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1

Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics.

Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

2014-01-01

2

Cardiovascular Fitness Education for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cardiovascular fitness program for grades 1-6 (with emphasis on grades 5 and 6) consists of (1) discussion classes and exercise experiments, (2) discussion of exercise effects during regular activity sessions, (3) required cardiovascular warmup exercises, and (4) evaluation of cardiovascular fitness. (Author/MJB)

Jenkins, David

1978-01-01

3

Long-Term Effects of Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index on All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background The combined associations of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) with mortality remain controversial and uncertain. Methods and Results We examined the independent and combined associations of changes in fitness and BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in 14 345 men (mean age 44 years) with at least two medical examinations. Fitness, in metabolic equivalents (METs), was estimated from a maximal treadmill test. BMI was calculated using measured weight and height. Changes in fitness and BMI between the baseline and last examinations over 6.3 years were classified into loss, stable, or gain groups. During 11.4 years of follow-up after the last examination, 914 all-cause and 300 CVD deaths occurred. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause and CVD mortality were 0.70 (0.59 to 0.83) and 0.73 (0.54 to 0.98) for stable fitness, and 0.61 (0.51 to 0.73) and 0.58 (0.42 to 0.80) for fitness gain, respectively, compared with fitness loss in multivariable analyses including BMI change. Every 1-MET improvement was associated with 15% and 19% lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. BMI change was not associated with all-cause or CVD mortality after adjusting for possible confounders and fitness change. In the combined analyses, men who lost fitness had higher all-cause and CVD mortality risks regardless of BMI change. Conclusions Maintaining or improving fitness is associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in men. Preventing age-associated fitness loss is important for longevity regardless of BMI change. PMID:22144631

Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, I-Min; Church, Timothy S.; McAuley, Paul A.; Stanford, Fatima C.; Kohl, Harold W.; Blair, Steven N.

2011-01-01

4

Efficacy of a self-directed behavioral health change program: weight, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood pressure, health risk, and psychosocial mediating variables.  

PubMed

This study assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral health program designed to promote self-initiated change in overweight healthy middle-aged adults (M = 49 years). Three treatment groups (total n = 25) differing in type of social support provided (i.e., group plus professional versus group plus peer versus group only) received 13 treatment sessions and 6 maintenance sessions scheduled over a full year. A self-directed change intervention taught several cognitive-behavioral techniques as they applied to exercise adherence, weight reduction/maintenance, and stress management. Combined treatment groups (n = 25) improved significantly more than an assessment only control group (n = 9) in weight, percentage body fat, cardiovascular fitness, exercise adherence, health-risk appraisal, chronic tension (MBHI, scale A), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at both post-treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Self-motivation, group treatment attendance, and health-risk appraisal significantly related (r's = .30-.56) to several posttreatment and follow-up measures of behavioral health change. No significant differences were found among the three treatment groups on any of the outcome measures. PMID:1875406

Clifford, P A; Tan, S Y; Gorsuch, R L

1991-06-01

5

Body mass index, physical inactivity and low level of physical fitness as determinants of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality—16 y follow-up of middle-aged and elderly men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent associations and the possible interaction of body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and perceived physical fitness and functional capability with the risk of mortality.DESIGN: Prospective 16 y follow-up study.SUBJECTS: A regionally representative cohort of 35–63 -y-old Finnish men (n=1090) and women (n=1122).MEASUREMENTS: All-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality

N Haapanen-Niemi; S Miilunpalo; M Pasanen; I Vuori; P Oja; J Malmberg

2000-01-01

6

Aerobic Fitness, Psychological Characteristics, and Cardiovascular Reactivity to Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relations among aerobic fitness (AF), psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity using 62 men divided into highly fit and less fit groups based on a maximal treadmill exercise test. Several psychological and physiological variables were measured, and subjects’ cardiovascular reactivity was assessed during a mental arithmetic task and during a video game task. Highly fit subjects showed a significantly

Susan M. Czajkowski; R. David Hindelang; Theodore M. Dembroski; Suzin E. Mayerson; Edward B. Parks; John C. Holland

1990-01-01

7

Predictors of cardiovascular fitness in sedentary men.  

PubMed

The relative contribution of anthropometric and skeletal muscle characteristics to cardiorespiratory fitness was studied in sedentary men. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) was assessed using an incremental bicycle ergometer protocol in 37 men aged 34-53 years. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were used to assess fiber type composition (I, IIA, IIX) and areas, capillary density, and activities of glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolic pathway enzymes. Correlations (all p < 0.05) were observed between maximal oxygen consumption (L.min-1) and body mass (r = 0.53), body mass index (r = 0.39), waist circumference (r = 0.34), fat free mass (FFM; r = 0.68), fat mass (r = 0.33), the enzyme activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX; r = 0.39), muscle type IIA (r = 0.40) and IIX (r = 0.50) fiber area, and the number of capillaries per type IIA (r = 0.39) and IIX (r = 0.37) fiber. When adjusted for FFM in partial correlations, all correlations were lost, with the exception of COX (r = 0.48). Stepwise multiple regression revealed that maximal oxygen consumption was independently predicted by FFM, COX activity, mean capillary number per fiber, waist circumference, and, to a lesser extent, muscle capillary supply. In the absence of regular physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness is strongly predicted by the potential for aerobic metabolism of skeletal muscle and negatively correlated with abdominal fat deposition. PMID:19370039

Riou, Marie-Eve; Pigeon, Etienne; St-Onge, Josée; Tremblay, Angelo; Marette, André; Weisnagel, S John; Joanisse, Denis R

2009-04-01

8

Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAIBI, G. Q., M. L. CRUZ, G. D. C. BALL, M. J. WEIGENSBERG, H. A. KOBAISSI, G. J. SALEM, and M. I. GORAN. Cardiovascular Fitness and the Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Latino Youths. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 922-928, 2005. Purpose: To determine whether cardiovascular fitness (V ú O2max) is associated with the metabolic syndrome and

GABRIEL Q. SHAIBI; MARTHA L. CRUZ; GEOFF D. C. BALL; MARC J. WEIGENSBERG; HASSAN A. KOBAISSI; GEORGE J. SALEM; MICHAEL I. GORAN

9

A comparison of the self-concept and body-cathexis of selected high school students of high and low cardiovascular fitness  

E-print Network

-concept; and, finally, that men differentiate their self-concepts to a greater degree than their body images. Personality and Physical Attributes Flanagan (15) assembled a personality inventory for the purpose of studying personality traits of different.... Subjects then completed the IAV by placing a 19 check mark in the appropriate blank in Column I. After indicating a response for all adjectives, the subjects were instructed to complete the BC Scale by circling a number (1 to 5) for each body part...

Crenwelge, Terry Alfred

2012-06-07

10

Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children.  

PubMed

Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2 PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2 PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2 PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled by body mass (milliliters per minute per kilogram). Total body fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total body fat was expressed as a percentage of total body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SDP and DBP) and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. The mean artery pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Echocardiography, 2D-guided M-mode, was performed. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z scores (value for the individual - mean value for group)/SD were calculated by sex. The sum of z scores for DBP, SDP, PP, MAP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT, BF%, AFM and AFM/TBF were calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used as composite risk factor score for CVD. Pearson correlation revealed significant associations between VO(2 PEAK) and composite risk factor score in both boys (r = -0.48 P < 0.05) and in girls (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). One-way ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences in composite risk factor score between the different quartiles of VO(2 PEAK) (P < 0.001); thus, higher VO(2 PEAK) was associated with lower composite risk factor score for CVD. In conclusion, low VO(2 PEAK) is associated with an elevated composite risk factor score for CVD in both young boys and girls. PMID:22159955

Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B

2012-04-01

11

Constructing Cardiovascular Fitness Knowledge in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on…

Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

2014-01-01

12

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness  

E-print Network

Effects of Directed Thinking on Exercise and Cardiovascular Fitness Laura L. Ten Eyck1 Children engaged in regular physical activity during 2005. As consumers, we are inundated with advertising, news Preven- tion Program, Children's Medical Center Dallas, 1935 Medical District Drive, Dallas, TX 75235. E

Cooper, Brenton G.

13

Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood.  

PubMed

During early adulthood, a phase in which the central nervous system displays considerable plasticity and in which important cognitive traits are shaped, the effects of exercise on cognition remain poorly understood. We performed a cohort study of all Swedish men born in 1950 through 1976 who were enlisted for military service at age 18 (N = 1,221,727). Of these, 268,496 were full-sibling pairs, 3,147 twin pairs, and 1,432 monozygotic twin pairs. Physical fitness and intelligence performance data were collected during conscription examinations and linked with other national databases for information on school achievement, socioeconomic status, and sibship. Relationships between cardiovascular fitness and intelligence at age 18 were evaluated by linear models in the total cohort and in subgroups of full-sibling pairs and twin pairs. Cardiovascular fitness, as measured by ergometer cycling, positively associated with intelligence after adjusting for relevant confounders (regression coefficient b = 0.172; 95% CI, 0.168-0.176). Similar results were obtained within monozygotic twin pairs. In contrast, muscle strength was not associated with cognitive performance. Cross-twin cross-trait analyses showed that the associations were primarily explained by individual specific, non-shared environmental influences (> or = 80%), whereas heritability explained < 15% of covariation. Cardiovascular fitness changes between age 15 and 18 y predicted cognitive performance at 18 y. Cox proportional-hazards models showed that cardiovascular fitness at age 18 y predicted educational achievements later in life. These data substantiate that physical exercise could be an important instrument for public health initiatives to optimize educational achievements, cognitive performance, as well as disease prevention at the society level. PMID:19948959

Aberg, Maria A I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Torén, Kjell; Svartengren, Magnus; Bäckstrand, Björn; Johnsson, Tommy; Cooper-Kuhn, Christiana M; Aberg, N David; Nilsson, Michael; Kuhn, H Georg

2009-12-01

14

Relationship of body mass index and fitness levels among schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the U.S.A., and understanding aspects of fitness is critical in implementing effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of obesity levels with the fitness levels of public school children in Louisiana. Over 7,000 school children participated in body mass index (BMI) and Fitnessgram® subtests including the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (aerobic capacity), curl-ups, trunk lifts, push-ups (strength and endurance), and shoulder stretches (flexibility). The fitness measures and BMI were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression to test for any significant relationships. The results indicated that the participants with healthy BMIs have the highest levels of physical fitness. The differences between the fitness levels of obese and healthy children were statistically significant. This study demonstrated a direct relationship between BMI status and fitness levels as measured by the Fitnessgram® among study participants. This finding is not exceedingly surprising, as common sense tells us that the heavier a person is, the less likely he or she is to be physically fit. However, this study is an important first step in understanding weight issues in children. This information can be used to develop data-driven interventions to assist children in becoming healthier and more physically fit. PMID:22371094

Joshi, Praphul; Bryan, Charity; Howat, Holly

2012-04-01

15

Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ?-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

2013-01-01

16

Exercise-induced asthma and cardiovascular fitness in asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of physical training in the management of children with exercise-induced asthma is controversial. A study was undertaken to determine whether a relationship could be found between the occurrence of exercise-induced asthma and the degree of cardiovascular fitness in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty eight children aged 6-13 with mild to moderate asthma and dyspnoea during or after physical

B. J. Thio; A. F. Nagelkerke; A. G. Ketel; B. L. van Keeken; J. E. Dankert-Roelse

1996-01-01

17

Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women  

PubMed Central

Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging.

Kang, Suh-Jung

2014-01-01

18

Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women.  

PubMed

Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. PMID:25210697

Kang, Suh-Jung

2014-08-01

19

An after-school exercise program improves fitness, and body composition in elementary school children  

PubMed Central

Reduced cardiovascular fitness (CVF) is a risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. It has previously shown that a school-based fitness curriculum can improve CVF, and other health indicators in middle school aged children. Whether an afterschool program improves CVF and other health markers in elementary-school children is unresolved. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether an on-site afterschool-based fitness program improves body composition, cardiovascular fitness level, in elementary school children. 80 elementary school children were evaluated in a “fitness-oriented” afterschool program managed by the local YMCA. Children underwent evaluation of cardiovascular fitness by maximal VO2 treadmill testing and body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at baseline (prior to the school-year) and again at end of the school year. Findings revealed that, at baseline, children had a mean age of 8.8 years, BMI of 18.7± 3, with a maximal VO2 of 40.03 ± 7.6 ml/kg/min, and percent body fat of 28.7 ± 7%. After a 9-month intervention, children maximal VO2 increased to 44.8 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min (p=0.04) and percent body fat decreased to 25.8 ± 6.2% (p=0.033). The study concluded that on-site afterschool programming focusing on fitness improved body composition and cardiovascular fitness, in elementary school children. Combined with prior studies, these data demonstrate that afterschool-based fitness curricula can benefit both obese and non-obese children. It was therefore recommended that, partnerships with schools to promote fitness even outside of school time should be a part of a school approach to improving children’s health.

Carrel, Aaron L.; Logue, Julie; Deininger, Heidi; Clark, R. Randall; Curtis, Vanessa; Montague, Paul; Baldwin, Sharon

2013-01-01

20

Cardiovascular program to improve physical fitness in those over 60 years old - pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background In Spain, more than 50% of 60-year-olds are obese. Obesity is a disease with serious cardiovascular risks. The mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in Spain is 31.1%. Objectives To improve aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility and balance, and body composition (BC) in persons over 60 years old. Materials and methods A clinical intervention study of 24 participants was carried out over a period of 3 months. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test. Upper-body strength was evaluated with an ad hoc test. Flexibility and balance were evaluated using the Sit and Reach Test and the Stork Balance Stand Test, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken by bioelectrical impedance. Results After 3 months of training, aerobic fitness was improved, as demonstrated by improved test times (pretest 13.04 minutes, posttest 12.13 minutes; P<0.05). Body composition was also improved, but the results were not statistically significant (fat mass pretest 31.58%±5.65%, posttest 30.65%±6.31%; skeletal muscle mass pretest 43.99±9.53 kg, posttest 46.63±10.90 kg). Conclusion Our data show that in subjects over 60 years old, aerobic fitness was improved due to program intervention. However, these results should be treated with caution, because of the limited sample size and the brief time period of this pilot study. A more rigorous study would include a sample of at least 100 participants. PMID:25143714

Castillo-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Minguet, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

21

Surface fitting three-dimensional bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometry of general three-dimensional bodies is generated from coordinates of points in several cross sections. Since these points may not be smooth, they are divided into segments and general conic sections are curve fit in a least-squares sense to each segment of a cross section. The conic sections are then blended in the longitudinal direction by fitting parametric cubic-spline curves through coordinate points which define the conic sections in the cross-sectional planes. Both the cross-sectional and longitudinal curves may be modified by specifying particular segments as straight lines and slopes at selected points. Slopes may be continuous or discontinuous and finite or infinite. After a satisfactory surface fit has been obtained, cards may be punched with the data necessary to form a geometry subroutine package for use in other computer programs. At any position on the body, coordinates, slopes and second partial derivatives are calculated. The method is applied to a blunted 70 deg delta wing, and it was found to generate the geometry very well.

Dejarnette, F. R.

1974-01-01

22

Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned

Barbara Sassen; Gerjo Kok; Herman Schaalma; Henri Kiers; Luc Vanhees

2010-01-01

23

Body Cathexis and Satisfaction with Fit of Apparel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparel as the product of standard sizing is reflected in female evaluation of self and body, i.e., body cathexis. This study focused upon body cathexis and the perceptions offit of clothing of 107 female consumers. Responses were measured on three scales: (1) satisfaction with fit of apparel at upper, lower, and total body; (2) satisfaction with fit at specific body

Karen L. LaBat; Marilyn R. DeLong

1990-01-01

24

Emphasis on Cardiovascular Fitness as a Barrier toward Mobilizing the Sedentary Individual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing cardiovascular fitness may be a barrier to mobilizing the sedentary individual. Instead, encouraging low-level physical activity may be an effective first step. Beliefs held toward cardiovascular fitness are presented, and ways in which these beliefs may present barriers to adoption of any level of physical activity are discussed. (IAH)

Kasper, Mark J.

1990-01-01

25

FEEDING HARD BODIES: FOOD AND MASCULINITIES IN MEN'S FITNESS MAGAZINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body image has become relevant to many men, as the flourishing of male fitness magazines and the consequent development of theoretical studies on the subject demonstrate. In this article, I will examine the close connections between food, masculinities, and body image in male fitness magazines, a booming sector of the fitness and wellness publishing industry. I will attempt a qualitative

Fabio Parasecoli

2005-01-01

26

An interactive method for surface fitting three-dimensional bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses a computerized surface fitting procedure which, using interactive graphics, will surface fit mathematical relations to complex three-dimensional bodies. The program has been written so that it 'leads' the user step-by-step through the procedure, thus allowing a user of limited experience to rapidly digitize a body and obtain an accurate surface fit. Results are presented which indicate that the method yields accurate coordinates, slopes, and radii of curvature at any specified position on the body provided an adequate number of accurate cross section coordinates are available to adequately describe the body.

Perkins, J. N.

1983-01-01

27

Keeping Fit--In Body and Mind!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a school can model a "healthy lifestyle" through focusing on four areas: (1) deliberate stress reduction; (2) abundant exercise; (3) good food in school; and (4) communication with parents to share and extend their plans and activities. It discusses each of these areas and develops some strategies for promoting body/mind…

Rivkin, Mary S.

2007-01-01

28

Cardiovascular Fitness of Young Canadian Children with and without Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared cardiovascular fitness of 60 children (mean age 95 months) either with or without mental retardation (MR). Results indicated that nondisabled children exhibited significantly greater levels of aerobic fitness than those with MR and supported the need for a critical examination of physical activity programs for children with MR.…

Gillespie, Mike

2003-01-01

29

Cardiovascular and cognitive fitness at age 18 and risk of early-onset dementia.  

PubMed

Patients with early-onset dementia are a significantly under-recognized subgroup of patients with an increasing prevalence. Epidemiological studies are limited and studies of modifiable risk factors, such as physical fitness, are lacking. We aimed to investigate the associations between cardiovascular fitness individually and in combination with cognitive performance at age 18 and risk of early-onset dementia and mild cognitive impairment later in life. We performed a population-based cohort study of over 1.1 million Swedish, 18-year-old, male conscripts, who underwent conscription exams between 1968 and 2005. These males were then followed for up to 42 years. Objective data on cardiovascular fitness and cognitive performance were collected during conscription exams and were subsequently linked with hospital registries to calculate later risk of early-onset dementia and mild cognitive impairment using Cox proportional hazards models controlling for several confounders. The scores from the exams were divided into tertiles (low, medium, high) for the analyses. The mean follow-up time for the analyses was 25.7 years (standard deviation: 9.3) and the median was 27 years. In total, 30 195 315 person-years of follow-up were included in the study. In fully adjusted models, both low cardiovascular fitness and cognitive performance (compared to high) at age 18 were associated with increased risk for future early-onset dementia (cardiovascular fitness, n = 662 events: hazard ratio 2.49, 95%, confidence interval 1.87-3.32; cognitive performance, n = 657 events: hazard ratio 4.11, 95%, confidence interval 3.19-5.29) and mild cognitive impairment (cardiovascular fitness, n = 213 events: hazard ratio 3.57, 95%, confidence interval 2.23-5.74; cognitive performance, n = 212 events: hazard ratio 3.23, 95%, confidence interval 2.12-4.95). Poor performance on both cardiovascular fitness and cognitive tests was associated with a >7-fold (hazard ratio 7.34, 95%, confidence interval 5.08-10.58) and a >8-fold (hazard ratio 8.44, 95%, confidence interval 4.64-15.37) increased risk of early-onset dementia and early-onset mild cognitive impairment, respectively. In conclusion, lower cardiovascular fitness and cognitive performance in early adulthood were associated with an increased risk of early-onset dementia and mild cognitive impairment later in life, and the greatest risks were observed for individuals with a combination of low cardiovascular fitness and low cognitive performance. PMID:24604561

Nyberg, Jenny; Åberg, Maria A I; Schiöler, Linus; Nilsson, Michael; Wallin, Anders; Torén, Kjell; Kuhn, H Georg

2014-05-01

30

Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

1986-01-01

31

Interactive Information Environment for the controlled practice of physical training to improve cardiovascular fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease. Physical activity protects against the development of CVD and also favorably modifies other risk factors, however a huge part of the population lead a relatively sedentary lifestyle. Virtual trainer (vt) concept is a technological platform for the controlled practice of physical training to achieve better cardiovascular fitness results

Sergio G. Guillén; María T. Arredondo; Vicente Traver; Pilar Sala; Marco Romagnoli; Manuel Traver; Alessandro Arduini

2005-01-01

32

Cardiovascular Fitness and Maximal Heart Rate Differences Among Three Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of differences in maximal heart rate and treadmill time among three ethnic groups revealed no significant age-adjusted differences among white, black, and Mexican-American males, and suggested that black females' lower maximal heart rate may be explained by their lower cardiovascular fitness level when compared to those of other…

Farrell, S. W.

1988-01-01

33

The role of physical activity and fitness in children in the prevention of adult cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research data in adults have provided convincing evidence that regular exercise creates a protective effect against the complications of coronary artery disease. Given that the atherosclerotic process begins during the pediatric years, improved physical activity and fitness has been promoted in children and adolescents as a means of preventing cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Although intuitively compelling, direct proof of this

Thomas W. Rowland

2001-01-01

34

The effect of aerobic fitness on the cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous system response to physiological stress at rest and during dynamic exercise.  

E-print Network

??A cardio-protective adaptation associated with aerobic fitness may be an attenuated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and cardiovascular response to stress. The hypothesis that the cardiovascular… (more)

Raymond, Duncan A

2012-01-01

35

An analysis of three methods of teaching physical fitness and their effect on strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze three methods of teaching physical fitness and their effect on strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance. To determine these effects, group means on hand strength, leg strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance tests were determined. Physical fitness changes from pretesting to posttesting were determined for the total group, females, and males, physical education majors

Catana Rhoda Starks

1989-01-01

36

Self-reported and measured cardiorespiratory fitness similarly predict cardiovascular disease risk in young adults.  

PubMed

We aimed to (a) examine the validity and reliability of the International FItness Scale (IFIS) in Spanish young adults and (b) compare the capacity of self-reported vs measured fitness to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The study comprised 276 participants (18-30 years). Fitness level (overall and specific components) was both self-reported (IFIS) and measured using standard fitness tests. Total and trunk fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We computed a previously validated metabolic syndrome score. A separate sample of 181 of same age and characteristics fulfilled IFIS twice for reliability purposes. The results of the present study support the validity and reliability of self-reported fitness, as measured by IFIS, in Spanish young adults. Our data also suggest that not only measured cardiorespiratory fitness but also self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness predicts CVD risk, as assessed by adiposity and metabolic syndrome indicators. The associations for muscular fitness (both reported and measured) differed depending on how it was expressed (i.e., absolute vs relative terms). Self-reported fitness, as assessed by IFIS, can be a good alternative when physical fitness cannot be measured in large surveys. PMID:22417235

Ortega, F B; Sánchez-López, M; Solera-Martínez, M; Fernández-Sánchez, A; Sjöström, M; Martínez-Vizcaino, V

2013-12-01

37

Relationship Between C-Reactive Protein and Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Obesity and Selected Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between C-reactive protein (CRP) with physical fitness, physical activity, obesity, and selected cardiovascular risk factors in school-children. Methods: Forty-four boy schoolchildren (mean ± SD: age 10.25 ± 0.75 years, height 144 ± 0.2 cm, body weight 46.1 5± 4.59 kg, body mass index 22.16 ± 2.16 kg/m2) voluntarily participated in this study. Physical fitness and physical activity were assessed using the 20-meter fitness test. Adiposity was estimated using body mass index. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast and measured for CRP, LDL, HDL and cholesterol. Pearson’s correlation was calculated to determine the relations between these factors. Results: Mean (SD) CRP concentration was 1.07 (0.82) mg/l. A significant correlation was observed between CRP and VO2max (r=-0.45, P= 0.001), body mass index (r=0.55, P=0.000) and cholesterol (r=-0.35, P=0.04). No significant relation was found between CRP and physical activity, LDL and HDL (P> 0.05). Moreover, significant associations were observed between body mass index and VO2max (r=-0.33, P=0.02) and physical activity (r=-0.43, P=0.04). Conclusions: Body mass index was the most powerful predictor of serum concentrations of CRP in schoolchildren. It may be an important factor to control body weight to prevent an increase in serum CRP in children and to help the primordial prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21566779

Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Rahnama, Ameneh; Salesi, Mohsen; Rahnama, Nader; Mojtahedi, Hossein

2010-01-01

38

Exercise, Fitness, and Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults: The “Selective Improvement” and “Cardiovascular Fitness” Hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Background Although basic research has uncovered biological mechanisms by which exercise could maintain and enhance adult brain health, experimental human studies with older adults have produced equivocal results. Purpose This randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the hypotheses that (a) the effects of exercise training on the performance of neurocognitive tasks in older adults is selective, influencing mainly tasks with a substantial executive control component and (b) performance in neurocognitive tasks is related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods Fifty-seven older adults (65?79 years) participated in aerobic or strength-and-flexibility exercise training for 10 months. Neurocognitive tasks were selected to reflect a range from little (e.g., simple reaction time) to substantial (i.e., Stroop Word–Color conflict) executive control. Results Performance in tasks requiring little executive control was unaffected by participating in aerobic exercise. Improvements in Stroop Word–Color task performance were found only for the aerobic exercise group. Changes in aerobic fitness were unrelated to changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusions Aerobic exercise in older adults can have a beneficial effect on the performance of speeded tasks that rely heavily on executive control. Improvements in aerobic fitness do not appear to be a prerequisite for this beneficial effect. PMID:18825471

Lowry, Kristin A.; Francois, Sara J.; Kohut, Marian L.; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

2009-01-01

39

Body fat, fitness and level of everyday physical activity in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Data on body fat and fitness in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess body fat and fitness in this patient group. In addition, we explored whether the level of every- day physical activity is related to body fat and fitness. Subjects and methods: Body fat (skinfold thickness), fitness (VO2peak),

Hendrika J. G. van den Berg-Emons; Johannes B. J. Bussmann; Huub J. Meyerink; Marij E. Roebroeck; Henk J. Stam

2003-01-01

40

Cardiovascular Fitness and Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose This descriptive study of adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes examined the relationships between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity (PA) with generic or health-related quality of life (QoL), glycemic control, and lipids. Design and Methods Graded ergometry testing for fitness, fasting assays for lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), and self-reported PA and QoL instruments were completed with 151 adolescents. Results Adolescents with type 2 diabetes had lower fitness. Fitness was associated with improved lipids, A1C, health perception, and athletic competence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Practice Implications Interventions to encourage active lifestyles are imperative for adolescents with diabetes. PMID:20880279

Faulkner, Melissa Spezia

2010-01-01

41

Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

2014-01-01

42

Matrix Rigidity-Modulated Cardiovascular Organoid Formation from Embryoid Bodies  

PubMed Central

Stem cell clusters, such as embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells, are extensively studied for creation of multicellular clusters and complex functional tissues. It is common to control phenotypes of ES cells with varying molecular compounds; however, there is still a need to improve the controllability of cell differentiation, and thus, the quality of created tissue. This study demonstrates a simple but effective strategy to promote formation of vascularized cardiac muscle - like tissue in EBs and form contracting cardiovascular organoids by modulating the stiffness of a cell adherent hydrogel. Using collagen-conjugated polyacrylamide hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli, we discovered that cellular organization in a form of vascularized cardiac muscle sheet was maximal on the gel with the stiffness similar to cardiac muscle. We envisage that the results of this study will greatly contribute to better understanding of emergent behavior of stem cells in developmental and regeneration process and will also expedite translation of EB studies to drug-screening device assembly and clinical treatments. PMID:24732893

Shkumatov, Artem; Baek, Kwanghyun; Kong, Hyunjoon

2014-01-01

43

Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults. PMID:24282403

Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-01-01

44

Dancers' Body Esteem, Fitness Esteem, and Self-Esteem in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-two college-aged, ballet and modern dancers evaluated their bodies and themselves in different dance and non-dance settings. In a self-report survey design, dancers' body esteem, fitness esteem, and self-esteem (an overall self-evaluation) were measured in three different contexts. Dancers rated their body esteem, fitness esteem, and…

Van Zelst, Laura; Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

2004-01-01

45

BODY MASS AND CARDIOVASCULAR REACTIVITY TO RACISM IN AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of body mass on cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African American college students. Design and Methods: Cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and blood pressure were measured as participants viewed a racially noxious scene on videotape. Body mass was measured using body mass index calculated using height and

Vernessa R. Clark; Oliver W. Hill

46

Physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children. PMID:25032742

Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

2014-07-01

47

Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children. PMID:25032742

Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

2014-01-01

48

The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors and CV risk factors in young Australian men. Methods Thirty five healthy men aged 18–25 years had their blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity, dietary intake and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed. Results Participants were categorised according to the percentage of body fat into two groups: lean and overweight men. There were no between-group differences in the biochemical indicators except that overweight men had lower HDL-C compared to lean men. Both groups had similar mean energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol intake, RMR, physical activity level (PAL) and energy expenditure (EE). Most of the participants (65.7%) had LDL?2.5 mmol/L. Other common individual risk factors were body fat?20% (42.9%), waist circumference?88 cm (28.6%), PAL<1.8 (22.9%) and systolic BP?130 mmHg (20%). The mean number of CV risk factors was lower among men having a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, >12% of the energy intake) regardless of whether they were overweight or lean and did not seem to differ according to the source of MUFA consumed. Conclusions It is a serious concern to observe such a high percentage of CV risk factors in a group of apparently healthy young men. The likelihood of multiple CV risk factors is greater among those with high body fatness and low MUFA intake. Intake of MUFA favorably affects CV risk factors regardless of the source. PMID:23902697

2013-01-01

49

Body adiposity index and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of body adiposity index (BAI) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. Design and Methods The current analysis comprised 19 756 adult men who enrolled in the Aerobics Centre Longitudinal Study and completed a baseline examination during 1988-2002. All-cause and CVD mortality was registered till December 31, 2003. Results During an average follow-up of 8.3 years (163 844 man-years), 353 deaths occurred (101 CVD deaths). Age- and examination year-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality risk were higher for men with high values of BMI (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19–2.23), waist circumference (1.55, 1.22-1.96) and percentage of body fat (%BF) (1.36, 1.04-1.31), but not for men with high values of BAI (1.28, 0.98-1.66). The HRs for CVD mortality risks were higher for men with high values in all adiposity measures (HRs ranged from 1.73 to 2.06). Most of these associations, however, became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple confounders including cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion BAI is not a better predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality risk than BMI, waist circumference or %BF. PMID:23512375

Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; Espana-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

2013-01-01

50

Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

2007-01-01

51

Preferred body type of fitness instructors among university students in exercise classes.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between participants' physique anxiety, eating behaviors, somatotype, and the preferred qualifications and body type of a fitness instructor. Subjects were 171 students attending fitness classes at a university. Analysis indicated that the women preferred a thinner fitness instructor than men and that enthusiasm, motivation, and being physically fit were considered the most important characteristics overall. No significant racial differences in key variables were found. PMID:16350631

Evans, Retta R; Cotter, Ellen M; Roy, Jane L P

2005-08-01

52

A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

1971-01-01

53

Application of the IAP cardiovascular fitness test protocol for Austromars candidate screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rationale: The purpose of our research was to test for cardiovascular stability within 16 Austromars candidates, and to determine hemodynamic variables and hormones in a presyncopal state as evoked by a specific test protocol. Procedures and methods: We used a graded orthostatic stress (GOS) paradigm consisting of head-up tilt (HUT) combined with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to a presyncopal end-point on 15 males and one healthy female. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored and venous blood samples taken. Results: From supine control to presyncope, mean standing time was 12.3 ± 1.2 min, heart rate (HR) increased by 68 ± 12% (p < 0.0001) and thoracic impedance (TI) rose by 12 ± 1% (p < 0.0001), whereas following parameters decreased: stroke volume index (SI) 44 ± 4% (p < 0.0001), systolic pressure (SBP) 26 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), diastolic pressure (DBP) 16 ± 5% (p = 0.004), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 19 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), pulse pressure 41 ± 8% (p = 0.0003) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) 11 ± 5% (p = 0.03). Heart rate and blood pressure variabilities decreased together with pulse pressure. Plasma volume decreased by 11 ± 2% (p = 0.0004). Plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased by 86 ± 16% (p = 0.0001), epinephrine (E) by 460 ± 266% (p = 0.06), cortisol by 10 ± 6% (p = 0.02), plasma renin activity by 147 ± 26% (p = 0.002) and aldosterone by 24 ± 21% (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Our combined HUT- graded LBNP paradigm is useful to study CV regulation and hormonal responses under severe stress conditions.

