e. 28-80 d gestation resulted in altered BP or kidney development in the juvenile offspring. This was undertaken in 6-month-old sheep born to mothers fed control (100-150% recommended metabolisable energy (ME) intake for that stage of gestation) or nutrient-restricted (NR; 50%; n 6) diets between 28-80 d gestation. Controls were additionally grouped according to normal (C; ?3, n 7) or low body condition score (LBCS; ?2, n 6) thereby enabling us to examine the effect of maternal body composition on later cardiovascular function. From day 80 to term (?147 d) all sheep were fed to 100% ME. Offspring were weaned at 12 weeks and pasture-reared until 6 months of age when cardiovascular function was determined. Both LBCS and NR sheep tended to have lower resting systolic (C, 85 (SEM 2); LBCS, 77 (SEM 3); NR, 77 (SEM 3) mmHg) and diastolic BP relative to controls. Total nephron count was markedly lower in both LBCS and NR relative to controls (LBCS, 59 (SEM 6); NR, 56 (SEM 12) %). Our data suggest maternal body composition around conception is as important as the level of nutrient intake during early pregnancy in programming later cardiovascular health. PMID:16351771

Gopalakrishnan, G. S.; Gardner, D.S.; Dandrea, J.; Langley-Evans, S.C.; Pearce, S.; Kurlak, L. O.; Walker, R. M.; Seetho, I.W.; Keisler, D. H.; Ramsay, M.M.; Stephenson, T.; Symonds, M.E.

2009-01-01

235

Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (?) statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (? ? 0.20) in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (? 0.202), but was poor in females (? 0.021). In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (? 0.540, ? 0.307, ? 0.357 respectively) than in males (? 0.337, ? 0.199, ? 0.216 respectively). Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In contrast, the fair to moderate tracking of anthropometric variables, particularly in females, suggests that attempts to reduce the ever increasing incidence of overweight and obesity in adults, should probably begin in earlier life. PMID:15462676

Boreham, Colin; Robson, Paula J; Gallagher, Alison M; Cran, Gordon W; Savage, J Maurice; Murray, Liam J

2004-01-01

236

The relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14 year old adolescents residing within the Tlokwe local municipality, South Africa: The PAHL study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14?year-old high school adolescents of South Africa. Baseline data from a longitudinal study on physical activity and health (PAHLS) may provide valuable information for future studies, hence to inform public health policy makers. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight among adolescents aged 14?years in the Tlokwe Local Municipality of the North West Province of South Africa, and to assess the association between physical fitness and body composition separately for boys and girls, adjusted for race and locality. Methods Body weight, height and triceps, and subscapular skinfolds of 256 adolescents (100 boys and 156 girls) aged 14?years were measured, and percentage body fat and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. BMI was used to determine underweight, normal weight and overweight based on the standard criterion. Physical fitness was assessed by standing broad jump, bent arm hang and sit-ups according to the EUROFIT fitness standard procedures. Multinomial logistic regression analyses stratified for gender and adjusted for race (black or white), and the locality (urban or township) of the schools were used to analyze the data. Results In the total group 35.9% were underweight and 13.7% overweight. Boys were more underweight (44%) than girls (30.7%). The prevalence of overweight was 8% in boys and 17.3% in girls. BMI was strongly (p?=?0.01) related with percentage body fat. Strong and significant positive associations between physical fitness and BMI for the underweight girls with high physical fitness scores (OR, 10.69 [95%CI: 2.81-40.73], and overweight girls with high physical fitness scores (OR, 0.11 [95%CI: 0.03-0.50]) were found. Non-significant weaker positive relationship between physical fitness and BMI for the underweight boys with high physical fitness scores (OR, 1.80 [95%CI: 0.63-5.09]), and the overweight boys with high physical fitness scores (OR, 0.18 [95%CI: 0.02-1.78]) were found. Conclusion Both underweight and overweight among boys and girls in Tlokwe Local Municipality exist, and their effects on physical fitness performances were also noticed. As such, strategic physical activity, interventions or follow-up studies recognizing this relationship particularly in the overweight adolescents are needed. In addition, authorities in health and education departments dealing with adolescents should make use of this evidence base information in policies development. PMID:22626033

2012-01-01

237

Self?Reported Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Prediction and Classification of Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Longevity—A Prospective Investigation in the Copenhagen City Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background The predictive value and improved risk classification of self?reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. Methods and Results A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen City Heart Study without CVD in 1991–1994 were analyzed using multivariate Cox hazards regression to assess the predictive value and survival benefit for CVD and all?cause mortality from SRCF. The category?free net reclassification improvement from SRCF was calculated at 15?year follow?up on CVD and all?cause mortality. Overall, 1693 individuals died from CVD. In the fully adjusted Cox model, those reporting the same (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.32) and lower (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.24) SRCF than peers had an increased risk of CVD mortality, compared with individuals with higher SRCF. Compared with individuals with higher SRCF, those with the same and lower SRCF had 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5) and 5.1 (95% CI, 4.1 to 6.2) years lower life expectancy, respectively. Individuals with lower SRCF had a significantly increased risk of CVD mortality, compared with individuals with higher SRCF, within each strata of leisure time physical activity and self?rated health, and SRCF significantly predicted CVD mortality independently of self?rated health and walking pace. A net reclassification improvement of 30.5% (95% CI, 22.1% to 38.9%) for CVD mortality was found when adding SRCF to traditional risk factors. Comparable findings were found for all?cause mortality. Conclusions SRCF has independent predictive value, is related to a considerable survival benefit, and improves risk classification when added to traditional risk factors of CVD and all?cause mortality. SRCF might prove useful in improved risk stratification in primary prevention. PMID:25628408

Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

2015-01-01

238

The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

2014-01-01

239

Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity. PMID:21170802

Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

2011-01-01

240

Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

2005-01-01

241

Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

2012-01-01

242

Do favourable effects of increasing unsaturated fat intake on cardiovascular disease risk outweigh the potential adverse effect on body weight?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major health complication of overweight and obesity is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although dietary fat is often seen as major cause of obesity, there is no strong evidence that decreasing the dietary fat content as such, without actively improving energy balance, prevents weight gain. The limited and heterogeneous data from long-term randomized trials suggest that a 10% of energy higher

P L Zock

2006-01-01

243

Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

Kravik, Stein E.

1989-01-01

244

Chronic stress and insulin resistance-related indices of cardiovascular disease risk, part 2: a potential role for mind-body therapies.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world, and its prevalence is rapidly increasing among developing nations. The increasing global prevalence of CVD reflects in part the concurrent rise in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and other atherogenic changes associated with insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). Evidence suggests that chronic stress and related psychosocial factors also play an important role in the development and progression of IRS-related states and ultimately, in the pathogenesis of CVD. Designed to address these interrelated psychological and physiological components of health, yoga and other traditional mind-body therapies may offer particular promise in both the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the potential benefits of specific mind-body modalities for CVD risk reduction and discuss possible mechanisms underlying these observed effects. PMID:17900042

Innes, Kim E; Vincent, Heather K; Taylor, Ann Gill

2007-01-01

245

Television viewing and physical fitness in adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with cardiovascular fitness among 8,885 adults. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, smoking, length of work week, time reported exercising each week, and obesity were also examined. Subjects who watched TV more than 4 hours per day (frequent viewers) were 0.37 times as likely to be physically fit as those who watched TV less than 1 hour per day (infrequent viewers) with age and gender controlled. Similarly, adults who watched TV 3-4 hours per day (moderately frequent viewers) were 0.45 times as likely to be fit as infrequent watchers. Adjustment for potential confounders, particularly measured body fat and reported exercise duration in combination, weakened the TV viewing/fitness relation moderately. Given the findings of this study and the results of previous research, caution should be exercised regarding excessive television viewing. PMID:2132888

Tucker, L A

1990-12-01

246

Fitness and Fatness as Predictors of Mortality from All Causes and from Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women in the Lipid Research Clinics Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative size of the effects of fitness and fatness on longevity has been studied in only one cohort. The authors examined this issue using data from 2,506 women and 2,860 men in the Lipid Research Clinics Study. The mean age was 46.6 years in women and 45.1 years in men at baseline (1972-1976). Fitness was assessed using a treadmill

June Stevens; Jianwen Cai; Kelly R. Evenson; Ratna Thomas

247

Tai Chi: An Introduction Tai chi, which originated in China as a martial art, is a mind-body  

E-print Network

's potential for preventing falls and improving cardiovascular fitness and overall well-being. A 2007 NCCAM movements, each flowing into the next. The body is in constant motion, and posture is important. The names conditions, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoarthritis. In 2008, a review

Bandettini, Peter A.

248

Changes in physical fitness, bone mineral density and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight females with longstanding eating disorders.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ? 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED. PMID:22470294

Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2012-01-01

249

Comparison of cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters of supine lower body negative pressure and upright lower body positive pressure to simulate activity in 1/6 G and 3/8 G  

PubMed Central

For future space exploration missions, it is important to determine the best method of simulating on Earth cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions for lunar and Martian gravities. For this purpose, we compared exercise performed within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber. Twelve subjects underwent a protocol of resting and walking (0.25 Froude) within supine LBNP and upright LBPP simulation. Each protocol was performed in simulated 1/6 G and 3/8 G. We assessed heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V?o2), normalized stride length, normalized vertical peak ground reaction force, duty factor, cadence, perceived exertion (Borg), and comfort of the subject. A mixed linear model was employed to determine effects of the simulation on the respective parameters. Furthermore, parameters were compared with predicted values for lunar and Martian gravities to determine the method that showed the best agreement. During walking, all cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters were unaffected by the simulation used for lunar and Martian gravities. During rest, HR and V?o2 were lower in supine LBNP compared with upright LBPP. HR, V?o2, and normalized vertical peak ground reaction force obtained with supine LBNP and upright LBPP showed good agreement with predicted values. Since supine LBNP and upright LBPP are lacking significant differences, we conclude that both simulations are suited to simulate the cardiovascular and biomechanical conditions during activity in lunar and Martian gravities. Operational characteristics and the intended application should be considered when choosing either supine LBNP or upright LBPP to simulate partial gravities on Earth. PMID:23640597

Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Stahn, Alexander C.; Hargens, Alan R.

2013-01-01

250

A 5-month weight-reduction programme has a positive effect on body composition, aerobic fitness, and habitual physical activity of severely obese girls: A pilot evaluation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this pilot study, we wished to determine whether a 5-month multidisciplinary programme of a combined dietary-nutritional education-exercise intervention would have favourable effects on the health status of 18 obese adolescent girls. Before and after the clinical intervention, body composition and habitual physical activity were assessed by bioelectrical impedance and accelerometry, respectively. Aerobic fitness and substrate utilization were determined by

Céline Aguer; Olivier Gavarry; Yoann Gole; Alain Boussuges; Pierre Doyard; Guy Falgairette

2010-01-01

251

The effects of 18 months of intermittent vs continuous exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of 18 months of continuous vs intermittent exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females.DESIGN: Randomized, prospective, long-term cohort study. Subjects performed continuous exercise at 60–75% of maximum aerobic capacity, 3 days per week, 30 min per session, or exercised intermittently using brisk walking for two,

JE Donnelly; DJ Jacobsen; K Snyder Heelan; R Seip; S Smith; E Donnelly

2000-01-01

252

A Meta-Analytic Review of the Youth Fit For Life Intervention for Effects on Body Mass Index in 5- to 12-year-old Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analytic review of 16 studies of the Youth Fit For Life obesity prevention intervention found an overall significant body mass index (BMI) reduction effect (r=.07) in the intended 5- to 12-year-old age range. Possible moderation of effects on BMI by participants' age, ethnicity, gender, intervention administration format, and publication status was tested. Only ethnicity was found to be a

James J. Annesi; C. Nathan Marti; Eric Stice

2010-01-01

253

Optical multichannel monitoring of skin blood pulsations for cardiovascular assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time resolved detection and analysis of the skin back-scattered optical signals (reflection photoplethysmography or PPG) provide rich information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for cardiovascular assessment. The multichannel PPG concept has been developed and clinically verified in this work. Simultaneous data flow from several body locations allows to study the heartbeat pulse wave propagation in real time and to evaluate the vascular resistance. Portable two- and four-channel PPG monitoring devices and special software have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The multi-channel devices were successfully applied for cardiovascular fitness tests and for early detection of arterial occlusions.

Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Ozols, Maris

2004-07-01

254

Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring's weight and cardiovascular performance at ~7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high-fructose (HF) corn syrup or maintenance chow (5% fat; low-fat, no-fructose (LF)). Dams were subdivided into no ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at killing (55±0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by killing. Males had greater MAP than females (P=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (P<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (P<0.05) and diet (P<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (P=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

Schenewerk, Angela L; Ramírez, Francisco Í; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

2014-01-01

255

Returning Texas Senate Bill 530 back to 1100 Congress Avenue: The need for effective surveillance reporting of student fitness levels to Texas house representatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every Texas student is required to complete the FITNESSGRAM fitness assessment under legislation outlined in Senate Bill 530. This study described cardiovascular, body mass index (BMI), and overall fitness levels of students (grades 3–12) in the state of Texas during the 2009–2010 school year, and provides examples of how to effectively present results to Texas House Representatives using three unique

Jud Janak

2011-01-01

256

Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels  

PubMed Central

Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

2014-01-01

257

Chronic pain, body mass index and cardiovascular disease risk factors: tests of moderation, unique and shared relationships in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).  

