Science.gov

Sample records for cardiovascular system model

  1. Computer model of cardiovascular control system responses to exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches of systems analysis and mathematical modeling together with computer simulation techniques are applied to the cardiovascular system in order to simulate dynamic responses of the system to a range of exercise work loads. A block diagram of the circulatory model is presented, taking into account arterial segments, venous segments, arterio-venous circulation branches, and the heart. A cardiovascular control system model is also discussed together with model test results.

  2. A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.; Allen, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  3. Multi-scale modeling of hemodynamics in the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Liang, Fuyou; Wong, Jasmin; Fujiwara, Takashi; Ye, Wenjing; Tsubota, Ken-iti; Sugawara, Michiko

    2015-08-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a closed-loop and complex vascular network with multi-scaled heterogeneous hemodynamic phenomena. Here, we give a selective review of recent progress in macro-hemodynamic modeling, with a focus on geometrical multi-scale modeling of the vascular network, micro-hemodynamic modeling of microcirculation, as well as blood cellular, subcellular, endothelial biomechanics, and their interaction with arterial vessel mechanics. We describe in detail the methodology of hemodynamic modeling and its potential applications in cardiovascular research and clinical practice. In addition, we present major topics for future study: recent progress of patient-specific hemodynamic modeling in clinical applications, micro-hemodynamic modeling in capillaries and blood cells, and the importance and potential of the multi-scale hemodynamic modeling.

  4. A forward model-based validation of cardiovascular system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical evaluation of a cardiovascular system identification method that we previously developed for the analysis of beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and instantaneous lung volume. The method provides a dynamical characterization of the important autonomic and mechanical mechanisms responsible for coupling the fluctuations (inverse modeling). To carry out the evaluation, we developed a computational model of the cardiovascular system capable of generating realistic beat-to-beat variability (forward modeling). We applied the method to data generated from the forward model and compared the resulting estimated dynamics with the actual dynamics of the forward model, which were either precisely known or easily determined. We found that the estimated dynamics corresponded to the actual dynamics and that this correspondence was robust to forward model uncertainty. We also demonstrated the sensitivity of the method in detecting small changes in parameters characterizing autonomic function in the forward model. These results provide confidence in the performance of the cardiovascular system identification method when applied to experimental data.

  5. Modeling, Estimation and Control of Cardiovascular Systems with A Left Ventricular Assist Device

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yi

    to approximate the response of human cardiovascular circulatory system. This system model has one critical time as test environments for human cardiovascular circulatory systems with a left ventric- ular assist device patient are restored back to the normal physiologic range. Keywords: Cardiovascular circulatory system

  6. A bond graph model of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Le Rolle, V; Hernandez, A I; Richard, P Y; Buisson, J; Carrault, G

    2005-01-01

    The study of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has shown to provide useful indicators for risk stratification and early detection on a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. However, data gathered during different tests of the ANS are difficult to analyse, mainly due to the complex mechanisms involved in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system (CVS). Although model-based analysis of ANS data has been already proposed as a way to cope with this complexity, only a few models coupling the main elements involved have been presented in the literature. In this paper, a new model of the CVS, representing the ventricles, the circulatory system and the regulation of the CVS activity by the ANS, is presented. The models of the vascular system and the ventricular activity have been developed using the Bond Graph formalism, as it proposes a unified representation for all energetic domains, facilitating the integration of mechanic and hydraulic phenomena. In order to take into account the electro-mechanical behaviour of both ventricles, an electrophysiologic model of the cardiac action potential, represented by a set of ordinary differential equations, has been integrated. The short-term ANS regulation of heart rate, cardiac contractility and peripheral vasoconstriction is represented by means of continuous transfer functions. These models, represented in different continuous formalisms, are coupled by using a multi-formalism simulation library. Results are presented for two different autonomic tests, namely the Tilt Test and the Valsalva Manoeuvre, by comparing real and simulated signals. PMID:16583271

  7. Modelling couplings among the oscillators of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, A; Luchinsky, D G; McClintock, P V

    2001-08-01

    A mathematical model of the cardiovascular system is simulated numerically. The basic unit in the model is an oscillator that possesses a structural stability and robustness motivated by physiological understanding and by the analysis of measured time series. Oscillators with linear couplings are found to reproduce the main characteristic features of the experimentally obtained spectra. To explain the variability of cardiac and respiratory frequencies, however, it is essential to take into account the rest of the system, i.e. to consider the effect of noise. It is found that the addition of noise also results in epochs of synchronization, as observed experimentally. Preliminary analysis suggests that there is a mixture of linear and parametric couplings, but that the linear coupling seems to dominate. PMID:11556674