Grasser, E. K.; Goswami, N.; Jantscher, A.; Roessler, A.; Vrecko, K.; Groemer, G.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

2007-10-01

54

The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.  

PubMed

In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother. PMID:21751481

Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

2011-01-01

55

Cardiovascular fitness after stroke: Role of muscle mass and gait deficit severity.  

PubMed

Functional disability after hemiparetic stroke may be compounded by physical deconditioning and muscular wasting, factors related to disuse and advancing age. However, the role of body composition, severity, and chronicity of gait deficits as determinants of exercise fitness after stroke is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether oxygen consumption during peak exercise (VO2 peak) is associated with body composition, the severity, or duration of gait deficits in chronic (>6 months) hemiparetic stroke patients. Twenty-six patients (22 men, 4 women), aged 66 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD]), completed a progressive graded treadmill test until fatigue to measure VO2 peak (1.3 ± 0.4 L/minute). Timed 30-foot walks were used to determine self-selected floor walking velocity (0.63 ± 0.31 m/s), an index of gait deficit severity. Percent body fat (30.4% ± 10.6%), total lean mass (52.0 ± 9.3 kg), lean mass of the paretic and nonaffected legs (17.2 ± 3.7 kg), and lean mass of the paretic and nonaffected thighs (13.2 ± 2.7 kg) were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total lean mass (r = 0.60), lean mass of both legs (r = 0.58), paretic leg lean mass (r = 0.55), lean mass of both thighs (r = 0.64), and self-selected floor walking velocity (r = 0.53, all P < .01) correlated with VO2 peak. In contrast, percent body fat and latency since index stroke were unrelated to VO2 peak. In a stepwise regression analysis, lean mass of both thighs (r = 0.64, P < .001) and self-selected walking velocity (cumulative r = 0.78, P < .001) were independent predictors of VO2 peak and explained 61% of the variance. These results suggest that hemiparetic stroke patients are profoundly deconditioned, regardless of the latency since stroke, and that lower lean thigh mass and greater gait deficit severity predict even poorer peak exercise capacity. PMID:24192026

Ryan, A S; Dobrovolny, C L; Silver, K H; Smith, G V; Macko, R F

2000-01-01

56

Original Research Article Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in  

E-print Network

. Biol. 00:000­000, 2013. VC 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Physical fitness, or the ability to perform)]. In humans, even elite athletes exhibit physical fitness declines (Sagiv et al., 2007) and these declines (Fitzgerald et al., 1997). Although the decline in physical fitness appears universal in industrialized

Gurven, Michael

57

Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausias; Provinciale, Jaime G.; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

2014-01-01

58

The effect of viewing ultra-fit images on college women's body dissatisfaction.  

PubMed

Modern ideals of female attractiveness include an extremely toned and fit appearance in addition to extreme thinness. Although viewing thin models has a negative effect on women's body image, research has not tested the effect of exposure to the ultra-fit physique separate from the thin-ideal. This randomized, posttest-only experiment tested the effects of the athletic aspect of the current ideal by exposing 138 undergraduate women to thin and athletic models, normal weight athletic models, or a control condition consisting of neutral objects. The study also tested the moderating effects of thin-ideal and athletic-ideal internalization. Exposure to thin ultra-fit models, but not normal weight ultra-fit models, produced an increase in body dissatisfaction and neither internalization variable moderated this effect. Findings suggest that interventions that focus on the benefits of fitness while challenging the desirability of thinness may offer promising results. PMID:21880562

Homan, Kristin; McHugh, Erin; Wells, Daniel; Watson, Corrinne; King, Carolyn

2012-01-01

59

Body Fat Distribution, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and All-cause Mortality  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether ectopic fat depots are prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality. Background The morbidity associated with excess body weight varies among individuals of similar body mass index. Ectopic fat depots may underlie this risk differential. However, prospective studies of directly measured fat are limited. Methods Participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n=3086, 49% women, mean age 50.2 years) underwent assessment of fat depots (visceral adipose tissue, pericardial adipose tissue, and periaortic adipose tissue) using multidetector computed tomography, and were followed longitudinally for a median of 5.0 years. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of each fat depot (per 1 standard deviation increment) with the risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for standard risk factors, including body mass index. Results Overall, there were 90 cardiovascular events, 141 cancer events, and 71 deaths. After multivariable adjustment, visceral adipose tissue was associated with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.92, p=0.01) and cancer (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.12–1.84, p=0.005). Addition of visceral adipose tissue to a multivariable model that included body mass index modestly improved cardiovascular risk prediction (net reclassification improvement of 16.3%). None of the fat depots were associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusion Visceral adiposity is associated with incident cardiovascular disease and cancer after adjustment for clinical risk factors and generalized adiposity. These findings support the growing appreciation of a pathogenic role of ectopic fat. PMID:23850922

Britton, Kathryn A.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Kreger, Bernard E.; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

2014-01-01

60

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

61

Blood pressure, body mass index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is still uncertain whether increased blood pressure (BP) has a stronger effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lean persons than in obese persons. We tested it using a data set collected from a large cohort of Chinese adults. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP, body mass index (BMI) and other variables were measured in 169,871 Chinese

Hongwei Wang; Jie Cao; Jianxin Li; Jichun Chen; Xigui Wu; Xiufang Duan; Jianfeng Huang; Dongfeng Gu

2010-01-01

62

Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

1985-01-01

63

Effect of Land-Based and Water-Based Fitness Programs on the Cardiovascular Fitness, Strength and Flexibility of Women Aged 65–75 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a generalized water-based exercise program (WBE) compared to a land-based exercise program (LBE) on improving cardio-respiratory fitness, body composition, forward trunk flexion and strength measurements of elderly women aged 70 ± 3.2 years (mean ± SD). Forty-one healthy, sedentary women were selected to participate in the study and were

J. E. Taunton; E. C. Rhodes; L. A. Wolski; M. Donelly; J. Warren; J. Elliot; L. McFarlane; J. Leslie; J. Mitchell; B. Lauridsen

1996-01-01

64

Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to whole-body cryostimulation in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Over recent years, a considerable increase in the popularity of cryostimulation and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures has occurred both among healthy individuals and in various groups of patients, including those with primary untreated hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of WBC on the functional parameters of cardiovascular system in normotensive and primarily hypertensive individuals. The study included 26 young male volunteers with normal blood pressure range (NormoBP) and 13 with essential arterial hypertension (HyperBP). Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic factor (whole-body cryotherapy/cryostimulation, WBC) at a temperature of approximately -115°C to -125°C for a period of 3min. The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force® Monitor. Measurements in a supine position and tilt test were performed "before WBC" and "after WBC". Our study revealed that cryogenic temperatures exert strong modulatory effect on the cardiovascular system. Both groups showed adaptive changes of myocardial and vascular parameters in response to rapid cooling of virtually the whole body surface. While the profiles of some of these changes were similar in both the groups, also several considerable intergroup differences were documented. Consequently, the cryostimulation and cryotherapy treatment should be prescribed carefully to individuals who present with cardiovascular failure of any degree. PMID:25108050

Zalewski, Pawel; Buszko, Katarzyna; Zawadka-Kunikowska, Monika; S?omko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Sinski, Maciej; Newton, Julia

2014-10-01

65

Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

2000-01-01

66

Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls  

PubMed Central

Objective The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls. Methods A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regional fat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status. Findings The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total and regional body fat percent (P<0.001). After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat mass especially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure. Conclusion Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23056886

Mirhosseini, Naghmeh Zahra; Shahar, Suzana; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Parizadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi

2012-01-01

67

Examining the Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Weight Status: Empirical Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Adults in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Meanwhile, obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic. This study aims to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with body mass among adult males and females in Taiwan. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative dataset consisting of 68,175 adults aged 18–60, including 31,743 males and 36,432 females, was used. Several multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status, after controlling for adults' sociodemographic status. Results. A one-unit increase in the BMI lowered the cardiorespiratory fitness score by 0.316 and 0.368 points for adult males and females, respectively. Among adult males, compared to those of normal weight, adult males who were underweight, overweight, or obese had a lower cardiorespiratory fitness score by 1.287, 0.845, and 3.353 points, respectively. Similar results could be found in female samples. Conclusion. The overweight and obese adults had much lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness as compared to their normal weight counterparts. Given the upward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, it is important to help overweight and obese people to become more fit and reach their healthy weight. PMID:25386600

Hung, Tai-Hsiung; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

2014-01-01

68

Exercise against lower body negative pressure as a countermeasure for cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with oral salt and water ingestion has been tested by astronauts as a countermeasure to prevent postflight orthostatic intolerance. Exercise is another countermeasure that astronauts commonly use during spaceflight to maintain musculoskeletal strength. We hypothesize that a novel combination of exercise and simultaneous exposure to lower body negative pressure during spaceflight will produce Earth-like musculoskeletal loads as well as cardiovascular stimuli to maintain adaptation to Earth's gravity. Results from recent studies indicate that leg exercise within a LBNP chamber against the suction force of 100 mmHg LBNP in horizontal-supine posture produces an equivalent, if not greater exercise stress compared to similar leg exercise in upright posture (without LBNP) against Earth's gravity. 12 Therefore, the concept of LBNP combined with exercise may prove to be a low cost and low mass technique to stress the cardiovascular and the musculoskeletal systems simultaneously.

Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

69

The effect of 60-h sleep deprivation on cardiovascular regulation and body temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined cardiovascular regulation and body temperature (BT) during 60 h of sleep deprivation in 20 young healthy\\u000a cadets. Heart rate variability was measured during an active orthostatic test (AOT). Measurements were performed each day\\u000a in the morning and evening after 2, 14, 26, 38, 50 and 60 h of sleep deprivation. In AOT, in the sitting and standing positions,\\u000a heart

Jani Vaara; Heikki Kyröläinen; Mikko Koivu; Mikko Tulppo; Taija Finni

2009-01-01

70

Modeling three-dimensional groundwater flows by the body-fitted coordinate (BFC) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine if the body-fitted coordinate (BFC) method could be utilized to model three-dimensional groundwater flows and what advantages it offers. This method was initially developed and used in aerodynamics and heat transfer areas to simulate air and heat flows in irregular domains. Chapter 1 introduces the BFC method as an alternative to two

Min-Ho Koo

1996-01-01

71

a Study of Recirculating Flow Computation Using Body-Fitted Coordinates: Consistency Aspects and Mesh Skewness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the computation of recirculating flows using body-fitted coordinates has been conducted with a numerical algorithm developed previously. Both the consistent treatment of the continuity equation and the effects of the grid skewness on the calculated flow field have been investigated. A more consilient method has been developed that formally satisfies the conservation laws more closely, allowing the

M. Braaten; W. Shyy

1986-01-01

72

A study of recirculating flow computation using body-fitted coordinates - Consistency aspects and mesh skewness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the computation of recirculating flows using body-fitted coordinates has been conducted with a numerical algorithm developed previously. Both the consistent treatment of the continuity equation and the effects of the grid skewness on the calculated flow field have been investigated. A more consistent method has been developed that formally satisfies the conservation laws more closely, allowing the

M. Braaten; W. Shyy

1986-01-01

73

The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

2002-01-01

74

Integrative role of the lamina terminalis in the regulation of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis.  

PubMed

1. Cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis depends upon the activation and co-ordination of reflexes and behavioural responses. In order to accomplish this, the brain receives and processes both neural and chemical input. Once in the brain, information from sources signalling the status of the cardiovascular system and body fluid balance travels, and is integrated, throughout a widely distributed neural network. Recent studies using neuroanatomical and functional techniques have identified several key areas within this neural network. One major processing node is comprised of structures located along the lamina terminalis. 2. Structures associated with the lamina terminalis include the median preoptic nucleus (MePO) and two sensory circumventricular organs (SCVO), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Current evidence indicates that blood-borne signals, such as angiotensin II (AngII), reach SCVO (e.g. SFO) where they are transduced. This information is then carried via neural pathways to brain nuclei (e.g. MePO) where it is integrated with other inputs, such as those derived from systemic arterial blood pressure and volume receptors. 3. Because of their receptive and integrative functions, lamina terminalis structures are essential for the normal control of hormone release (e.g. vasopressin), sympathetic activation and behaviours (thirst and salt appetite), which collectively contribute to maintenance of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis. PMID:8819650

Johnson, A K; Cunningham, J T; Thunhorst, R L

1996-02-01

75

Anthropometrics, body composition, and aerobic fitness in norwegian home guard personnel.  

PubMed

Aandstad, A, Hageberg, R, Holme, IM, and Anderssen, SA. Anthropometrics body composition and aerobic fitness in Norwegian Home Guard personnel. J Strength Cond Res 28(11): 3206-3214, 2014-The Norwegian Home Guard (HG) consists of soldiers and officers who primarily live a civilian life but are typically called in for military training a few days per year. Although full-time soldiers and officers are monitored annually on physical fitness, no such assessments are performed on regular HG personnel. Data on physical fitness of similar forces from other nations are also scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study was to collect reference data on physical fitness in HG personnel. A total of 799 male soldiers and officers from the regular and the rapid reaction HG force participated in this study. Between 13 and 19% of the subjects were obese, according to measured body mass index, waist circumference and estimations of body fat. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated peak oxygen uptake from the 20-m shuttle run test was 50.1 (49.7-50.6) mL·kg·minute. Personnel from the rapid reaction force had a more favorable body composition compared with the regular HG personnel, whereas no differences were found for peak oxygen uptake. The physical demands on HG personnel are not well defined, but we believe that the majority of Norwegian HG soldiers and officers have a sufficient aerobic fitness level to fulfill their planned HG tasks. The gathered data can be used by military leaders to review the ability of the HG to perform expected military tasks, to serve as a future reference material for secular changes in HG fitness level, and for comparison purposes among similar international reserve forces. PMID:24832972

Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

2014-11-01

76

Fitness, dietary intake, and body mass index in urban Native American youth.  

PubMed

This study investigated correlations among physical fitness, dietary intakes, activity levels, and body mass index (BMI) for 155 urban Native American youth, ages 5 to 18 years. Heights, weights, skinfold measurements, activity level, balance times, and dietary intakes were assessed. Presidential Physical Fitness (PPF) testing was completed with 82 youth. Age groups were examined for differences in energy and macronutrient intake, sedentary activities, activity level, and PPF achievement. Pearson and Spearman rho correlations were examined among dietary intakes, fitness, balance, and activity levels. The majority of youth (63%) were at risk for overweight or already overweight, and 59% were sedentary. BMI was correlated with age and PPF achievement for all youth, and with physical activity and frequency of television viewing for youth ages 9 to 18 years. No correlation was found between dietary intake and activity level. Culturally appropriate interventions for obesity should start early, focusing on decreasing sedentary activity and increasing opportunities for fitness. PMID:12963950

Gray, Amy; Smith, Chery

2003-09-01

77

Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments.  

PubMed

For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

2014-04-01

78

Risk-sensitive reproductive allocation: fitness consequences of body mass losses in two contrasting environments  

PubMed Central

For long-lived organisms, the fitness value of survival is greater than that of current reproduction. Asymmetric fitness rewards suggest that organisms inhabiting unpredictable environments should adopt a risk-sensitive life history, predicting that it is adaptive to allocate resources to increase their own body reserves at the expense of reproduction. We tested this using data from reindeer populations inhabiting contrasting environments and using winter body mass development as a proxy for the combined effect of winter severity and density dependence. Individuals in good and harsh environments responded similarly: Females who lost large amounts of winter body mass gained more body mass the coming summer compared with females losing less mass during winter. Additionally, females experienced a cost of reproduction: On average, barren females gained more body mass than lactating females. Winter body mass development positively affected both the females' reproductive success and offspring body mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings with respect to scenarios for future climate change. PMID:24772280

Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Næss, Marius Warg; Tveraa, Torkild; Langeland, Knut; Fauchald, Per

2014-01-01

79

Traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in school-aged children: A call for the further development of public health strategies with emphasis on fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and\\u000a the early aetiology of cardiovascular disease. We examined if the levels of traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk\\u000a factors were influenced by the levels of CRF in children. A total of 339 randomly selected children aged 9–10 years participated\\u000a in the Swedish part

Jonatan R. Ruiz; Francisco B. Ortega; Dirk Meusel; Michael Sjöström

2007-01-01

80

A non-exercise testing method for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness: associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohorts  

PubMed Central

Aims Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a key predictor of chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), but its assessment usually requires exercise testing which is impractical and costly in most health-care settings. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (NET-F)-estimating methods are a less resource-demanding alternative, but their predictive capacity for CVD and total mortality has yet to be tested. The objective of this study is to examine the association of a validated NET-F algorithm with all-cause and CVD mortality. Methods and results The participants were 32 319 adults (14 650 men) aged 35–70 years who took part in eight Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey studies between 1994 and 2003. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (a metabolic equivalent of VO2max) was calculated using age, sex, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate, and self-reported physical activity. We followed participants for mortality until 2008. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-five participants died (460 cardiovascular deaths) during a mean 9.0 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.6] year follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, social class, alcohol, and depression, a higher fitness score according to the NET-F was associated with a lower risk of mortality from all-causes (hazard ratio per SD increase in NET-F 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.93 in men; 0.88, 0.80–0.98 in women) and CVD (men: 0.75, 0.63–0.90; women: 0.73, 0.60–0.92). Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness had a better discriminative ability than any of its components (CVD mortality c-statistic: NET-F = 0.70–0.74; BMI = 0.45–0.59; physical activity = 0.60–0.64; resting heart rate = 0.57–0.61). The sensitivity of the NET-F algorithm to predict events occurring in the highest risk quintile was better for CVD (0.49 in both sexes) than all-cause mortality (0.44 and 0.40 for men and women, respectively). The specificity for all-cause and CVD mortality ranged between 0.80 and 0.82. The net reclassification improvement of CVD mortality risk (vs. a standardized aggregate score of the modifiable components of NET-F) was 27.2 and 21.0% for men and women, respectively. Conclusion The CRF-estimating method NET-F that does not involve exercise testing showed consistent associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and it had good discrimination and excellent risk reclassification improvement. As such, it merits further attention as a practical and potentially and useful risk prediction tool. PMID:22555215

Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; O'Donovan, Gary; Batty, George David; Kivimaki, Mika

2013-01-01

81

Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (?2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2013-01-01

82

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

2004-01-01

83

Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training. PMID:24479642

Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

2014-01-01

84

Entering a New Era of Body Indices: The Feasibility of a Body Shape Index and Body Roundness Index to Identify Cardiovascular Health Status  

PubMed Central

Background The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. Objective This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC. Design and Methods 4627 Participants (54±12 years) of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors) and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index. Results 1332 participants (27.7%) reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.4–7.2), BMI 2.4 (1.9–3.1), and WC 3.0 (1.6–5.6). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.0–3.3), BMI 3.3 (1.6–6.8), and WC 2.0 (1.6–2.5). No association was observed for ABSI in both groups. Conclusions BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC. PMID:25229394

Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J. H. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; de Vegt, Femmie

2014-01-01

85

Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

1990-01-01

86

Fifteen years of GH replacement improves body composition and cardiovascular risk factors  

PubMed Central

Objective Few studies have determined the effects of more than 5–10 years of GH replacement in adults on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Design/patients In this prospective, single-center, open-label study, the effects of 15 years of GH replacement on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 156 hypopituitary adults (93 men) with adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD). Mean age was 50.5 (range 22–74) years at study start. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The mean initial GH dose of 0.55 (s.e.m. 0.03) mg/day was gradually lowered to 0.40 (0.01) mg/day after 15 years. The mean serum IGF1 SDS increased from ?1.53 (0.10) at baseline to 0.74 (0.13) at study end (P<0.001 vs baseline). Lean soft tissue (LST) increased to 3% above the baseline level at study end (P<0.001). After a 9% decrease during the first year of treatment (P<0.001 vs baseline), body fat (BF) started to increase and had returned to the baseline level after 15 years. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased and serum HDL-cholesterol level increased. Fasting plasma glucose increased from 4.4 (0.1) at baseline to 4.8 (0.1) mmol/l at study end (P<0.001). However, blood HbA1c decreased from 5.0 (0.1) to 4.6 (0.1) % (P<0.001). Conclusions Fifteen-year GH replacement in GHD adults induced a transient decrease in BF and sustained improvements of LST and serum lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose increased whereas blood HbA1c was reduced. PMID:23428613

Elbornsson, Mariam; Gotherstrom, Galina; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Bengtsson, Bengt-Ake; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Svensson, Johan

2013-01-01

87

Approaching healthy body mass index norms for children and adolescents from health-related physical fitness.  

PubMed

Current body mass index (BMI) norms for children and adolescents are developed from a reference population that includes obese and slim subjects. The validity of these norms is influenced by the observed secular increase in body weight and BMI. We hypothesized that the performance of children in health-related physical fitness tests would be negatively related to increased BMIs, and therefore fitness tests might be used as criteria for developing a more appropriate set of BMI norms. We evaluated the existing data from a nation-wide fitness survey for students in Taiwan (444 652 boys and 433 555 girls) to examine the relationship between BMI and fitness tests. The fitness tests used included: an 800/1600-m run/walk; a standing long jump; bent-leg curl-ups; and a sit-and-reach test. The BMI percentiles developed from the subgroup whose test scores were better than the 'poor' quartile in all four tests were compared with those of the whole population and linked to the adult criteria for overweight and obesity. The BMIs were significantly related to the results of fitness testing. A total of 43% of students had scores better than the poorest quartile in all of their tests. The upper BMI percentile curves of this fitter subgroup were lower than those of the total population. The 85th and 95th BMI percentile values of the fitter 18-year-old-students (23.7 and 25.5 kg m(-2) for boys; 22.6 and 24.6 kg m(-2) for girls) linked well with the adult cut-off points of 23 and 25 kg m(-2), which have been recommended as the Asian criteria for adult overweight and obesity. Hence, the BMI norms for children and adolescents could be created from selected subgroups that have better physical fitness. We expect that the new norms based on this approach will be used not only to assess the current status of obesity or overweight, but also to encourage activity and exercise. PMID:12164476

Chen, W; Lin, C C; Peng, C T; Li, C I; Wu, H C; Chiang, J; Wu, J Y; Huang, P C

2002-08-01

88

[Cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat distribution in women with 50 years or more].  

PubMed

To verify the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in women. Evaluations were performed on 229 women with ages ranging between 50 and 84 years. Anthropometric assessment was performed and waist/hip ratio and conicity index values were obtained. The cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the six minutes walk test and one pedometer was used to evaluate the speed, length, and total number of steps. The results were distributed in quartile, and interquartil comparison was performed by means of analysis of variance with post-hoc test. The relationship between the six minutes walk test and anthropometrics was identified using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results showed that women with cardiorespiratory fitness in the quartile4 were younger than those in quartile1 (p < or = 0.05). The anthropometric variables values were lower (p < or = 0.05) for results in the quartiles3 and 4 compared to those in quartiles1 and 2. In conclusion, women with higher adipose tissue and central fat accumulation presented lower cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:20642052

Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte; Rosa, Clara Suemi da Costa; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Buonani, Camila; Conterato, Igor; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Converso, Maria Estelita Rojas; Gomes, Jaime de Oliveira

2010-06-01

89

Body dissatisfaction and eating attitudes in slimming and fitness gyms in London and Lahore: a cross-cultural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire survey of women attending slimming and fitness gyms in London and Lahore was conducted using the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test. Twenty-nine South Asian and 40 White women in London and 35 English-speaking women in Lahore were recruited into the study. Similar associations between body mass, body dissatisfaction and eating attitudes were found in all

David Bardwell Mumford; Iffat Yaqub Choudry

2000-01-01

90

Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

2012-01-01

91

Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

Kumar, D.

1980-01-01

92

Field assessments for obesity prevention in children and adults: physical activity, fitness, and body composition.  

PubMed

Nutrition and health educators work in community settings implementing lifestyle programs focused on obesity prevention and chronic disease risk reduction. These programs typically focus on improving diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Many nutrition educators may not be confident in their ability to select, administer, and interpret PA assessments to effectively evaluate their PA or lifestyle programs. This report will assist educators in identifying and selecting appropriate field-based assessments for measurement of PA, physical fitness, and body composition for children and adults. Specific guidelines, references, and resources are given for selecting assessment methods and test within these 3 areas. PMID:23850013

Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Spears, Karen; Idris, Rafida; Dyrek, Anthony; Manore, Melinda M

2014-01-01

93

Muscular fitness, body composition and physical self-perception in adolescents.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between muscular strength, body composition, and physical self-perception in adolescents. Participants (n=106, age 15.0±0.7 years, 51% boys) completed the following assessments: height and weight, bio-electrical impedance analysis (body fat %), muscular strength (1RM bench press and leg press), and the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile. Bivariate correlations were examined and mediation analysis was used to explore if physical self-perception sub-domains mediated the relationship between muscular strength/adiposity and overall physical self-worth. Among boys, physical self-worth was associated with absolute total strength (r=0.36, p<0.01), but not with body fat % (r=-0.11, p=0.44), or relative total strength (r=0.21, p=0.13). In adolescent girls, physical self-worth was associated with body fat % (r=-0.42, p<0.01), relative total strength (r=0.40, p<0.01) but not absolute total strength (r=0.07, p=0.62). In boys, perceived physical strength mediated the relationship between absolute muscular strength and physical self-worth. Relative muscular strength was not associated with perceived strength (p>0.05) in girls and the test of the mediated effect was non-significant (p>0.05). Perceived body attractiveness was found to mediate the relationship between body fat % and physical self-worth among boys and girls. Physical self-worth is associated with different components of health-related fitness in adolescent girls and boys. Mediation analysis can be used to provide insights into the complex interrelationships between variables. PMID:21111677

Lubans, David R; Cliff, Dylan P

2011-05-01

94

A cardiod based technique to identify cardiovascular diseases using mobile phones and body sensors.  