PubMed

Chronic pain may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The current study examined whether persistent bodily pain was related to cardiovascular disease risk factors, whether these effects were moderated by body mass index (BMI), and, if not, whether chronic pain accounted for unique variance in CVD risk factors. Participants were women (N = 2,135) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. A high pain frequency variable (high pain in 0 through 4 assessments) was coded to reflect the frequency of high levels of bodily pain across the first 3 years of the study. Six CVD risk factors and BMI were measured at follow-up year 3. High pain frequency and BMI were correlated significantly with risk factors, although effects for the former were small. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed high pain frequency × BMI interactions for 5 of 6 CVD risk factors. Dissecting the interactions revealed a similar pattern across 4 risk factors: for women with normal BMI, there was a "dose-response" in which increasing frequency of high pain revealed increasingly worse CVD risk factor levels, whereas for women with obese BMI, high pain frequency was unrelated to risk factors. For obese women, increasing frequency of high pain was associated with higher blood glucose. Although BMI is a well-established CVD risk factor, evaluation of CVD risk level may be improved by considering the incidence of persistent pain, particularly in normal weight women (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) lower BMI. PMID:25427423

Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen; Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A; Appelhans, Bradley; Matthews, Karen A; Kravitz, Howard M

2015-04-01

258

Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MusS) has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of MusS in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. MusS has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension (HTN) and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of HTN, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training (RT) are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival. PMID:22885613

Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2012-01-01

259

INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 44:498509 (2004) Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms: Fitting Pieces of a  

E-print Network

498 INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 44:498­509 (2004) Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms SYNOPSIS. The majority of ectotherms grow slower but mature at a larger body size in colder environments able to explain the generality of temperature-size relationships in ectotherms. We recommend

Steury, Todd D.

260

A Hybrid GP\\/GA Approach for Co-Evolving Controllers and Robot Bodies to Achieve Fitness-Specified Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary approaches have been advocated toautomate robot design. Some research work has shown thesuccess of evolving controllers for the robots by genetic approaches.As we can observe, however, not only the controllerbut also the robot body itself can affect the behaviorof the robot in a robot system. In this paper, we developa hybrid GP\\/GA approach to evolve both controllers androbot bodies

Wei-po Lee; John Haallam; Henrik Hautop Lund

1996-01-01

261

Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

1992-01-01

262

Body heating induced by sub-resonant (350 MHz) microwave irradiation: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses in anesthetized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of sub-resonant microwave (MW) exposure (350 MHz, E orientation, average power density 38 mW\\/cm², average whole-body specific absorption rate 13.2 W\\/kg) on selected physiological parameters. The increase in peripheral body temperature during 350 MHz exposure was greater than that in earlier experiments performed at 700 MHz (resonance). Heart rate and mean arterial

J. R. Jauchem; M. R. Frei

1997-01-01

263

Portable two-channel PPG cardiovascular sensor device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable sensor device for simultaneous detection and processing of skin-remitted optical signals from any two sites of the body has been developed and tested. The photoplethysmography (PPG) principle was applied to follow the dilatation and contraction of skin blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. The newly developed two-channel approach allows to estimate the vascular blood flow resistance by analysis of time shifts between the PPG pulses detected at different body sites. Potential of the sensor device for express-assessment of human cardio-vascular condition and for body fitness tests has been demonstrated.

Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Ozols, Maris

2003-10-01

264

Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in…

Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

2009-01-01

265

Pondering the puzzle of PML (promyelocytic leukemia) nuclear bodies: Can we fit the pieces together using an RNA regulon?  

PubMed Central

Summary The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML and its associated nuclear bodies are hot topics of investigation. This interest arises for multiple reasons including the tight link between the integrity of PML nuclear bodies and several disease states and the impact of the PML protein and PML nuclear bodies on proliferation, apoptosis and viral infection. Unfortunately, an understanding of the molecular underpinnings of PML nuclear body function remains elusive. Here, a general overview of the PML field is provided and is extended to discuss whether some of the basic tenets of “PML-ology” are still valid. For instance, recent findings suggest that some components of PML nuclear bodies form bodies in the absence of the PML protein. Also, a new model for PML nuclear body function is proposed which provides a unifying framework for its effects on diverse biochemical pathways such as Akt signaling and the p53-Mdm2 axis. In this model, the PML protein acts as an inhibitor of gene expression post-transcriptionally via inhibiting a network node in the eIF4E RNA regulon. An example is given for how the PML RNA regulon model provided the basis for the development of a new anti-cancer strategy being tested in the clinic. PMID:18616965

Borden, Katherine L.B.

2008-01-01

266

Interactive Cardiovascular System Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The cardiovascular portion of the InnerBody website is a road map to the human cardiovascular system. It displays all of the main veins and arteries of the human body allowing the user to click on various parts of body and dozens of links to the many different systems appear. Users can hover over the links to discover what each part is named, or click on the link to be brought to a thorough definition and description of the selected system. Users may also �zoom in� on certain parts to view more detail. In addition to the interactive �map,� InnerBody also has images and descriptions about common issues that arise within the cardiovascular system.

267

Full-Body Cardiovascular and Tumor MRI for Early Detection of Disease: Feasibility and Initial Experience in 298 Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. High diagnostic accuracy, emerging whole-body concepts, and lack of side effects combine to render MRI a natural candidate for screening purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a comprehensive multiorgan-targeting MRI exami- nation and determine the frequency of findings in subjects without a history of serious disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The study group

Susanne C. Goehde; Peter Hunold; Florian M. Vogt; Waleed Ajaj; Mathias Goyen; Christoph U. Herborn; Michael Forsting; Jörg F. Debatin; Stefan G. Ruehm

268

School-Based Fitness Changes Are Lost During the Summer Vacation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the changes in percentage of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin levels during the 3-month summer break in overweight chil- dren enrolled in a school-based fitness program. Study Design: Overweight middle-school children were randomized to a lifestyle-focused physical education class (treatment) or standard physical edu- cation class (control) for 1 school year (9 months; pre- viously reported).

Aaron L. Carrel; R. Randall Clark; Susan Peterson; Jens Eickhoff; David B. Allen

2007-01-01

269

Developing a Self-Reported Physical Fitness Survey  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness measures indicate health status and could be used to improve management of overall health. Purpose To describe the development of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey intended to estimate fitness in adults aged ?40 years across four domains; 1) muscular strength and endurance, 2) cardiovascular fitness, 3) flexibility, and 4) body composition. Methods SRFit items were developed from the previously validated Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. Face-to-face participant interviews were used to refine SRFit item wording. Data from a pilot administration of the SRFit survey were used to guide further revisions of SRFit items. The Senior Fitness Test battery was used to evaluate the four fitness domains. The BodPod was used to measure body composition. Height, weight, and resting blood pressure were measured and the revised SRFit survey was administered to 108 participants. Results Forty-five percent of the participants were female and 37% reported being Black or in the “other” race category. Mean age was 53.5±8.0 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.6±8.8 kg/m2. SRFit summary score means (SD) and correlations found between summary score means (SD) and fitness test scores were: Upper body strength m=12.8 (2.4), r=0.59, p<0.001; lower body strength m=12.6 (2.6), r=0.68, p<0.001; upper body flexibility left-side m=12.3 (2.8), r=0.47, p<0.001; right-side m=12.4 (2.8), r=0.67, p<0.001; lower body flexibility m=17.4 (3.8), r = 0.55, p<0.001; cardiovascular endurance m=12.9 (2.6), r=0.66, p<0.001; BMI m=7.7 (2.23), r=0.79, p<0.001; and percent body fat m=7.7 (2.2), r=0.78, p<0.001. Conclusion SRFit survey items in each fitness domain were correlated with analogous Senior Fitness Test items indicating that participants could accurately use the SRFit survey to self-report physical fitness. PMID:22297807

Keith, NiCole R.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.

2012-01-01

270

Certain peculiarities of the functioning of the cardiovascular system in bedrest conditions during horizontal and antiorthostatic body positions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adequate modeling of physiological reactions inherent to the state of weightlessness has become a matter of particular urgency in space medicine. This modeling is necessary for studying the phenomenology and degree of disorders, prognostication of the crew's health, and developing the various preventive measures employed in space flights. A comparison is made of the physiological effects brought about by bed rest in a horizontal and antiorthostatic body position. A study is done of the influence of brief antiorthostatic hypokinesia, simulating the acute period of adaptation to weightlessness, on circulation and on a number of involved analytical systems. The basic model accepted is antiorthostatic hypokinesia with a body position declination angle of 4 deg (head lower than feet). The experiment's duration is dictated by the objectives of the research.

1978-01-01

271

Body heating induced by sub-resonant (350 MHz) microwave irradiation: cardiovascular and respiratory responses in anesthetized rats.  

PubMed

These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of sub-resonant microwave (MW) exposure (350 MHz, E orientation, average power density 38 mW/cm2, average whole-body specific absorption rate 13.2 W/kg) on selected physiological parameters. The increase in peripheral body temperature during 350 MHz exposure was greater than that in earlier experiments performed at 700 MHz (resonance). Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated during a 1 degree C increase in colonic temperature due to 350 MHz exposure; respiratory rate showed no significant change. The results are consistent with other investigators' reports comparing sub-resonance exposures with those at resonance and above. PMID:9140664

Jauchem, J R; Frei, M R

1997-01-01

272

Body heating induced by sub-resonant (350 MHz) microwave irradiation: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses in anesthetized rats  

SciTech Connect

These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of sub-resonant microwave (MW) exposure (350 MHz, E orientation, average power density 38 mW/cm{sup 2}, average whole-body specific absorption rate 13.2 W/kg) on selected physiological parameters. The increase in peripheral body temperature during 350 MHz exposure was greater than that in earlier experiments performed at 700 MHz (resonance). Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated during a 1 C increase in colonic temperature due to 350 MHz exposure; respiratory rate showed no significant change. The results are consistent with other investigator`s reports comparing sub-resonance exposures with those at resonance and above.

Jauchem, J.R. [Air Force Armstrong Lab., Brooks AFB, TX (United States)] [Air Force Armstrong Lab., Brooks AFB, TX (United States); Frei, M.R. [Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology] [Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

1997-06-01

273

The median preoptic nucleus: front and centre for the regulation of body fluid, sodium, temperature, sleep and cardiovascular homeostasis.  

PubMed

Located in the midline anterior wall of the third cerebral ventricle (i.e. the lamina terminalis), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) receives a unique set of afferent neural inputs from fore-, mid- and hindbrain. These afferent connections enable it to receive neural signals related to several important aspects of homeostasis. Included in these afferent projections are (i) neural inputs from two adjacent circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, that respond to hypertonicity, circulating angiotensin II or other humoural factors, (ii) signals from cutaneous warm and cold receptors that are relayed to MnPO, respectively, via different subnuclei in the lateral parabrachial nucleus and (iii) input from the medulla associated with baroreceptor and vagal afferents. These afferent signals reach appropriate neurones within the MnPO that enable relevant neural outputs, both excitatory and inhibitory, to be activated or inhibited. The efferent neural pathways that proceed from the MnPO terminate on (i) neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to regulate vasopressin release, while polysynaptic pathways from MnPO to cortical sites may drive thirst and water intake, (ii) thermoregulatory pathways to the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and medullary raphé to regulate shivering, brown adipose tissue and skin vasoconstriction, (iii) parvocellular neurones in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that drive autonomic pathways influencing cardiovascular function. As well, (iv) other efferent pathways from the MnPO to sites in the ventrolateral pre-optic nucleus, perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamic area and midbrain influence sleep mechanisms. PMID:25753944

McKinley, M J; Yao, S T; Uschakov, A; McAllen, R M; Rundgren, M; Martelli, D

2015-05-01

274

Fast N-body Simulations on GPUs Algorithms designed to efficiently solve this classical problem of physics fit very well  

E-print Network

Fast N-body Simulations on GPUs Algorithms designed to efficiently solve this classical problem require a nu- merical approach. The direct simulation of the all- pairs interaction results for the heteroge- neous, many-core hardware environment emerg- ing beyond the petascale computing era. As we show

Masci, Frank

275

Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index of 9–11-year-old English children: a serial cross-sectional study from 1998 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the changes over time in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) of children.Design:Serial cross-sectional, population-based study.Setting:Primary schools in Liverpool, UK.Participants:A total of 15 621 children (50% boys), representing 74% of eligible 9–11-year olds in the annual school cohorts between 1998\\/9 and 2003\\/4, who took part in a 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (20mMST).Main outcome measures:Weight, height, BMI

G Stratton; D Canoy; L M Boddy; S R Taylor; A F Hackett; I E Buchan

2007-01-01

276

Will they fit? Development of a measurement device to assess body habitus compatibility with MRI bore diameter for emergency trauma imaging.  