PubMed

To prevent the threat of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) related deaths, the usage of mobile phone based computational platforms, body sensors and wireless communications is proliferating. Since mobile phones have limited computational resources, existing PC based complex CVD detection algorithms are often unsuitable for wireless telecardiology applications. Moreover, if the existing Electrocardiography (ECG) based CVD detection algorithms are adopted for mobile telecardiology applications, then there will be processing delays due to the computational complexities of the existing algorithms. However, for a CVD affected patient, seconds worth of delay could be fatal, since cardiovascular cell damage is a totally irrecoverable process. This paper proposes a fast and efficient mechanism of CVD detection from ECG signal. Unlike the existing ECG based CVD diagnosis systems that detect CVD anomalies from hundreds of sample points, the proposed mechanism identifies cardiac abnormality from only 5 sample points. Therefore, according to our experiments the proposed mechanism is up to 3 times faster than the existing techniques. Due to less computational burden, the proposed mechanism is ideal for wireless telecardiology applications running on mobile phones. PMID:21096293

Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Tari, Zahir

2010-01-01

95

Associations of muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness with total and central body fat in adolescents: The HELENA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the association of healthrelated physical fitness with total and central body fat in adolescents.Participants\\/MethodsThe present cross-sectional study comprises 363 Spanish adolescents (186 female participants) aged 12.5–17.5 years. We assessed fitness by the 20-m shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness); the handgrip strength, the standing broad jump and the Abalakov tests (muscular strength); and the 4×10-m shuttle run test (speed–agility).

D. Moliner-Urdiales; J. R. Ruiz; G. Vicente-Rodriguez; F. B. Ortega; J. P. Rey-Lopez; V. Espana-Romero; J. A. Casajus; D. Molnar; K. Widhalm; J. Dallongeville; M. Gonzalez-Gross; M. J. Castillo; M. Sjostrom; L. A. Moreno

2011-01-01

96

Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the “outsider-within,” we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American women who reject the White-American ideal of thinness, yet recognize that the “thick”

Margaret Carlisle Duncan; T. Tavita Robinson

2004-01-01

97

The Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Fitness from Physical Education in Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education (PE) can improve physical fitness; however, little research has evaluated PE's long-term influence. The purpose is to determine PE's longitudinal effects on fitness in a group of adolescent girls and to determine whether body mass index (BMI) status influenced any potential effects. Methods: Participants were…

Camhi, Sarah M.; Phillips, Jennie; Young, Deborah R.

2011-01-01

98

Obesity as Assessed by Body Adiposity Index and Multivariable Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

To assess the role of body adiposity index (BAI) in predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, in comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist circumference to hip circumference ratio (WHR). This study was a prospective 15 year mortality follow-up of 4175 Australian males, free of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. The Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) for CHD and CVD death were calculated at baseline for all subjects. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the effects of the measures of obesity on CVD and CHD mortality, before adjustment and after adjustment for FRS. The predictive ability of BAI, though present in the unadjusted analyses, was generally not significant after adjustment for age and FRS for both CVD and CHD mortality. BMI behaved similarly to BAI in that its predictive ability was generally not significant after adjustments. Both WC and WHR were significant predictors of CVD and CHD mortality and remained significant after adjustment for covariates. BAI appeared to be of potential interest as a measure of % body fat and of obesity, but was ineffective in predicting CVD and CHD. PMID:24714547

Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Welborn, Timothy A.; Goh, Louise G. H.; Howat, Peter A.

2014-01-01

99

Body Water Distribution and Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in a Healthy Population: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. Objective This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. Method Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n?=?2120) of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993–1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R?/R0) was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R?/R0?=?0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. Conclusion Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R?/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. However, more studies are needed before it can be concluded that bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy improves clinical risk prediction. PMID:24498327

Ward, Leigh Cordwin; Saebye, Ditte; Holst, Claus; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

2014-01-01

100

Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

2010-01-01

101

Aspects of control of the cardiovascular-respiratory system during orthostatic stress induced by lower body negative pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a model developed to study the cardiovascular control system response to orthostatic stress as induced by two variations of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) experiments. This modeling approach has been previously applied to study control responses to transition from rest to aerobic exercise, to transition to non-REM sleep and to orthostatic stress as produced by the head

Franz Kappel; Martin Fink; Jerry J. Batzel

2007-01-01

102

Cardiovascular adjustments induced by hypertonic saline in hemorrhagic rats: Involvement of carotid body chemoreceptors.  

PubMed

The peripheral hyperosmolarity elicited by intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline brings potential benefits to the treatment of hemorrhage. The neural mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects remain unknown. The present study examines the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by hypertonic saline after hypovolemic hemorrhage in rats. Male Wistar rats (300-400 g) were anesthetized with thiopental, and instrumented for recording of mean arterial pressure. Arterial pressure was reduced to 60 mm Hg by withdrawal of arterial blood over 10 min, and maintained at this level for 60 min by withdrawal or infusion of blood. In control rats (n = 8) with intact chemoreceptors, the subsequent intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline (3M NaCl, 1.8 ml kg(-1) body weight, in 2 min) restored blood pressure (pressure increased from 61 ± 4 to 118 ± 5 mm Hg). In experimental rats (n = 8), the carotid body arteries were tied, 30 min after the beginning of the hypotensive phase, leaving the carotid chemoreceptors ischemic. In these rats, hypertonic saline failed to restore blood pressure (pressure increased from 55 ± 1 to 70 ± 6 mm Hg). These findings suggest that the restoration of blood pressure after hypovolemic hemorrhage induced by hypertonic saline depends on intact carotid chemoreceptors. PMID:21146474

Pedrino, Gustavo R; Rossi, Marcio V; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M; Lopes, Oswaldo U; Cravo, Sergio L

2011-02-24

103

A computer code for three-dimensional incompressible flows using nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.

Chen, Y. S.

1986-01-01

104

Predicting metabolic rate across walking speed: one fit for all body sizes?  

PubMed

We formulated a "one-size-fits-all" model that predicts the energy requirements of level human walking from height, weight, and walking speed. Our three-component model theorizes that the energy expended per kilogram per stride is independent of stature at mechanically equivalent walking speeds. We measured steady-state rates of oxygen uptake of 78 subjects who spanned a nearly twofold range of statures (1.07-2.11 m) and sevenfold range of body masses (16-112 kg) at treadmill speeds from 0.4 to 1.9 m/s. We tested the size independence of the model by deriving best-fit equations in the form of the model on four stature groups (n ? 15): short, moderately short, moderately tall, and tall. The mean walking metabolic rates predicted by these four independently derived equations for the same set of reference subjects (n = 16; stature range: 1.30-1.90 m) agreed with one another to within an average of 5.2 ± 3.7% at the four intermediate speeds in our protocol. We next evaluated the model's gross predictive accuracy by dividing our 78 subjects into 39 stature-matched pairs of experimental and validation group subjects. The model best-fit equation derived on the experimental group subjects predicted the walking metabolic rates of the validation group subjects to within an average of 8.1 ± 6.7% (R(2) = 0.90; standard error of estimate = 1.34 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The predictive error of the American College of Sports Medicine equation (18.0 ± 13.1%), which does not include stature as a predictor, was more than twice as large for the same subject group. We conclude that the energy cost of level human walking can be accurately predicted from height, weight, and walking speed. PMID:23928111

Weyand, Peter G; Smith, Bethany R; Schultz, Nicole S; Ludlow, Lindsay W; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

2013-11-01

105

Combining Template Matching and Model Fitting for Human Body Segmentation and Tracking with Applications to Sports Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper present a method for extracting and automatic tracking of human body using template matching and human body model\\u000a fitting for specific activity. The method includes training and testing stages. For training, the body shapes are manually\\u000a segmented from image sequences as templates and are clustered. The 2D joint locations of each cluster center are labeled and\\u000a the dynamical

Hao-Jie Li; Shou-Xun Lin; Yong-Dong Zhang

2006-01-01

106

A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age?=?4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (?1.2%, p?body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: ?0.74 seconds, p?body composition and physical fitness. Program efficacy should be tested in a randomized trial. Trial registration ChiCTR-ONRC-14004143. PMID:24886119

2014-01-01

107

The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)

Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

1995-01-01

108

The effect of a virtual reality exercise program on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program (VREP) on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal failure. [Subjects and Methods] A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Forty-six HD patients were divided into exercise (n=23) and control groups (n=23); while waiting for their dialyses, the exercise group followed a VREP, and the control group received only their usual care. The VREP was accomplished using Nintendo's Wii Fit Plus for 40 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks during the period of May 27 to July 19, 2013. Physical fitness (muscle strength, balance, flexibility), body composition (skeletal muscle mass, body fat rate, arm and leg muscle mass), and fatigue were measured at baseline and after the intervention. [Results] After the VREP, physical fitness and body composition significantly increased, and the level of fatigue significantly decreased in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a VREP improves physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in HD patients. Based on the findings, VREPs should be used as a health promotion programs for HD patients. PMID:25364137

Cho, Hyeyoung; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae

2014-10-01

109

The Effect of a Virtual Reality Exercise Program on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Fatigue in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program (VREP) on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal failure. [Subjects and Methods] A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Forty-six HD patients were divided into exercise (n=23) and control groups (n=23); while waiting for their dialyses, the exercise group followed a VREP, and the control group received only their usual care. The VREP was accomplished using Nintendo’s Wii Fit Plus for 40 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks during the period of May 27 to July 19, 2013. Physical fitness (muscle strength, balance, flexibility), body composition (skeletal muscle mass, body fat rate, arm and leg muscle mass), and fatigue were measured at baseline and after the intervention. [Results] After the VREP, physical fitness and body composition significantly increased, and the level of fatigue significantly decreased in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a VREP improves physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in HD patients. Based on the findings, VREPs should be used as a health promotion programs for HD patients. PMID:25364137

Cho, Hyeyoung; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae

2014-01-01

110

Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

2014-01-01

111

Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

1977-01-01

112

An investigation into the body image perception, body satisfaction and exercise expectations of male fitness leaders: implications for professional practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the body image perceptions, body satisfaction and exercise habits of six male étness leaders and explores the impact of these issues on pro- fessional practice. High levels of body satisfaction were exhibited and associated with the ability to perform physical activity well. Therefore, a lean and deéned body was desired, rather than a hypermuscular physique. The men

Janine M. Philips; Murray J. N. Drummond

2001-01-01

113

Body mass index and cardiovascular mortality at different levels of blood pressure: a prospective study of Norwegian men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study investigated the joint effect of body mass index and systolic blood pressure on cardiovascular and total mortality. DESIGN--This was a prospective cohort study. The main outcome measures were age adjusted mortality and relative risks estimated from survival models. SETTING--The population of the city of Bergen, Norway. PARTICIPANTS--Subjects were 21,145 men and 30,330 women aged 30-79 years at

R Selmer; A Tverdal

1995-01-01

114

The effects of body-weight supported treadmill training on cardiovascular regulation in individuals with motor-complete SCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Four-month longitudinal within-subject exercise training study.Objective:Although body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has not shown promise as a means of improving ambulation in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI), it may still improve cardiovascular health and function in this population. The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate the effects of BWSTT on peripheral muscular and elastic artery

D S Ditor; M J MacDonald; M V Kamath; J Bugaresti; M Adams; N McCartney; A L Hicks

2005-01-01

115

Effect of Aquatic Exercise Program on Pain, Fatigue, Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Psychological Variables in Women with Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aquatic exercise on pain, fatigue, body composition, physical fitness and psychological variables in women with arthritis. Method: With a quasi-experimental design, 37 women who had arthritis were assigned into an experimental group (n=19) or a control group (n=18). Aquatic exercise consisted of one hour of exercise in water,

Suk Hee

116

Depicting the Sporting Body: The Intersection of Gender, Race and Disability in Women's Sport\\/Fitness Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the relationship between images of sport, disability, gender and race in four U.S. women's sport\\/fitness magazines. According to a view of feminism that sees it as addressing all oppressions, these magazines should provide an empowering space for all women, including women with a disability. Rejection of ableism signifies a rejection of the male body standard in sport,

Marie Hardin; Susan Lynn; Kristie Walsdorf

117

Association of Body Mass Index with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and expanded CVD mortality in the elderly. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Annual physical examination program for the elderly from 2006 to 2010. Participants We included 77,541 Taipei residents aged ?65 years (39,365 men and 38,176 women). Measurements BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5), normal weight (18.5?BMI<25), overweight (25?BMI<30), grade 1 obesity (30?BMI<35), or grade 2–3 obesity (BMI?35). Mortality was ascertained by national death files. Results Underweight (hazard ratios [HRs] of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 1.92, 1.74, and 1.77, respectively), grade 2–3 obesity (HRs: 1.59, 2.36, and 2.22, respectively), older age, male sex, smoking, and high fasting blood sugar were significant predictors of mortality. Meanwhile, being married/cohabitating, higher education, alcohol consumption, more regular exercise, and high total cholesterol were inversely associated with mortality. Multivariate stratified subgroup analyses verified smokers (HRs of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 3.25, 10.71, and 7.86, respectively, for grade 2–3 obesity), the high triglyceride group (HRs: 5.82, 10.99, and 14.22, respectively for underweight), and patients with 3–4 factors related to metabolic syndrome (HRs: 4.86, 12.72, and 11.42, respectively, for underweight) were associated with mortality. Conclusion The associations of BMI with all-cause, CVD, expanded CVD mortality in the elderly are represented by U-shaped curves, suggesting unilateral promotions or interventions in weight reduction in the elderly may be inappropriate. Heterogeneous effects of grades 1 and 2–3 obesity on mortality were observed and should be treated as different levels of obesity. PMID:25014070

Wu, Chen-Yi; Chou, Yi-Chang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Li, Chung-Pin

2014-01-01

118

A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untested alternative weight loss diets, such as very low car- bohydrate diets, have unsubstantiated efficacy and the po- tential to adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors. There- fore, we designed a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of a very low carbohydrate diet on body composi- tion and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects were random- ized to 6 months of either

BONNIE J. BREHM; RANDY J. SEELEY; STEPHEN R. DANIELS; DAVID A. D'ALESSIO

2010-01-01

119

Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate\\/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate\\/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Eighty

Manny Noakes; Paul R Foster; Jennifer B Keogh; Anthony P James; John C Mamo; Peter M Clifton

2006-01-01

120

Impact of education on food behaviour, body composition and physical fitness in children.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of obesity during growth and development is significantly related to the education of children, and also to that of parents who influence food intake and physical activity from the beginning of life. The effect of maternal level of education has been shown in regular anthropometric surveys in 10-year intervals since 1951. This concerns the mother's own nutrition and physical activity regimen as well as the child's nutrition since birth, including the duration of breast-feeding. Children of parents with overweight and obesity were shown more often to be obese, as was the case for children from families with the lowest level of education, or from smaller communities where the level of education is usually lower than in larger cities. The composition of the mother's diet during pregnancy had, for example, an effect on the blood lipids of newborns. During preschool age, less body fat, a higher level of HDL, and higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, skill and physical performance were found in active children. In school-age children, when obesity increases, a number of prevention programmes using diet, exercise and behavioural intervention have been developed for schools, communities, churches, and/or have been organized by special institutions and medical centres, which were most efficient in family groups. The greatest reduction of weight, BMI and fatness, and improvement of functional capacity, and hormonal and metabolic parameters were achieved in summer camps or spas, with consistent and monitored nutrition, exercise and behavioural treatment. Fluctuation of positive outcomes occurred due to the interruption of the educational process during the school year, and repeated long-lasting interventions have been always necessary for permanent desirable results. PMID:18257949

Parizkova, Jana

2008-02-01

121

Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: a 15-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated changes in the physical activity, fitness and body composition of 103 police officers during a 15-year follow-up. The absolute aerobic capacity was similar in 1981 and 1996, muscular performance had declined, and body weight had increased approximately 0.5 kg/year. More than half the subjects (53%) had increased their leisure-time physical activity in 1996. The correlation was significant between physical activity in 1981 and physical fitness in 1996, but weak between physical activity in 1996 and fitness in 1996. It was also significant between waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in 1996 and physical activity during the previous 5 and 15 years. No significant correlations were found between physical activity and work ability or perceived physical or mental job stress. The physical fitness of middle-aged police officers seems to be predicted strongly by physical activity in early adulthood. Therefore health and fitness promotion measures should start at that time. This, together with regular systematic training, should help to sustain work ability of middle-aged police officers. PMID:10795384

Sörensen, L; Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Korhonen, O; Oja, P

2000-01-01

122

Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority. PMID:25007417

Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

2014-09-14

123

Measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children from Two Commonly Used Field Tests After Accounting for Body Fatness and Maturity  

PubMed Central

Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8–13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5–7% of the variance. PMID:25031676

Hamlin, Michael J.; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Kimber, Nicholas E.

2014-01-01

124

Body mass and individual fitness in female ungulates: bigger is not always better.  

PubMed Central

In female vertebrates, differences in fitness often correspond to differences in phenotypic quality, suggesting that larger females have greater fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from variation in life span and/or variation in yearly reproductive success, but no study has yet assessed the relationships between the components of fitness and phenotypic quality while controlling for life span. We tried to fill this gap using data from long-term monitoring (23 years) of marked roe deer and bighorn sheep, two ungulates with very different life histories. In both species, we found a strong positive relationship between an adult female's mass and her probability of reaching old age: over the long term, bigger is indeed better for ungulate females. On the other hand, we found no evidence in either species that heavier females had higher fitness when differences in life span were accounted for: over the short term, bigger is not necessarily better. Our results indicate that, while broad differences in phenotypic quality affect individual fitness, when differences in life span are accounted for phenotypic quality has no residual effect on fitness. Therefore, within a given range of phenotypic quality, bigger is not always better, for reasons which may differ between species. PMID:10737404

Gaillard, J M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Delorme, D; Jorgenson, J

2000-01-01

125

Cardiovascular system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the ... carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...

126

Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

2001-01-01

127

Physical Fitness of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A 13-Year Follow-up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low…

Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg

2000-01-01

128

Association of pre-pregnancy body mass index with cardiovascular disease mortality: The Child Health and Development Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Overweight early in life may contribute to cardiovascular disease mortality through progression to later life obesity or through a cumulative effect of excess weight. Few studies have investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) before middle age and cardiovascular disease mortality in women. Using the Child Health and Development Studies cohort of 11,006 pregnant women recruited between 1959 and 1967, we tested the hypothesis that higher self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased stroke and coronary heart disease mortality. Design and Methods Cause of death was assessed annually from enrollment through 2007 by linking with California Vital Status Records. We calculated Cox proportional hazards ratios for cause-specific mortality for each BMI category. Results Median follow-up was 37 years with 1,839 participant deaths at a mean age of 64.1 years. At higher levels of BMI, participants were older, had higher prevalence of co-morbid conditions, higher parity, and lower family income. In adjusted models, women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI had increased coronary heart disease mortality compared to those with normal BMI. Women who were underweight, overweight, or obese had higher all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy BMI has a monotonic association with coronary heart disease mortality and a j-shaped association with non-cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24124023

Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana L.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Bennett, Wendy L.

2013-01-01

129

Fitting techniques of cell survival curves in high-dose region for use in stereotactic body radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) uses high doses of radiation to treat tumors. The cell survival behavior at these high doses is subject to debate. We investigated this high-dose region by fitting a variety of formulas to cell survival data. Each of the formulas is motivated by a discussion of the theory of cell survival. Fourteen cell lines are examined. These are fit to a variety of equations. Among the equations include the traditional single-hit multi-target and linear quadratic as well as recent proposals such as the universal survival curve (USC). The chi(2)/df of each fit is compared to determine the best fit. While no formula is clearly superior for all cell lines, the newer formulas often provide better fits than the single-hit multi-target and linear quadratic. We recommend that the more recent formula discussed herein be used over the linear quadratic in dealing with the high-dose regions dealt with in SBRT. PMID:19229092

McKenna, F W; Ahmad, S

2009-03-21

130

Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.  

PubMed

Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

2014-01-01

131

Selection for pollination success and the mechanical fit of Impatiens flowers around bumblebee bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection on flowers has often been viewed as being particularly strict, constant, and responsible for species differences.Impatiens pallidaandI. capensisflowers fit snugly around bees, leading one to expect a close relationship between floral morphology and pollination success. My studies on the amount of pollen removed from androecia and deposited on stigmas in single visits by bumblebees did not confirm this supposition.

PAUL WILSON

1995-01-01

132

The Effect of Age-related Differences in Body Size and Composition on Cardiovascular Determinants of VO2max  

PubMed Central

Background. A reduction in maximal stroke volume (SVmax) and total blood volume (TBV) has been hypothesized to contribute to the decline in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) with healthy aging. However, these variables have rarely been collected simultaneously in a board age range to support or refute this hypothesis. It is also unclear to what extent scaling size-related cardiovascular determinants of VO2max affects the interpretation of age-related differences. Methods. A retrospective analysis of VO2max, maximal cardiac output (QCmax), TBV, and body composition including fat-free mass (FFM) in 95 (51% M) healthy adults ranging from 19–86 years. Results. Absolute and indexed VO2max, QCmax, and maximal heart rate decreased in both sexes with age (p ? .031). SVmax declined with age when scaled to total body mass or body surface area (p ? .047) but not when expressed in absolute levels (p = .120) or relative to FFM (p = .464). Absolute and indexed TBVs (mL/kg; mL/m2) were not significantly affected by age but increased with age in both sexes when scaled to FFM (p ? .013). A lower arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff) contributed to the reduction in VO2max with age in treadmill exercisers (p = .004) but not in the entire cohort (p = .128). Conclusion. These results suggest (a) a reduction in absolute SVmax, and TBV do not contribute substantially to the age-related reduction in VO2max, which instead results from a smaller QCmax due to a lower maximal heart rate, and (b) body composition scaling methods should be used to accurately describe the effect of aging on physical function and cardiovascular variables. PMID:23160363

2013-01-01

133

Muscular fitness, body composition and physical self-perception in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between muscular strength, body composition, and physical self-perception in adolescents. Participants (n=106, age 15.0±0.7 years, 51% boys) completed the following assessments: height and weight, bio-electrical impedance analysis (body fat %), muscular strength (1RM bench press and leg press), and the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile. Bivariate correlations

David R. Lubans; Dylan P. Cliff

2011-01-01

134

Low level of physical activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors but not with body fat mass - a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased fat mass (FM) and increased frequency of cardiovascular diseases we evaluated if total physical activity (MET-hours) had impact on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in women with RA. METHODS: Sixty-one out-ward RA women, 60.8 (57.3-64.4) years, answered a self-administered questionnaire, to estimate total daily physical activity during the previous

Ann-Charlotte Elkan; Niclas Håkansson; Johan Frostegård; Ingiäld Hafström

2011-01-01

135

"Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.  

PubMed

Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility. PMID:23746610

Hutson, David J

2013-08-01

136

The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary students  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary school students. For the purpose of this study, 20 obese elementary students were selected as subjects. The subjects were then divided into two groups: the swimming group (n= 10) and the control group (n= 10). The subjects were asked to exercise for 60 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 12 weeks with an exercise intensity of 50–70% HRmax. The following results were achieved: first, in terms of body composition, both body fat percentage and fat-free mass showed significant differences within the swimming group. There were also significant differences again in the posttest of difference between the two groups. Second, in terms of changes in physical fitness, there were, again, no significant changes in muscular strength between the two groups. However, muscular endurance, flexibility, and cardiopulmonary endurance showed significant differences in the swimming group’s test for difference within groups. Significant differences in both groups for the posttest of differences between groups were also seen. Third, in terms of vascular compliance, there was a significant increase in the right leg for the swimming groups’ test of difference within groups, as well as in the posttest of difference between groups. PMID:25061599

Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

2014-01-01

137

The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular compliance of obese elementary school students. For the purpose of this study, 20 obese elementary students were selected as subjects. The subjects were then divided into two groups: the swimming group (n= 10) and the control group (n= 10). The subjects were asked to exercise for 60 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 12 weeks with an exercise intensity of 50-70% HRmax. The following results were achieved: first, in terms of body composition, both body fat percentage and fat-free mass showed significant differences within the swimming group. There were also significant differences again in the posttest of difference between the two groups. Second, in terms of changes in physical fitness, there were, again, no significant changes in muscular strength between the two groups. However, muscular endurance, flexibility, and cardiopulmonary endurance showed significant differences in the swimming group's test for difference within groups. Significant differences in both groups for the posttest of differences between groups were also seen. Third, in terms of vascular compliance, there was a significant increase in the right leg for the swimming groups' test of difference within groups, as well as in the posttest of difference between groups. PMID:25061599

Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

2014-06-01

138

Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

1994-01-01

139

Association between body mass index and cardiovascular disease mortality in east Asians and south Asians: pooled analysis of prospective data from the Asia Cohort Consortium  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between body mass index and mortality from overall cardiovascular disease and specific subtypes of cardiovascular disease in east and south Asians. Design Pooled analyses of 20 prospective cohorts in Asia, including data from 835?082 east Asians and 289?815 south Asians. Cohorts were identified through a systematic search of the literature in early 2008, followed by a survey that was sent to each cohort to assess data availability. Setting General populations in east Asia (China, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and Korea) and south Asia (India and Bangladesh). Participants 1?124?897 men and women (mean age 53.4 years at baseline). Main outcome measures Risk of death from overall cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and (in east Asians only) stroke subtypes. Results 49?184 cardiovascular deaths (40?791 in east Asians and 8393 in south Asians) were identified during a mean follow-up of 9.7 years. East Asians with a body mass index of 25 or above had a raised risk of death from overall cardiovascular disease, compared with the reference range of body mass index (values 22.5-24.9; hazard ratio 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.15), 1.27 (1.20 to 1.35), 1.59 (1.43 to 1.76), 1.74 (1.47 to 2.06), and 1.97 (1.44 to 2.71) for body mass index ranges 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, 30.0-32.4, 32.5-34.9, and 35.0-50.0, respectively). This association was similar for risk of death from coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke; for haemorrhagic stroke, the risk of death was higher at body mass index values of 27.5 and above. Elevated risk of death from cardiovascular disease was also observed at lower categories of body mass index (hazard ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.39) and 2.16 (1.37 to 3.40) for body mass index ranges 15.0-17.4 and <15.0, respectively), compared with the reference range. In south Asians, the association between body mass index and mortality from cardiovascular disease was less pronounced than that in east Asians. South Asians had an increased risk of death observed for coronary heart disease only in individuals with a body mass index greater than 35 (hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.12). Conclusions Body mass index shows a U shaped association with death from overall cardiovascular disease among east Asians: increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease is observed at lower and higher ranges of body mass index. A high body mass index is a risk factor for mortality from overall cardiovascular disease and for specific diseases, including coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and haemorrhagic stroke in east Asians. Higher body mass index is a weak risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular disease in south Asians. PMID:24473060

2013-01-01

140

Cardiovascular deconditioning during weightlessness simulation and the use of Lower Body Negative Pressure as a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cardiovascular function is one of the main disturbed by weightlessness: it is particularly affected by the astronaut's return to Earth, where symptoms linked to the cardiovascular deconditioning syndrom appear in the following forms: (1) orthostatic intolerance with its risk of syncope: (2) higher submaximal oxygen consumption for an equivalent work load. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) is intended to stimulate the venous system of the lower limbs; however, the specific effects of periodical LBNP sessions on the orthostatic intolerance have never been studied. With this objective in mind, 5 volunteers took part in two recent antiorthostatic bedrest experiments for 30 days. In the first experiment 3 subjects were submitted to several sessions of LBNP experiment per day and 2 others were controls; in the second experiment the LBNP group of the 1st one became controls and vice-versa. Two orthostatic investigations were performed: (1) 5 days before the bedrest; (2) at the end of the 30 day bedrest period. The results showed: (1) when the subjects were controls, a high orthostatic intolerance post bedrest with 3 syncopes and one presyncopal state during the first minutes of the tilt test; (2) when the subjects were submitted to LBNP sessions, no orthostatic intolerance.

Güell, Antonio; Braak, Laurent; le Traon, Anne Pavy; Gharib, Claude

141

Normalization of Maximal Cardiovascular Variables for Body Size in Premenarcheal Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous studies have indicated the importance of allometric scaling of VO2max for body size. However, no information is available on adjusting maximal cardiac output (Q\\u000a max) and stroke volume (SVmax) for body dimensions. The allometric exponent b was determined for the equation Y=aX\\u000a \\u000a b\\u000a (where Y is the physiological outcome and X is the anthropometric variable) for VO2max, Q

T. Rowland; D. Goff; L. Martel; L. Ferrone; G. Kline

2000-01-01

142

Whole-body vibration training increases physical fitness measures without alteration of inflammatory markers in older adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated in older adults whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in significant increases of physical fitness measures without alterations in markers of inflammation. Sixteen volunteers completed a WBV programme 3 d.wk(-1) during 9 weeks. The programme consisted of lower and upper-body unloaded static and dynamic exercises. Training improved significantly several tests which evaluate physical fitness, such as 30-s chair stand, arm curl or chair sit and reach test. There was a significant increase in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) between pre- and post-training conditions. Muscle power values, reached at 20, 40 and 60% MVIC, were also significantly greater after training. However, mRNA or protein levels for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-10 did not significantly differ from basal values. Our data confirm the usefulness of WBV training for counteracting the loss of muscle strength associated with sarcopenia in older adults and show that WBV training could be a safe training method which induces no inflammatory effects. PMID:24237186

Cristi, Carlos; Collado, Pilar S; Márquez, Sara; Garatachea, Nuria; Cuevas, María J

2014-01-01

143

Body size adjustments for left ventricular mass by cardiovascular magnetic resonance and their impact on left ventricular hypertrophy classification  

PubMed Central

Methods to index left ventricular (LV) mass, measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), for body size have not been investigated. The purposes of this study were to develop allometric indices for LV mass measured by CMR and compare estimates of the prevalence and predictive value of LV hypertrophy defined by a new allometric height-weight index, LV mass/body surface area (BSA), height indices (a new allometric height index; and previously derived indices from echocardiographic measurements: LV mass/height2, LV mass/height2.7), and non-indexed LV mass. 5,004 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with CMR measurements of LV mass and no clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for a median of 4.1 years. The new indices and limits for hypertrophy (95th percentile) were derived from 822 normal-weight, normotensive, non-diabetic MESA participants. 107 events (coronary heart disease or stroke) were observed. The estimated prevalence of hypertrophy at baseline and hazard ratio for event associated with hypertrophy were 8% and 2.4 with the new allometric height-weight index, 11% and 2.2 with LV mass/BSA, 23–24% and 2.0–2.1 with height indices, and 20% and 1.7 with non-indexed LV mass. A statistically significant difference was detected between the hazard ratios based on the new height-weight index and non-indexed LV mass. The prevalence of hypertrophy is higher for indices that do not account for weight. The predictive value of hypertrophy is significantly better with the new allometric height-weight index than with non-indexed LV mass and may be better than indices without weight. PMID:20107905

Kronmal, Richard; Heckbert, Susan R.; Ni, Hanyu; Hundley, W. Gregory; Lima, Joao A.; Bluemke, David A.

2011-01-01

144

Observational study of regional aortic size referenced to body size: production of a cardiovascular magnetic resonance nomogram  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is regarded as the gold standard for clinical assessment of the aorta, but normal dimensions are usually referenced to echocardiographic and computed tomography data and no large CMR normal reference range exists. As a result we aimed to 1) produce a normal CMR reference range of aortic diameters and 2) investigate the relationship between regional aortic size and body surface area (BSA) in a large group of healthy subjects with no vascular risk factors. Methods 447 subjects (208 male, aged 19–70 years) without identifiable cardiac risk factors (BMI range 15.7–52.6 kg/m2) underwent CMR at 1.5 T to determine aortic diameter at three levels: the ascending aorta (Ao) and proximal descending aorta (PDA) at the level of the pulmonary artery, and the abdominal aorta (DDA), at a level 12 cm distal to the PDA. In addition, 201 of these subjects had aortic root imaging, allowing for measurements at the level of the aortic valve annulus (AV), aortic sinuses and sinotubular junction (STJ). Results Normal diameters (mean ±2 SD) were; AV annulus male(?) 24.4?±?5.4, female (?) 21.0?±?3.6 mm, aortic sinus?32.4?±?7.7, ?27.6?±?5.8 mm, ST-junction ?25.0?±?7.4, ?21.8?±?5.4 mm, Ao ?26.7?±?7.7, ?25.5?±?7.4 mm, PDA ?20.6?±?5.6, +18.9?±?4.0 mm, DDA ?17.6?±?5.1, ?16.4?±?4.0 mm. Aortic root and thoracic aortic diameters increased at all levels measured with BSA. No gender difference was seen in the degree of dilatation with increasing BSA (p?>?0.5 for all analyses). Conclusion Across both genders, increasing body size is characterized by a modest degree of aortic dilatation, even in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24447690

2014-01-01

145

One size fits all? Race, gender and body mass index among U.S. adults.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the extent to which factors presumed to be correlated with body mass index (BMI) vary across four race- and gender-specific groups. Data were drawn from the American Changing Lives Survey to estimate separate multivariate regression models for the total study sample that included African-American males, Caucasian males, African-American females and Caucasian females. The dependant variable of interest was BMI. Independent variables included age, human capital variables, relationship and support measures, health status and behavior measures, and stress and outlook measures. Results from the pooled model indicated that BMI was associated with a number of factors such as employment status, chronic illness, financial strain and religiosity. However, race- and gender-specific regression models revealed that predictors of BMI varied considerably for African-American men, Caucasian men, African-American women and Caucasian women. In other words, these models disentangled important correlations not observed in the pooled model. These findings suggest that addressing racial disparities in body weight-related outcomes requires health practitioners to modify obesity prevention and treatment efforts to incorporate a broader array of factors inherent to specific racial and gender populations. PMID:17987919

Bruce, Marino A.; Sims, Mario; Miller, Stephania; Elliott, Vanessa; Ladipo, Marian

2007-01-01

146

Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

2012-01-01

147

Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health. PMID:22236166

2012-01-01

148

Aerobic fitness determines whole-body fat oxidation rate during exercise in the heat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whole-body fat oxidation in endurance-trained (TR) and untrained (UNTR) subjects exercising at different intensities in the heat. On 3 occasions, 10 TR cyclists and 10 UNTR healthy subjects (peak oxygen uptake = 60 ± 6 vs. 44 ± 3 mL·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.05) exercised at 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake in a hot, dry environment (36 °C; 25% relative humidity). To complete the same amount of work in all 3 trials, exercise duration varied (107 ± 4, 63 ± 1, and 45 ± 0 min for 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake, respectively). Substrate oxidation was calculated using indirect calorimetry. Blood samples were collected at the end of exercise to determine plasma epinephrine ([EPI]plasma) and norepinephrine ([NEPI]plasma) concentrations. The maximal rate of fat oxidation was achieved at 60% peak oxygen uptake for the TR group (0.41 ± 0.01 g·min-1) and at 40% peak oxygen uptake for the UNTR group (0.28 ± 0.01 g·min-1). TR subjects oxidized absolutely (g·min-1) and relatively (% of total energy expenditure) more fat than UNTR subjects at 60% and 80% peak oxygen uptake (p < 0.05). At these exercise intensities, TR subjects also had higher [NEPI]plasma concentrations than UNTR subjects (p < 0.05). In the heat, whole-body peak fat oxidation occurs at higher relative exercise intensities in TR than in UNTR subjects (60% vs. 40% peak oxygen uptake). Moreover, TR subjects oxidize more fat than UNTR subjects when exercising at moderate to high intensities (>60% peak oxygen uptake). PMID:21164544

Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

2010-12-01

149

Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting beach-chair body position for induction of anesthesia.  

PubMed

The sitting beach-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining beach-chair position. Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting beach-chair (n = 15) or with the beach-chair tilted backwards to a reclining beach-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting beach-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous hemodynamic variables were recorded by photoplethysmography and frontal cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) by near infrared spectroscopy. Significant differences were only observed immediately after the induction when patients induced in a reclining beach-chair position had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) (35 ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared to the sitting beach-chair position indicate more stable hemodynamics with the clinical implication that anesthesia should not be induced with the patient in the sitting position. PMID:24904427

Larsen, Søren L; Lyngeraa, Tobias S; Maschmann, Christian P; Van Lieshout, Johannes J; Pott, Frank C

2014-01-01

150

Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting beach-chair body position for induction of anesthesia  

PubMed Central

The sitting beach-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining beach-chair position. Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting beach-chair (n = 15) or with the beach-chair tilted backwards to a reclining beach-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting beach-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous hemodynamic variables were recorded by photoplethysmography and frontal cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) by near infrared spectroscopy. Significant differences were only observed immediately after the induction when patients induced in a reclining beach-chair position had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) (35 ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared to the sitting beach-chair position indicate more stable hemodynamics with the clinical implication that anesthesia should not be induced with the patient in the sitting position. PMID:24904427

Larsen, S?ren L.; Lyngeraa, Tobias S.; Maschmann, Christian P.; Van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

2014-01-01

151

Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1994-01-01

152

A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 – 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 – 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument “Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool” or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Results Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p?fitness and BMI, supporting the use of holistic interventions to address childhood obesity. PMID:24969618

2014-01-01

153

Body mass index before and after breast cancer diagnosis: Associations with all-cause, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Factors related to improving outcomes in breast cancer survivors are of increasing public health significance. We examined post-diagnosis weight change in relation to mortality risk in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 3,993 women aged 20?79 living in New Hampshire, Massachusetts or Wisconsin with invasive, nonmetastatic breast cancers diagnosed in 1988?1999 identified through state registries. Participants completed a structured telephone interview 1?2 years after diagnosis and returned a mailed follow-up questionnaire in 1998?2001 that addressed post-diagnosis weight and other factors. Vital status information was obtained from the National Death Index through December 2005. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for pre-diagnosis weight, age, stage, smoking, physical activity and other important covariates. Results During an average 6.3 years of follow-up from the post-diagnosis questionnaire, we identified 421 total deaths, including 121 deaths from breast cancer and 95 deaths from cardiovascular disease. Increasing post-diagnosis weight gain and weight loss were each associated with greater all-cause mortality. Among women who gained weight after breast cancer diagnosis, each 5 kg gain was associated with a 12% increase in all-cause mortality (p=0.004), a 13% increase in breast cancer-specific mortality (p=0.01), and a 19% increase in cardiovascular disease mortality (p=0.04). Associations with breast cancer mortality were not modified by pre-diagnosis menopausal status, cigarette smoking, or body mass index. Conclusion These findings suggest that efforts to minimize weight gain after a breast cancer diagnosis may improve survival. PMID:19366908

Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Holmes, Michelle D.; Bersch, Andrew J.; Holick, Crystal N.; Hampton, John M.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Newcomb, Polly A.

2009-01-01

154

Fitness, motor competence and body composition as correlates of adolescent neck/shoulder pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent neck/shoulder pain (NSP) is a common and sometimes debilitating problem. Several risk factors for this condition have been investigated, but no studies have previously evaluated associations between fitness, motor competence, body composition and adolescent NSP. Methods 1608 males and females of mean age 14 years answered questions on their history of NSP (4 measures), and were tested for aerobic fitness, upper and lower limb power, trunk endurance, grip strength, shoulder flexibility, motor competence and anthropometric factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to test for associations between NSP and physical variables. Results There were significant gender differences for most physical and pain variables. After multivariate analysis, males had lower odds of NSP if they had reduced back endurance [OR: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46–0.97)], reduced persistent control [0.42 (0.19–0.95], and increased muscle power [0.33 (0.12–0.94)], and higher odds of NSP if they had a higher basketball throw [2.47 (1.22–5.00)] and jump performance [3.47 (1.55–7.74)]. Females had lower odds for NSP if they had a reduced jump performance [0.61(0.41–0.92)], a better basketball throw [0.60(0.40–0.90)], lower shoulder flexibility [0.54 (0.30–0.98)] and a higher aerobic capacity [0.61 (0.40–0.93)], and higher odds for NSP if they had greater abdominal endurance [1.57(1.07–2.31)] and greater bimanual dexterity [1.77(1.18–2.65)]. Females showed a U shaped relationship between NSP and back endurance [low: 2.12 (1.20–3.74); high 2.12 (1.18–3.83)]. Conclusion Adolescent NSP was associated with fitness and motor competence, although the associations varied with gender, and their strength was limited. PMID:18702827

Perry, Mark C; Straker, Leon M; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Smith, Anne J; Hands, Beth

2008-01-01

155

Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

Sander, Allan N.; And Others

1993-01-01

156

Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation  

PubMed Central

The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a “size-advantage” hypothesis – that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition – that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density – as well as local density of just reproductive individuals – was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had – in the following growing season – a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a ‘reproductive-economy-advantage’ – that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring – and hence transmitting genes to future generations – despite intense and persistent (cross-generational) crowding/competition from near neighbors. Selection for the latter is expected to favor relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size and hence – as a tradeoff – relatively small (not large) potential body size. PMID:24772274

Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

2014-01-01

157

Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

2004-01-01

158

Hearing Sensitivity in Older Adults: Associations with cardiovascular risk factors in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors with age-associated hearing loss, in a cohort of older black and white adults. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study Setting The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study; A community-based cohort study of older adults from Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis TN. Participants 2,049 well-functioning adults (mean age: 77.5 years; 37% black) Measurements Pure-tone audiometry and history of clinical CVD were obtained at the 4th annual follow-up visit. Pure-tone averages in decibels reflecting low frequencies (250, 500, and 1000 Hz) middle frequencies (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (2000, 4000, and 8000Hz) were calculated for each ear. CVD risk factors, aortic pulse-wave velocity, and ankle-arm index were obtained at the study baseline. Results In gender-stratified models, after adjustment for age, race, study site and occupational noise exposure, risk factors associated with poorer hearing sensitivity among men included higher triglyceride levels, higher resting heart rate and history of smoking. Among women, poorer hearing sensitivity was associated with higher BMI, higher resting heart rate, faster pulse-wave velocity, and low ankle-arm index. Conclusion Modifiable risk factors for CVD may play a role in the development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:21649629

Helzner, Elizabeth P.; Patel, Ami S.; Pratt, Sheila; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Cauley, Jane A; Talbott, Evelyn; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara B.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ding, Jingzhong; Newman, Anne B.

2012-01-01

159

Patterns of body fat deposition in youth and their relation to left ventricular markers of adverse cardiovascular prognosis.  

PubMed

The patterns of body fat deposition in healthy youth and their relation to future development of cardiovascular disease remain incompletely understood. To further evaluate these patterns, we measured indirect indexes of central and general fat deposition in healthy adolescents (mean age 15.4+/-2.3 years) with family histories of hypertension. We examined the relation between these indexes and echocardiographic markers of adverse prognosis as well as the effect of gender and ethnicity. All 225 subjects (64% black and 48% female) had > or =1 biologic parent and 1 grandparent with hypertension. Skinfold thicknesses, waist-to-hip girth ratio, Quetelet index, Ponderal index, conicity, and Z score weight - Z score height were measured. Left ventricular (LV) mass, indexed LV mass, relative wall thickness (RWT), and midwall fractional shortening (MFS) were determined using echocardiography. In both black and white subjects, the adiposity indexes were significantly correlated with posterior wall thickness, total LV mass, and indexed LV mass (p <0.05 for all). Additionally, in black subjects, central adiposity was inversely related to MFS and directly related to RWT and septal thickness. General adiposity independently predicted indexed and nonindexed LV mass, whereas central adiposity predicted MFS and RWT. Compared with subjects with normal LV geometry, those with abnormal geometry were heavier and fatter based on every index of obesity (p <0.03 for all). Thus, indexes of fat deposition are significantly correlated with LV markers of adverse prognosis in healthy youth. PMID:10482160

Mensah, G A; Treiber, F A; Kapuku, G K; Davis, H; Barnes, V A; Strong, W B

1999-09-01

160

Influence of anesthetic agent, depth of anesthesia and body temperature on cardiovascular functional parameters in the rat.  

PubMed

Sedating animals is sometimes necessary in experimental research. This paper presents and discusses the influence of four of the most common anesthetic agents on cardiovascular parameters in rats. We also studied the influence of body temperature. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane, pentobarbital, ketamine/xylazine or tiletamine/zolazepam (n?=?12 in each group). A pressure-sensing catheter was placed in the right carotid artery for the continuous measurement of arterial pressure, and echocardiography was performed. Indices of cardiac function were significantly higher in the tiletamine/zolazepam rats compared with the other groups. Heart rate was highest but stroke volume lowest with pentobarbital. Left ventricular diastolic dimension was lower in the pentobarbital and tiletamine/zolazepam rats compared with the isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine rats. Intraventricular diastolic pressure was similar in all groups whereas intraventricular systolic pressure, as well as both systolic and diastolic aortic pressures, was significantly higher in the tiletamine/zolazepam rats compared with the other groups. No hemodynamic indices differed significantly among the isoflurane, pentobarbital and ketamine/xylazine rats. Lowering body temperature significantly reduced heart rate and cardiac output but had no apparent effect on hemodynamic parameters. In conclusion, although cardiac functional parameters differed between the different anesthetic agents in ways that could be of relevance to the researcher, they may all have a role in experimental cardiology. Importantly, tiletamine/zolazepam anesthesia resulted in significantly higher indices of cardiac function and elevated blood pressures compared with the other anesthetic agents, a finding that should be kept in mind when interpreting data obtained in rats sedated on this regimen. PMID:23985835

Redfors, Bjorn; Shao, Yangzhen; Omerovic, Elmir

2014-01-01

161

Field House Fitness program  

E-print Network

/Toning or Mind/ Body classes. A 12-punch card is also available if the FitPass doesn't fit your superhero superhero can hone up on their strength, flexibility, coordination, and lung capacity. fitness program #12

van den Berg, Jur

162

Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart…

Schmidt, Sharon

163

Impact of Whole-Body Vibration Training Versus Fitness Training on Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Men: A 1Year Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 1-year whole-body vibration (WBV) training on isometric and explosive muscle strength and muscle mass in community-dwelling men older than 60 years. Methods. Muscle characteristics of the WBV group (n ¼31, 67.3 6 0.7 years) were compared with those of a fitness (FIT) group (n ¼ 30, 67.4 6 0.8 years) and

An Bogaerts; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Walter Coudyzer; Steven Boonen; Sabine M. P. Verschueren

2007-01-01

164

Understanding the Independent and Joint Associations of the Home and Workplace Built Environments on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20–88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000–2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group–level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

Hoehner, Christine M.; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Schootman, Mario

2013-01-01

165

Changes in hearing, cardiovascular functions, haemodynamics, upright body sway, urinary catecholamines and their correlates after prolonged successive exposures to complex environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with changes in temporary threshold shifts of hearing (TTS2), cardiovascular functions (HR, SBP, DBP, PP, RWA), haemodynamic activity (HDI), upright body sway (VUBSA), ratios of urinary catecholamines (10A\\/DA, 10NA\\/DA, A\\/NA, NA\\/A) and correlations between these changes in complex exposure situations. The study was carried out in a special exposure chamber on 60 healthy male students. It was

Olavi Manninen

1988-01-01

166

N E W P E R S P E C T I V E S Body size and fitness in Odonata, stabilising selection  

E-print Network

N E W P E R S P E C T I V E S Body size and fitness in Odonata, stabilising selection and a meta mating success to territorial males and greater fecundity to females. The focus of this paper to measures of lifetime mating success has been demonstrated only for three species of insect, all odonates

Fincke, Ola M.

167

Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity. PMID:21170802

Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

2011-01-01

168

Limited effects of a 2-year school-based physical activity intervention on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in 7-year-old children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an intervention (n = 151) or control school (n = 170). None of the effect sizes of body composition were statistically significant. Children in the intervention group increased their fitness by an average of 0.37 z score units more than the controls (95% CI:-0.27 to 1.01, P = 0.18), representing an improvement of 0.286 W/kg. Boys had higher fitness (mean(diff) = 0.35 z scores, 95% CI: 0.13-0.58, P = 0.001) than girls, independent of study group, fitness z score at baseline and body mass index. Post hoc analysis showed that the intervention school with the highest fitness z score change was significantly different from two of the lowest control schools (mean(diff) = 0.83 z scores, 95% CI: 0.44-1.21, P < 0.0001 and mean(diff) = 0.70 z scores, 95% CI: 0.29-1.10, P = 0.01), but it was also significantly different from the lowest intervention school (mean(diff) = 0.59 z scores, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99, P = 0.05). The results of this intervention are inconclusive as regards to the effects on fitness, but the intervention did not have any statistically significant effect on body composition. PMID:22456632

Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

2012-06-01

169

Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age?=?14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

2014-01-01

170

Effect of a 6-month school-based physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness in lean and obese schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated the impact of school-based physical activity interventions on anthropometric characteristics\\u000a concomitantly with aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a 6-month\\u000a physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness among primary schoolchildren. Four hundred fifty-seven\\u000a children aged 6 to 10 years were randomly assigned to the intervention

David Thivel; Laurie Isacco; Nordine Lazaar; Julien Aucouturier; Sébastien Ratel; Eric Doré; Martine Meyer; Pascale Duché

171

The effects of 18 months of intermittent vs continuous exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of 18 months of continuous vs intermittent exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females.DESIGN: Randomized, prospective, long-term cohort study. Subjects performed continuous exercise at 60–75% of maximum aerobic capacity, 3 days per week, 30 min per session, or exercised intermittently using brisk walking for two,

JE Donnelly; DJ Jacobsen; K Snyder Heelan; R Seip; S Smith; E Donnelly

2000-01-01

172

Throughout the years, our fashions have changed as we've admired different body shapes to fit different styles. The Victorian era called for tiny waists and big busts with the corset look, the 1920's  

E-print Network

Throughout the years, our fashions have changed as we've admired different body shapes to fit and athleticism, but it's now gaining a larger following in both the fitness and fashion worlds. It's kind. Strong is the new skinny. Take pride in your body and work hard to make it athletic. There is a sweet

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

173

Anthropometric Correlates of Total Body Fat, Abdominal Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in a Biracial Sample of Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between anthropometric measurements and total body fat, abdominal adipose tissue, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large biracial sample. Patients and Methods This study is limited to cross-sectional analyses of data from participants attending a baseline visit between January 26, 1996, and February 1, 2011. The sample included 2037 individuals aged 18 to 69 years: 488 African American women (24%), 686 white women (34%), 196 African American men (9%), and 667 white men (33%). Anthropometry included weight; hip circumference; waist circumference; waist-hip, waist-height, and weight-height ratios; body adiposity index; and body mass index. Body fat and percentage of fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by computed tomography. Bivariate correlations, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used, and analyses were stratified by sex and race. Results In each sex-by-race group, all anthropometric measures were highly correlated with percentage of fat, fat mass, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and moderately correlated with visceral adipose tissue, with the exception of the waist-hip ratio. The odds of having an elevated cardiometabolic risk were increased more than 2-fold per SD increase for most anthropometric variables, and the areas under the curve for each anthropometric measure were significantly greater than 0.5. Conclusion Several common anthropometric measures were moderately to highly correlated with total body fat, abdominal fat, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of women and men. This comprehensive analysis provides evidence of the linkage between simple anthropometric measurements and the purported pathways between adiposity and health. PMID:22560524

Barreira, Tiago V.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Smith, Steven R.; Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

2012-01-01

174

One Size Does Not Fit All, Or How I Learned to Stop Dieting and Love the Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oppressiveness of current ideals concerning female body size and shape in Euro-American culture has been well documented. Prevalent ideals of thinness are physiologically difficult for many women to achieve, and available techniques for reducing are greater health risks than fatness. Yet the number of women who attempt to reduce their bodies continues to increase. This essay analyzes America's obsession

Elizabeth Arveda Kissling

1991-01-01

175

Chronic stress and insulin resistance-related indices of cardiovascular disease risk, part 2: a potential role for mind-body therapies.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world, and its prevalence is rapidly increasing among developing nations. The increasing global prevalence of CVD reflects in part the concurrent rise in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and other atherogenic changes associated with insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). Evidence suggests that chronic stress and related psychosocial factors also play an important role in the development and progression of IRS-related states and ultimately, in the pathogenesis of CVD. Designed to address these interrelated psychological and physiological components of health, yoga and other traditional mind-body therapies may offer particular promise in both the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the potential benefits of specific mind-body modalities for CVD risk reduction and discuss possible mechanisms underlying these observed effects. PMID:17900042

Innes, Kim E; Vincent, Heather K; Taylor, Ann Gill

2007-01-01

176

Designing Fitness Trails for Seniors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness trails for senior adults are being developed in retirement communities and community parks nationwide to enhance total fitness through activities that build cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, strength, and balance. Recreation planners must create fitness trails that are interesting, enjoyable, safe, and appropriate for the senior…

Hall, Kenneth B.

1991-01-01

177

Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in…

Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

2009-01-01

178

Influence of combined aerobic and resistance training on metabolic control, cardiovascular fitness and quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of combined exercise training on metabolic control, physical fitness and quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.Design: A double-blind randomized controlled trial with patients receiving combined aerobic and strength or no training.Setting: University Hospital Ghent (Belgium).Subjects: Sixteen children with type 1 diabetes were randomized into a control group (n = 8) and an

Roseline Dhooge; Tinneke Hellinckx; Christophe Van Laethem; Sanne Stegen; Jean De Schepper; Sara Van Aken; Daniel Dewolf; Patrick Calders

2011-01-01

179

Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity  

PubMed Central

Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fabio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2011-01-01

180

INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 44:498509 (2004) Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms: Fitting Pieces of a  

E-print Network

of the paradoxical effects of temperature on growth rate and size at maturity: lower temperatures cause ectotherms498 INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 44:498­509 (2004) Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms smaller cells at higher temperatures, but the generality of this theory is poorly supported. Adaptive

Steury, Todd D.

181

Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index of 9–11-year-old English children: a serial cross-sectional study from 1998 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the changes over time in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) of children.Design:Serial cross-sectional, population-based study.Setting:Primary schools in Liverpool, UK.Participants:A total of 15 621 children (50% boys), representing 74% of eligible 9–11-year olds in the annual school cohorts between 1998\\/9 and 2003\\/4, who took part in a 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (20mMST).Main outcome measures:Weight, height, BMI

G Stratton; D Canoy; L M Boddy; S R Taylor; A F Hackett; I E Buchan

2007-01-01

182

Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26–40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. Results PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P?body fat percentage (P?=?0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P?=?0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P?=?0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. Conclusions PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed. PMID:24742265

2014-01-01

183

Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring’s weight and cardiovascular performance at ?7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten’s medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 ± 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (p<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (p<0.05) and diet (p<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (p=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramirez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Rocio Melissa

2013-01-01

184

Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring's weight and cardiovascular performance at ~7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high-fructose (HF) corn syrup or maintenance chow (5% fat; low-fat, no-fructose (LF)). Dams were subdivided into no ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at killing (55±0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by killing. Males had greater MAP than females (P=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (P<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (P<0.05) and diet (P<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (P=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

Schenewerk, Angela L; Ramírez, Francisco Í; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

2014-01-01

185

Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MusS) has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of MusS in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. MusS has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension (HTN) and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of HTN, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training (RT) are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival. PMID:22885613

Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.; Espana-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2012-01-01

186

Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.  

PubMed

Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

2014-05-01

187

Fit females and fat polygynous males: seasonal body mass changes in the grey-headed flying fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

When females and males differ in their timing of maximum reproductive effort, this can result in sex-specific seasonal cycles\\u000a in body mass. Such cycles are undoubtedly under strong selection, particularly in bats, where they affect flying ability.\\u000a Flying foxes (Old World fruit bats, Pteropus spp.) are the largest mammals that can sustain powered flight and therefore face critical trade-offs in

Justin A. Welbergen

2011-01-01

188

Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

1992-01-01

189

The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-?. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.

Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn

2014-01-01

190

Reevaluation of contribution of physical fitness, body weight, and different sports activity to resting blood pressure in young men.  

PubMed

The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the relationship between resting blood pressure and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and to elucidate the association of different types of sports activity on the resting blood pressure in Japanese young men with a wide range of VO2max. The subjects (n = 46) consisted of untrained subjects (n = 24), judo athletes (n = 11), and triathletes (n = 11) aged 21 to 35 years. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured in the sitting position after 5 min of resting, and VO2max was directly measured by the Douglas bag method. SBP, DBP, and mean blood pressure (MBP) were negatively correlated with VO2max and positively correlated with body weight. A stepwise selective multiple regression analysis for SBP resulted in two significantly correlating variables: VO2max and body weight. For DBP and MBP, the analysis resulted in two explaining variables: VO2max and body weight. Two independent variables explained 37% of the variation of the SBP, 43% of that of DBP, and 54% of that of MBP. These results indicate that variance in resting blood pressure is partly accounted for by the variance in endurance capacity (i.e., VO2max). However, SBP, DBP, and MBP were significantly higher in judo athletes compared with untrained men (P less than 0.05) when it was compared with the same range of VO2max. These results indicate that resting blood pressure is probably influenced with VO2max, while the relationship is influenced by the type and intensity of training and other factors. PMID:3246469

Kumagai, S; Nishizumi, M; Kondo, Y

1988-10-01

191

Cross-sectional study of the association of body composition and physical fitness with bone status in children and adolescents from 11 to 16 years old  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to verify the association between body composition and physical fitness with bone status in children and adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 healthy students (148 boys, 152 girls). Weight, height, fat and fat-free mass, and percentage of body fat (%BF) were evaluated, as were physical fitness (abdominal exercise, flexibility, and horizontal jump tests) and maximum oxygen consumption. Bone parameters (amplitude-dependent speed of sound; AD-SoS) and the Ultrasound Bone Profile Index (UBPI) were evaluated using DBM Sonic BP ultrasonography. Results In the study group, girls had higher bone parameter values than boys. A univariate analysis assessed in a stepwise multiple regression model was conducted. It showed that for boys, the %BF and height were significant independent variables for AD-SoS and UBPI, but the horizontal jump test only for AD-SoS (adjusted r2?=?0.274; p?fitness related to the neuromotor system can influence the amount of bone present. PMID:23937889

2013-01-01

192

Interactive Cardiovascular System Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The cardiovascular portion of the InnerBody website is a road map to the human cardiovascular system. It displays all of the main veins and arteries of the human body allowing the user to click on various parts of body and dozens of links to the many different systems appear. Users can hover over the links to discover what each part is named, or click on the link to be brought to a thorough definition and description of the selected system. Users may also �zoom in� on certain parts to view more detail. In addition to the interactive �map,� InnerBody also has images and descriptions about common issues that arise within the cardiovascular system.