PubMed

Excessive obesity poses a significant limitation to radiographic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly related to aperture or bore diameter due to the patient's girth. Determination of whether a patient will fit into the bore of the MRI scanner is currently accomplished using patient height, weight, and MRI technician experience. These simple methods have proven unreliable. We sought to develop a device and method which could accurately determine whether a patient would fit into the MRI scanner. We developed an MRI template prototype which was tested against the standard radiology methods in a pilot study (n?=?6). We then performed a prospective validation study in adult human volunteers (n?=?100) to assess the accuracy of the MRI template. We collected height, weight, shoulder and pelvis girth/diameter for each study participant to evaluate the body dimension measurements that would assist in determination of whether a patient would fit into the MRI scanner. Using the MRI template, we determined that 11 of the 100 study participants would not fit in the MRI scanner and 10 were confirmed to not fit into the MRI aperture [positive predictive value (PPV) 0.91 (0.58-0.99); negative predictive value (NPV) 1.00 (0.95-1.00), sensitivity 1.00 (0.69-1.00), specificity 0.99 (0.93-0.99), likelihood ratio positive test 90 (12.81-632), likelihood ratio negative test 0, accuracy 99%]. In comparison, the body measurement method did not perform as well [PPV 0.66 (0.34-0.90), NPV 0.97 (0.92-0.99), sensitivity 0.80 (0.44-0.97), specificity 0.95 (0.89-0.98), likelihood ratio positive test 17.97 (6.56-49.2), likelihood ratio negative test 0.209 (0.06-0.72), accuracy 94%]. This study confirmed that the use of an MRI template is an accurate tool in determining whether an obese patient can fit through the MRI bore and be accommodated in the MRI scanner. PMID:22198736

Corwin, Amanda; Aresty, Adam; Chong, Suzanne; Brunsvold, Melissa; Evans, James R; Gillespie, R Brent; Napolitano, Lena M

2012-04-01

277

Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System  

PubMed Central

Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

2013-01-01

278

Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.  

PubMed

Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

2013-01-01

279

Numerical Simulation of Shock-Induced Combustion Past Blunt Bodies Using Shock-Fitting Technique. Appendix A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

1994-01-01

280

One size does not fit all: Using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women's body image.  

PubMed

Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women's feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women's body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants' body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25150817

Capodilupo, Christina M

2015-04-01

281

Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees  

PubMed Central

Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance. PMID:21992535

2011-01-01

282

The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-?. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

2014-01-01

283

The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-?. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472

Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn

2014-10-01

284

FITNESS BALCONY EQUIPMENT Woodway treadmills  

E-print Network

RPAC equipment MAP fitness FITNESS BALCONY EQUIPMENT · Woodway treadmills · Precor EFX ellipticals · Cybex ArcTrainers · Sci-Fit Pro II full body ergometer · Strength training machines · Dumbells up to 45, follow the walkway straight to the FITNESS BALCONY. FITNESS BALCONY key first floor B A B L B L C C L A L

Jones, Michelle

285

Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study  

PubMed Central

Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies. PMID:24761982

2014-01-01

286

Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ) for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF) (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%), High Unsaturated Fat (HUF) = (50:30:20; 6%), VLCARB (4:61:35; 20%) Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg). Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21%) (P < 0.05). LDL-C increased significantly only on VLCARB by 7% (p < 0.001 compared with the other diets) but apoB was unchanged on this diet and HDL-C increased relative to the other 2 diets. Triacylglycerol was lowered by 0.73 ± 0.12 mmol/L on VLCARB compared to -0.15 ± 0.07 mmol/L on HUF and -0.06 ± 0.13 mmol/L on VLF (P < 0.001). Plasma homocysteine increased 6.6% only on VLCARB (P = 0.026). VLCARB lowered fasting insulin 33% compared to a 19% fall on HUF and no change on VLF (P < 0.001). The VLCARB meal also provoked significantly lower post prandial glucose and insulin responses than the VLF and HUF meals. All diets decreased fasting glucose, blood pressure and CRP (P < 0.05). Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia. PMID:16403234

Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John C; Clifton, Peter M

2006-01-01

287

Body Mass Index, Waist-circumference and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Iranian Adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC alone. PMID:24288953

Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

2013-01-01

288

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. Results In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. Conclusions We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive abilities of waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference on the metabolic disease. PMID:22905246

Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, María-Isabel; Arós, Fernando; Wärnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Díaz-López, Andrés; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

2012-01-01

289

Documentation of program COORDC to generate and coordinate system for 3D corners with or without fillet using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program COORDC generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for corner geometry with or without corner fillets. It is assumed that at any given xi, x remains constant; consequently the only variation is in y and z. It is also assumed that for all xi's in the physical plane the coordinate system in y-z plane is similar. This enables solution of coordinate system for one particular xi = 1 (x for xi = 1 is arbitrarily chosen to be 0.0) and the solution for all other xi plane can be easily specified once the coordinates in the physical plane on the line 1 or = to xi or = to IMAX, eta = 1, zeta = 1 are specified.

Kumar, D.

1980-01-01

290

Efficacy of a self-directed behavioral health change program: Weight, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood pressure, health risk, and psychosocial mediating variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral health program designed to promote self-initiated change in overweight healthy middle-aged adults (M=49 years). Three treatment groupss (total n=25) differing in type of social support provided (i.e., group plus professional versus group plus peer versus group only) received 13 treatment sessions and 6 maintenance sessions scheduled over a full year. A

P. Andrew Clifford; Siang-Yang Tan; Richard L. Gorsuch

1991-01-01

291

Rice University Lifetime Physical Activity Program -LPAP 187: Group Fitness Spring 2011 FALL 2012 LPAP 187: GROUP FITNESS SYLLABUS  

E-print Network

Cardiovascular Fitness & Interval Training Resistance Training/Weight Lifting Principles Motivational DynamicsRice University ­ Lifetime Physical Activity Program - LPAP 187: Group Fitness ­ Spring 2011 FALL 2012 LPAP 187: GROUP FITNESS SYLLABUS COURSE AND INSTRUCTOR CONTACT INFORMATION Instructor: Elliott

292

Cardiovascular Deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

1999-01-01

293

A Small-scale Cross-sectional Study for the Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Relation to Body Composition and Morphometric Characters in Fishermen of Araku Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The people residing in coastal areas of Visakhapatnam are mostly engaged in fishery, which is always been a physically demanding job, and numerous factors have direct or indirect impact on the health of fishermen; but, the data about their physical fitness or health status is quite scanty. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness pattern, as well as morphometric characters, which may be influenced by their occupation. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 25 young fishermen (mean age of 22.8 ± 1.92 years) were randomly selected from Araku valley of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh and compared with 25 subjects who were randomly selected from college students (mean age of 21.9 ± 2.25 years) of Kolkata, West Bengal. Some physical and physiological fitness variables including height, weight, body mass index, body surface area, physical fitness index, anaerobic power, and energy expenditure were measured along with their morphometric characters. Results: Analysis of data indicated a significant difference in blood pressure, physical fitness index, energy expenditure, body fat percent and anaerobic power among fishermen compared to controls. However, there were no changes in morphometric characters between the two groups. Conclusions: Findings of this small-scale population-based study indicated that health and physical fitness of young fishermen is under the influence of both occupational workload and nutritional status, as found by body composition and morphometric characters. PMID:24932386

Sengupta, Pallav

2014-01-01

294

Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1?±?2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2?±?3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P?body mass index (P?body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P?fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24303918

Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2015-02-01

295

Effects of menopause on intraindividual changes in serum lipids, blood pressure, and body weight—the Chin-Shan community cardiovascular cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan, the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) was assessed prospectively to determine whether the changes in cardiovascular risk factors for women age 45–54 years are due to menopause. The average paired percentage changes that occurred between baseline (1990–1991) and follow-up (4 years later) in fasting serum lipids were compared in three groups of women including groups of 59 and

Pao-Ling Torng; Ta-Chen Su; Fung C Sung; Kuo-Liong Chien; Su-Cheng Huang; Song-Nan Chow; Yuan-Teh Lee

2002-01-01

296

Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements  

E-print Network

1 Fitness Fever and Fitness Fever 2.0 Requirements o Have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 or greater Fever program, participants will receive o One Group Training Session and one Group Challenge a week Personal Training session #12;2 Circle one: Fitness Fever or Fitness Fever 2.0 Name Local Address Apt

Weber, David J.

297

Manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors at low levels of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in Singaporean Chinese.  

PubMed

The global prevalence of obesity, characterised by a body mass index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m2, is high and is increasing. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. In Singapore the prevalence of obesity differs among the three main ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) but is relatively low compared to Western societies. Despite the low prevalence of obesity (BMI >=30 kg/m2), the morbidity and mortality for CVD are high in Singapore. In this paper, the odds ratio for presence of risk factors for CVD was studied in relation to BMI quintiles and in relation to body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) quintiles in a representative sample of adult Singaporean Chinese. The lowest quintile was used as the reference category. The boundaries for the BMI quintiles were 18.9, 20.7, 22.6 and 25.0 kg/m2 for females and 20.0, 21.7, 23.5 and 25.6 kg/m2 for males. The boundaries for WHR quintiles were 0.68, 0.71, 0.74 and 0.79 for females and 0.77, 0.82, 0.85 and 0.89 for males. As observed in other studies, the odds ratios for high serum total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, high serum triglyceride level, high blood pressure and high fasting blood glucose were higher in upper BMI and WHR quintiles. The effects were more pronounced in males compared with females. The odds ratios for having at least one of the mentioned risk factors in the different BMI quintiles for females were 1.3 (not significant (ns)), 1.6, 2.1 and 2.7, while in males they were 2.7, 4.1, 6.2 and 7.3. For the WHR quintiles the odds ratios were 0.9 (ns), 1.3 (ns), 1.9 and 2.1 for females, while for males they were 2.1, 4.7, 6.7 and 12.6. As the elevated risks are already apparent at low levels of BMI and low levels of WHR, it can be queried whether the cut-off points for obesity based on BMI and for abdominal fat distribution based on WHR as suggested by the WHO are applicable to the Singaporean Chinese population. There are indications in the literature that Asian populations have higher body fat percentages at lower BMI. This may explain the high odds ratios for CVD risk factors at low BMI and WHR and the high morbidity and mortality from CVD in Singapore, despite relatively low population mean BMI and obesity rates. PMID:24394159

Deurenberg-Yap, M; Yian, T B; Kai, C S; Deurenberg, P; VAN Staveren, W A

1999-09-01

298

Men's Fitness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It seems that people in the United States are going through a new and renewed commitment to getting back in shape, and there are a variety of helpful online resources to make this a viable possibility for millions of Americans. This particular site (sponsored by a number of fitness-related publications) brings together information on a host of timely topics, including weight loss, healthy eating, building muscle mass, and seasonal training suggestions. The homepage contains links on such topics as diminishing cellulite and eating organic, and also contains a number of online calculators. These calculators can help individuals determine their body mass index, their weight loss potential, and their ideal weight. The site also has an area where visitors can sign up to receive any number of free electronic newsletters from some of the magazines that sponsor the site.

299

Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactive adults have higher incidence of cardiovascular and total mortality. Unfit subjects tend also to have higher\\u000a mortality rates. The metabolic syndrome increases with age and tends to increase cardiovascular mortality. Higher levels of\\u000a physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children, adolescents, and adults improve metabolic syndrome features.\\u000a Current physical activity guidelines for children, adolescents and adults lack evidence-based

Luís Bettencourt Sardinha

300

Increasing physical fitness does not proportionally decrease circulating C-reactive protein level in men with varying fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that low physical fitness is associated with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of future cardiovascular events. However, whether increasing physical fitness proportionally decreases the circulating CRP level has not been evaluated. We first evaluated the basic relationship between physical fitness, assessed by running velocity, and circulating CRP level along with cardiovascular risk factors

Kei Nakajima; Masatoshi Kusuhara; Atsushi Yonemura; Makoto Ayaori; Katsumi Saionji; Seiichi Tamai; Fumio Ohsuzu

2008-01-01

301

Effects of Poly-Bioactive Compounds on Lipid Profile and Body Weight in a Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Population with Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Multicenter Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

A dietary supplement (AP, Armolipid Plus) that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of AP, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations and other CVD biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of six Spanish hospitals Hospital Virgen del Rocío (Sevilla); Hospital San Jorge (Huesca); Hospital San Pedro (Logroño); Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid), Hospital la Fe (Valencia) and Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus) as recruiting and coordinating center. 102 participants (mean age ± SD; 50.91±11.61; 32 men) with low CVD, with mild-to-moderately elevated LDL-c (between 3.35 mmol/L and 4.88 mmol/L) without hypolipemic therapy were randomized in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, multicenter trial commencing January 2012 and ending December 2012. Among the exclusion criteria were any concomitant chronic disease, triglycerides (TG) >3.97 mmol/L, pregnant or lactating, and history of CVD. At 12 weeks, compared to placebo, AP reduced LDL-c by ?6.9%, apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 by ?6.6% and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio by ?5.5%, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio by ?8.6%, while increasing ApoA1 by +2.5% (p<0.05). AP consumption was associated with modest mean weight loss of ?0.93 kg (95%CI: -1.74 to -0.12; P?=?0.02) compared with control group while dietary composition remained unchanged in the AP group. The AP product was well tolerated. In conclusion, AP, combined with dietary recommendations, reduced LDL-c levels as well as total cholesterol/HDL-c and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while increasing Apo A1, all of which are improvements in CVD risk indicators. AP is a product which could benefit patients having moderate hyperlipidemia and excess body weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01562080 PMID:25084280

Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-M; Puzo, José; Calabuig, José-Ramón; Brea, Angel; Pedret, Anna; Moriña, David; Villar, José; Millán, Jesús; Anguera, Anna

2014-01-01

302

ASSESSING IMPACTS OF TIME USE ON CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RELATION TO  

E-print Network

's cardiovascular fitness, obesity, and insulin resistance ¤ Assess adiposity by BMI ¤ Measure cardiovascular fitness (CVF) with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test ¤ Collect fastedASSESSING IMPACTS OF TIME USE ON CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RELATION TO RISK FOR OBESITY

Bertini, Robert L.