2006-12-22

193

Body mass index and risk of perioperative cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in 34,744 Danish patients undergoing hip or knee replacement  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis in the lower limb, yet the cardiovascular risks associated with obesity in hip or knee replacement surgery are unknown. We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE: ischemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) or the risk of all-cause mortality in a nationwide Danish cohort of patients who underwent primary hip or knee replacement surgery. Methods Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 34,744 patients aged ? 20 years who underwent elective primary hip or knee replacement surgery between 2005 and 2011. We used multivariable Cox regression models to calculate the 30-day risks of MACE and mortality associated with 5 BMI groups (underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24 kg/m2), overweight (25–29 kg/m2), obese 1 (30–34 kg/m2), and obese 2 (? 35 kg/m2)). Results In total, 232 patients (0.7%) had a MACE and 111 (0.3%) died. Compared with overweight, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.4–3.3), 1.3 (0.95–1.8), 1.6 (1.1–2.2), and 1.0 (0.6–1.9) for underweight, normal weight, obese 1, and obese 2 regarding MACE. Regarding mortality, the corresponding HRs were 7.0 (2.8–15), 2.0 (1.2–3.2), 1.5 (0.9–2.7), and 1.9 (0.9–4.2). Cubic splines suggested a significant U-shaped relationship between BMI and risks with nadir around 27–28. Interpretation In an unselected cohort of patients undergoing elective primary hip or knee replacement surgery, U-shaped risks of perioperative MACE and mortality were found in relation to BMI. Patients within the extreme ranges of BMI may warrant further attention. PMID:24954493

Gislason, Gunnar H; K?ber, Lars; Jensen, Per F?ge; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Andersson, Charlotte

2014-01-01

194

Documentation of program COORDC to generate and coordinate system for 3D corners with or without fillet using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program COORDC generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for corner geometry with or without corner fillets. It is assumed that at any given xi, x remains constant; consequently the only variation is in y and z. It is also assumed that for all xi's in the physical plane the coordinate system in y-z plane is similar. This enables solution of coordinate system for one particular xi = 1 (x for xi = 1 is arbitrarily chosen to be 0.0) and the solution for all other xi plane can be easily specified once the coordinates in the physical plane on the line 1 or = to xi or = to IMAX, eta = 1, zeta = 1 are specified.

Kumar, D.

1980-01-01

195

Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women  

PubMed Central

Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat) were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON) a no diet + exercise control (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP]) in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass) and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat) changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength) occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise groups. Conclusions Overall and over the entire test period, all diet groups which restricted their caloric intake and exercised experienced similar responses to each other. Regular exercise and modest caloric restriction successfully promoted anthropometric and body composition improvements along with various markers of muscular fitness. Significant increases in relative energy expenditure and reductions in circulating leptin were found in response to all exercise and diet groups. Macronutrient distribution may impact circulating levels of insulin and overall ability to improve strength levels in obese women who follow regular exercise. PMID:21092228

2010-01-01

196

Screening Fit Summary of Fit  

E-print Network

Screening Fit price Summary of Fit RSquare RSquare Adj Root Mean Square Error Mean of Response condition price 2 #12;Response: price Summary of Fit RSquare RSquare Adj Root Mean Square Error Mean Linear Fit Linear Fit price = 16.0081 + 1.9001 size Summary of Fit RSquare RSquare Adj Root Mean Square

Vardeman, Stephen B.

197

Men's Fitness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It seems that people in the United States are going through a new and renewed commitment to getting back in shape, and there are a variety of helpful online resources to make this a viable possibility for millions of Americans. This particular site (sponsored by a number of fitness-related publications) brings together information on a host of timely topics, including weight loss, healthy eating, building muscle mass, and seasonal training suggestions. The homepage contains links on such topics as diminishing cellulite and eating organic, and also contains a number of online calculators. These calculators can help individuals determine their body mass index, their weight loss potential, and their ideal weight. The site also has an area where visitors can sign up to receive any number of free electronic newsletters from some of the magazines that sponsor the site.

198

Efficacy of a self-directed behavioral health change program: Weight, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood pressure, health risk, and psychosocial mediating variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral health program designed to promote self-initiated change in overweight healthy middle-aged adults (M=49 years). Three treatment groupss (total n=25) differing in type of social support provided (i.e., group plus professional versus group plus peer versus group only) received 13 treatment sessions and 6 maintenance sessions scheduled over a full year. A

P. Andrew Clifford; Siang-Yang Tan; Richard L. Gorsuch

1991-01-01

199

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001) and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001) than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents. PMID:21691462

O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

200

Changes in hearing, cardiovascular functions, haemodynamics, upright body sway, urinary catecholamines and their correlates after prolonged successive exposures to complex environmental conditions.  

PubMed

This study deals with changes in temporary threshold shifts of hearing (TTS2), cardiovascular functions (HR, SBP, DBP, PP, RWA), haemodynamic activity (HDI), upright body sway (VUBSA), ratios of urinary catecholamines (10A/DA, 10NA/DA, A/NA, NA/A) and correlations between these changes in complex exposure situations. The study was carried out in a special exposure chamber on 60 healthy male students. It was based on a factorial experimental design with a total of 12 exposure combinations. Each individual experiment took 6 h with a pause of 1 h at noon. There were 12 sequential exposure periods lasting 16 min each. A pause of 4 min followed each exposure period. The subjects were exposed to noise and whole body vibration at two different dry bulb temperatures. Noise classes were: (1) no noise, and (2) stable broad-band noise of 90 dBA. Vibration classes were: (1) no vibration, (2) a sinusoidal 5 Hz vibration, and (3) a stochastic vibration with a frequency range of 2.8 to 11.2 Hz along the Z-axis and with an acceleration of 2.12 m/s2. Temperature classes were: (1) 20 degrees C and (2) 35 degrees C. Changes in body functions were registered during the pauses. Urine samples were gathered for the morning and afternoon sessions and for the preceding and the following night of the test. The changes were dependent on the combinations of noise, vibration and temperature to which the subjects were exposed. The TTS2 values at 4 kHz were associated with the HDI-values when subjects were exposed simultaneously to noise and stochastic vibration at 35 degrees C. The TTS2 values at 6 kHz were associated most strongly with the HDI values after exposure to a combination of noise, stochastic or sinusoidal vibration and a temperature of 20 degrees C. The TTS2 values at 4 and 6 kHz correlated positively with the NA/A ratio when subjects were exposed to noise at 35 degrees C. The association between TTS2 values and the 10A/NA ratio and especially the A/NA ratio was very strong when subjects had been simultaneously exposed to noise and sinusoidal or stochastic vibration at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, the highest positive correlation coefficients were found between TTS2 values at 4 kHz and VUBSA values in the X-direction when subjects had been exposed to noise or simultaneously to noise and sinusoidal vibration at 20 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3372032

Manninen, O

1988-01-01

201

Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactive adults have higher incidence of cardiovascular and total mortality. Unfit subjects tend also to have higher\\u000a mortality rates. The metabolic syndrome increases with age and tends to increase cardiovascular mortality. Higher levels of\\u000a physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children, adolescents, and adults improve metabolic syndrome features.\\u000a Current physical activity guidelines for children, adolescents and adults lack evidence-based

Luís Bettencourt Sardinha

202

Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load.  

PubMed

This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees and 30 degrees C. The study was carried out as a type 2-3-3 factorial experiment, the number of the exposure combinations thus being 18. To find out the effects of competition-type psychic stress, some of the subjects were placed in a competitive group and some in a non-competitive group. The members of the competitive group were given financial encouragement and information on their progress during the test, whereas those in the non-competitive group worked at the rate they considered best without any monetary rewards or interim information. The noise classes were: no noise, a stable broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise of 90 dB not related to competition, and a stable broadband A-weighted noise of 90 dB related to competition about the fastest reaction time. The vibration classes were: no vibration, sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) at a frequency of 5 Hz, and stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration (Z-axis). The acceleration (rms) of both vibrations was 2.12 m/s2. One experiment consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min with an interval of 4 min, and a 15-min recovery period. The variance analysis model best explained the variation in TTS2 values at 4 kHz and second best the variation in TTS2 values at 6 kHz; it explained the variation in HR values third best, the variation in SBP values fourth best and the variation in PP values fifth best. On the other hand, the model explained least well the variation in DBP and RWA values. In general, the explanatory power of the model increased together with the number of exposures. The psychic stress caused by competition accelerated the growth of the TTS2 values, HR values and SBP values, when the subjects were simultaneously exposed to noise or to a combination of noise and vibration. An interesting finding for the continuation of the research project was that sinusoidal and stochastic vibration affected the cardiovascular changes, temporary hearing threshold and reaction times in different ways. PMID:4066056

Manninen, O

1985-01-01

203

Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk  

E-print Network

to assess the association between physical activity levels and relative weight, weight gain and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five population-based samples at different stages of economic development. Twenty-five hundred young adults, ages 25...

Luke, Amy; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Schoeller, Dale A; Dugas, Lara R; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Shoham, David; Cooper, Richard S; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf; Steyn, Nelia

2011-12-14

204

Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Diabetes Prevention Program within African-American Churches: The Fit Body and Soul Study  

PubMed Central

Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster- randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12-weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination. PMID:23354313

Williams, Lovoria B.; Sattin, Richard W.; Dias, James; Garvin, Jane T.; Marion, Lucy; Joshua, Thomas; Kriska, Andrea; Kramer, M. Kaye; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Freeman, Arin; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

2013-01-01

205

Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles.

Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

2014-01-01

206

Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC-AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC-AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC-AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

2014-01-01

207

Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

1996-01-01

208

Tea and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A

2011-08-01

209

The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. ?-Hydroxy-?-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g/day) supplementation on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic/catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators in elite, national team level adolescent volleyball players (13.5-18 years, 14 males, 14 females, Tanner stage 4-5) during the first 7 weeks of the training season. HMB led to a significant greater increase in FFM by skinfold thickness (56.4 ± 10.2 to 56.3 ± 8.6 vs. 59.3 ± 11.3 to 61.6 ± 11.3 kg in the control and HMB group, respectively, p < 0.001). HMB led to a significant greater increase in both dominant and non-dominant knee flexion isokinetic force/FFM, measured at fast (180°/sec) and slow (60°/sec) angle speeds, but had no significant effect on knee extension and elbow flexion and extension. HMB led to a significant greater increase in peak and mean anaerobic power determined by the Wingate anaerobic test (peak power: 15.5 ± 1.6 to 16.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.4 ± 1.6 to 17.2 ± 1.2 watts/FFM, mean power: 10.6 ± 0.9 to 10.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.7 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 1.0 watts/FFM in control and HMB group, respectively, p < 0.01), with no effect on fatigue index. HMB had no significant effect on aerobic fitness or on anabolic (growth hormone, IGF-I, testosterone), catabolic (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist). HMB supplementation was associated with greater increases in muscle mass, muscle strength and anaerobic properties with no effect on aerobic capacity suggesting some advantage for its use in elite adolescent volleyball players during the initial phases of the training season. These effects were not accompanied by hormonal and inflammatory mediator changes. PMID:21327797

Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Pilz-Burstein, Ruty; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Cooper, Dan M; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

2011-09-01

210

Ames Fitness Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

Pratt, Randy

1993-01-01

211

Size, temperature, and fitness: three rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: Associations of body size and of body temperature with fitness have complex relationships for ectotherms, but three general patterns are known. Bigger is better: Larger body size is frequently associated with greater fitness within populations. Hotter is smaller: Smaller adult body sizes typically result from development at higher temperatures. Hotter is better: Greater maximal performance at the optimal temperature

Joel G. Kingsolver; Raymond B. Huey

2008-01-01

212

Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on the rate of adaptation of the human cardiovascular system to conditions of spaceflight, with particular attention given to data obtained during spaceflight in the U.S. Space Shuttle Program. It is pointed out that many of the cardiovascular changes that occurred during spaceflights that lasted from 2 to 11 days can be traced directly to changes in the body fluid volume. The beneficial effects of a fluid loading countermeasure (oral rehydration) and of the supine body position on the heart rate during the spaceflight are demonstrated. It is noted that, after hours or a few days of spaceflight, a state of adaptation is reached, in which the subject is well adapted and appropriately hydrated for the weightless environment. However, the return to the normal gravity of the earth leaves the individual especially sensitive to orthostatic stress.

Charles, John B.; Lathers, Claire M.

1991-01-01

213

Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio: which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 82,864 participants from nine cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined both the relative magnitude of association and the discriminative capability of multiple indicators of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. We conducted an individual-participant meta-analysis of 9 cohort studies of men and women drawn from the British general population resulted in sample of 82,864 individuals. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured directly. There were 6,641 deaths (1,998 CVD) during a mean of 8.1 years of follow-up. After adjustment, a one SD higher in WHR and WC was related to a higher risk of CVD mortality (HR (95% CI)): 1.15 (1.05-1.25) and 1.15 (1.04-1.27), respectively. The risk of CVD also increased linearly across quintiles of both these abdominal obesity markers with a 66% increased risk in the highest quintile of WHR. In age- and sex-adjusted models only, BMI was related to CVD mortality but not in any other analyses. No major differences were revealed in the discrimination capabilities of models with BMI, WC or WHR for cardiovascular or total mortality outcomes. In conclusion, measures of abdominal adiposity, but not BMI, were related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. No difference was observed in discrimination capacities between adiposity markers. PMID:21521449

Czernichow, Sebastien; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David

2014-01-01

214

The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

1992-01-01

215

Cardiovascular Genomics  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article provides an update on cardiovascular genomics using three clinically relevant exemplars, including myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Organizational Construct Recent advances in cardiovascular genomic research, testing, and clinical implications are presented. Methods Genomic nurse experts reviewed and summarized recent salient literature to provide updates on three selected cardiovascular genomic conditions. Findings Research is ongoing to discover comprehensive genetic markers contributing to many common forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including MI and stroke. However, genomic technologies are increasingly being used clinically, particularly in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who are at risk for SCD. Conclusions Currently, there are no clinically recommended genetic tests for many common forms of CVD even though direct-to-consumer genetic tests are being marketed to healthcare providers and the general public. On the other hand, genetic testing for patients with certain single gene conditions, including channelopathies (e.g., LQTS) and cardiomyopathies (e.g., HCM), is recommended clinically. Clinical Relevance Nurses play a pivotal role in cardiogenetics and are actively engaged in direct clinical care of patients and families with a wide variety of heritable conditions. It is important for nurses to understand current development of cardiovascular genomics and be prepared to translate the new genomic knowledge into practice. PMID:23368089

Wung, Shu-Fen; Hickey, Kathleen T.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Gallek, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

216

Body Mass Index as a Measure of Adiposity in Children and Adolescents: Relationship to Adiposity by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and to Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass index is widely used as a measure of adiposity in adults, but its use in children and adolescents is controversial. We assessed body mass index as a measure of adiposity in children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 20 yr examined as part of the NIH survey of health in the Pima Indian population. Body mass

ROBERT S. LINDSAY; ROBERT L. HANSON; JANINE ROUMAIN; ERIC RAVUSSIN; WILLIAM C. KNOWLER; P. ANTONIO TATARANNI

217

Systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure in the elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study and the Health, Ageing and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe exact form of the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart failure (HF) risk in the elderly remains incompletely defined, especially in individuals not receiving antihypertensive drugs.ObjectiveTo examine the association between SBP and HF risk in the elderly.DesignCompeting-risks proportional hazards modelling of incident HF risk, using 10-year follow-up data from two NIH-sponsored cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study

Javed Butler; Andreas P Kalogeropoulos; Vasiliki V Georgiopoulou; Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; Samer S Najjar; Kim C Sutton-Tyrrell; Tamara B Harris; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Donald M Lloyd-Jones; Anne B Newman; Bruce M Psaty

2011-01-01

218

Cardiovascular disease risk following a 758 km pilgrimage.  

PubMed

Millions of people participate in pilgrimages around the world such as the Camino de Santiago. However, few studies have examined the effects of this type of activity on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors: c-reactive protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels following a 758 km, 30-day pilgrimage. 11 healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 18-56 participated in pre and post pilgrimage blood pressure and blood tests, as well as pre, during, and post pilgrimage weight, skin-fold, and aerobic fitness testing. Heart rate monitors and pedometers provided maximum, average, and minimum heart rates as well as distances covered during the exercise. The mean daily walking distance was 25 km at an average intensity of 55.96% (±1.93%) of maximum heart rate. Statistically significant changes were seen in body weight (79.3 kg±3.4 pre vs. 76.4±2.98 post, p<0.05), body fat percentage (24.48%±2.31% pre vs. 23.01%±2.12 post, p<0.05), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (119±3.82/75±2.73 pre vs. 110±5.07/69±3.10 post, p<0.05), as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. These data suggest that some cardiovascular disease risk factors can be improved in healthy subjects participating in a low intensity, long duration, high frequency activity such as a walking pilgrimage. PMID:23382008

Harris, M B; Wolf, M R

2013-08-01

219

The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

Hooker, John C.

1991-01-01

220

Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention reduces the estimated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Current guidelines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle. However, successful lifestyle intervention is proving to be a challenge for healthcare professionals. Objectives Evaluation of the effect of lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors, on reaching treatment targets and on the estimated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods The effect of a six-month multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme was assessed in 186 patients with and without a history of CVD. Results Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention reduced the estimated ten-year risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without a history of CVD, the absolute risk reduction was higher in patients with a history of CVD. In both groups blood pressure and body weight decreased, and the maximal work rate and maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly. Blood levels of total cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL ratio decreased significantly in patients with a history of CVD. In addition, target levels for blood pressure and physical fitness were more frequently reached in both patient groups. Conclusion Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without evidence of cardiovascular disease. Follow-up is needed to see how well these effects can be maintained.

Sprangers, R.L.H.; Stam, F.; Smid, H.E.C.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hellemans, I.M.

2004-01-01

221

Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous M?ori and non-M?ori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

2014-01-28

222

Cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac societies recommend the intake of 1 g\\/day of the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment after a myocardial infarction, prevention of sudden death, and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. These recommendations are based on a body of scientific evidence that encompasses literally thousands of publications. Of four large scale

Clemens von Schacky; William S. Harris

2007-01-01

223

Physical characteristics related to bra fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper

Chin-Man Chen; Karen LaBat; Elizabeth Bye

2010-01-01

224

Cardiovascular Proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional cardiovascular proteomics includes the comparative large-scale determination of protein profiles and the identification\\u000a of individual proteins of myocardial tissue from different species including humans. The goal of these studies consisted,\\u000a and still consists, in the establishment of comprehensive proteome databases. By comparison with protein profiles from diseased\\u000a tissues such databases will enable to an increasing degree the fast identification

Rainer Klocke; Sergiu Scobioala; Sigrid Nikol

225

Cardiovascular System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nuclear medicine provides important information in the diagnosis and management of several cardiovascular disorders. It provides\\u000a a noninvasive means for evaluation of cardiac function. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion is a commonly performed\\u000a nuclear medicine examination to determine the adequacy of blood flow to the myocardium, especially in conjunction with exercise\\u000a or pharmacologic stress for the detection and evaluation of

Abdelhamid H. Elgazzar

226

[Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical practice takes into account information based on population studies and benefits observed in large populations or cohorts. However, individual patients present great differences in both toxicity and clinical efficacy that can be explained by variations in adherence, unknown drug to drug interactions and genetic variability. The latter seems to explain from 20% up to 95% of patient to patient variability. Treating patients with cardiovascular disorders faces the clinician with the challenge to include genomic analysis into daily practice. There are several examples within cardiovascular disease of treatments that can vary in toxicity or clinical usefulness based on genetic changes. One of the main factors affecting the efficacy of Clopidogrel is the phenotype associated with polymorphisms in the gene CYP 2C9. Furthermore, regarding oral anticoagulants, changes in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play an important role in changing the clinical response to anticoagulation. When analyzing statin treatment, one of their main toxicities (myopathy) can be predicted by the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. The potential for prediction of toxicity and clinical efficacy from the use of genetic analysis warrants further studies aiming towards its inclusion in daily clinical practice. PMID:24636047

Scibona, Paula; Angriman, Federico; Simonovich, Ventura; Heller, Martina M; Belloso, Waldo H

2014-01-01

227

A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of exercise is worth investigating further for adherence and efficacy.This was the first randomized, placebo-exercise controlled trial to be conducted, examining the effects of martial arts training alone on body composition in sedentary overweight/obese adolescents. Larger, longer-term trials are required to confirm our findings. PMID:24150562

Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

2009-01-01

228

A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk-1 for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key points Participation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group. All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of exercise is worth investigating further for adherence and efficacy. This was the first randomized, placebo-exercise controlled trial to be conducted, examining the effects of martial arts training alone on body composition in sedentary overweight/obese adolescents. Larger, longer-term trials are required to confirm our findings. PMID:24150562

Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

2009-01-01

229

Cardiovascular response to static apneas  

Microsoft Academic Search

While holding one's breath the human body experiences complex but meaningful changes of different cardiovascular parameters. During the so-called static apnea compensatory mechanisms of mechanical and neuronal nature are involved. Two types of apnea have been investigated and compared while blood pressure, vascular constriction, and heart rate have been estimated in parallel. One type of voluntary apnea API began after

Florian Thurk; Stefan Traxler; Eugenijus Kaniusas

2011-01-01

230

The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. ?-Hydroxy-?-Methylbutyric acid\\u000a (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults.\\u000a In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g\\/day) supplementation\\u000a on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic\\/catabolic hormones and inflammatory

Shawn Portal; Zvi Zadik; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Ruty Pilz-Burstein; Dana Adler-Portal; Yoav Meckel; Dan M. Cooper; Alon Eliakim; Dan Nemet

231

Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

2013-03-01

232

Boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for solution of partial differential equations on fields containing any number of arbitrary two-dimensional bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multi-connected two-dimensional region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. No restrictions are placed on the shape of the boundaries, which may even be time-dependent, and the approach is not restricted in principle to two dimensions. With this procedure the numerical solution of a partial differential system may be done on a fixed rectangular field with a square mesh with no interpolation required regardless of the shape of the physical boundaries, regardless of the spacing of the curvilinear coordinate lines in the physical field, and regardless of the movement of the coordinate system in the physical plane. A number of examples of coordinate systems and application thereof to the solution of partial differential equations are given. The FORTRAN computer program and instructions for use are included.

Thompson, J. F.; Thames, F. C.; Mastin, C. W.

1977-01-01

233

The effect of accumulative physical activity on the fitness and health status of rural school children .  

E-print Network

??Numerous studies focusing on cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, elevated serum lipids, inactivity and lack of physical fitness prevalent… (more)

Wildschutt, Phillip Jacobus

2005-01-01

234

Analysis of cardiovascular regulation.  

PubMed

Adequate characterization of hemodynamic and autonomic responses to physical and mental stress can elucidate underlying mechanisms of cardiovascular disease or anxiety disorders. We developed a physiological signal processing system for analysis of continuously recorded ECG, arterial blood pressure (BP), and respiratory signals using the programming language Matlab. Data collection devices are a 16-channel digital, physiological recorder (Vitaport), a finger arterial pressure transducer (Finapres), and a respiratory inductance plethysmograph (Respitrace). Besides the conventional analysis of the physiological channels, power spectral density and transfer functions of respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure variability are used to characterize respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), 0.10-Hz BP oscillatory activity (Mayer-waves), and baroreflex sensitivity. The arterial pressure transducer waveforms permit noninvasive estimation of stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. Time trends in spectral composition of indices are assessed using complex demodulation. Transient dynamic changes of cardiovascular parameters at the onset of stress and recovery periods are quantified using a regression breakpoint model that optimizes piecewise linear curve fitting. Approximate entropy (ApEn) is computed to quantify the degree of chaos in heartbeat dynamics. Using our signal processing system we found distinct response patterns in subgroups of patients with coronary artery disease or anxiety disorders, which were related to specific pharmacological and behavioral factors. PMID:11143335

Wilhelm, F H; Grossman, P; Roth, W T

1999-01-01

235

Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

Tucker, Larry A.

1990-01-01

236

Is weight loss the optimal target for obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk reduction?  

PubMed Central

In the present review, it is argued that while weight loss is associated with substantial reduction in obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk and remains a desired outcome of relevant treatment strategies, increasing physical activity is associated with marked reduction in waist circumference, visceral fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, concurrent with an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness despite minimal or no change in body weight. Failure to recognize the benefits of exercise independent of weight loss masks opportunities to counsel and educate patients whose sole criteria for gauging obesity reduction success is the bathroom scale. PMID:18787733

Ross, Robert; Janiszewski, Peter M

2008-01-01

237

Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

2014-09-01

238

Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

2014-08-01

239

[Staying fit after fifty].  

PubMed

It is common knowledge that when women reach the menopause, they put on weight and change body shape. The menopause is particularly feared as a sign of aging. The deficiency in estrogen at the menopause is responsible for the change from a gynoid fat pattern to an android one (i.e. fat accumulates on the upper portion of the abdomen instead of on the hips). In addition, women are no longer protected against CardioVascular Diseases (CVD), and will rapidly share the same risks as men. The menopause is marked by an increase in the prevalence of various CVD risk factors: elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, Diabetes, etc. This phenomenon may be explained by an increase in the occurrence of the polymetabolic (PM) syndrome at this time of life. In the IDF ((International Diabetics Federation) 2005 definition, waist circumference becomes the main criterion of PM syndrome. Keeping a slim waist can no longer be considered a woman's vain obsession but a justified health concern, since the waist to height ratio is a better predictor of CVD than BMI (Body Mass Index). A diet and healthcare program is now available which, if followed from the age of 35, can help women live 'in good shape' and for longer. PMID:16996770

Berdah, J

2006-10-01

240

Low Body Mass Index but Not Obesity Is Associated With In-Hospital Adverse Events and Mortality Among Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Recipients: Insights From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are placed in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death, but the procedure may cause adverse events. Patient body habitus may be an important factor responsible for ICD implantation complications. We assessed whether underweight or obese compared with normal weight patients, as defined by body mass index (BMI), were at increased risk for adverse events from ICD implantation. Methods and Results We studied 83 312 first-time ICD recipients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry-ICD Registry implanted between April 2010 and June 2011. Using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression adjusted for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, we examined the association of BMI with in-hospital complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Underweight (BMI ?18.5 kg/m2) patients comprised 1.7% of the cohort (n=1434), whereas obese (BMI?30 kg/m2) patients comprised 40.1% (n=33 339). Overall, a higher proportion of underweight patients experienced complications (normal weight, 2.3%; obese, 2.1%; underweight 5.2%; P<0.0001) and death (normal weight, 0.3%; obese, 0.3%; underweight 0.8%; P=0.026) as a result of ICD implantation. After multivariable adjustment, underweight ICD recipients had a greater odds of complications (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68 to 2.75; P<0.0001), hospital stay >3 days (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.89; P<0.0001), and in-hospital death (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.21 to 4.27; P=0.011) compared with normal weight patients. Obese patients did not exhibit any meaningful differences in the same outcomes. Conclusions In a large, real-world population, underweight first-time ICD recipients experienced significantly more periprocedural complications, prolonged hospital stays, and in-hospital death compared with normal weight patients. PMID:23316325

Hsu, Jonathan C.; Varosy, Paul D.; Bao, Haikun; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Marcus, Gregory M.

2012-01-01

241

A journey toward wholeness, a journey to God: physical fitness as embodied spirituality.  

PubMed

Physical fitness expressed through exercise can be, if done with the right intention, a form of spiritual discipline that reflects the relational love of humanity to God as well as an expression of a healthy love of the embodied self. Through an analysis of the physiological benefits of exercise science applied to the human body, this paper will demonstrate how such attention to the optimal physical fitness of the body, including weight and cardiovascular training and nutrition, is an affirmation of three foundational theological principles of human embodiment: as created in the "imago Dei", as unified body/spirit, and as part of God's creation calling for proper stewardship. In a contemporary climate where women's bodies in particular are viewed through the lens of commodification-as visual objects for sale based on prescribed notions of superficial esthetics and beauty-as well as the consistently high rates of eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and obesity, authors Greenwood and Delgado offer a vision of how women and men can imagine a subjective relationship with their own bodies that reflects the abundant love of God for God's creation. Spoken from the lived experience of professional fitness competitor and trainer, as well as trained biokineticist, Dr. Greenwood presents the most current scientific data in the field of biokinetics that grounds the theological analysis offered by Dr. Delgado, whose personal journey through anorexia and scholarly emphasis on Christian theological anthropology inform this work. Taken together, Greenwood and Delgado suggest a response to God's love for humanity, including our physical bodily humanity, which entails a responsibility to attend to the physical fitness of our bodies in order to live into the fullness, flourishing and love of God's creation as God intended. PMID:22005967

Greenwood, Tracey C; Delgado, Teresa

2013-09-01

242

Physical characteristics related to bra fit.  

PubMed

Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

2010-04-01

243

Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to summarize the latest developments with regard to physical fitness and several health outcomes in young people. The literature reviewed suggests that (1) cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with total and abdominal adiposity; (2) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness are shown to be associated with established and emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors; (3) improvements in muscular fitness

F B Ortega; J R Ruiz; M J Castillo; M Sjöström

2008-01-01

244

Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

Sandler, H.

1983-01-01

245

Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

1996-01-01

246

Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

2014-01-01

247

Promoting Exercise and Physical Fitness in the Medical School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elective course focusing on exercise physiology and cardiovascular fitness offered at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine consists of weekly lectures and student self-designed fitness programs. Student participation correlates with significantly increased levels of student maximum oxygen consumption, a moderate training effect.…

Cohen, Jerome D.; And Others

1988-01-01

248

Obesity and prognosis in chronic diseases--impact of cardiorespiratory fitness in the obesity paradox.  