303

Having a Ball with Fitness Balls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

McNulty, Betty

2011-01-01

304

Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on the rate of adaptation of the human cardiovascular system to conditions of spaceflight, with particular attention given to data obtained during spaceflight in the U.S. Space Shuttle Program. It is pointed out that many of the cardiovascular changes that occurred during spaceflights that lasted from 2 to 11 days can be traced directly to changes in the body fluid volume. The beneficial effects of a fluid loading countermeasure (oral rehydration) and of the supine body position on the heart rate during the spaceflight are demonstrated. It is noted that, after hours or a few days of spaceflight, a state of adaptation is reached, in which the subject is well adapted and appropriately hydrated for the weightless environment. However, the return to the normal gravity of the earth leaves the individual especially sensitive to orthostatic stress.

Charles, John B.; Lathers, Claire M.

1991-01-01

305

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

306

The Association of Race and Socioeconomic Status With Cardiovascular Disease Indicators Among Older Adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives . We hypothesized that older Black adults would have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than White adults, as indicated by elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), low ankle-arm blood pressure index (AAI), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). But, accounting for a broad interpretation of socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., education, family income, home ownership, and other assets) would reduce

Ronica N. Rooks; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Toni Miles; Anne Newman; Stephen B. Kritchevsky; Richard Schulz; Tamara Harris

2002-01-01

307

Cardiovascular Disease and Menopause  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to study the abnormalities in the cardiovascular profile in postmenopausal Indian women and to compare the same with the cardiovascular profile of pre menopausal Indian women belonging to the same age group; taken as controls. The goal was to throw some light on the cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women of the Indian population as this population is thought to be at higher risk than their western counterparts and significant studies of the same kind in this population have been few. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study on 100 women who were either postmenopausal or premenopausal and were between the age group of 40 to 55 years was carried out over a period of ten months at our hospital. The variations in the cardiovascular profile between both groups were studied. All the women were subjected to a detailed history, thorough examination, investigations and imaging studies. Results: The evaluation revealed that Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), hypertension, abnormal Body Mass Index (BMI) and abnormal Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group as compared to the premenopausal group. The post menopausal women had significantly higher prevalence of abnormal lipid profiles as compared to their premenopausal counterparts. The postmenopausal women with a normal lipid profile also had increased prevalence of CAD and SAHT, which emphasizes the non-lipid cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that cardiovascular disease was more common in postmenopausal women of age group 40-55 years as compared to those not yet achieved menopause in a population of western Indian women. And this risk was significantly associated with central obesity, an abnormal lipid profile and the postmenopausal state in itself. PMID:24701484

Dosi, Rupal; Bhatt, Nikita; Shah, Priyanki; Patell, Rushad

2014-01-01

308

Design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a diabetes prevention program within African-American churches: The Fit Body and Soul study.  

PubMed

Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster-randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25kg/m(2)) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination. PMID:23354313

Williams, Lovoria B; Sattin, Richard W; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M Kaye; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Freeman, Arin; Narayan, K M Venkat

2013-03-01

309

Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

2014-01-01

310

Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

1987-01-01

311

The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

Hooker, John C.

1991-01-01

312

North York Fall Norms for Boys and Girls Age 12-14 for: CAHPER Tests; Measures of Aerobic Fitness; Peak Flow; Muscle Strength; Percent Body Fat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests are described that were given to 1,000 students randomly selected at grade 7-9 levels with an equal representation from both sexes. Participants were selected from two junior high schools in North York for a study comparing students in a regular physical education program to those in a program to develop cardiovascular endurance. The first…

Thompson, Patricia

313

Body Mass Index as a Measure of Adiposity in Children and Adolescents: Relationship to Adiposity by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and to Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass index is widely used as a measure of adiposity in adults, but its use in children and adolescents is controversial. We assessed body mass index as a measure of adiposity in children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 20 yr examined as part of the NIH survey of health in the Pima Indian population. Body mass

ROBERT S. LINDSAY; ROBERT L. HANSON; JANINE ROUMAIN; ERIC RAVUSSIN; WILLIAM C. KNOWLER; P. ANTONIO TATARANNI

314

Potential energy surface fitting by a statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares method for the many-body potential: Method and application to N{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect

Fitting potential energy surfaces to analytic forms is an important first step for efficient molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we present an improved version of the local interpolating moving least squares method (L-IMLS) for such fitting. Our method has three key improvements. First, pairwise interactions are modeled separately from many-body interactions. Second, permutational invariance is incorporated in the basis functions, using permutationally invariant polynomials in Morse variables, and in the weight functions. Third, computational cost is reduced by statistical localization, in which we statistically correlate the cutoff radius with data point density. We motivate our discussion in this paper with a review of global and local least-squares-based fitting methods in one dimension. Then, we develop our method in six dimensions, and we note that it allows the analytic evaluation of gradients, a feature that is important for molecular dynamics. The approach, which we call statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares fitting of the many-body potential (SL-PI-L-IMLS-MP, or, more simply, L-IMLS-G2), is used to fit a potential energy surface to an electronic structure dataset for N{sub 4}. We discuss its performance on the dataset and give directions for further research, including applications to trajectory calculations.

Bender, Jason D.; Doraiswamy, Sriram; Candler, Graham V., E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu, E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G., E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu, E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Theory Center, and Supercomputing Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2014-02-07

315

Cardiovascular Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

316

On the problem of fitting many-body potentials : 1. the minimal maximum error scheme and the paradigm of metal systems.  

SciTech Connect

Issues involved in fitting a semiempirical potential, such as the choice of a goodness criterion, selection of fitting quantities (properties), ascription of the degree of importance to the individual members of a fitting set, etc., all of which affect the outcome of a fitting procedure, are addressed and analyzed. The minimal maximum error fitting scheme is implemented to obtain the values of the parameters of the Gupta-type potential for nickel. The subtleties of this potential, one of which is that only four of its five parameters are independent, and their implications are pointed out and discussed. The resulting values of the parameters for nickel are analyzed and compared with those obtained in earlier studies.

Lopez, M. J.; Jellinek, J.; Chemistry

1999-05-08

317

On the problem of fitting many-body potentials. I. The minimal maximum error scheme and the paradigm of metal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues involved in fitting a semiempirical potential, such as the choice of a goodness criterion, selection of fitting quantities (properties), ascription of the degree of importance to the individual members of a fitting set, etc., all of which affect the outcome of a fitting procedure, are addressed and analyzed. The minimal maximum error fitting scheme is implemented to obtain the values of the parameters of the Gupta-type potential for nickel. The subtleties of this potential, one of which is that only four of its five parameters are independent, and their implications are pointed out and discussed. The resulting values of the parameters for nickel are analyzed and compared with those obtained in earlier studies.

López, M. J.; Jellinek, J.

1999-05-01

318

The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. ?-Hydroxy-?-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g/day) supplementation on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic/catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators in elite, national team level adolescent volleyball players (13.5-18 years, 14 males, 14 females, Tanner stage 4-5) during the first 7 weeks of the training season. HMB led to a significant greater increase in FFM by skinfold thickness (56.4 ± 10.2 to 56.3 ± 8.6 vs. 59.3 ± 11.3 to 61.6 ± 11.3 kg in the control and HMB group, respectively, p < 0.001). HMB led to a significant greater increase in both dominant and non-dominant knee flexion isokinetic force/FFM, measured at fast (180°/sec) and slow (60°/sec) angle speeds, but had no significant effect on knee extension and elbow flexion and extension. HMB led to a significant greater increase in peak and mean anaerobic power determined by the Wingate anaerobic test (peak power: 15.5 ± 1.6 to 16.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.4 ± 1.6 to 17.2 ± 1.2 watts/FFM, mean power: 10.6 ± 0.9 to 10.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.7 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 1.0 watts/FFM in control and HMB group, respectively, p < 0.01), with no effect on fatigue index. HMB had no significant effect on aerobic fitness or on anabolic (growth hormone, IGF-I, testosterone), catabolic (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist). HMB supplementation was associated with greater increases in muscle mass, muscle strength and anaerobic properties with no effect on aerobic capacity suggesting some advantage for its use in elite adolescent volleyball players during the initial phases of the training season. These effects were not accompanied by hormonal and inflammatory mediator changes. PMID:21327797

Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Pilz-Burstein, Ruty; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Cooper, Dan M; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

2011-09-01

319

Cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac societies recommend the intake of 1 g\\/day of the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment after a myocardial infarction, prevention of sudden death, and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. These recommendations are based on a body of scientific evidence that encompasses literally thousands of publications. Of four large scale

Clemens von Schacky; William S. Harris

2007-01-01

320

Ames Fitness Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

Pratt, Randy

1993-01-01

321

The Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy on Whole-Body Physical Fitness and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation In Vivo in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients – An Observational Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background In the United Kingdom, patients with locally advanced rectal cancer routinely receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. However, the effects of this on physical fitness are unclear. This pilot study is aimed to investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on objectively measured in vivo muscle mitochondrial function and whole-body physical fitness. Methods We prospectively studied 12 patients with rectal cancer who completed standardized neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, recruited from a large tertiary cancer centre, between October 2012 and July 2013. All patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and a phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy quadriceps muscle exercise-recovery study before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Data were analysed and reported blind to patient identity and clinical course. Primary variables of interest were the two physical fitness measures; oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold and oxygen uptake at Peak exercise (ml.kg?1.min?1), and the post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (min?1), a measure of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo. Results Median age was 67 years (IQR 64–75). Differences (95%CI) in all three primary variables were significantly negative post-NACRT: Oxygen uptake at estimated anaerobic threshold ?2.4 ml.kg?1.min?1 (?3.8, ?0.9), p?=?0.004; Oxygen uptake at Peak ?4.0 ml.kg?1.min?1 (?6.8, ?1.1), p?=?0.011; and post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant ?0.34 min?1 (?0.51, ?0.17), p<0.001. Conclusion The significant decrease in both whole-body physical fitness and in vivo muscle mitochondrial function raises the possibility that muscle mitochondrial mechanisms, no doubt multifactorial, may be important in deterioration of physical fitness following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This may have implications for targeted interventions to improve physical fitness pre-surgery. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01859442 PMID:25478898

West, Malcolm A.; Loughney, Lisa; Lythgoe, Daniel; Barben, Christopher P.; Adams, Valerie L.; Bimson, William E.; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Jack, Sandy; Kemp, Graham J.

2014-01-01

322

Implementation of the NHLBI Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents: Rationale and Study Design for Young Hearts, Strong Starts, a Cluster-Randomized Trial Targeting Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the underlying atherosclerosis begin in childhood, and their presence and intensity are related to known cardiovascular disease risk factors. Attention to risk factor control in childhood has the potential to reduce subsequent risk of CVD. Objective The Young Hearts Strong Starts Study was designed to test strategies facilitating adoption of the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute supported Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. This study compares guideline-based quality measures for body mass index, blood pressure, and tobacco using two strategies: a multifaceted, practice-directed intervention versus standard dissemination. Study Design Two primary care research networks recruited practices and provided support for the intervention and outcome evaluations. Individual practices were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups using a cluster randomized design based on network affiliation, number of clinicians per practice, urban versus nonurban location, and practice type. The units of observation are individual children because measure adherence is abstracted from individual patient’s medical records. The units of randomization are physician practices. This results in a multilevel design in which patients are nested within practices. The intervention practices received toolkits and supported guideline implementation including academic detailing, an ongoing e-learning group. This project is aligned with the American Board of Pediatrics Maintenance of Certification requirements including monthly physician self-abstraction, webinars, and other elements of the trial. Significance This trial will provide an opportunity to demonstrate tools and strategies to enhance CV prevention in children by guideline-based interventions. PMID:24295879

LaBresh, Kenneth A.; Lazorick, Suzanne; Ariza, Adolfo J.; Furberg, Robert D.; Whetstone, Lauren; Hobbs, Connie; de Jesus, Janet; Bender, Randall H.; Salinas, Ilse G.; Binns, Helen J.

2014-01-01

323

[Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical practice takes into account information based on population studies and benefits observed in large populations or cohorts. However, individual patients present great differences in both toxicity and clinical efficacy that can be explained by variations in adherence, unknown drug to drug interactions and genetic variability. The latter seems to explain from 20% up to 95% of patient to patient variability. Treating patients with cardiovascular disorders faces the clinician with the challenge to include genomic analysis into daily practice. There are several examples within cardiovascular disease of treatments that can vary in toxicity or clinical usefulness based on genetic changes. One of the main factors affecting the efficacy of Clopidogrel is the phenotype associated with polymorphisms in the gene CYP 2C9. Furthermore, regarding oral anticoagulants, changes in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play an important role in changing the clinical response to anticoagulation. When analyzing statin treatment, one of their main toxicities (myopathy) can be predicted by the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. The potential for prediction of toxicity and clinical efficacy from the use of genetic analysis warrants further studies aiming towards its inclusion in daily clinical practice. PMID:24636047

Scibona, Paula; Angriman, Federico; Simonovich, Ventura; Heller, Martina M; Belloso, Waldo H

2014-01-01

324

Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

1992-01-01

325

California State University, Fullerton Balanced Fitness  

E-print Network

California State University, Fullerton Balanced Fitness MEDICAL CLEARANCE OF PERSONAL PHYSICIAN Fitness class, one of several physical activity programs offered by the Center for Successful Aging Parameters Assessments Approval Cardiovascular * 2-Minute Step in Place yes ___ no ___ * 6-Minute Walk yes

de Lijser, Peter

326

The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

1992-01-01

327

Children and Fitness: A Public Health Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article discusses what is known about children's fitness based on numerous small-scale studies. Specifically addressed are issues of cardiovascular fitness, effects of training, participation in physical activity, and behavioral carryovers to adulthood. Six articles follow that comment on and critique the first. (Author/MT)

Simons-Morton, Bruce; And Others

1987-01-01

328

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON MEDICAL EVALUATION OF FITNESS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON MEDICAL EVALUATION OF FITNESS FOR SCUBA DIVING REPORT ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH fitness is requested. Scuba diving requires heavy exertion. The diver must be free of significant cardiovascular and respiratory disease. An absolute requirement is the ability of the lungs, middle ear

Wilcock, William

329

Augmented limb blood flow during neurovascular stress in physically fit women.  