PubMed

The effects of overweight and obesity on chronic diseases, particularly on cardiovascular disease (CVD), and its impact on increasing CVD risk factors and total CVD are reviewed. However despite the adverse effects of obesity on CVD risk factors and CVD, obesity has a surprising association with prognosis in patients with established diseases, often showing an "obesity paradox," [corrected] where overweight (body mass index (BMI), 25 to 29.9 kg·m(-2)) and obese patients (BMI, ?30 kg·m(-2)) with established CVD frequently have a better prognosis than that of their leaner counterparts (BMI, <25 kg·m(-2)) with the same diseases. Fitness-versus-fatness debate is summarized also, including the critical role that fitness plays to alter the relationship between adiposity and subsequent prognosis. PMID:25014389

Lavie, Carl J; Schutter, Alban De; Archer, Edward; McAuley, Paul A; Blair, Steven N

2014-01-01

249

Endurance exercise and resistance training in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Contrary to the age old taboo of exercise in cardiac patients, resistance training has been gaining importance recently as a safe, healthy fitness option in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the leading killer disease in the population above 45 years in the United States. Endurance or aerobic exercise helps improve overall stamina and the ability of the heart to pump oxygenated blood in those with and without prior cardiovascular disease. In addition to modifying cardiovascular risks, resistance training has profound beneficial effects on improving muscle strength and endurance, preventing osteoporosis and improving quality of life both in the healthy and cardiovascular patients including women and heart failure patients. So resistance training should be regarded as a complementary fitness program rather that a substitute to endurance training. This review discusses the physiological phenomenon and benefits of exercise training programs on cardiovascular disease patients focusing on endurance exercise and resistance training. PMID:19124415

Meka, Naga; Katragadda, Srikanth; Cherian, Biju; Arora, Rohit R

2008-04-01

250

Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson

2002-01-01

251

Being fit in pregnancy.  

PubMed

There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that exercise during pregnancy is not only safe but beneficial, yet many women remain unsure about what exercise is appropriate or indeed whether it is safe to exercise at all, opting instead for inactivity. The purpose of this article is to explore the benefits of maintaining or improving fitness during pregnancy. It explores some of the more appropriate and accessible exercise options to help encourage women to achieve the recommended level of 30 minutes of physical activity a day (National Institute of Health and Care excellence (NICE) 2010). The article also recognises the need for accessible information regarding exercise and highlights some of the resources that pregnant women might find useful. PMID:24600825

Hazeldean, Deborah

2014-02-01

252

Physical Fitness Evaluation Form for Rim to Rim Trip For the Rim to Rim trip, we are expecting participants to achieve a level of physical fitness that will  

E-print Network

Physical Fitness Evaluation Form for Rim to Rim Trip For the Rim to Rim trip, we are expecting participants to achieve a level of physical fitness that will include both aerobic conditioning with some of cardiovascular training, which should include some strength training. For more information on physical fitness

Gering, Jon C.

253

Associations of Insulin Resistance With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Inflammatory Cytokines in Normal-Weight Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of markers of insulin resistance with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventy-one normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) Hispanic women (age, 20–39 years) participated in a fasting blood draw for glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; a glucose tolerance test; anthropometric and blood pressure measurements; body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and measurements of cardiorespiratory fitness via Vo2max and daily physical activity by accelerometer. RESULTS Six percent of participants had impaired fasting glucose, 14% had impaired glucose tolerance, and 48% had at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting insulin were positively correlated with glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and were negatively correlated with adiponectin (P < 0.05). The 2-h insulin was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. HOMA-IR and fasting insulin remained significantly and positively related to glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure after adjustment for body composition. The relationships between markers of insulin resistance and adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were attenuated after adjustment for body composition. CONCLUSIONS Surrogate markers of insulin resistance were associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. Our findings suggest that HOMA-IR, fasting, and 2-h insulin may be important clinical markers for identifying young, normal-weight, Hispanic women who may be at risk for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our findings show the importance of early screening for prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:23275356

Vella, Chantal A.; Burgos, Ximena; Ellis, Carla J.; Zubia, Raul Y.; Ontiveros, Diana; Reyes, Hector; Lozano, Claudia

2013-01-01

254

Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system must be taken into account whenever a hemodynamic assessment is made. All intravascular pressure have a gravity-dependent hydrostatic component. The interaction between the gravitational field, the position of the body, and the functional characteristics of the blood vessels determines the distribution of intravascular volume. In turn this distribution largely determines cardiac pump function. Multiple control mechanisms are activated to preserve optimal tissue perfusion when the magnitude of the gravitational field or its direction relative to the body changes. Humans are particularly sensitive to such changes because of the combination of their normally erect posture and the large body mass and blood volume below the level of the heart. Current aerospace technology also exposes human subjects to extreme variations in the gravitational forces that range from zero during space travel to as much an nine-times normal during operation of high-performance military aircraft. This chapter therefore emphasizes human physiology.

Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Stone, H. Lowell

1991-01-01

255

Could sport specialization influence fitness and health of adults with mental retardation?  

PubMed

Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in recreational and leisure activity programs (non-athletic people); (b) contribution of sport specialization on athletes' fitness; and c) correlation of each fitness variable with subjects' ID levels. Twenty-two track and field, 19 basketball, and 23 non-athletic adults were recruited. Before and after a 9-month period, all participants performed fitness tests assessing body composition, flexibility (SR), arm muscular strength (HG), lower and upper-body muscular strength and endurance (SUP and PUP), explosive leg power (SLJ), cardiovascular endurance (ST), balance ability (FT), motor coordination (TUGT). The results showed that participants' weight, BMI and FT were significantly affected by time; SLJ by activity; ST, HG, PUP, SUP, and TUGT by both time and activity. Only track and field athletes increased significantly ST. All athletes improved significantly HG, PUP and SUP, instead non-athletic people decreased significantly SUP (p<0.01). TUGT improved significantly in track and field athletes (p<0.05), and decreased significantly in non-athletic people. ID level was positively correlated to TUGT. Findings of this study showed that physical activity improved fitness in adult athletes with ID, decreasing health risks. Athletes with lower ID obtained higher performance scores in motor coordination test. PMID:20434307

Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

2010-01-01

256

Changes in physical activity and fitness after 3 months of home Wii Fit™ use.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in physical activity and fitness variables in members of 8 volunteer families after 3 months of home use of the Wii Fit™ interactive video game. Pre and postintervention measurements were obtained from 21 subjects relative to physical activity (5 days of accelerometry), aerobic fitness (graded treadmill test), muscular fitness (push-ups), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), balance (composite equilibrium score), and body composition (body mass index and % body fat). Use characteristics of the Wii Fit™ device were also determined. A series of 2 (age group) × 2 (time) repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess changes over time and between adults and children. Three months of home Wii Fit™ use revealed no significant age group × time interactions or main effects of group or time for daily physical activity, muscular fitness, flexibility, balance, or body composition. An age group × time interaction (p = 0.04) was observed in peak VO2 (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) with children displaying a significant (p = 0.03) increase after 3 months of Wii Fit™ use, whereas adults showed no significant (p = 0.50) change. Daily Wii Fit™ use per household declined by 82% (p < 0.01) from 21.5 ± 9.0 min·d(-1) during the first 6 weeks to 3.9 ± 4.0 min·d(-1) during the second 6 weeks. Most measures of health-related fitness in this exploratory study remained unchanged after 3 months of home use of the popular Wii Fit™ whole-body movement interactive video game. Modest daily Wii Fit™ use may have provided insufficient stimulus for fitness changes. PMID:21993031

Owens, Scott G; Garner, John C; Loftin, J Mark; van Blerk, Natalie; Ermin, Kevser

2011-11-01

257

Physical Fitness Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

Valdes, Alice

258

The World Transplant Games: An incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.  

PubMed

This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram(®) ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n = 19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n = 14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.1 ± 1.7 to 8.5 ± 1.9 h; p = 0.002) and weekend (6.3 ± 2.6 to 8.4 ± 2.5 h; p = 0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.3 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.05. Weekend activity: 7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.3 ± 2.3 h; p = 0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes. PMID:25307141

Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

2014-12-01

259

Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also insulin resistance — the core feature of type 2 diabetes — as well as alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We are now

Luc F. Van Gaal; Ilse L. Mertens; Christophe E. De Block

2006-01-01

260

Imaging in Cardiovascular Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite enormous investment into cardiovascular research on all levels worldwide, cardiovascular events such as myocardial\\u000a infarction, heart failure, tachyarrhythmia or stroke remain the major causes for death and inability in all developed countries.\\u000a Conventional clinical cardiovascular imaging nowadays provides high-resolution visualization of the morphology of vessels\\u000a and the myocardium. To translate the available patient imaging technologies into animals, especially mice

Michael Schäfers; Klaus Tiemann; Michael Kuhlmann; Lars Stegger; Klaus Schäfers; Sven Hermann

261

Early and continued participation in a work-site health and fitness program.  

PubMed

This study examines social-environmental, physical-behavioral, and psychological factors influencing early and continued participation in physical activity. Data for the study were collected during the first six months of operation of a work-site Health and Fitness Center. The following sources were used to collect data (N = 403): 1) printouts of frequency of employee visits to the Health and Fitness Center; 2) a questionnaire; and 3) fitness files. Data measuring early (month one) and continued (month six) participation were obtained from printouts of frequency of employee visits. A questionnaire measured estimation of physical ability, attraction to physical activity, youth participation, social support, and convenience of the Health and Fitness Center. Fitness files were used to obtain measures of cardiovascular fitness, percent body fat, and recent participation. Linear discriminant analysis was conducted to determine the practical usefulness of the social-environmental, physical-behavioral, and psychological factors for classifying employees into categories of exercise adherers and nonadherers. A measure of exercise adherence was based on company policy of six visits each month. Results for early participation (month one) indicated that convenience, sex, youth participation, attitudinal commitment, and age discriminated (p less than .05) among adherers and nonadherers with 63% accuracy. At the end of six months, attitudinal commitment, sex, convenience, and estimation of physical ability discriminated (p less than .05) among adherers and non-adherers with 60% accuracy. In addition, when early participation in the health and fitness program served as the measure of recent participation for the six month analysis, recent participation and attitudinal commitment discriminated (p less than .05) between the two adherence categories with 75% accuracy. Adherers and nonadherers were classified with 66% and 85% accuracy, respectively. PMID:2489832

Steinhardt, M A; Carrier, K M

1989-06-01

262

Physical fitness, fatigue, and quality of life after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue is often experienced after liver transplantation. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess physical fitness\\u000a (cardiorespiratory fitness, neuromuscular fitness, body composition) in liver transplant recipients and to explore whether\\u000a physical fitness is related to severity of fatigue. In addition, we explored the relationship between physical fitness and\\u000a health-related quality of life. Included were 18 patients 1–5 years after

Berbke T. J. van Ginneken; Rita J. G. van den Berg-Emons; Geert Kazemier; Herold J. Metselaar; Hugo W. Tilanus; Henk J. Stam

2007-01-01

263

Androgens and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on the link between androgens and cardiovascular disease and the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women has been conducted. The few existing studies on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women indicate no effect or a deleterious effect of increasing androgens and increased cardiovascular risk. However, there is evidence of a favorable effect of androgens on surrogate cardiovascular markers in postmenopausal women, such as high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, body fat mass and triglycerides. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the impact of therapy with androgens on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. The cardiovascular effect of testosterone or methyltestosterone with or without concomitant estrogens needs to be elucidated. PMID:24559253

Spoletini, I; Vitale, C; Pelliccia, F; Fossati, C; Rosano, G M C

2014-12-01

264

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

265

Sixth Annual Cardiovascular  

E-print Network

assembles leading experts in women's cardiovascular health to continue to explore the role that gender Feinberg School of Medicine EarthphotoscourtesyofNASA #12;CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE is still the leading cause have made significant efforts to improve knowledge and understanding of the gender differences

MacIver, Malcolm A.

266

Kids and Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many U.S. children are out of shape. Parents must help them learn to improve their fitness by exercising with them. The U.S. Conference of Mayors recently made physical fitness of the nation's children a primary emphasis. A sidebar presents information on how to contact local mayors to start up programs to help children improve their fitness.…

Corradini, Deedee

1999-01-01

267

National Fitness Boom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facts and figures about the growth of the physical fitness phenomenon in the United States are discussed. Millions participate in physical fitness activities and programs, and billions are spent on fitness. Better leadership, facilities, and programs are available than ever before. (PP)

Conrad, C. Carson

1983-01-01

268

Effect of secular trends on age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors: the Whitehall II longitudinal study 1985-2009  

PubMed Central

Background: Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors have been described, but few studies have examined simultaneously the effects of both ageing and secular trends within the same cohort. Methods: Development of cardiovascular risk factors over the past three decades was analysed using serial measurements from 10 308 participants aged from 35 to 80 years over 25 years of follow-up from five clinical examination phases of the Whitehall II study. Changes of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol distribution characteristics were analysed with quantile regression models in the 57–61 age group. Age-related trajectories of risk factors were assessed by fitting mixed-effects models with adjustment for year of birth to reveal secular trends. Results: Average body mass index and waist circumference increased faster with age in women than in men, but the unfavourable secular trend was more marked in men. Distributions showed a fattening of the right tail in each consecutive phase, meaning a stronger increase in higher percentiles. Despite the higher obesity levels in younger birth cohorts, total cholesterol decreased markedly in the 57–61 age group along the entire distribution rather than in higher extremes only. Conclusion: The past three decades brought strong and heterogeneous changes in cardiovascular risk factor distributions. Secular trends appear to modify age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors, which may be a source of bias in longitudinal analyses. PMID:24464190

Hulman, Adam; Tabak, Adam G; Nyari, Tibor A; Vistisen, Dorte; Kivimaki, Mika; Brunner, Eric J; Witte, Daniel R

2014-01-01

269

A Cardiovascular Mathematical Model of Graded Head-Up Tilt  

PubMed Central

A lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system has been developed and optimized using experimental data obtained from 13 healthy subjects during graded head-up tilt (HUT) from the supine position to . The model includes descriptions of the left and right heart, direct ventricular interaction through the septum and pericardium, the systemic and pulmonary circulations, nonlinear pressure volume relationship of the lower body compartment, arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, as well as autoregulatory mechanisms. A number of important features, including the separate effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, and autoregulation in the lower body, as well as diastolic ventricular interaction through the pericardium have been included and tested for their significance. Furthermore, the individual effect of parameter associated with heart failure, including LV and RV contractility, baseline systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, total blood volume, LV diastolic stiffness and reflex gain on HUT response have also been investigated. Our fitted model compares favorably with our experimental measurements and published literature at a range of tilt angles, in terms of both global and regional hemodynamic variables. Compared to the normal condition, a simulated congestive heart failure condition produced a blunted response to HUT with regards to the percentage changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, end diastolic volume and effector response (i.e., heart contractility, venous unstressed volume, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate) with progressive tilting. PMID:24204817

Lim, Einly; Chan, Gregory S. H.; Dokos, Socrates; Ng, Siew C.; Latif, Lydia A.; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Karunanithi, Mohan; Lovell, Nigel H.

2013-01-01

270

Men's consumption of fitness and exercise: An exploration of motivations for exercise and fitness involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals in the U.S. have become increasingly involved in fitness and exercise within the last decade. As health of Americans decreases due to unhealthy diets and stresses of family and career coupled with society's obsession with attractiveness and physical appearance, more individuals are turning to exercise and fitness to get healthy and enhance the physical appearance of the body (Bordo,

Melissa Lynne Jakubauskas

2010-01-01

271

Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness.…

Getchell, Bud

272

Health-Related Measures of Children's Physical Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes health-related physical fitness measurement procedures for children, emphasizing field measures. Health-related physical fitness encompasses cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. The article presents several issues pertinent to research on health-related fitness testing. (SM)

Pate, Russell R.

1991-01-01

273

Welch Fitness Center: What We Can Do For You!  

E-print Network

& Body Improve your mental & physical health with these classes: Yoga, Pilates, & Callanetics FitnessWelch Fitness Center: What We Can Do For You! Fitness Office Services Exercise Programs: Personal, and make you feel as welcome and comfortable as possible. Please see below for more details on our exercise

Napier, Terrence

274

Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

2013-03-01

275

Confronting stereotypes: apparel fit preferences of Mexican-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate the apparel fit preferences of Mexican-American women between the ages of 18 and 25 years old from the Southwestern USA. The study also seeks to analyze the effect of body shape perception, body mass index, and clothing size on apparel fit preferences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected in an online survey using an

Elizabeth Newcomb; Cynthia Istook

2011-01-01

276

Brisk walking compared with an individualised medical fitness programme for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Structured exercise is considered a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, adherence to combined resistance and endurance type exercise or medical fitness intervention programmes is generally poor. Group-based brisk walking may represent an attractive alternative, but its long-term efficacy as compared with an individualised approach such as medical fitness intervention programmes is unknown. We compared the clinical benefits of a 12-month exercise intervention programme consisting of either brisk walking or a medical fitness programme in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 92 type 2 diabetes patients (60?±?9 years old) to either three times a week of 60 min brisk walking (n?=?49) or medical fitness programme (n?=?43). Primary outcome was the difference in changes in HbA1c values at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were differences in changes in blood pressure, plasma lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, body composition, physical fitness, programme adherence rate and health-related quality of life. Results After 12 months, 18 brisk walking and 19 medical fitness participants were still actively participating. In both programmes, 50 and 25% of the dropout was attributed to overuse injuries and lack of motivation, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no important differences between brisk walking and medical fitness programme in primary or secondary outcome variables. Conclusions/interpretation The prescription of group-based brisk walking represents an equally effective intervention to modulate glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in type 2 diabetes patients when compared with more individualised medical fitness programmes. Future exercise intervention programmes should anticipate the high attrition rate due to overuse injuries and motivation problems. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-008-0950-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users. PMID:18297259

van Rooij, E. S. J.; Wijtvliet, A.; Boonman-de Winter, L. J. M.; Enneking, Th.; Kuipers, H.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; van Loon, L. J. C.

2008-01-01

277

In situ repair of a failed compression fitting  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

1985-08-05

278

Leak test fitting  

DOEpatents

A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

Pickett, Patrick T. (Kettering, OH)

1981-01-01

279

Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

1986-01-01

280

Radiology Lab 2: Cardiovascular  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to concepts important in cardiovascular imaging of normal anatomy, including angiographic techniques and cross-sectional methods.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: NormalRadiograph type: angiogram

Shaffer, Kitt

2010-02-24

281

Cardiovascular Interactions CVI Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cardiovascular Interactions Project is an electronic active learning tool that demonstrates the complex and intricate interactions between the functions of the heart and peripheral circulation to provide an adequate cardiac output during various stresses.

PhD Carl F. Rothe (Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

2005-06-22

282

Understanding cardiovascular disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

283

Resveratrol and cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol (3,4?,5-trihydroxystilbene) is a member of natural, plant-derived chemicals known as polyphenols and is attracting increased attention due to its diverse health benefits especially in case of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and neurological problems. Despite impressive gains in diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a serious clinical problem and threat to public health. Resveratrol possesses potent antioxidant properties and

Manika Das; Dipak K. Das

2010-01-01

284

Aldosterone and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through its classic effects on sodium and potassium homeostasis, aldosterone, when produced in excess, is associated with\\u000a the development of hypertension and hence with higher cardiovascular and renal risk. In recent years, experimental and epidemiologic\\u000a data have suggested that aldosterone also may be linked to high cardiovascular risk independently of its effects on blood\\u000a pressure. Thus, aldosterone has been associated

Bruno Vogt; Michel Burnier

2009-01-01

285

Obesity and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a major contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, and yet has only recently\\u000a been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease. Obesity is a chronic metabolic\\u000a disorder associated with cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations\\/alterations\\u000a in cardiac

Paul Poirier; Robert H. Eckel

2002-01-01

286

2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging  

E-print Network

2012-2013 Diagnostic Radiology Fellows Cardiovascular Imaging Nuclear Medicine David Weinreb 14895 dbweinreb@ Pediatric Radiology Body Imaging 1st yr. Neuroradiology NCI Body Mammography Sonya Edwards 14904 14909 laxpati@ Michael Kim 14961 mjjkim@ Vascular and Interventional Radiology Charles Kosydar 14908

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

287

Body Image  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-01-02

288

Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.  

PubMed Central

For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

Meusel, H.

1984-01-01

289

Sudomotor Function as a Tool for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Level Evaluation: Comparison with Maximal Exercise Capacity  

PubMed Central

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = ?0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and ?0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions. PMID:24886754

Raisanen, Anu; Eklund, Jyrki; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2014-01-01

290

Sudomotor function as a tool for cardiorespiratory fitness level evaluation: comparison with maximal exercise capacity.  

PubMed

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = -0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and -0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions. PMID:24886754

Raisanen, Anu; Eklund, Jyrki; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2014-06-01

291

Best Fit for 'Bounce'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mineralogy of 'Bounce' rock was determined by fitting spectra from a library of laboratory minerals to the spectrum of Bounce taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. The minerals that give the best fit include pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine -- minerals commonly found in basaltic volcanic rocks -- and typical martian dust produced by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

2004-01-01

292

Fun & Fitness with Balloons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

2010-01-01

293

Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

Tapio, Soile

294

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

295

HIV, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals treated for HIV infection are at increased risk for accelerated cardiovascular disease. Treatment of HIV infection\\u000a confers the significant benefits of improved clinical outcomes, quality of life, and survival. However, a number of metabolic\\u000a complications have emerged as a consequence of treatment, including often severe, mixed hyperlipidemia, body fat partitioning\\u000a disorders, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Treatment-induced

Katherine Samaras

2009-01-01

296

Microinjection of prostaglandin E2 and muscimol into the preoptic area in conscious rats: Comparison of effects on plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), body temperature, locomotor activity, and cardiovascular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preoptic area (POA) is thought to play an important role in thermoregulation and fever. Local application of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to this region elicits increases in core body temperature, heart rate, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Similar effects on body temperature and heart rate have also been reported after local application of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol

Dmitry V. Zaretsky; Joseph L. Hunt; Maria V. Zaretskaia; Joseph A. DiMicco

2006-01-01

297

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

298

It's Your Choice: A Program for Cardiovascular Health. Teaching Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to help high school students develop a lifestyle that promotes cardiovascular and overall health; activities are intended to promote total health and wellness. The handbook is composed of a curriculum guide and classroom materials, and is designed to fit into a comprehensive health education program. Multidisciplinary…

Hazlett, Shirley Holder

299

Limitations of inclusive fitness  

PubMed Central

Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

2013-01-01

300

Dartmouth College/Cigna Fitness Benefit If you have CIGNA benefits, we've got a healthy  

E-print Network

Dartmouth College/Cigna Fitness Benefit If you have CIGNA benefits, we've got a healthy incentive or exercise class fees. What kind of Fitness Facility Membership Qualifies? Start exercising your option fitness facilities (with an array of cardiovascular and strength-training exercise equipment) as well

Myers, Lawrence C.

301

AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

Lopez, Jason

2011-01-01

302

Microalbuminuria and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Microalbuminuria is a marker for generalized vascular dysfunction. Its prevalence in United States and European general population surveys ranges from 6% to 10%. Increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality begins with albumin excretion rates that are well within normal limits. Although microalbuminuria interacts with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, it has an independent relationship to renal and cardiovascular outcomes. For example, microalbuminuria doubles the risk for a cardiovascular event in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus even after adjusting for the usual risk factors. Elevated rates of urinary albumin excretion predict target organ damage, notably renal disease, but are also related to left ventricular dysfunction, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Screening for microalbuminuria, which is recommended by several expert committees and associations, has become a readily accessible procedure. Screening can give clinicians prognostic information concerning cardiovascular risk and assist in guiding therapy. The goal of treatment is to prevent progression of, and even to reverse, microalbuminuria. Abundant evidence demonstrates that antihypertensive therapy is an important key to the control of urinary albumin excretion, and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers) is the treatment of choice. These drugs have successfully halted or delayed the progression to nephropathy and have reversed elevated rates of albumin excretion to normal values, even when blood pressure reduction has been minimal. PMID:15485765

Karalliedde, Janaka; Viberti, Giancarlo

2004-10-01

303

All men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction require a cardiovascular workup.  

PubMed

An association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease has long been recognized, and studies suggest that erectile dysfunction is an independent marker of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, assessment and management of erectile dysfunction may help identify and reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events, particularly in younger men. The initial erectile dysfunction evaluation should distinguish between predominantly vasculogenic erectile dysfunction and erectile dysfunction of other etiologies. For men believed to have predominantly vasculogenic erectile dysfunction, we recommend that initial cardiovascular risk stratification be based on the Framingham Risk Score. Management of men with erectile dysfunction who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease should focus on risk-factor control; men at high risk, including those with cardiovascular symptoms, should be referred to a cardiologist. Intermediate-risk men should undergo noninvasive evaluation for subclinical atherosclerosis. A growing body of evidence supports the use of emerging prognostic markers to further understand cardiovascular risk in men with erectile dysfunction, but few markers have been prospectively evaluated in this population. In conclusion, we support cardiovascular risk stratification and risk-factor management in all men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:24423973

Miner, Martin; Nehra, Ajay; Jackson, Graham; Bhasin, Shalender; Billups, Kevin; Burnett, Arthur L; Buvat, Jacques; Carson, Culley; Cunningham, Glenn; Ganz, Peter; Goldstein, Irwin; Guay, Andre; Hackett, Geoff; Kloner, Robert A; Kostis, John B; LaFlamme, K Elizabeth; Montorsi, Piero; Ramsey, Melinda; Rosen, Raymond; Sadovsky, Richard; Seftel, Allen; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Wu, Frederick

2014-03-01

304

Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: The Future of Cardiovascular Therapeutics?  

PubMed Central

Responses to drug therapy vary from benefit to no effect to adverse effects which can be serious or occasionally fatal. Increasing evidence supports the idea that genetic variants can play a major role in this spectrum of responses. Well-studied examples in cardiovascular therapeutics include predictors of steady-state warfarin dosage, predictors of reduced efficacy among patients receiving clopidogrel for drug eluting stents, and predictors of some serious adverse drug effects. This review summarizes contemporary approaches to identifying and validating genetic predictors of variability in response to drug treatment. Approaches to incorporating this new knowledge into clinical care, and the barriers to this concept, are addressed. PMID:23200096

Roden, Dan M.

2012-01-01

305

Measurement Specifications for Manufacturers' Prototype Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine information on body measurement specifications for one prototype body used by women's apparel manufacturers-fit models. Specifically, information was examined to determine if fit model measurement specifications had changed since 1986. Measurement specifications need to be revised regularly to accommodate changes in the population's anthropometry. Advertisements for sizes 8 and 10fit models were

Jane E. Workman; Elizabeth S. Lentz

2000-01-01

306

Cardiovascular disease prevention.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases remain the first killer in the Western countries. Equivalent contributions of prevention initiatives, pharmaceutical developments and technological improvements have led to an important success in the reduction of mortality related to cardiovascular diseases in some of the countries of the Western world. However, increase in life expectance, incomplete adherence to guidelines, difficulties in convincing governments and the population to support and adhere to prevention measures make that the burden of cardiovascular diseases is still extremely high. This review gives a restricted summary of the most important prevention guidelines supported by the European Society of Cardiology. It also illustrates the still very incomplete adherence to these guidelines in the different European countries as published in the EUROASPIRE surveys. PMID:25176558

Van Camp, G

2014-12-01

307

Cardiovascular actions of berberine.  

PubMed

Berberine, is an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Chinese herb Huanglian, and many other plants. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antimicrobial in the treatment of dysentery and infectious diarrhea. This manuscript describes cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives, tetrahydroberberine and 8-oxoberberine. Berberine has positive inotropic, negative chronotropic, antiarrhythmic, and vasodilator properties. Both derivatives of berberine have antiarrhythmic activity. Some cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives are attributed to the blockade of K+ channels (delayed rectifier and K(ATP)) and stimulation of Na+ -Ca(2+) exchanger. Berberine has been shown to prolong the duration of ventricular action potential. Its vasodilator activity has been attributed to multiple cellular mechanisms. The cardiovascular effects of berberine suggest its possible clinical usefulness in the treatment of arrhythmias and/or heart failure. PMID:11607041

Lau, C W; Yao, X Q; Chen, Z Y; Ko, W H; Huang, Y

2001-01-01

308

Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Aging  

PubMed Central

Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (e.g. renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics and exercise training. PMID:22499901

Dai, Dao-Fu; Ungvari, Zoltan

2013-01-01

309

WOLF: FITS file processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WOLF processes FITS files and generates photometry files, annotated JPGs, opacity maps, background, transient detection and luminance changes detection. This software was used to process data for the Night Sky Live project.

Shamir, Lior

2012-12-01

310

The universal Higgs fit  

E-print Network

We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, invisible Higgs decay into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining $M_h = 125.0 \\pm 1.8$ GeV.

Giardino, Pier Paolo; Masina, Isabella; Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

2014-01-01

311

Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

2005-01-01

312

Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in Children: A Pilot Program of Be a Fit Kid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Be a Fit Kid is a 12-week program aimed at improving physical activity and nutritional habits in children. The physical activity component of the program emphasized cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular strength, and bone development through running, yoga, jumping, and strength exercises. All activities were individualized and noncompetitive. The nutrition component focused on current dietary guidelines that emphasize a diet rich

Jennifer Slawta; Jeff Bentley; Joan Smith; Jessica N. J. Kelly; Lucien Syman-Degler

2008-01-01

313

An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation?  