PubMed

The study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies cardiovascular responses by normotensive men and women during the Stroop color-word interference test. Independent of age and an estimate of body fatness, fitness level was positively related (R² ?=?.39 and .51) to increases in limb blood flow and vascular conductance, coherent with cardiac-vagal withdrawal and a decrease in heart period, among women but not men. Fitness was unrelated to changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The augmented hemodynamic responses among fitter women were not consistent with passive vasodilation via withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone. The results encourage further gender comparisons testing whether fitness augments limb blood flow during mental stress by neurohumoral and flow-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms or by increased cardiac output. PMID:23802906

Dishman, Rod K; Jackson, Erica M; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ray, Chester A

2013-09-01

330

How much do the benefits cost? Effects of a home-based training programme on cardiovascular fitness, quality of life, programme cost and adherence for patients with coronary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate cost, adherence and effects on cardiovascular function and quality of life of a home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme for patients with coronary disease.Design: A randomized, prospective controlled trial.Setting: Department of Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Brazil.Subjects: Thirty-nine low-risk patients were assigned to a home exercise training group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 20).Interventions: The home group

Xiomara Miranda Salvetti; Japy Angelini Oliveira; Denise Maria Servantes; Angelo Amato Vincenzo de Paola

2008-01-01

331

Ideal cardiovascular health in young adult populations from the United States, Finland, and Australia and its association with cIMT: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goals for cardiovascular disease prevention were set by the American Heart Association in 2010 for the concept of cardiovascular health. Ideal cardiovascular health is defined by senen cardiovascular health metrics: blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity on ...

332

Single Limb Exercise Influences Cardiovascular Function Following Stroke: "A One-Sided View"  

E-print Network

will improve cardiovascular control and cardiorespiratory fitness. This dissertation explores the central and peripheral cardiovascular responses of an exercise training program using the hemiparetic limb after stroke. Two primary questions guided...

Billinger, Sandra A.

2008-01-01

333

Hermaphrodite sex role preferences: the role of partner body size, mating history and female fitness in the sea slug Chelidonura sandrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Costs and benefits associated with matings and the effects of mating frequency on fitness commonly differ between the sexes. As a result, outcrossing simultaneous hermaphrodites may prefer to copulate in the more rewarding sex role, generating conflicts over sperm donation and sperm receipt between mates. Because recent sex role preference models remain controversial, we contrast here some of their assumptions

Nils Anthes; Annika Putz; Nico K. Michiels

2006-01-01

334

Racial Discrimination & Cardiovascular Disease Risk: My Body My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black and White Community Health Center Participants (US)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n?=?504) and white (n?=?501) participants age 35–64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008–2010; 82.4% response rate), using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination); and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964). Results Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 2.89) and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta ?=?0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07); among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta ?=??4.86; 95% CI ?9.08, ?0.64) and lower Framingham CVD score (beta ?=??0.36, 95% CI ?0.63, ?0.08)). All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score. Conclusion Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss implications for valid research on social determinants of health. PMID:24204765

Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T.; Smith, Kevin W.; Carney, Dana R.; Bennett, Gary G.; Williams, David R.; Thornhill, Gisele; Freeman, Elmer R.

2013-01-01

335

Gender and race influence metabolic benefits of fitness in children: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing obesity and poor cardiovascular fitness (CVF) contribute to higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children. While the relative contributions of fitness and body fat on development of insulin resistance (IR) in children and adolescents remains unresolved, gender- and race-specific differences likely exist in the degree to which CVF influences IR and risk for T2DM. Better understanding of how gender and race affect interactions between body fat, CVF, and metabolic health would be helpful in designing effective and targeted strategies to reduce obesity-associated disease risk. We evaluated whether metabolic benefits of fitness on reducing inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) are affected by gender and race. Methods This cross-sectional study included 203 healthy children (mean age 12.2 y, 50% male, 46% non-Hispanic white (NHW), 54% racially diverse (RD)). Fasting insulin, glucose, hsCRP, and adiponectin were measured; race was self-reported; cardiovascular fitness (CVF) was evaluated by the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. Associations between inflammation and gender, race, and CVF were evaluated using analysis of covariance. Multivariate regression analysis identified independent predictors of IR. Results Fitness and inflammation were inversely related in both males and females (p < 0.01); this effect was marginally stronger in RD children (p = 0.06) and non-overweight males (p = 0.07). High BMI (p < 0.001), low fitness (p = 0.006), and (female) gender (p = 0.003) were independently associated with higher HOMA-IR. In males, BMI and fitness, but not race independently predicted HOMA-IR. In females, BMI and race, but not fitness independently predicted HOMA-IR. Conclusions In middle school children, the beneficial effects of fitness vary based on gender and race. High CVF has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect in male and RD children. While BMI is the strongest predictor of IR in the study group as a whole, fitness is a significant predictor of IR only in males, and race is a significant predictor of IR only in females. PMID:22420715

2012-01-01

336

Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body

Rimmer, James H.

337

Total homocysteine levels relation with chronic complications of diabetes, body composition, and other cardiovascular risk factors in a population of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe significance of hyperhomocysteinemia in type 2 diabetes is further complicated by the multiple ways of considering impaired renal function and vitamin status. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between total homocysteine (tHcy) in a population of type 2 diabetic patients and chronic complications. We also analyzed the relationship between tHcy and the body composition of

D. A. de Luis; N. Fernandez; M. L. Arranz; R. Aller; O. Izaola; E. Romero

2005-01-01

338

Lean body mass is associated with increased incidence of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease: The International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study (INVEST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity increases CV risk, but has not been examined in patients with hypertension (HTN) and CAD with well managed BP. We evaluated the impact of baseline body mass index (BMI) on CV risk in INVEST.INVEST randomized 22,576 CAD HTN patients (mean age 66) to a verapamil SR (Ve) or atenolol (At) strategy with follow-up for 61,835 patient years. Dose titration

Franz Messerli; Rhonda Cooper-Dehoff; Annette Champion; Ann Hewkin; Carl Pepine

2005-01-01

339

The effect of lower body positive pressure on the cardiovascular response to exercise in sedentary and endurance-trained persons with paraplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise intolerance in persons with paraplegia (PARAS) is thought to be secondary to insufficient venous return and a subnormal\\u000a cardiac output at a given oxygen uptake. However, these issues have not been resolved fully. This study utilized lower-body\\u000a positive pressure (LBPP) as an intervention during arm crank exercise in PARAS in order to examine this issue. Endurance-trained\\u000a (TP, n= 7)

Roger Kaprielian; Michael J. Plyley; Panagiota Klentrou; Leonard S. Goodman; Jack M. Goodman

1998-01-01

340

Interpretation of Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Risk is Complicated by Race, Pulmonary Disease, Body Mass Index, Gender, and Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective High sensitivity serum C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is used as a marker of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD); however CRP is a non-specific acute phase reactant. We evaluated the association between hsCRP concentrations and the most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA), and assessed the applicability of hsCRP for CVD risk prediction. Methods Participants (n=662) were selected from the population-based Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, using stratified simple random sampling to achieve balance according to radiographic knee OA status, ethnic group, gender, and age group. The presence and severity of knee and hip OA were determined radiographically. CVD risk was estimated by hsCRP concentration and independently with the Framingham risk algorithm. Results Serum ln hsCRP was higher in African-Americans (p<0.0001) and women (p<0.0001), was higher in participants who had chronic pulmonary disease (p = 0.01), hypertension (p < 0.0001), or used pain medications (p = 0.004), and correlated with BMI (r=0.40, p<0.0001) and waist circumference (r=0.33, p<0.0001), but not with age, CVD, or current smoking. Ln hsCRP was strongly positively associated with all definitions of radiographic OA (p<0.0001), but this association was not independent of BMI. Although 183 participants reported no CVD and were classified as low risk by the Framingham CVD score, 61% of them were classified as moderate or high risk for CVD using hsCRP; this proportion designated high risk for CVD on the basis of hsCRP consisted primarily of women (p<0.05) and individuals with OA (p<0.01). Conclusions The pathogenic significance of hsCRP elevations in this subgroup is unclear. Serum hsCRP for predicting risk of CVD is confounded by obesity, ethnicity, gender and comorbidities. PMID:17395501

Kraus, Virginia B; Stabler, Thomas V; Luta, Gheorghe; Renner, Jordan B; Dragomir, Anca D; Jordan, Joanne M

2009-01-01

341

Interaction between fatness and fitness on CVD risk factors in Asian youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatness and fitness on insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Korean adolescents. A total of 322 male high school students participated Departme nt of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, Seoup, Republic of Korea Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, Seoup, Republic of Korea in the cross-sectional part of the study. To determine the interaction of fatness and fitness levels on IR and CVD risk factors, subjects were stratified into four groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and cardio-respiratory fitness. Subjects who were in the high-fat category had significantly higher IR and CVD risk score than subjects in the low-fat category regardless of their fitness level. Subjects who were in high-fat-high-fit group showed significantly lower IR and CVD risk score than high-fat-low-fit group. Twenty-nine obese and unfit subjects participated in the intervention study. Twelve weeks of exercise training significantly reduced body weight (4.11+/-0.75 kg) and improved VO(2max) which resulted in a significant improvement in IR and CVD risk score (2.16+/-0.62 vs. 0.20+/-0.75). Interestingly, improvement in cardio-respiratory fitness and small reduction in body weight in relatively short-term significantly reduced the CVD risk score to the level of low-fat-low-fit subjects. Our results show the importance of fitness in determining IR and CVD risk factors among obese adolescents. PMID:19774501

Jekal, Y; Kim, E S; Im, J A; Park, J H; Lee, M K; Lee, S H; Suh, S H; Chu, S H; Kang, E S; Lee, H C; Jeon, J Y

2009-10-01

342

Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous M?ori and non-M?ori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

2014-01-28

343

Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25882781

Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

2015-05-01

344

Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity  

PubMed Central

Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

2013-01-01

345

The effects of pre- and post-exercise consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements on cardiovascular health and body fat in trained men after six weeks of resistance training: a stratified, randomized, double-blind study  

PubMed Central

Background The cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) in conjunction with periodized resistance training (RT) in resistance-trained men are unknown. This population is a major target audience for performance supplements, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of RT and commercially available pre- and post-exercise performance supplements on CV health and body fat in resistance-trained men. Methods Twenty-four resistance-trained men completed six weeks (three times/week) of periodized RT while either ingesting SHOT 15-min pre-exercise and SYN immediately post-exercise (multi-ingredient performance supplement group: MIPS) or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo 15-min pre-exercise and immediately post-exercise (Placebo group). Before and after six weeks of RT and supplementation, resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat, fat-free mass (FFM) and fasting blood measures of glucose, lipids, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), cortisol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using a one-way ANOVA for baseline differences and a 2?×?2 (group?×?time) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Significance was set at p?body fat. However, there was a time effect where significant decreases in body fat (mean?±?SD; MIPS: -1.2?±?1.2%; Placebo: -0.9?±?1.1%), android fat (MIPS: -1.8?±?2.1%; Placebo: -1.6?±?2.0%), and gynoid fat (MIPS: -1.3?±?1.6%; Placebo: -1.0?±?1.4%) for both groups were observed. FFM increased in both groups, and a group?×?time interaction was observed with MIPS increasing significantly more than the Placebo group (4.2% vs. 1.9%). Conclusions Six weeks of MIPS ingestion and periodized RT does not alter CV health parameters or blood indices of health or body fat more than a Placebo treatment in healthy, resistance-trained men. However, MIPS significantly increased FFM more than Placebo. PMID:23680036

2013-01-01

346

Game Design Principles in Everyday Fitness Applications Taj Campbell  

E-print Network

journaling to track cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training. UbiFit Garden presents progress fitness applications explore important approaches and have had some successes, but there are stillGame Design Principles in Everyday Fitness Applications Taj Campbell , Brian Ngo , James Fogarty

Anderson, Richard

347

Relations of total physical activity and intensity to fitness and fatness in children: the European Youth Heart Study1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Itisunclearhowtheamountandintensityofphysical activity (PA) are associated with cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and body fatness in children. Objective: We aimed to examine the associations of total PA and intensity levels to CVF and fatness in children. Design: A cross-sectional study of 780 children aged 9-10 y from Sweden and Estonia was conducted. PA was measured by acceler- ometry and was expressed as min\\/d

Jonatan R Ruiz; Nico S Rizzo; Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf; Francisco B Ortega; Julia Warnberg; Michael Sjöström

348

41 CFR 102-79.35 - What elements must Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...planning effort for establishing fitness programs: (a) A survey...long-term commitment to physical fitness/health for employees...prescribing exercise to direct the fitness program. (e) An approach...conduct a program involving cardiovascular and muscular endurance,...

2014-01-01

349

41 CFR 102-79.35 - What elements must Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...planning effort for establishing fitness programs: (a) A survey...long-term commitment to physical fitness/health for employees...prescribing exercise to direct the fitness program. (e) An approach...conduct a program involving cardiovascular and muscular endurance,...

2012-01-01

350

41 CFR 102-79.35 - What elements must Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...planning effort for establishing fitness programs: (a) A survey...long-term commitment to physical fitness/health for employees...prescribing exercise to direct the fitness program. (e) An approach...conduct a program involving cardiovascular and muscular endurance,...

2011-01-01

351

41 CFR 102-79.35 - What elements must Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...planning effort for establishing fitness programs: (a) A survey...long-term commitment to physical fitness/health for employees...prescribing exercise to direct the fitness program. (e) An approach...conduct a program involving cardiovascular and muscular endurance,...

2013-07-01

352

41 CFR 102-79.35 - What elements must Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...planning effort for establishing fitness programs: (a) A survey...long-term commitment to physical fitness/health for employees...prescribing exercise to direct the fitness program. (e) An approach...conduct a program involving cardiovascular and muscular endurance,...

2010-07-01

353

Fitness, Fatness, and Survival in Adults With Prediabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and different adiposity measures with mortality risk in individuals with prediabetes (or impaired fasting glucose). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined associations of CRF and fatness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 17,044 participants (89% men) with prediabetes (defined as 100 mg/dL ? fasting plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL), who did not have a history of diabetes, CVD, or cancer. RESULTS We identified 832 deaths (246 from CVD) during 13.9 ± 7.0 years (mean ± SD) follow-up. Normal-weight individuals who were unfit (lowest one-third) had a higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio 1.70 [95% CI 1.32–2.18]) and CVD (1.88 [1.13–3.10]) mortality compared with the normal-weight and fit (upper two-thirds) reference group in a model adjusted for age, sex, examination year, and multiple risk factors. The mortality risk for fit individuals who were overweight or obese did not differ significantly from the reference group. Similar patterns were observed for sex-specific thirds of waist circumference and % body fat. CONCLUSIONS CRF markedly modifies the relationship between adiposity and mortality in persons with prediabetes. Unfit individuals have a higher and fit individuals have a lower mortality risk irrespective of adiposity level in this high-risk group. PMID:24062333

McAuley, Paul A.; Artero, Enrique G.; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J.; Almeida, M. Joao; Blair, Steven N.

2014-01-01

354

Fitness Lab Policies: 1. All members and guests who utilize the Fitness Lab must be at least 14 years old.  

E-print Network

Fitness Lab Policies: 1. All members and guests who utilize the Fitness Lab must be at least 14. Members must wipe down equipment after use. Disinfectant wipes are provided throughout the Fitness Lab. 6. Cardiovascular equipment use is limited to 30 minutes when people are waiting to utilize the equipment. 7. Safety

355

Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.  

PubMed

The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

2009-01-01

356

Tobacco and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Tobacco consumption has been inextricably intertwined with society and its evolution. At one time, centuries ago, thought to be a sign of refinement and nobility, fortunately, this perception has been changing worldwide. Currently, this change in perception has been so dramatic that laws are enacted to limit tobacco exposure through second-hand smokers. Countless studies continue to emerge on tobacco's healthcare toll to the point that we now consider indisputable facts that smokers have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, among many others. However, there are other less well-known emerging facts that still require close attention such as the effect on the immune and hematopoietic systems. Tobacco smoke is injurious to all major organs in our bodies. With over 30 known carcinogens, it should not be surprising that it affects all aspects of human health. In this chapter, we will focus on the effects of tobacco on cardiovascular health. PMID:25225032

Mainali, Prajeena; Pant, Sadip; Rodriguez, Alexis Phillip; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mehta, Jawahar L

2015-04-01

357

Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

2014-09-01

358

Boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for solution of partial differential equations on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multi-connected two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. No restrictions are placed on the shape of the boundaries, which may even be time-dependent, and the approach is not restricted in principle to two dimensions. With this procedure the numerical solution of a partial differential system may be done on a fixed rectangular field with a square mesh with no interpolation required regardless of the shape of the physical boundaries, regardless of the spacing of the curvilinear coordinate lines in the physical field, and regardless of the movement of the coordinate system in the physical plane. A number of examples of coordinate systems and application thereof to the solution of partial differential equations are given. The FORTRAN computer program and instructions for use are included.

Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

1977-01-01

359

Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

Sandler, H.

1983-01-01

360

Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6?months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4?kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to ?6.9?kg on low-carbohydrate and ?5.8?kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) ?1.1?kg (?2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) ?0.49?mmol/L (?0.70 to ?0.28), p<0.001 and ?0.34?mmol/L (?0.57 to ?0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (?0.57 (?0.83, ?0.32), p<0.001 and ?0.05 (?0.09, ?0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516. PMID:24500611

Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

2014-01-01

361

Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation  

E-print Network

Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Student Research Fellowships Scientists of Tomorrow #12 medical Provides medical Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research

Bushman, Frederic

362

Associations of Hypertension Status with Physical Fitness Variables in Korean Women  

PubMed Central

Background In Korea, hypertension has become more prevalent with the Westernization of Korean diets and lack of exercise. This study aimed at investigating the associations between physical fitness variables and hypertension status in Korean women. Methods: The subjects were 9,216 women aged >20 years who visited a public health promotion center for physical fitness tests. Cardiovascular respiratory fitness was evaluated using VO2max, resting heart rate (RHR), double product (DP), and vital capacity and coordination-related physical fitness was measured using grip strength, number of sit-ups completed, sit-and-reach score, vertical jump height, number of side steps performed, and 1-leg standing with eyes open. Results: The prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 30.3% and 12.9% in this study, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, drinking frequency, smoking intensity, and exercise intensity, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were calculated, and no statistically significant association was found between hypertension and physical fitness as measured by grip strength (P = 0.056), number of sit-ups completed (P = 0.140), and vertical jump height (P = 0.121). However, significant associations were found between hypertension and VO2max (P < 0.001), RHR (P < 0.001), DP (P < 0.001), vital capacity (P < 0.001), sit-and-reach score (P = 0.012), the number of side steps performed (P = 0.001), and 1-leg standing with eyes open (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We found that all the cardiovascular respiratory fitness variables and half of the motor- and coordination-related physical fitness variables were closely related with hypertension status. PMID:24427746

YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

2013-01-01

363

Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.  

PubMed

Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

McCrindle, Brian W

2015-02-01

364

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Heart diseases and stroke are ...

365

Cardiovascular adaptation and cardiac disease in the elite athlete.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are uncommon among trained athletes. Their occurrences mostly depend on the individual's age and fitness levels. Adequate understanding of the cardiovascular adaptations undergone by the competitive athletes' heart is of paramount importance in order to differentiate them from serious cardiovascular conditions. Diagnosing these abnormalities early may prevent rare but devastating potential complications associated with athletic activities and defines appropriate activity restrictions to minimize the risk of sudden cardiac death. This article will review concerns related to competitive athlete's cardiovascular adaptations and diseases, in light of specific recommendations presented in the 36th Bethesda Conference guidelines. PMID:23882976

Del Río-santiago, Valentín; Santiago Trinidad, Ricardo; Vicenty Rivera, Sonia

2012-01-01

366

Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

Tucker, Larry A.

1990-01-01

367

Infection and Cardiovascular Disease  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

2005-06-23

368

Sports and Fitness Spencer Reynolds, Program Director  

E-print Network

1 Sports and Fitness Spencer Reynolds, Program Director OVERVIEW The goal of the Sports and Fitness program is to elevate the level of knowledge of its members in matters of the body, sports, and living of fitness and sports interest are welcome and encouraged. There will be three main focuses of the program

Hayden, Nancy J.

369

A journey toward wholeness, a journey to God: physical fitness as embodied spirituality.  

PubMed

Physical fitness expressed through exercise can be, if done with the right intention, a form of spiritual discipline that reflects the relational love of humanity to God as well as an expression of a healthy love of the embodied self. Through an analysis of the physiological benefits of exercise science applied to the human body, this paper will demonstrate how such attention to the optimal physical fitness of the body, including weight and cardiovascular training and nutrition, is an affirmation of three foundational theological principles of human embodiment: as created in the "imago Dei", as unified body/spirit, and as part of God's creation calling for proper stewardship. In a contemporary climate where women's bodies in particular are viewed through the lens of commodification-as visual objects for sale based on prescribed notions of superficial esthetics and beauty-as well as the consistently high rates of eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and obesity, authors Greenwood and Delgado offer a vision of how women and men can imagine a subjective relationship with their own bodies that reflects the abundant love of God for God's creation. Spoken from the lived experience of professional fitness competitor and trainer, as well as trained biokineticist, Dr. Greenwood presents the most current scientific data in the field of biokinetics that grounds the theological analysis offered by Dr. Delgado, whose personal journey through anorexia and scholarly emphasis on Christian theological anthropology inform this work. Taken together, Greenwood and Delgado suggest a response to God's love for humanity, including our physical bodily humanity, which entails a responsibility to attend to the physical fitness of our bodies in order to live into the fullness, flourishing and love of God's creation as God intended. PMID:22005967

Greenwood, Tracey C; Delgado, Teresa

2013-09-01

370

Cardiovascular Biology of the Incretin System  

PubMed Central

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and exerts direct and indirect actions on the cardiovascular system. GLP-1 and its related incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a key determinant of incretin bioactivity. Two classes of medications that enhance incretin action, GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We review herein the cardiovascular biology of GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, including direct and indirect effects on cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, adipocytes, the control of blood pressure and postprandial lipoprotein secretion. Both GLP-1R activation and DPP-4 inhibition exert multiple cardioprotective actions in preclinical models of cardiovascular dysfunction, and short term studies in human subjects appear to demonstrate modest yet beneficial actions on cardiac function in subjects with ischemic heart disease. Incretin-based agents control body weight, improve glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia, decrease blood pressure, inhibit the secretion of intestinal chylomicrons, and reduce inflammation in preclinical studies. Nevertheless, there is limited information on the cardiovascular actions of these agents in patients with diabetes and established cardiovascular disease. Hence, a more complete understanding of the cardiovascular risk:benefit ratio of incretin-based therapies will require completion of long term cardiovascular outcome studies currently underway in patients with T2DM. PMID:22323472

Ussher, John R.; Drucker, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

371

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

Pelc, Norbert

2000-03-01

372

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated

Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Gladys Block; Michael H. Humphreys; Joel D. Kopple

2003-01-01

373

Associations of Insulin Resistance With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Inflammatory Cytokines in Normal-Weight Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of markers of insulin resistance with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventy-one normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) Hispanic women (age, 20–39 years) participated in a fasting blood draw for glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; a glucose tolerance test; anthropometric and blood pressure measurements; body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and measurements of cardiorespiratory fitness via Vo2max and daily physical activity by accelerometer. RESULTS Six percent of participants had impaired fasting glucose, 14% had impaired glucose tolerance, and 48% had at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting insulin were positively correlated with glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and were negatively correlated with adiponectin (P < 0.05). The 2-h insulin was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. HOMA-IR and fasting insulin remained significantly and positively related to glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure after adjustment for body composition. The relationships between markers of insulin resistance and adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were attenuated after adjustment for body composition. CONCLUSIONS Surrogate markers of insulin resistance were associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. Our findings suggest that HOMA-IR, fasting, and 2-h insulin may be important clinical markers for identifying young, normal-weight, Hispanic women who may be at risk for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our findings show the importance of early screening for prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:23275356

Vella, Chantal A.; Burgos, Ximena; Ellis, Carla J.; Zubia, Raul Y.; Ontiveros, Diana; Reyes, Hector; Lozano, Claudia

2013-01-01

374

[Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].  

PubMed

The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

Picciotto, D

2010-01-01

375

Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.

Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell

1991-01-01

376

[Staying fit after fifty].  