PubMed Central

Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compared to age-matched controls, and 2) the effects of a six-month exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation program on CAD-related GMV decline. Compared to controls, significant decreases in regional GMV were found in the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyrus; superior and inferior parietal gyrus; middle and superior temporal gyrus and in the posterior cerebellum of CAD patients. Cardiovascular rehabilitation was associated with the recovery of regional GMV in the superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellum of the CAD patients as well as the increase in GMV in the supplementary motor area. Total and regional GMV correlated with fitness level, defined by the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), at baseline but not after cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study demonstrates that cardiovascular disease can adversely affect age-related decline in GMV; and that these disease-related effects could be mitigated by moderate levels of exercise training as part of cardiovascular rehabilitation. PMID:24273722

Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J.K.; Suskin, N.; St. Lawrence, K.S.

2013-01-01

314

Hyperuricemia and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

There is an increasing prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia worldwide. Gout confers a significant individual and social burden and is increasingly recognized as a prevalent chronic disease state requiring appropriate long-term management. Gout and hyperuricemia appear to be independent risk factors for incident hypertension, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Multiple epidemiologic studies confirm an association between hyperuricemia and "cardiometabolic disease". We review the evidence stating the relationship between hyperuricemia and the development of comorbid conditions contributing to cardiovascular risk and disease. PMID:24554489

Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Di Giacomantonio, Anna Vittoria; Di Giosia, Paolo; Ferri, Claudio

2014-12-01

315

Relationship between Upper Body Obesity and Periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper body obesity, related to visceral fat accumulation, is known to increase the risk of various adult diseases, especially type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between upper body obesity and periodontitis. We studied 643 apparently healthy, dentulous Japanese adults who attended programs at Fukuoka Health Promotion Center. Waist-hip ratio, body-mass index (BMI),

T. Saito; Y. Shimazaki; T. Koga; M. Tsuzuki; A. Ohshima

2001-01-01

316

Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

1977-01-01

317

Cardiovascular disease in chronic renal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular illness is an important contributor to the morbidity of kidney disease. The spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) includes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and dilatation, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Both "traditional" and "uremia-specific" factors contribute to the occurrence and progression of cardiac disease in renal patients. A growing body of recent evidence indicates that the processes contributing to CVD commence early in CRI, leading to concentric LVH, left ventricular dilatation, congestive heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. Many of the coexisting conditions that have been identified consistently as contributing to the burden of cardiovascular illness in renal populations can be modified through medical interventions. Specific therapies exist for hypertension, anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and dyslipidemia. Studies to date have demonstrated that treatment of many of these factors-such as anemia and hypertension during end-stage renal disease-appear to benefit the cardiovascular system. Earlier intervention may offer the best opportunity to reduce the burden of illness in all groups of CRI patients. Identification of patients at the onset of kidney disease and attention to the known traditional and "uremic" risk factors are emerging as promising strategies. Long-term interventional studies are needed to determine costs, benefits, and risks of such strategies. PMID:11118155

Levin, A; Foley, R N

2000-12-01

318

Effects of horizontal body casting on the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term horizontal body position on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate. Six male rhesus monkeys (6.2-9.4 kg) were given bolus injections of 4.0 microgram/kg, phenylephrine during each of the following conditions: awake, anesthetized (10 mg/kg ketamine HCl), and after beta-blockade (1 mg/kg propranolol HCl) before, 7, 14, and 28 days after being placed in a horizontal body cast. R-R interval vs. systolic arterial pressure was plotted, and the slope was determined by least-squares-fit linear regression. Baroreceptor slope was significantly reduced by 7 days of horizontal body position and remained attenuated throughout the 28-day restraint period both before and after beta-receptor blockade. These data are consistent with the thesis that prolonged exposure to a zero-gravity environment impairs autonomic reflex regulation of the cardiovascular system.

Billman, G. E.; Dickey, D. T.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

1982-01-01

319

Sleep Deprivation and Cardiovascular Risk  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep Deprivation and Cardiovascular Risk (0:31) Dr. Janet Mullington discusses how studies suggest a link between sleep deprivation and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. choose settings to watch ...

320

The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Findings A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n?=?322; aged 10–14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p?=?0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people. PMID:24694082

2014-01-01

321

Rules, culture, and fitness  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

Baum, William M.

1995-01-01

322

Chronic Life Stress, Cardiovascular Reactivity, and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between chronic life stress, cardiovascular reactivity, and a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Methods Participants were 158 healthy adolescents who completed self-report measures of chronic negative life stress as well as assessments of heart rate and blood pressure reactivity to acute laboratory stressors at two timepoints, approximately 3.3 years apart. At Time 2, intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, was also measured. Results In hierarchical regression models adjusting for demographic variables and body mass index, chronic negative life stress at Time 2 was concurrently associated with greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity to stress (? = 0.18, p = .016), but neither chronic stress nor cardiovascular reactivity was concurrently associated with IMT. Increasing life stress from Time 1 to Time 2 was accompanied by increasing cardiovascular reactivity (?’s = 0.14 to 0.20, p < .05), and increasing DBP reactivity over time was also associated with IMT (? = 0.24, p = .03), though increasing chronic life stress was not directly related to IMT. Conclusions Adolescents exposed to chronic, negative stressors that worsen over time may show heightened cardiovascular reactivity that puts them at risk for subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:19737856

Low, Carissa A.; Salomon, Kristen; Matthews, Karen A.

2009-01-01

323

Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing, certain cancers, and major cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Because of its maladaptive effects on various CV risk factors and its adverse effects on CV structure and function, obesity has a

Carl J. Lavie; Richard V. Milani; Hector O. Ventura

2009-01-01

324

Advancing Cardiovascular Research  

PubMed Central

Over the past 50 years, we have seen dramatic changes in cardiovascular science and clinical care, accompanied by marked declines in the morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the world, and its nature is changing as Americans become older, fatter, and ethnically more diverse. Instead of young or middle-aged men with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, the “typical” cardiac patient now presents with acute coronary syndrome or with complications related to chronic hypertension or ischemic heart disease, including heart failure, sudden death, and atrial fibrillation. Analogously, structural heart disease is now dominated by degenerative valve or congenital disease, far more common than rheumatic disease. The changing clinical scene presents cardiovascular scientists with a number of opportunities and challenges, including taking advantage of high-throughput technologies to elucidate complex disease mechanisms, accelerating development and implementation of evidence-based strategies, assessing evolving technologies of unclear value, addressing a global epidemic of cardiovascular disease, and maintaining high levels of innovation in a time of budgetary constraint and economic turmoil. PMID:22315116

2012-01-01

325

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

326

Spirituality and Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extended current research linking spirituality to health by investigating the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic spirituality and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants included 111 healthy males and females, ages 28 to 63. Measurements consisted of the Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire (LAQ), a version of Kelly's Repertory Grid, hematological analysis, and blood pressure. A greater sense of spirituality was associated with

Joseph A. Doster; Michelle B. Harvey; Celeste A. Riley; Arthur J. Goven; Renee Moorefield

2002-01-01

327

FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR  

E-print Network

, OCTObER 2, 2012 Cardiovascular Stem Cell Research: Lost and Found in Translation Joseph Gold, Ph Research 2012: Looking Forward to Challenges and Opportunities Come for the workshops, stay for the debate. Or come for the debate & stay for the speed science. Or come for the keynote & stay for the music. Any way

Puglisi, Joseph

328

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and

Caren E. Smith; José M. Ordovás

2010-01-01

329

Cardiovascular Health, Part 2  

PubMed Central

Context: An athlete’s health may be endangered if he or she continues to compete after diagnosis of certain cardiovascular conditions. The most worrisome risk is sudden cardiac death; the annual rate in US athletes is 1 in 50 000 to 200 000. Evidence Acquisition: Part 2 of this review highlights the current guidelines and controversies surrounding compatibility of participation with a variety of cardiac conditions in competitive and recreational athletics. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications from 1984 to the April 2009. Results: The guidelines published by the American College of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology provide a framework for safe competitive and recreational sports participation in athletes with a broad spectrum of inherited and acquired cardiovascular disorders. These guidelines are necessarily conservative because it is not currently possible to individualize risk prediction. Few data are available in many areas, particularly in the noncompetitive arena or in older athletes. Conclusions: Published national guidelines are currently the foundation governing return-to-play decisions in athletes with cardiovascular conditions. Further studies are needed to refine risk stratification algorithms to allow athletes with cardiovascular conditions to reap the health benefits of regular exercise and sports participation without undue risk. PMID:23015920

Baman, Timir S.; Gupta, Sanjaya; Day, Sharlene M.

2010-01-01

330

Proteomics in cardiovascular surgery.  

PubMed

Proteomics describes, analogous to the term genomics, the study of the complete set of proteins present in a cell, organ, or organism at a given time. The genome tells us what could theoretically happen, whereas the proteome tells us what does happen. Therefore, a genomic-centered view of biologic processes is incomplete and does not describe what happens at the protein level. Proteomics is a relatively new methodology and is rapidly changing because of extensive advances in the underlying techniques. The core technologies of proteomics are 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Proteomic approaches might help to close the gap between traditional pathophysiologic and more recent genomic studies, assisting our basic understanding of cardiovascular disease. The application of proteomics in cardiovascular medicine holds great promise. The analysis of tissue and plasma/serum specimens has the potential to provide unique information on the patient. Proteomics might therefore influence daily clinical practice, providing tools for diagnosis, defining the disease state, assessing of individual risk profiles, examining and/or screening of healthy relatives of patients, monitoring the course of the disease, determining the outcome, and setting up individual therapeutic strategies. Currently available clinical applications of proteomics are limited and focus mainly on cardiovascular biomarkers of chronic heart failure and myocardial ischemia. Larger clinical studies are required to test whether proteomics may have promising applications for clinical medicine. Cardiovascular surgeons should be aware of this increasingly pertinent and challenging field of science. PMID:17198814

Matt, Peter; Carrel, Thierry; White, Melanie; Lefkovits, Ivan; Van Eyk, Jennifer

2007-01-01

331

Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Medicine ------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

E-print Network

methods, and novel therapeutic measures of various cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, heart for wide variety of respiratory disorders including lung cancer, asthma and COPD. Especially, we have been intensively studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of lung disorders. Our research goal

Miyashita, Yasushi

332

Phytoestrogens and cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease is the leading overall cause of mortality for women and increases dramatically after menopause. Estrogen has many beneficial cardiovascular actions although concerns have been raised about its effects on the progression of breast and uterine neoplasms and its tendency to increase coagulability. Selective estrogen agonists may be superior to conventional estrogens. A dietary source of a partial

Lynette Wroblewski Lissin; John P Cooke

2000-01-01

333

Fitting Cosmological Data Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package includes several cosmological fitting simulations for five different observations of the expansion, all of which support a cosmic acceleration. The launcher allows users to choose which simulation to use to compare and fit theoretical models of cosmology with recent supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, the Hubble Parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the CMB data sets to confirm the accelerated expansion of the universe. This modeling allows the user to vary cosmological parameters within a particular class of dark energy cosmological models to fit a particular cosmological data set. The user can plot several theoretical curves with the data to compare different models. The values of these parameters, for a particular model, determine the physical description and evolution of the universe. The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package was created using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_CosmoEJS.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS by right-clicking within the plot and selecting Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu item.

Moldenhauer, Jacob; Stone, Keenan; Shuler, Zeke; Engelhardt, Larry

2012-09-10

334

Cardiovascular responses to weightlessness and ground-based simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission experience, from NASA and Soviet programs, on human cardiovascular responses to weightlessness, and the ability of bed rest studies to simulate these are discussed. In-flight effects include fluid shift to the upper body, decreased heart size, bone demineralization, orthostatic intolerance, and loss of exercise tolerance. All the cardiovascular changes that occur with weightlessness also occur with prolonged bed rest. They are most manifest when subjects stand suddenly, or undergo tilting or lower body negative pressure. The mechanisms which control these responses, e.g., the role of the central nervous system, are unclear.

Sandler, H.

1982-01-01

335

Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been intensively studied and described, the underlying events that initiate cardiovascular disease are not yet fully understood. A substantial number of studies suggest that altered levels of oxidative and nitrosoxidative stress within the cardiovascular environment are essential in the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the impact of such changes on the subcellular or organellar

Scott W. Ballinger

2005-01-01

336

Predicting performance on a firefighter's ability test from fitness parameters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict firefighter performance on the test. Thirty-eight experienced firefighters performed the AT and underwent assessments for the fitness parameters. Multiple regression analyses indicated that variation in the fitness parameters explained a significant, F(6, 36) = 6.31, p < .001, proportion (55%) of the variation observed in the AT. The results demonstrated that upper muscular strength and endurance as well as low body composition were significantly related (p < .01) to better performances on the simulated firefighting tasks. Variables such as low back and hamstring flexibility, upper and lower body strength, and body composition may contribute significantly to the model's predictive power. PMID:19177948

Michaelides, Marcos A; Parpa, Koulla M; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-12-01

337

Cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult women: relationships with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that circulating 25(OH)D may favorably influence cardiorespiratory fitness and fat oxidation. However, these relationships have not been examined in older adult women of different ethnic groups. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is related to cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in sedentary women ages ?60 years and to determine whether these associations differ between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). A secondary aim was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is correlated with respiratory quotient (RQ) during submaximal exercise. This cross-sectional analysis included 67 AA and EA women ages 60-74 years. VO2max was measured by a modified Bruce graded treadmill protocol, and measurements were adjusted for percent fat and lean body mass assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure RQ at rest and during four submaximal exercise tests. Fasting blood samples were obtained to quantify serum 25(OH)D. Serum 25(OH)D was associated with VO2max (ml/kg LBM/min) independent of percent body fat (r = 0.316, p = 0.010). However, subgroup analysis revealed that this relationship was specific to AA (r = 0.727, p = 0.005 for AA; r = 0.064, p = 0.643 for EA). In all subjects combined, 25(OH)D was inversely correlated (p < 0.01) with all measures of submaximal RQ. Higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with greater cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult AA women. Among both AA and EA, inverse associations between serum 25(OH)D and RQ suggest that women with higher levels of circulating vitamin D also demonstrated greater fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. PMID:24563162

Ellis, Amy C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

2014-12-01

338

Coloring the FITS Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

Levay, Z. G.

2004-12-01

339

Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters’ fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

2005-01-01

340

The Prognostic Significance of Heart Rate for Cardiovascular Disease and Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five decades ago, hypertension was a debated risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. After further studies\\u000a and the introduction of antihypertensive medications, few, if any, have doubted the important role hypertension plays as a\\u000a cardiovascular risk factor. Today, a growing body of evidence emphasizes the relationship between heart rate and hypertension,\\u000a and heart rate and cardiovascular disease, which

Trygve B. Tjugen; Arnljot Flaa; Sverre E. Kjeldsen

2010-01-01

341

Line of Best Fit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When data is displayed with a scatter plot, it is often useful to attempt to represent that data with the equation of a straight line for purposes of predicting values that may not be displayed on the plot. Such a straight line is called the "line of best fit." In this activity, students discover the relationship between the fat grams and the total calories in fast food by graphing the given data, estimate the line of best fit using a strand of spaghetti, calculate the slope of that line, and translate it into an equation. Then, they use that equation to predict information not originally included in the scatter plot.

Roberts, Donna

342

Prospective Relationship of Change in Ideal Cardiovascular Health Status and Arterial Stiffness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, the American Heart Association defined ideal cardiovascular health as the simultaneous presence of 4 favorable health behaviors (nonsmoking, ideal body mass index, physical activity at goal, and dietary pattern that promotes cardiovascular health) and 3 favorable health factors (ideal levels of total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose). The association between a change in ideal cardiovascular health status and pulse wave velocity, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease, has not been reported. Methods and Results The study cohort consisted of 1143 white adults from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who were followed for 21 years since baseline (1986). This cohort was divided in 2 subgroups: 803 participants (aged 9 to 18 years at baseline) to study the health status change from childhood to adulthood and 340 participants (aged 21 to 24 years at baseline) to study health status change from young adulthood to middle age. The change in the ideal cardiovascular health index was inversely associated with pulse wave velocity (adjusted for age, sex, and heart rate), every 1?point increase corresponded to a 0.09?m/s (P<0.001) decrease in pulse wave velocity in both groups. This association remained significant in subgroups based on the ideal cardiovascular health index at baseline. Conclusions The change in ideal cardiovascular health status, both from childhood to adulthood and from young adulthood to middle age, was an independent predictor of adult pulse wave velocity. Our results support the concept of ideal cardiovascular health as a useful tool for primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24614756

Aatola, Heikki; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Pahkala, Katja; Mikkila, Vera; Telama, Risto; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kahonen, Mika

2014-01-01

343

Cardiovascular Session Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity responses in-flight and post-flight on neurolab appeared appropriate, enough bed-rest and post-flight stand test data, along with animal model data suggest that vasoconstriction was compromised. The mechanism of this compromised vasoconstriction needs to be delineated. Other major findings concerning microgravity and physiological regulatory systems are that: I . Thermoregulatory adaptation appear to suggest some decrements in the control of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating; 2. Calcium resorption and dietary calcium need to be defined for differing durations of spaceflight, especially as the effects of excess calcium on vasomotor function appears to be detrimental; 3. Neurohumoral mechanisms of microgravity induced changes in neural function and the regulation of plasma volume and total body water, bone resorption and autonomic neural control of the circulation need further delineation; 4. As performance of work tasks become prolonged, the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in microgravity needs to be used in the recovery period from prolonged work tasks.

Raven, Peter; Schneider, Sue

1999-01-01

344

Social personality trait and fitness  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. ‘Asocial’ and ‘social’ lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness. PMID:18755678

Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

2008-01-01

345

Do Insomnia Complaints Cause Hypertension or Cardiovascular Disease?  

PubMed Central

Objective: We prospectively investigated odds ratios (ORs) for development of hypertension or cardiovascular disease by endorsement of sleep complaints. Methods: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is a prospective, population-based study of cardiovascular disease. Our study sample was 8757 ARIC participants without hypertension and 11,863 ARIC participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline. We applied multivariate regression analysis to predict the ORs of development of hypertension or cardiovascular disease over 6 years of follow-up by endorsement of symptoms of difficulty falling asleep (DFA), waking up repeatedly (SCD), awakening tired and fatigued (NRS), or combinations of these symptoms. We controlled for age, sex, alcohol intake, income, smoking, diabetes, heart disease, menopausal status, depression, educational level, Body Mass Index, respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function. Results: Endorsement of all 3 sleep complaints predicted a slightly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (OR 1.5, 1.1–2.0) but not of hypertension. Endorsement of either DFA or SCA predicted slightly increased risk of hypertension (OR 1.2, 1.03–1.3) Conclusions: The definition of insomnia affects its impact. A combination of 3 sleep complaints (DFA, SCD, NRS) predicted a slightly increased risk of cardiovascular disease but not hypertension, and a complaint of either DFA or SCD predicted increased hypertensive risk. It is not clear whether these modest and inconsistent effects are of clinical significance. Citation: Phillips B; Mannino DM. Do insomnia complaints cause hypertension or cardiovascular disease? J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(5):489-494. PMID:17803012

Phillips, Barbara; Mannino, David M.

2007-01-01

346

Cardiovascular Health and Exercise Rehabilitation in Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

There appears to be an increased prevalence and earlier onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons with SCI. Physical inactivity is thought to be a key factor in the increased risk for CVD. Physical inactivity is highly prevalent in persons with SCI and it appears that activities of daily living are not sufficient to maintain cardiovascular fitness and health. This systematic review examines the current literature regarding the risk for CVD and the effectiveness of varied exercise rehabilitation programs in attenuating the risk for CVD in SCI. PMID:22719205

Warburton, Darren E. R.; Eng, Janice J.; Krassioukov, Andrei; Sproule, Shannon

2012-01-01

347

Cardiovascular ion channels as a molecular target of flavonoids.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are a class of naturally occurring polyphenols abundant in edibles and beverages of plant origin. Epidemiological studies consistently associate high flavonoid intake with a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases. So far these beneficial effects have been mainly attributed to nonspecific antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. However, there is an increasing body of evidence that flavonoids specifically target molecular structures including cardiovascular ion channels. Playing a pivotal role in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac electric activity, ion channels represent a major target for the induction of antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects. Thus, pharmacological properties of flavonoids on cardiovascular ion channels, ion currents and tissue preparations are being increasingly addressed in experimental studies. Whereas it has become clear that cardiovascular ion channels represent an important molecular target of flavonoids, the published data have not yet been systematically reviewed. PMID:20633021

Scholz, Eberhard P; Zitron, Edgar; Katus, Hugo A; Karle, Christoph A

2010-08-01

348

Phase-fitted discrete Lagrangian integrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase fitting has been extensively used during the last years to improve the behavior of numerical integrators on oscillatory problems. In this work, the benefits of the phase fitting technique are embedded in discrete Lagrangian integrators. The results show improved accuracy and total energy behavior in Hamiltonian systems. Numerical tests on the long term integration (10 5 periods) of the 2-body problem with eccentricity even up to 0.95 show the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, based on a geometrical evaluation of the frequency of the problem, a new technique for adaptive error control is presented.

Kosmas, O. T.; Vlachos, D. S.

2010-03-01

349

Mentoring that Fits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning teachers enter the classroom with diverse backgrounds, training, expectations, and needs. Yet too often, write the authors, induction programs resemble a one-size-fits-all poncho rather than a well-tailored coat. Reviewing the research, the authors write that high-quality mentors, a focus on improving instruction, and allocated time are…

Grossman, Pam; Davis, Emily

2012-01-01

350

Introduction Model Fitting  

E-print Network

Simulation References Small World random networks Definition closed to birth, non-disease death, immigration Definition closed to birth, non-disease death, immigration susceptibility to disease is homogenous across ERGM Model Fitting Simulation References Poisson Mean Field random networks Definition closed to birth

Albert, Réka

351

Water Fit to Drink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

Donovan, Edward P.

352

Making the Fitness Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's fitness levels are decreasing at an alarming rate. The Centers for Disease Control has determined that approximately 33% of children do not regularly engage in vigorous physical activity (CDC, 2002). As a result, childhood obesity has increased 100% since 1980 in the United States due to physical inactivity (CDC, 2004). A well-planned…

Brock, Sheri J.; Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine

2005-01-01

353

Fit for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

Vail, Kathleen

1999-01-01

354

Measuring Your Fitness Progress  

MedlinePLUS

... you’re becoming more fit, such as increased energy, greater ability to perform daily tasks, or even an improved outlook on life. VISIT www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life l Read more about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise ...

355

Motor coordination and health-related physical fitness of children with developmental coordination disorder: a three-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant changes in motor coordination and health-related physical fitness of Taiwanese children with and without DCD over a three-year period. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) test was used to evaluate motor coordination, while health-related physical fitness included several core components: (1) body mass index (BMI), (2) sit and reach forward, (3) long jump, (4) sit-ups, and (5) 800-m run. Both the Movement ABC and fitness tests were implemented once each a year for three years. Twenty-five children with DCD and 25 TD children, matched by age and gender participated in this study. The TD group showed significant long-term changes in BMI and long jump while the DCD group showed significant increases in BMI values and decreases in flexibility, measured by the sit and reach task. In general, children with DCD performed worse on the items of flexibility, muscle strength and muscle endurance after the first year. Compared to age- and gender-matched norms, children with DCD not only were less physically fit, but showed a significant long-term decline in flexibility and abdominal or core strength (sit-ups). In years two and three, there was a significant negative correlation between poor fitness and motor coordination. Based on the results of this longitudinal study, greater attention should be paid to monitoring and improving physical fitness of children with DCD to prevent further health-related problems while intervention. PMID:21632207

Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

2011-01-01

356

Italian network for obesity and cardiovascular disease surveillance: A pilot project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Also in Mediterranean countries, which are considered a low risk population for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the increase in body mass index (BMI) has become a public health priority. To evaluate the feasibility of a CVD and obesity surveillance network, forty General Practitioners (GPs) were engaged to perform a screening to assess obesity, cardiovascular risk, lifestyle habits and medication use.

Chiara Donfrancesco; Cinzia Lo Noce; Ovidio Brignoli; Gabriele Riccardi; Paola Ciccarelli; Francesco Dima; Luigi Palmieri; Simona Giampaoli

2008-01-01

357

Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

1992-01-01

358

Fitness Gyms and the Local Organization of Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the peculiarities of fitness gyms is the succession of people who try and follow a training programme and are not able to stick to it. Based on ethnographic research I try to account for this phenomenon. For regular participants, fitness training is not only important for the kind of body it will hopefully produce in the long run,

Roberta Sassatelli

1999-01-01

359

Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

Fares, Auda

2013-01-01

360

Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

1976-01-01

361

Pharmacogenomics and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established critical pathways and specific loci modulating therapeutic responses to commonly used drugs such as clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins. In addition, genomic approaches have defined mechanisms and genetic variants underlying important toxicities with these and other drugs. These findings have not only resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described to date might be deployed in clinical decision making. PMID:23689943

Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M.

2014-01-01

362

Relationship between level of independence in activities of daily living and estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women.  

PubMed

Elderly individuals undergo a progressive decline in functional capacity related to increased risk of dependency, loss of autonomy, and frailty. A lower cardiorespiratory fitness level is associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality from all causes. The Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ) was developed to facilitate prediction of the exercise capacity in older people with cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the VSAQ and functional capacity in elderly women. This study investigated the relationship between functional capacity and the estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women, as assessed by the VSAQ. In this descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 37 healthy elderly women (aged 70 ± 7 years). The assessment protocols used were the following: Anamnesis, VSAQ and nomogram (age adjusted), Senior Fitness Test (30-s chair stand, to assess lower-body strength; 8-foot up-and-go test, to assess agility-dynamic balance; and 2-min step test, to assess aerobic endurance). The Spearman test showed a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the functional tests and the VSAQ (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.715; 2-min step test rs=0.567; 30-s chair stand rs=0.582). Adjustment of the results by age improved the correlation (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.760; 2-min step test rs=0.627; 30-s chair stand rs=0.601). The VSAQ seems to be a simple way to estimate functional capacity, particularly in older women. PMID:24948514

de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; Maranhao Neto, Geraldo Albuquerque; Moraes, Helena; Emerick, Raphael Fonseca e Silva; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

2014-01-01

363

Data Plotting and Curve Fitting in MATLAB Curve Fitting  

E-print Network

Data Plotting and Curve Fitting in MATLAB Curve Fitting Get the file pwl.dat from the class web(1)*pwl(:,1)+fit1(2)) If you're getting tired of typing pwl(:,1), etc., create new variables with shorter]') ylabel(`Output Current [mA]') title(`Curve Fitting Exercise') It is very important to always label your

Harrison, Reid R.

364

Effects of cardiovascular lifestyle change on lipoprotein subclass profiles defined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering is a primary goal in clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, but traditional cholesterol levels may not accurately reflect the true atherogenicity of plasma lipid profiles. The size and concentration of lipoprotein particles, which transport cholesterol and triglycerides, may provide additional information for accurately assessing cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in patients participating in a prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle modification program designed to reverse or stabilize progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve our understanding of lipoprotein management in cardiac patients. Results The lifestyle intervention was effective in producing significant changes in lipoprotein subclasses that contribute to CAD risk. There was a clear beneficial effect on the total number of LDL particles (-8.3%, p < 0.05 compared to matched controls), small dense LDL particles (-9.5%, p < 0.05), and LDL particle size (+0.8%; p < 0.05). Likewise, participants showed significant improvement in traditional CAD risk factors such as body mass index (-9.9%, p < 0.01 compared to controls), total cholesterol (-5.5%, p < 0.05), physical fitness (+37.2%, p < 0.01), and future risk for CAD (-7.9%, p < 0.01). Men and women responded differently to the program for all clinically-relevant variables, with men deriving greater benefit in terms of lipoprotein atherogenicity. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to the lifestyle change program were not confounded by lipid-lowering medications. Conclusion In at risk patients motivated to participate, an intensive lifestyle change program can effectively alter traditional CAD risk factors and plasma lipoprotein subclasses and may reduce risk for cardiovascular events. Improvements in lipoprotein subclasses are more evident in men compared to women. PMID:19563671

Decewicz, David J; Neatrour, David M; Burke, Amy; Haberkorn, Mary Jane; Patney, Heather L; Vernalis, Marina N; Ellsworth, Darrell L

2009-01-01

365

Interventional Cardiovascular MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (iCMR) is potentially revolutionary because of the exquisite tissue\\u000a and blood imaging afforded to guide therapeutic procedures. By making small compromises in spatial or temporal resolution,\\u000a and with little or no modifications to commercial high-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, images can be\\u000a acquired and displayed almost instantaneously to operators. This may be useful simply

Robert J. Lederman

366

Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of testosterone (T) on cardiovascular disease in both men and women are summarized in this chapter. The epidemiologic\\u000a data suggest that hypogonadism is associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity,\\u000a asthma\\/COPD. Physiologically, androgen binding protein is expressed in the cardiac myocyte. Testosterone also affects basal\\u000a levels of intracellular calcium in the cardiac myocyte, as well

Allen D. Seftel; Spencer Land

367

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) creates images from atomic nuclei with uneven spin using radio waves in the presence\\u000a of a magnetic field. Full details of the physical principles can be found elsewhere [1]. For clinical purposes, MR is performed using hydrogen-1, which is abundant in water and fat. Radiofrequency waves excite\\u000a the area of interest to create tissue magnetization, which

Dudley J. Pennell

2001-01-01

368

Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for stroke  

PubMed Central

Given the potential of exercise to positively influence so many physical and psychosocial domains, the Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program was developed to address the multiple impairments arising from the chronic health condition of stroke. We present the details of this exercise program and the evidence which has shown that the FAME Program can improve motor function (muscle strength, balance, walking), cardiovascular fitness, bone density, executive functions and memory. The FAME Program can help to improve the physical and cognitive abilities of people living with a stroke and reduce the risk of secondary complications such as falls, fractures and heart disease. PMID:22287825

Eng, Janice J.