PubMed

It is common knowledge that when women reach the menopause, they put on weight and change body shape. The menopause is particularly feared as a sign of aging. The deficiency in estrogen at the menopause is responsible for the change from a gynoid fat pattern to an android one (i.e. fat accumulates on the upper portion of the abdomen instead of on the hips). In addition, women are no longer protected against CardioVascular Diseases (CVD), and will rapidly share the same risks as men. The menopause is marked by an increase in the prevalence of various CVD risk factors: elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, Diabetes, etc. This phenomenon may be explained by an increase in the occurrence of the polymetabolic (PM) syndrome at this time of life. In the IDF ((International Diabetics Federation) 2005 definition, waist circumference becomes the main criterion of PM syndrome. Keeping a slim waist can no longer be considered a woman's vain obsession but a justified health concern, since the waist to height ratio is a better predictor of CVD than BMI (Body Mass Index). A diet and healthcare program is now available which, if followed from the age of 35, can help women live 'in good shape' and for longer. PMID:16996770

Berdah, J

2006-10-01

377

Clinical Kinesiology 65(1); Spring, 2011 9 Control Entropy of Gait: Does Running Fitness Affect  

E-print Network

of cardiovascular fitness and endurance training in the process of surefootedness. Investigating the role of fitness Fitness Affect Complexity Of Walking? Stephen J. McGregor1 , Michael A. Busa1 , Rana Parshad3 , James A, and therefore, contrasting the gait characteristics of healthy and highly fit individuals is of value. Analysis

Bollt, Erik

378

Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

2014-04-01

379

Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

2014-01-01

380

Promoting Exercise and Physical Fitness in the Medical School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elective course focusing on exercise physiology and cardiovascular fitness offered at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine consists of weekly lectures and student self-designed fitness programs. Student participation correlates with significantly increased levels of student maximum oxygen consumption, a moderate training effect.…

Cohen, Jerome D.; And Others

1988-01-01

381

A Survey Assessment of Florida's Fit To Achieve Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of a Florida State Department of Education project entitled Fit to Achieve--a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary school children. Of the teachers implementing the program, 24 elementary physical educators and 134 elementary classroom teachers responded to a survey that asked for information on…

Sander, Allan N.; And Others

382

Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also insulin resistance — the core feature of type 2 diabetes — as well as alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We are now

Luc F. Van Gaal; Ilse L. Mertens; Christophe E. De Block

2006-01-01

383

Diet, weight loss, and cardiovascular disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food\\u000a exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it\\u000a poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with\\u000a a patient should be based

George A. Bray; Donna H. Ryan; David W. Harsha

2003-01-01

384

Influences of physical fitness on bone mass in women with fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide information about the relationship of bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) with some physical-fitness-related variables in a sample of women with fibromyalgia (FM) and age-matched women without FM. Twenty-eight women clinically diagnosed with FM (age 51.1 ± 8.4 yr, M ± SD) and 22 age-matched controls participated in the study. Whole-body BMC and BMD, lean mass, handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and cardiovascular fitness were measured in all participants. The association between physical-fitness variables and bone-related variables was tested by linear regression controlling for body weight as a possible confounder. There were no differences in BMC or BMD between groups. Women with FM had lower values of handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and VO2peak than the control group. Handgrip strength and aerobic capacity were associated with BMC and BMD and quadriceps strength was associated with BMD in women with FM; however, only VO2peak was associated with BMC in the group of women without FM. Bone mass of women with FM may be more susceptible to changes in physical fitness than that of the women without fibromyalgia. PMID:25799593

Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Navarro-Vera, Isabel; Martinez-Redondo, Diana; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José Antonio

2015-04-01

385

Obesity and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

Jokinen, E

2015-03-01

386

[Residual cardiovascular risk markers].  

PubMed

The European definition of biomarker is presented; it is a measurable factor, which reflects a physiological or pathological process in human body. There are also mentioned transferred meanings of the term marker used in different fields of medicine. The importance, categorization and calculation of global cardiovascular (CV) risk are explained in patients in primary prevention of CV disease (SCORE risk chart). Residual CV risk persists in patients in primary or secondary prevention of CV diseases treated according to current guidelines, even if their risk factors (blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, glucose level) have achieved the recommended values. This residual risk was done by non-LDL dyslipidemia especially, so called atherogenic dyslipidemia (Residual Risk Reduction Initiative definition). Investigators of preventive EUROASPIRE studies assessed, that 5-year mortality from CV diseases was in a positive association with glucose level, smoking and total cholesterol. In our recent analysis, we have described among the Czech samples of EUROASPIRE studies I-IV, that BMI and prevalence of diabetes increase during the last 16 years very steeply. Patients with stable coronary heart diseases in combination with diabetes have had higher prevalence of residual risk markers (atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherogenic index of plasma described by M. Dobiasova and hypertriglyceridemic waist) than patients without diabetes. Except of prescription of statins, ACE inhibitors, antiaggregative or anticoagulative drugs was increasing, the residual CV risk was not changing during the followed period of 16 years. PMID:25600039

Rosolová, Hana; Nussbaumerová, Barbora

2014-11-01

387

Imaging in Cardiovascular Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite enormous investment into cardiovascular research on all levels worldwide, cardiovascular events such as myocardial\\u000a infarction, heart failure, tachyarrhythmia or stroke remain the major causes for death and inability in all developed countries.\\u000a Conventional clinical cardiovascular imaging nowadays provides high-resolution visualization of the morphology of vessels\\u000a and the myocardium. To translate the available patient imaging technologies into animals, especially mice

Michael Schäfers; Klaus Tiemann; Michael Kuhlmann; Lars Stegger; Klaus Schäfers; Sven Hermann

388

Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

2009-01-01

389

Androgens and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on the link between androgens and cardiovascular disease and the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women has been conducted. The few existing studies on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women indicate no effect or a deleterious effect of increasing androgens and increased cardiovascular risk. However, there is evidence of a favorable effect of androgens on surrogate cardiovascular markers in postmenopausal women, such as high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, body fat mass and triglycerides. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the impact of therapy with androgens on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. The cardiovascular effect of testosterone or methyltestosterone with or without concomitant estrogens needs to be elucidated. PMID:24559253

Spoletini, I; Vitale, C; Pelliccia, F; Fossati, C; Rosano, G M C

2014-12-01

390

Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept  

PubMed Central

In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

Costa, James T.

2013-01-01

391

Physical Fitness Evaluation Form for Rim to Rim Trip For the Rim to Rim trip, we are expecting participants to achieve a level of physical fitness that will  

E-print Network

of cardiovascular training, which should include some strength training. For more information on physical fitnessPhysical Fitness Evaluation Form for Rim to Rim Trip For the Rim to Rim trip, we are expecting participants to achieve a level of physical fitness that will include both aerobic conditioning with some

Gering, Jon C.

392

Standards on medical fitness examinations for Navy divers.  

PubMed

The German Navy employs approximately 480 divers in their primary and secondary role. Before entering diving training, every diver has to pass an intensive physical examination programme at the German Naval Medical Institute (NMI) in Kiel-Kronshagen. Annual follow-ups ensure the currency of the medical findings. Criteria of medical fitness for diving reflect industrial medical standards for hyperbaric workers as well as the general medical guidelines for NATO divers. A diving examination consists of the individual medical history, a physical examination including the neurological status and the assessment of the cardiovascular fitness by ECG and bicycle ergometry. The respiratory system is screened by regular chest x-rays and spirometry or body plethysmography. Blood and urine samples are taken to look for abnormal haematological and metabolic conditions as well as disorders of the genito-urinary system. In order to determine visual fitness, diver's visual acuity, colour vision and stereopsis as well as eye fundi are examined by an eye specialist. Also the ENT examination involves a speciality consultant and consists of audiometry, inspection of the external ear and tympanic membrane and functional tests. To ensure a high standard of dental fitness, screening by a dental officer is part of the annual check-up. Every routine diving medical examination at the NMI includes a pressure test in the hyperbaric chamber. Divers who use nitrox or oxygen-rebreather devices have to pass successfully an oxygen tolerance test under hyperbaric conditions. The annual routine diving medical examination contributes to minimize the risk of accidents in military diving operations. PMID:14974787

Weiss, Michael

2003-01-01

393

[The importance of physical activity and fitness for human health].  

PubMed

The decline of physical activity is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight, and the associated increase of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Therefore, most interventional strategies aim for increasing physical activity. Instead of physical activity, some studies use physical fitness as a key variable. Though physical fitness is influenced by genetic factors, physical fitness has to be developed by physical activity. As recent reports demonstrate the prospective associations between physical fitness and health and mortality, these associations are not reported for physical activity. Due to the fact that physical fitness-in contrast to physical activity-is evaluated with standardized laboratory measurements, it appears advisable to assess physical fitness for prospective health perspectives. Although physical fitness is determined by genetics, physical activity is the primary modifiable determinant for increasing physical fitness and should be aimed for to improve physical fitness in interventional strategies. PMID:22286254

Brandes, M

2012-01-01

394

Physical activity to prevent cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT O BJ ECTIVETo review the role of physical activity in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases with particular attention to the intensity and amount,of physical activity needed,to benefit health. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched,for articles published in the indexed,English literature from January 1991 to December 2000 using key words related to physical activity (eg, exercise, physical fitness), CV

Robert G. Haennel; Francine Lemire

395

FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR  

E-print Network

of Heart Failure: Sex Differences Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, MD, PhD Center for Cardiovascular Research, CharitéFRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR SCIENCE SPON S ORED BY LOCATION/TIME Li Ka Shing Center for Learning at 11:45 a.m. TUESDAY, JANUARY 10, 2012 Learning the Health System and CV Disease: a Possibility

Ford, James

396

Applied cardiovascular physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise involves complex coordinated responses involving the locomotor, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The first cardiovascular changes are initiated by a central drive, which starts either in anticipation of, or at the start of, exercise and leads to a decrease in cardiac vagal activity and an increase in sympathetic activity. Though an increase in heart rate may be the first

Roger Hainsworth

2004-01-01

397

Applied cardiovascular physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiovascular responses to exercise, haemorrhage, a Valsalva manoeuvre, postural changes and exposure to microgravity are complex patterns made up of a number of common physiological ‘building blocks’. The main cardiovascular response to isotonic exercise is an increase in cardiac output to elevate oxygen delivery to exercising muscle. This is largely mediated via an increase in heart rate and facilitated

Emrys Kirkman

2010-01-01

398

Applied cardiovascular physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiovascular responses to exercise, haemorrhage, Valsalva manoeuvre, postural changes and exposure to microgravity are complex patterns made up of a number of common physiological ‘building blocks’. The main cardiovascular response to isotonic exercise is an increase in cardiac output to elevate oxygen delivery to exercising muscle. This is largely mediated via an increase in heart rate and facilitated by

Emrys Kirkman

2007-01-01

399

Ghrelin and Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, is a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor and initially identified as a strong stimulant for the release of GH. Subsequent research has shown that ghrelin and its various receptors are ubiquitous in many other organs and tissues. Moreover, they participate in the regulation of appetite, energy, bodyweight, metabolism of glucose and fat, as well as modulation of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, immune functions and cell proliferation/apoptosis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that ghrelin has a close relationship with cardiovascular system. Ghrelin and its receptors are widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, and there is no doubt that the effects of ghrelin in the cardiovascular system are mediated not only via its growth-hormone-releasing effect but also by its direct effects on the heart. Exogenous administration of ghrelin can dilate peripheral blood vessels, constrict coronary artery, improve endothelial function, as well as inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis. So, ghrelin may have cardiovascular protective effect, including lowering of blood pressure, regulation of atherosclerosis, and protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury as well as improving the prognosis of myocardial infarction and heart failure. Some of these new functions of ghrelin may provide new potential therapeutic opportunities for ghrelin in cardiovascular medicine. In this paper, we will review the existing evidence for cardiovascular effects of ghrelin, including the cardiovascular function, the variations in ghrelin plasma levels in pathophysiologicalogical conditions, the possible protective mechanisms of ghrelin, as well as its future potential therapeutic roles. PMID:21286280

Zhang, Gaigai; Yin, Xinhua; Qi, Yongfen; Pendyala, Lakshmana; Chen, Jack; Hou, Dongming; Tang, Chaoshu

2010-01-01

400

Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students  

PubMed Central

Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (Mage?=?12.3?±?0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR?=?2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p?fitness and weight status were independently and combined related to academic achievement in seventh-grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born. PMID:25001376

2014-01-01

401

Cardiovascular fitness and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine healthy male subjects differing in their training status (VO2 max 54 +\\/- 7 ml.min-1.kg-1, mean +\\/- SD; 43-64 ml.min-1 kg-1, range) exercised on two occasions separated by one week. On each occasion, having fasted overnight, subjects exercised for 1 h on an electrically braked cycle ergometer at a workload equivalent to 70 per cent VO2 max (test A) or

P L Greenhaff

1989-01-01

402

Blood Lipids, Cardiovascular Fitness, Obesity and Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify and compare the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors among 14- and 15-year-old boys and girls.Design For this cross-sectional study of 54 subjects, a blood sample taken after subjects fasted was used to determine total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations. Dietary intake was estimated using a 24-hour

JENNA D. ANDING; KAREN S. KUBENA; W. ALEX McINTOSH; BARBARA O’BRIEN

1996-01-01

403

Aerobics Enhances Cardiovascular Fitness and Agility in Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated effects of aerobic exercise on a sample of 24 preschoolers. Thirty minutes of aerobic exercises were provided daily for a period of 8 weeks for a group of 12 children while the remaining 12 children engaged in freeplay on the school playground. The children were given pretests and posttests on the following measures: a submaximal exercise test on a

Bené Alpert; Tiffany M. Field; Sheri Goldstein; Susan Perry

1990-01-01

404

Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adult Population in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. Methods and Findings This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21–74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ?23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ?0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. Conclusions BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore. PMID:25880905

Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J.

2015-01-01

405

Cardiovascular Diseases (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Diseases Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Heart Disease and Dental Treatment Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Angina High ...

406

DIAGNOSIS NUMBER OF CASES CARDIOVASCULAR  

E-print Network

DIAGNOSIS NUMBER OF CASES CARDIOVASCULAR Cardiovascular disease .........................................................36 Crop Disorder.....................................................12 Digestive Disease/Plant/worms...........................14 Liver disease ......................................................14 Liver tumor

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

407

FITNESS INSTRUCTOR -Personal Training -  

E-print Network

FITNESS INSTRUCTOR TRAINING - Personal Training - Joseph Agnew, Fitness Coordinator Website: joseph.agnew@unlv.edu srwc.unlv.edu 702-774-7126 702-774-7100 UNLV Campus Recreational Services Fitness Instructor Training (F.I.T.) course combines lecture & practical appli- cation to cover the basics of personal fitness

Walker, Lawrence R.