2011-01-01

369

Developmental Origins of Physical Fitness: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life.Methods\\/Principal FindingsThis

Minna K. Salonen; Eero Kajantie; Clive Osmond; Tom Forsén; Hilkka Ylihärsilä; Maria Paile-Hyvärinen; D. J. P. Barker; Johan G. Eriksson

2011-01-01

370

The influence of fitness on insulin resistance in obese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly pervasive environment of reduced activity and easy access to high caloric food is leading to an epidemic of\\u000a poor cardiovascular fitness, obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in children. Studies have shown that insulin\\u000a resistance (IR) to be an independent predictor for morbidity as well as mortality. These serve as a strong stimulus for public\\u000a health

Aaron L. Carrel; David B. Allen

2009-01-01

371

Too Old to Benefit from Sports? The Cardiovascular Effects of Exercise Training in Elderly Subjects Treated for Isolated Systolic Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypertension in the elderly is commonly characterized by an elevation of pulse pressure. With regard to advanced arteriosclerosis and limited physical fitness, doubt was casted whether elderly patients still achieve relevant cardiovascular benefits by physical exercise. The present work examines the impact of pulse pressure as a footprint of vascular ageing on cardiovascular benefits of endurance training in elderly

Timm H. Westhoff; Nadine Franke; Sven Schmidt; Katja Vallbracht-Israng; Romy Meissner; Havva Yildirim; Peter Schlattmann; Walter Zidek; Fernando Dimeo; Markus van der Giet

2007-01-01

372

Body composition and metabolic effects of a diet and exercise weight loss regimen on obese, HIV-infected women.  

PubMed

HIV has classically been a wasting disease. However, in the United States, obesity is increasingly common among HIV-infected individuals receiving effective antiviral treatment. The risks of obesity are unclear in HIV, although the increased prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the presence or absence of obesity causes growing concern. This study aimed to assess the effects of weight loss (through energy restriction combined with aerobic and resistance exercise) on body composition, body fat distribution, resting energy expenditure, quality of life (QOL), strength and fitness, and metabolic risk factors in obese, HIV-infected women. Eighteen HIV-infected women with a body mass index of 30 or more completed a 12-week weight loss program. Before and after the intervention, body composition and fat distribution by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, QOL, strength, and fitness were measured. Insulin sensitivity by intravenous glucose tolerance test and circulating cardiovascular risk factors (including lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) were measured in a subset (n = 9). Daily food intake and total body weight decreased (mean +/- SD) by 3195 +/- 477 kJ and 6.7 +/- 4.2 kg, respectively. Weight lost was 95.5% fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or 6.2 L of subcutaneous adipose tissue, 0.7 L visceral adipose tissue, and 0.8 L skeletal muscle by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting energy expenditure fell approximately 419 kJ, strength and fitness increased by 28.9% +/- 18.5% and 36.8% +/- 41.6%, respectively, and QOL improved in 11 of 13 dimensions. There was significant insulin resistance in the subset with metabolic measurements at baseline, and at follow-up there was no improvement in fasting glucose, insulin, or insulin sensitivity, nor was there any change in fasting lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, or plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. There was no significant change in CD4 count or HIV viral load. In conclusion, moderate weight loss achieved by a short-term program of diet and exercise in obese HIV-positive women appears safe and induces loss of adiposity in both the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue regions. Despite reduced food intake, weight and fat loss, as well as improvements in strength, fitness, and QOL, the lack of improvement in metabolic parameters suggests that additional interventions may be necessary to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:16979403

Engelson, Ellen S; Agin, Denise; Kenya, Sonjia; Werber-Zion, Galila; Luty, Besa; Albu, Jeanine B; Kotler, Donald P

2006-10-01

373

Quantum Data Fitting  

E-print Network

We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently (Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 103}, 150502 (2009)). In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data is a pure quantum state, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

Nathan Wiebe; Daniel Braun; Seth Lloyd

2012-04-24

374

Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

375

Fitting of protective football equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As no other guide was found to illustrate and describe protec tive equipment and its fitting, we have prepared this treatise. Properly fitted protective equipment for football is a must to prevent injury from occurring. Many injuries result from im properly fitted equipment. The helmet and shoulder pads are the most important pieces of equipment that require proper fit. Adequate

Joe Gieck; Frank C. McCue

1980-01-01

376

76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear...presentations made by subject matter experts. VA plans to use this information...pertain to the following four body systems: (1) Respiratory...

2011-10-06

377

Recovery heart rate: an indicator of cardiovascular risk among middle school children.  

PubMed

Recovery heart rate (RHR) has been used in adults to evaluate cardiovascular (CV) fitness, but less is known about RHR in children. Data from 1,276 participants in Project Healthy Schools, a school-based intervention in southeast Michigan, were collected. In addition, to demographic characteristics, physiologic factors examined included body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose levels, blood pressure, and HR. Information on diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior was collected through self-report. RHR was determined by measurement of HR after a 3-minute step test. Using quartiles of RHR as a marker of fitness, associations with demographic, physiologic, and behavioral factors were explored using ?(2) and Student t tests. Compared with children in the lowest quartile of RHR (i.e., most fit), those in the upper quartile of RHR (i.e., least fit) had greater mean LDL cholesterol (93.0 vs. 86.7 mg/dL; P = 0.02) and lower mean HDL cholesterol (50.9 vs. 55.9 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Children in the upper 95 % of BMI had greater mean RHR compared with those in the normal BMI range (116.6 vs. 100.3 kg/m(2)). Children in the upper quartile of RHR reported fewer days of vigorous to moderate exercise per week compared with children in the lowest quartile of RHR [4.8 vs. 4.1 (P < 0.001) for moderate exercise and 3.6 vs. 3.0 (P = 0.001) for vigorous exercise]. Among middle school children, RHR appears to be associated with physiologic parameters and health behaviors. RHR may be useful for identifying children at increased risk for developing CV risk factors. PMID:23483242

Simhaee, Daniel; Corriveau, Nicole; Gurm, Roopa; Geiger, Zachary; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Goldberg, Caren; Eagle, Kim A; Jackson, Elizabeth A

2013-08-01

378

Fitting the phenomenological MSSM  

SciTech Connect

We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C. [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Quevedo, Fernando [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); CERN, PH-TH, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2010-05-01

379

Benefits of physical exercise intervention on fitness of individuals with Down syndrome: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials.  

PubMed

This study systematically reviewed the impact of physical exercise interventions on physical fitness for individuals with Down syndrome. Articles published in English were searched from five major electronic databases, namely, CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro from inception until April 2013. These studies were screened through predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were then extracted and synthesized from the studies included. Meta-analyses were carried out where appropriate. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies, five studies were found to have high quality research methodology according to the PEDro scale. Varying exercise programs were used and four different fitness outcomes were evaluated: (i) balance, (ii) muscle strength and endurance, (iii) cardiovascular fitness, and (iv) body composition. Exercise interventions led to moderate to high effects on improving muscular strength and balance ((Equation is included in full-text article.)=0.74-1.10) whereas other outcomes showed less conclusive or limited positive evidence. Trends in the results suggest that exercise interventions improve muscular strength and balance. Suggestions for future research include follow-ups to the intervention to examine the longitudinal effects of exercise as well as controlling for confounding factors such as participants' compliance rate and severity levels of Down syndrome to enhance the effectiveness of the interventions. PMID:23778328

Li, Chunxiao; Chen, Shihui; Meng How, Yew; Zhang, Anthony L

2013-09-01

380

The relationship between physical activity and physical self-esteem in adolescents: the role of physical fitness indices.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate if physical fitness (strength/power, endurance, flexibility and coordination) mediates the cross-sectional relationship between physical activity and physical self-perception (athletic competence and physical appearance) in a sample of 15-year old adolescents. We wanted to investigate the relative strength of each indirect effect. The present data are taken from two waves of a larger data collection for the project "Youth in Balance", and was collected in the autumn of 2005 (N = 1207) and 2008 (N = 632). A total of 1839 students (889 girls and 950 boys) from 12 schools in Kristiansand took part. A bias-corrected bootstrapping technique was used to examine indirect effects. Results revealed that cardiovascular endurance, lower-body strength/power, and upper-body strength stood out as unique mediators in the relationship between physical activity and athletic competence in both genders. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of physical activity on physical appearance through physical strength/power and flexibility in males. No indirect effects of physical activity on physical appearance through actual physical fitness indices were detected in females. PMID:23406702

Haugen, Tommy; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Seiler, Stephen

2013-02-01

381

Cardiovascular recovery from stress predicts longitudinal changes in blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular reactivity and recovery were examined as predictors of blood pressure changes over 3 years. Blood pressure and heart rate readings were obtained from 73 men and women aged 18–20 years during cold pressor, mental arithmetic, tourniquet ischemia, cycle exercise and step exercise tasks. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for initial blood pressure, initial age, initial body-mass index, sex,

Jesse C. Stewart; Christopher R. France

2001-01-01

382

Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children.  

PubMed

Obesity and low levels of physical and metabolic fitness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The purpose of this investigation was to attenuate obesity and improve physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Schools have the opportunity, mechanisms, and personnel in place to deliver nutrition education, fitness activities, and a school food service that is nutritious and healthy. Cohorts from grades 3 to 5 in two school districts in rural Nebraska (Intervention/Control) participated in a 2-year study of physical activity and modified school lunch program. Data collection for aerobic capacity, body composition, blood chemistry, nutrition knowledge, energy intake, and physical activity was at the beginning and end of each year. Int received enhanced physical activity, grade specific nutrition education, and a lower fat and sodium school lunch program. Con continued with a regular school lunch and team sports activity program. At year 2, Int lunches had significantly less energy (9%), fat (25%), sodium (21%), and more fiber (17%). However, measures of 24-hour energy intake for Int and Con showed significant differences for sodium only. Physical activity in the classroom was 6% greater for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05) but physical activity outside of school was approximately 16% less for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05). Body weight and body fat were not different between schools for normal weight or obese children. No differences were found for cholesterol, insulin, and glucose; however, HDL cholesterol was significantly greater and cholesterol/HDL was significantly less for Int compared to Con (p < 0.05). It appears that compensation in both energy intake and physical activity outside of school may be responsible for the lack of differences between Int and Con. PMID:8732957

Donnelly, J E; Jacobsen, D J; Whatley, J E; Hill, J O; Swift, L L; Cherrington, A; Polk, B; Tran, Z V; Reed, G

1996-05-01

383

Value of Weight Reduction in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and contributes markedly to individual CV risk factors,\\u000a including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and other chronic conditions, such as osteoarthritis, obstructive\\u000a sleep apnea, and physical deconditioning. Obesity, defined as a body mass index ?30 kg\\/m2, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in severely obese patients with a body

Surya M. Artham; Carl J. Lavie; Richard V. Milani; Hector O. Ventura

2010-01-01

384

Can Exercise Increase Fitness and Reduce Weight in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15–20?years compared with the general population. Most years of lost life are due to the excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength, and weight. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. Results: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n?=?94) and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n?=?892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11–30% and strength by 33–37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression, exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting, little is known about the effect on weight reduction and cardiovascular fitness. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum, and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally, participants should be assessed beyond the intervention to identify long lasting effects. PMID:25120495

Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; N?rgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Moltke, Ane; Nordentoft, Merete

2014-01-01

385

Cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours in elementary school-age Inuvialuit and Gwich'in children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours in Aboriginal children from the Beaufort-Delta region (Northwest Territories). METHODS: A total of 91 elementary school-age children underwent a cross-sectional assessment of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and aerobic fitness. Healthy living knowledge and behaviours, including frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) and dietary intake, were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 49.5% of children were obese/overweight and 31.9% had elevated blood pressure. The percentages having one, two or three cardiovascular risk factor(s) were 64.4%, 42.2% and 15.6%, respectively, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Overall, the students obtained higher mean scores in the areas of healthy PA, body image, self-esteem and nutritious beverage knowledge (89%, 85%, 79% and 71% of the maximum scores, respectively). The lowest scores were in nutritious food consumption and healthy PA frequency (46% and 56% of the maximum scores, respectively). On average, children consumed 2.7 L of sugar-sweetened beverages weekly and <2 servings of fruits or vegetables daily. Children spent approximately 2 h per day watching television, playing games or using a computer. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for community-based approaches to address the high rates of obesity and related cardiovascular risk factors among these Aboriginal children. Given the disconnect between healthy living knowledge and behaviour, it is important that future treatment programs address other barriers faced by Aboriginal populations living in rural and remote regions, including the high cost and limited access to high-quality nutritious foods and beverages, and limited access to indoor recreational programs over the long winter season. PMID:24855429

Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Nguyen, Duc; Smith, Jane

2014-01-01

386

Cardiovascular determinants of life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases rises with aging and is one of the main causes of mortality in western countries.\\u000a In view of the progressively aging population, there is an urge for a better understanding of age-associated cardiovascular\\u000a diseases and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include unhealthy diet, diabetes,\\u000a obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity,

Yi Shi; Giovanni G. Camici; Thomas F. Lüscher

2010-01-01

387

Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death in North America. To improve outcomes, it will likely be necessary\\u000a to identify new potentially treatable conditions. Sleep apnea affects approximately 50% of patients with cardiovascular disease\\u000a and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Continuous positive airway pressure is currently the treatment of choice\\u000a and has many short-term favorable effects. The

Alexander G. Logan; T. Douglas Bradley

2010-01-01

388

Physical fitness of schoolgirls with Turner syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280) were studied with the use of the EUROFIT test battery. Girls with TS were significantly inferior to the control group in maintaining balance, standing broad jump, sit-ups, shuttle run, and endurance shuttle run (p < .001). No significant differences were found for plate tapping, but girls with TS were superior to their healthy mates (p < .001) in handgrip, sit-and-reach, and bent-arm hang. Unlike controls, body height in girls with TS had significant effects on handgrip strength (positive) and on plate tapping speed (negative), other contributions being relatively similar in both groups. It thus seems that the somatic specificity of girls with TS explains most differences in motor fitness. The identified motor deficiencies of girls with TS call for undertaking steps toward attracting those girls to motor activities. PMID:23406704

Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Stupnicki, Romuald

2013-02-01

389

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2011-09-01

390

Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24464106

Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

2014-09-01

391

Cardiovascular effects of antiretroviral drugs: clinical review.  

PubMed

In HIV infected patients an increased occurence of cardiac events has been demontrated from the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Antiretroviral drugs' regimens are, in fact, associated with several metabolic side effects, such as dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism and abnormal body fat distribution, that increase the cardiovascular risk of HIV subjects. In addition, HIV infection itself, the chronic inflammatory status and the relevant presence in this population of some of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to an higher incidence of cardio and cerebrovascular events. In last years several studies showed the occurence of carotid vascular impairment in patients in treatment with protease inhibitors (PI). Similarly the DAD Study reported an increase of 26% of the risk of myocardial infarction in patients on HAART and that this risk is indipendently associated with longer exposure to PI, even after multivariate adjustments. A correct evaluation of the metabolic status before starting HAART and an adeguate control of the drugs-related metabolic abnormalities may reduce the incidence of cardiac events and still improve HIV patients prognosis. This review will focus on the metbolic effects of antiretroviral drugs and to the contribution of combination antiretroviral therapy on cardiovascular risk. PMID:19075633

Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Paolillo, Stefania; Marciano, Caterina; Iorio, Annamaria; Losco, Teresa; Marsico, Fabio; Scala, Oriana; Ruggiero, Donatella; Ferraro, Sergio; Chiariello, Massimo

2008-12-01

392

Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine. PMID:24722571

Csanyi, Gabor; Miller, Francis J.

2014-01-01

393

A fitness screening model for increasing fitness assessment and research experiences in undergraduate exercise science students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students analyze and present original data they have collected, and hence have a cultivated sense of curiosity about the data, student learning is enhanced. It is often difficult to provide students an opportunity to practice their skills, use their knowledge, and gain research experiences during a typical course laboratory. This article describes a model of an out-of-classroom experience during which undergraduate exercise science students provide a free health and fitness screening to the campus community. Although some evidence of the effectiveness of this experience is presented, this is not a detailed evaluation of either the service or learning benefits of the fitness screening. Working in small learning groups in the classroom, students develop hypotheses about the health and fitness of the population to be screened. Then, as part of the health and fitness screening, participants are evaluated for muscular strength, aerobic fitness, body composition, blood pressure, physical activity, and blood cholesterol levels. Students then analyze the data collected during the screening, accept or reject their hypotheses based on statistical analyses of the data, and make in-class presentations of their findings. This learning experience has been used successfully to illustrate the levels of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lack of physical fitness in the campus community as well as provide an opportunity for students to use statistical procedures to analyze data. It has also provided students with an opportunity to practice fitness assessment and interpersonal skills that will enhance their future careers.

PhD Gregory A. Brown (University of Nebraska, Kearney Department of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Leisure Studies); Frank Lynott (The University of Nebraska Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Leisure Studies); Kate A Heelan (The University of Nebraska Health, Physical Eduction, Recreation, and Leisure Studies)

2008-06-25

394

Cardiovascular regulation in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity was investigated in the framework of the German Spacelab D2 mission. Preflight and postflight studies were performed to examine the relationship between disuse atrophy and the function of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Special attention was given to fluid load responses and postflight orthostatic hypotension. The preflight measurements were obtained, in supine and sitting positions. These measurements, carried out in the four D2 crew members, were performed six and nine months before flight and on mission day number five. The results obtained on the male crew showed that the stroke volume data from microgravity are virtually identical to preflight measurements in the sitting position.

Blomqvist, C. G.; Lane, L. D.; Wright, S. J.; Meny, G. M.; Buckey, J. C.; Levine, B. D.; Gaffney, F. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Arbeille, P.; Baisch, F.

1997-01-01

395

HDL and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The cholesterol contained within HDL is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and is a key component of predicting cardiovascular risk. However, despite its properties consistent with atheroprotection, the causal relation between HDL and atherosclerosis is uncertain. Human genetics and failed clinical trials have created scepticism about the HDL hypothesis. Nevertheless, drugs that raise HDL-C concentrations, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, are in late-stage clinical development, and other approaches that promote HDL function, including reverse cholesterol transport, are in early-stage clinical development. The final chapters regarding the effect of HDL-targeted therapeutic interventions on coronary heart disease events remain to be written. PMID:25131981

Rader, Daniel J; Hovingh, G Kees

2014-08-16

396

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427119

Batuman, Vecihi

2014-11-27

397

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427122

Alderman, Michael H

2014-11-27

398

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427121

Graudal, Niels

2014-11-27

399

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427120

Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Gand, Elise; Hadjadj, Samy

2014-11-27

400

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427117

2014-11-27

401

Sodium and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

To the Editor: In 2013, I served on an Institute of Medicine (IOM) panel whose members concluded that data published through 2012 relating cardiovascular outcomes to a sodium intake below 2300 mg per day were inconsistent and insufficient.(1) The article by O'Donnell and colleagues (Aug. 14 issue),(2) which presents data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, only adds to the confusion. A single morning urine sample is an inaccurate measure of usual sodium intake, ignoring day-to-day variability in sodium intake, diurnal variation in sodium excretion, and the effects of medication.(3) The Kawasaki formula also overestimates sodium exposure in . . . PMID:25427118

Cook, Nancy R

2014-11-27

402

Changes in body composition, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and eating behavior after an intensive lifestyle intervention with high volume of physical activity in severely obese subjects: a prospective clinical controlled trial.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of a 10-14-weeks inpatient lifestyle modification program, including minimum 90?min of physical activity (PA) five days/week, on body composition, CVD risk factors, and eating behavior in 139 obese subjects (BMI 42.6 ± 5.2?kg/m²). Completion rate was 71% (n = 71) in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) group and 85% (n = 33) among waiting list controls. Compared to controls body weight (-17.0 (95% CI:?-18.7, -15.3)?kg, P < 0.0001), fat mass (-15.2 (95% CI:?-17.4, -13.1)?kg, P < 0.0001), fat free mass (-1.2 (95% CI:?-2.2, -0.2)?kg, P = 0.016) and visceral fat (-86.6(95% CI:?-97.4, -75.7)?cm², P < 0.0001) were reduced in the ILI-group after 10-14 weeks. Within the ILI-group weight loss was -23.8 (95% CI:?-25.9, -21.7)?kg, P < 0.0001 and -20.3 (95% CI:?-23.3, -17.3)?kg, P < 0.0001, after six and 12 months, respectively. Systolic BP, glucose, triglycerides, and LDL-C were reduced, and HDL-C was increased (all P ? 0.006) after 10-14 weeks within the ILI group. The reduction in glucose and increase in HDL-C were sustained after 12 months (all P < 0.0001). After one year, weight loss was related to increased cognitive restraint and decreased uncontrolled eating (all P < 0.05). Thus, ILI including high volume of PA resulted in weight loss with almost maintenance of fat-free mass, favorable changes in CVD risk factors, and eating behavior in subjects with severe obesity. PMID:23710347

Danielsen, Kjersti Karoline; Svendsen, Mette; Mæhlum, Sverre; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2013-01-01

403

Altered Cardiovascular Variability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Altered cardiovascular variability is a prognostic indicator for cardiovascular events. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that OSA is accompanied by alterations in cardiovascular variability, even in the absence of overt cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results—Spectral analysis of variability of muscle sympathetic nerve activity, RR interval, and blood

Krzysztof Narkiewicz; Nicola Montano; Chiara Cogliati; Philippe J. H. van de Borne; Mark E. Dyken; Virend K. Somers

404

Health and Fitness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for physical activity to maintain good health is emphasized in this book. Regular exercise and a balanced diet are regarded as being of prime importance. The nutritional and caloric values of various diets are discussed in relation to their energy producing potential as well as their effect on body weight. Photographs, charts, and line…

Astrand, Per Olaf

405

Motor coordination and health-related physical fitness of children with developmental coordination disorder: A three-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant changes in motor coordination and health-related physical fitness of Taiwanese children with and

Yao-Chuen Li; Sheng K. Wu; John Cairney; Chiu-Yun Hsieh

2011-01-01

406

Arsenic and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase–derived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure. PMID:19015167

States, J. Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron

2009-01-01

407

Autophagy and cardiovascular aging  

PubMed Central

The biological aging process is commonly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Several theories have been put forward for aging-associated deterioration in ventricular function, including attenuation of growth hormone (insulin-like growth factors and insulin) signaling, loss of DNA replication and repair, histone acetylation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Recent evidence has depicted a rather unique role of autophagy as another important pathway in the regulation of longevity and senescence. Autophagy is a predominant cytoprotective (rather than self-destructive) process. It carries a prominent role in determination of lifespan. Reduced autophagy has been associated with aging, leading to accumulation of dysfunctional or damaged proteins and organelles. To the contrary, measures such as caloric restriction and exercise may promote autophagy to delay aging and associated comorbidities. Stimulation of autophagy using rapamycin may represent a novel strategy to prolong lifespan and combat aging-associated diseases. Rapamycin regulates autophagy through inhibition of the nutrient-sensing molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR through rapamycin and caloric restriction promotes longevity. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate some of the recent advances in an effort to better understand the interplay between rapamycin-induced autophagy and decelerating cardiovascular aging. PMID:22580468

Nair, Sreejayan; Ren, Jun

2012-01-01

408

Cardiovascular Effects of Felypressin  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular effects of felypressin (FEL) were studied in Wistar rats. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure measurements were taken in awake rats treated with vasopressin (AVP), FEL, or epinephrine (EPI). Each group received either an intravenous (IV) or an intracerebroventricular V1 receptor antagonist, saline, area postrema removal, or sham surgery. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls (P < .05) were applied. Felypressin and AVP induced a pressor effect, and bradycardia was inhibited by IV V1 antagonist. Intracerebroventricular V1 antagonist and area postrema removal enhanced their pressor effects. Epinephrine induced a higher pressor effect and a similar bradycardia that was not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that FEL depends on V1 receptors to induce pressor and bradycardic effects, and that it produces a high relationship between bradycardia and mean arterial pressure variation depending on area postrema and central V1 receptors. These effects are potentially less harmful to the cardiovascular system than the effects of EPI. PMID:17177590

Cecanho, Rodrigo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Ranali, José

2006-01-01

409

Optimization in Cardiovascular Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid mechanics plays a key role in the development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Advances in imaging methods and patient-specific modeling now reveal increasingly detailed information about blood flow patterns in health and disease. Building on these tools, there is now an opportunity to couple blood flow simulation with optimization algorithms to improve the design of surgeries and devices, incorporating more information about the flow physics in the design process to augment current medical knowledge. In doing so, a major challenge is the need for efficient optimization tools that are appropriate for unsteady fluid mechanics problems, particularly for the optimization of complex patient-specific models in the presence of uncertainty. This article reviews the state of the art in optimization tools for virtual surgery, device design, and model parameter identification in cardiovascular flow and mechanobiology applications. In particular, it reviews trade-offs between traditional gradient-based methods and derivative-free approaches, as well as the need to incorporate uncertainties. Key future challenges are outlined, which extend to the incorporation of biological response and the customization of surgeries and devices for individual patients.

Marsden, Alison L.

2014-01-01

410

Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army  

PubMed Central

The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

2009-01-01

411

Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:16390538

Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

2006-01-01

412

FIT ITALLT3 The World of Food & Fitness  

E-print Network

Foods Fund. Inc. for financial assistance in helping to make possible the publication$3.50 FIT ITALLT3 IOGETHER The World of Food & Fitness \\ :.. '? 41/ % Attit; P'caJct FN.U13 Oregon State' Extension UNIVERSITY Service 4-H 9318 Reprinted October 2005 #12;FIT ITALLUNIT3 The World of Food

Tullos, Desiree

413

Cardiovascular Response During Submaximal Underwater Treadmill Exercise in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Methods Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. Results SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Conclusion Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25379492

Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae

2014-01-01

414

University of Oxford Department of Cardiovascular Medicine  

E-print Network

1 University of Oxford Department of Cardiovascular Medicine in collaboration with the Oxford the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, which study molecular mechanisms in the early development The Medical Sciences Division, within which the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine is located, includes

Oxford, University of

415

Gender differences in cardiovascular reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pronounced cardiovascular reactivity to stress is a behavioral mechanism that may underlie the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). Based on the greater incidence of CHD among males than among females, the purpose of the current investigation was to test the hypothesis that in young adults (ages 17–29), males (n=47) show more cardiovascular reactivity than females (n=61) to two stressors,

Stephanie V. Stone; Theodore M. Dembroski; Paul T. Costa; James M. MacDougall

1990-01-01

416

Cardiovascular Complications of Cocaine Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary As cocaine use has become prevalent, an increasing number of reports of cocaine-associated morbidity and mortality, largely because of central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity, appeared. Cardiovascular toxicity is broad, and it may also lead to neurological, psychiatric and other organ-specific symptoms. Cocaine may induce myocardial ischemia by increasing myocardial oxygen demand while simultaneously decreasing myocardial oxygen supply. Most

Carla Gambarana

2009-01-01

417

Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

The objectives of this review are to discuss data on the cardiovascular risk increase associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the effects of RA treatments on the cardiovascular risk level, and the management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with RA. Overall, the risk of cardiovascular disease is increased 2-fold in RA patients compared to the general population, due to the combined effects of RA and conventional risk factors. There is some evidence that the cardiovascular risk increase associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy may be smaller in RA patients than in the general population. Glucocorticoid therapy increases the cardiovascular risk in proportion to both the current dose and the cumulative dose. Methotrexate and TNF? antagonists diminish cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. The management of dyslipidemia remains suboptimal. Risk equations may perform poorly in RA patients even when corrected using the multiplication factors suggested by the EUropean League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) (multiply the score by 1.5 when two of the following three criteria are met: disease duration longer than 10 years, presence of rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and extraarticular manifestations). Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid arteries in patients at moderate cardiovascular risk may allow a more aggressive approach to dyslipidemia management via reclassification into the high-risk category of patients with an intima-media thickness greater than 0.9 mm or atheroma plaque. PMID:24880190

Soubrier, Martin; Chamoux, Nicolas Barber; Tatar, Zuzana; Couderc, Marion; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Mathieu, Sylvain

2014-07-01

418

Gene Therapy and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy is a promising new field in modern medicine and holds great potential for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.\\u000a This chapter will discuss the principles and methods of gene-based therapy and the use of gene transfer in research and in\\u000a treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Yi Chu; Neal L. Weintraub; Donald D. Heistad

419

Cardiovascular Technology Program Needs Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990/91, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Cardiovascular Technology program. Fifty-two local hospitals were surveyed to gather information on the employment demand, employment benefits and career preparation requirements for cardiovascular technologists (CVTs), yielding a 62% response…

Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.