408

Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stressors in late adulthood is predicted by gestational age at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of body size and gestational age at birth with adult blood pressure (BP) are relatively modest compared to their stronger associations with cardiovascular disease. BP reactivity is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity, and it is possible that reactivity, rather than resting level, is determined in utero. We investigated whether body size and gestational age at birth predict

K Feldt; K Räikkönen; J G Eriksson; S Andersson; C Osmond; D J P Barker; D I W Phillips; E Kajantie

2007-01-01

409

Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

2010-01-01

410

PyFITS. a Python FITS Module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PyFITS is a Python module for reading, writing, and manipulating FITS files. The module uses Python's object-oriented features to provide quick, easy, and efficient access to FITS files. The use of Python's array syntax enables immediate access to any FITS extension, header cards, or data items. The FITS module is written in Python for maintainability and portability and uses C-extension modules, Numeric and Record, for efficient access to the data. These and other features, and future developments are discussed in this paper.

Barrett, P. E.; Bridgman, W. T.

411

Assistant, Associate & Full Professor in Cardiovascular Imaging Division of Cardiovascular Medicine  

E-print Network

in Cardiovascular Disease (or eligible), and advanced certification or training in cardiovascular imaging is highlyAssistant, Associate & Full Professor in Cardiovascular Imaging Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine The Cardiovascular Medicine Division and the Cardiovascular Institute at Stanford

Quake, Stephen R.

412

Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

Bauer, Dan

1981-01-01

413

[The HERACLES Cardiovascular Network].  

PubMed

In 2002, a group of researchers in the fields of cell electrophysiology, cardiology, population genetics, epidemiology, proteomics, molecular biology, bioinformatics and statistics decided to take up the challenge of investigating the mechanisms and genetics of arterial hypertension (AH). Mechanisms related to ion channel regulation of arterial smooth muscle function were identified. The HERACLES (Hipertensión Esencial: Red de Análisis de Canales iónicos de la musculatura Lisa arterial y su Explotación terapéutica Sistemática) network was honored with a distinguished mention in the 2005 evaluation, and was strengthened by the incorporation of new research groups in 2007. The work of the HERACLES network is characterized as much by the transfer of knowledge "from bedside to bench" as by its converse: "from bench to bedside". The current objectives of the HERACLES network are: a) to study the Ca2+-dependent K+ channels, the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels, and the Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels that are involved in vascular physiology; b) to study protein expression maps in plasma and cardiovascular tissue and their significance for drug treatment; c) to study the effect of flavonoids on ion transport and responses to oxidative stress, and d) to identify biomarkers of risk, prognosis, and treatment responses in extreme AH phenotypes. Our project includes a number of lines of research coordinated within cross-sectional programs based on centralized facilities, which are used by them. The HERACLES network has published more than 60 articles (available from: http://www.redheracles.net), funding has been received for more than 90 projects in competitive submissions to Spanish and six international bodies, and there is a DNA Biobank. PMID:18221693

Marrugat, Jaume; López-López, José R; Heras, Magdalena; Tamargo, Juan; Valverde, Miguel

2008-01-01

414

Psoriasis and cardiovascular disorders.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence to show that patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and smoking compared to the general population. The mechanistic link between psoriasis and this observed increase in cardiovascular co-morbidities has not been fully defined. It is clear, however, that common inflammatory pathways are at play in the pathophysiology of psoriasis, obesity and coronary artery disease. It had been proposed that the control of systemic inflammation in psoriasis could help reduce cardiovascular morbidity, and retrospective studies of methotrexate and anti-TNF-a agents have suggested a cardio-protective effect with use of these agents. More recently, however, there have been concerns regarding a potential excess of cardiovascular events with the newer generation of anti-interleukin-12p40 antibodies. In this article we review the association of psoriasis with cardiovascular disorders and the effects of current psoriasis therapies on cardiovascular risk. PMID:22481581

Ryan, C; Menter, A

2012-04-01

415

Introduction: Cardiovascular physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

2007-03-01

416

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2  

E-print Network

a world-class education, and conduct cutting- edge cardiovascular research. As heart disease remains into improved tools for cardiovascular disease detection, prevention and treatment. In late 2012, Dr. Robert CStanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 2013­2014 #12;Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2

Kay, Mark A.

417

Fitness: My Muscles  

MedlinePLUS

Fitness: My Muscles Posted under Health Guides . Updated 22 May 2014. +Related Content Fitness is fun! It’s a great way to experience health and wellness. Enjoying fitness is the key to keeping exercise a part ...

418

Cardiovascular effects of incretins in diabetes.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen an enormous increase in the number of therapeutic agents available for lowering blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Among these agents, the incretin mimetics glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors have received particular attention for the potential of these interventions to positively impact on cardiovascular outcomes. Although the results of large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials eagerly are anticipated, an increasing body of literature from preclinical and early phase clinical studies has indicated that both GLP-1R agonists and DPP4 inhibitors may exert glucose-independent cardiovascular effects. Despite its role in glucose homeostasis, the GLP-1R is surprisingly widely distributed throughout the body, including in the heart. GLP-1 may exert its effects through both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent mechanisms and through the actions of both the intact peptide and its metabolites. In addition, DPP4 inhibition not only augments the circulating levels of incretin hormones, but it also holds the capacity to augment the activity of other biologically important substrates, most notably the small protein stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha. Whether these collective functions will act to reduce cardiovascular events in patients remains to be determined. PMID:24500557

Advani, Andrew; Bugyei-Twum, Antoinette; Connelly, Kim A

2013-10-01

419

An allometric analysis of the giraffe cardiovascular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been co-evolution of a long neck and high blood pressure in giraffes. How the cardiovascular system (CVS) has adapted to produce a high blood pressure, and how it compares with other similar sized mammals largely is unknown. We have measured body mass and heart structure in 56 giraffes of both genders ranging in body mass from 18kg to

G. Mitchell; J. D. Skinner

2009-01-01

420

2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging  

E-print Network

2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging Nuclear Medicine David Weinreb 14895 dbweinreb@ Pediatric Radiology Body Imaging 1st yr. Neuroradiology NCI Body Mammography Sonya Edwards 14904 14909 laxpati@ Michael Kim 14961 mjjkim@ Vascular and Interventional Radiology Charles Kosydar 14908

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

421

Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

2008-01-01

422

Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

2005-06-22

423

Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular  

E-print Network

Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular Pressure Transduction in Analog VLSI John Lazzaro of the baroreceptors in the carotid vessel. Inspired by re- cent work in silicon models of the cochlea [3

Lazzaro, John

424

Radiology Lab 2: Cardiovascular  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to concepts important in cardiovascular imaging of normal anatomy, including angiographic techniques and cross-sectional methods.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: NormalRadiograph type: angiogram

Shaffer, Kitt

425

Obesity and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a major contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, and yet has only recently\\u000a been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease. Obesity is a chronic metabolic\\u000a disorder associated with cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations\\/alterations\\u000a in cardiac

Paul Poirier; Robert H. Eckel

2002-01-01

426

Interventional Cardiovascular MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the Western world and the incidence is projected to increase\\u000a in the future (1). Traditionally, X-ray techniques have been the mainstay in terms of imaging modality for diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular\\u000a procedures. However, there are inherent limitations to this technology including inability to perform three-dimensional imaging,\\u000a poor soft tissue

Milind Y. Desai; Albert C. Lardo; Joao A. C. Lima

427

Lower body negative pressure device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lower Body Negative Pressure Device was used, in the space environment, to stress the astronaut's cardiovascular system, to determine the extent and time course of his cardiovascular deconditioning and to determine whether in-flight data from experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, would be useful in predicting postflight status of orthostatic tolerance. The lower portion of the subject's body was enclosed in this device for the purpose of applying regulated and controlled negative pressure. A description is given of the device.

Nolte, R. W.

1977-01-01

428

Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

Tapio, Soile

429

Relationships between physical fitness, physical activity, smoking and metabolic and mental health parameters in people with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Low physical fitness has been recognised as a prominent behavioural risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. No studies have systematically assessed physical fitness compared with a matched health control group in patients with schizophrenia. Eighty patients with schizophrenia and 40 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers were included. All participants performed an Eurofit test battery and filled out the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients additionally had a fasting metabolic laboratory screening and were assessed for psychiatric symptoms. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significant differences from controls in whole body balance, explosive leg muscle strength, abdominal muscular endurance, and running speed. Inactive patients scored worse on most Eurofit items than patients walking for at least 30min per day. Low physical fitness was associated with illness duration, smoking, the presence of MetS and more severe negative, depressive and cognitive symptoms. Less physically active patients who smoke and suffer from high levels of negative, depressive and/or cognitive symptoms might benefit from specific rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. PMID:23051886

Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Scheewe, Thomas; De Herdt, Amber; Sweers, Kim; Knapen, Jan; van Winkel, Ruud; De Hert, Marc

2013-05-15

430

Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among  

E-print Network

Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, Vasunilashorn S, et al. (2009) Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular

Gurven, Michael

431

Alpha-Linolenic Acid: Is It Essential to Cardiovascular Health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large body of scientific evidence that has been confirmed in randomized controlled trials indicating a cardioprotective\\u000a effect for omega-3 fatty acids from fish. For alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the omega-3 fatty acid from plants, the\\u000a relation to cardiovascular health is less clear. We reviewed the recent literature on dietary ALA intake, ALA tissue concentrations,\\u000a and cardiovascular

Johanna M. Geleijnse; Janette de Goede; Ingeborg A. Brouwer

2010-01-01

432

Association of serum lipids and obesity with cardiovascular mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum lipid concentrations, relative body weight, and smoking habits were assessed in a cohort of 1648 middle-aged Finnish men who were subsequently followed for seven years. Multivariate analysis showed that serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations and smoking were all independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. High serum triglyceride concentrations increased the risk of cardiovascular death only when they exceeded 1.7 mmol\\/l

R Pelkonen; E A Nikkilä; S Koskinen; K Penttinen; S Sarna

1977-01-01

433

Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.  

PubMed

Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention. PMID:21427600

Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

2011-01-01

434

Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence suggests that inadequate or disturbed sleep is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. Methods: We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools’ Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario. Participants underwent measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and blood pressure, and they completed questionnaires measuring sleeping habits and nutritional status. We assessed sleep disturbance using the sleep disturbance score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We explored associations between sleeping habits and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Among 4104 adolescents (51% male), the mean hours of sleep per night (± standard deviation) were 7.9 ± 1.1 on weeknights and 9.4 ± 1.6 on weekends. In total, 19% of participants reported their sleep quality as fairly bad or very bad on weeknights and 10% reported it as fairly bad or very bad on weekends. In the multivariable regression models, a higher sleep disturbance score was associated with increased odds of being at high cardiovascular risk (highest v. lowest tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.77], p < 0.001), increased odds of hypertension (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02–2.05], p = 0.05) and increased odds of elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.00–1.64], p = 0.05). The mean duration of sleep was not associated with these outcomes. Interpretation: In healthy adolescents, sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities. Intervention strategies to optimize sleep hygiene early in life may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23027917

Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

2012-01-01

435

Nutrition and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies. PMID:25172070

Berciano, Silvia; Ordovás, José M

2014-09-01

436

Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.  

PubMed

During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent. PMID:22171877

Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

2011-12-19

437

Body Image  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2006-01-02

438

It's Your Choice: A Program for Cardiovascular Health. Teaching Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to help high school students develop a lifestyle that promotes cardiovascular and overall health; activities are intended to promote total health and wellness. The handbook is composed of a curriculum guide and classroom materials, and is designed to fit into a comprehensive health education program. Multidisciplinary…

Hazlett, Shirley Holder

439

Mortality trends in the general population: the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness.  

PubMed

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not only an objective measure of habitual physical activity, but also a useful diagnostic and prognostic health indicator for patients in clinical settings. Although compelling evidence has shown that CRF is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, the importance of CRF is often overlooked from a clinical perspective compared with other risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or obesity. Several prospective studies indicate that CRF is at least as important as the traditional risk factors, and is often more strongly associated with mortality. In addition, previous studies report that CRF appears to attenuate the increased risk of death associated with obesity. Most individuals can improve their CRF through regular physical activity. Several biological mechanisms suggest that CRF improves insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile, body composition, inflammation, and blood pressure. Based on the evidence, health professionals should encourage their patients to improve CRF through regular physical activity. PMID:20923918

Lee, Duck-chul; Artero, Enrique G; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

2010-11-01

440

Brisk walking compared with an individualised medical fitness programme for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Structured exercise is considered a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, adherence to combined resistance and endurance type exercise or medical fitness intervention programmes is generally poor. Group-based brisk walking may represent an attractive alternative, but its long-term efficacy as compared with an individualised approach such as medical fitness intervention programmes is unknown. We compared the clinical benefits of a 12-month exercise intervention programme consisting of either brisk walking or a medical fitness programme in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 92 type 2 diabetes patients (60?±?9 years old) to either three times a week of 60 min brisk walking (n?=?49) or medical fitness programme (n?=?43). Primary outcome was the difference in changes in HbA1c values at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were differences in changes in blood pressure, plasma lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, body composition, physical fitness, programme adherence rate and health-related quality of life. Results After 12 months, 18 brisk walking and 19 medical fitness participants were still actively participating. In both programmes, 50 and 25% of the dropout was attributed to overuse injuries and lack of motivation, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no important differences between brisk walking and medical fitness programme in primary or secondary outcome variables. Conclusions/interpretation The prescription of group-based brisk walking represents an equally effective intervention to modulate glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in type 2 diabetes patients when compared with more individualised medical fitness programmes. Future exercise intervention programmes should anticipate the high attrition rate due to overuse injuries and motivation problems. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-008-0950-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:18297259

van Rooij, E. S. J.; Wijtvliet, A.; Boonman-de Winter, L. J. M.; Enneking, Th.; Kuipers, H.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; van Loon, L. J. C.

2008-01-01