  8. Mathematical modelling of flow distribution in the human cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed model of the entire human cardiovascular system which aims to study the changes in flow distribution caused by external stimuli, changes in internal parameters, or other factors. The arterial-venous network is represented by 325 interconnected elastic segments. The mathematical description of each segment is based on equations of hydrodynamics and those of stress/strain relationships in elastic materials. Appropriate input functions provide for the pumping of blood by the heart through the system. The analysis employs the finite-element technique which can accommodate any prescribed boundary conditions. Values of model parameters are from available data on physical and rheological properties of blood and blood vessels. As a representative example, simulation results on changes in flow distribution with changes in the elastic properties of blood vessels are discussed. They indicate that the errors in the calculated overall flow rates are not significant even in the extreme case of arteries and veins behaving as rigid tubes.

  9. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  10. Mathematical modeling of human cardiovascular system for simulation of orthostatic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melchior, F. M.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the short-term response of the human cardiovascular system to orthostatic stresses in the context of developing a mathematical model of the overall system. It discusses the physiological issues involved and how these issues have been handled in published cardiovascular models for simulation of orthostatic response. Most of the models are stimulus specific with no demonstrated capability for simulating the responses to orthostatic stimuli of different types. A comprehensive model incorporating all known phenomena related to cardiovascular regulation would greatly help to interpret the various orthostatic responses of the system in a consistent manner and to understand the interactions among its elements. This paper provides a framework for future efforts in mathematical modeling of the entire cardiovascular system.

  11. A Mathematical Model for the First-Pass Dynamics of Antibiotics Acting on the Cardiovascular System

    E-print Network

    delivered to the lungs on a first circulatory pass. Key words: Compartmental model, circulatory system, drugA Mathematical Model for the First-Pass Dynamics of Antibiotics Acting on the Cardiovascular System compounds to the lungs and heart. We use a compartmental mass balance approach to develop a system

  12. from SIAM News, Volume 34, Number 6 Modeling the Cardiovascular System--

    E-print Network

    Canic, Suncica

    , and are certainly not applicable to the circulatory system as a whole1 from SIAM News, Volume 34, Number 6 Modeling the Cardiovascular System-- A Mathematical Adventure system, and the difficulty of coupling the different mathematical models appropriate for the different

  13. A forward model-based analysis of cardiovascular system identification methods

    E-print Network

    Mukkamala, Ramakrishna, 1971-

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular system identification is a potentially powerful approach for intelligent patient monitoring of cardiovascular function. Rather than merely recording hemodynamic signals, the signals are mathematically analyzed ...

  14. Modeling and simulation of the cardiovascular system: a review of applications, methods, and potentials.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Anja; Heinke, Stefanie; Spillner, Jan; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Abel, Dirk; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2009-10-01

    Proper function of the cardiovascular system is indispensible to human survival. However, this system is dominated by complex interactions between different physiological processes and control mechanisms. A structured analysis and a mathematical description of this system can provide more insight, and a computer-based simulation of dynamic processes in the cardiovascular system could be applied in numerous tasks. This article gives a review of different approaches to cardio-circulatory modeling and discusses methodological aspects and fields of application for several classes of models. PMID:19807287

  15. A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

  16. Mathematical modelling of the human cardiovascular system in the presence of stenosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a theoretical study on the distribution of blood flow in the human cardiovascular system when one or more blood vessels are affected by stenosis. The analysis employs a mathematical model of the entire system based on the finite element method. The arterial-venous network is represented by a large number of interconnected segments in the model. Values for the model parameters are based upon the published data on the physiological and rheological properties of blood. Computational results show how blood flow through various parts of the cardiovascular system is affected by stenosis in different blood vessels. No significant changes in the flow parameters of the cardiovascular system were found to occur when the reduction in the lumen diameter of the stenosed vessels was less than 65%.

  17. Study report on guidelines and test procedures for investigating stability of nonlinear cardiovascular control system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A general study of the stability of nonlinear as compared to linear control systems is presented. The analysis is general and, therefore, applies to other types of nonlinear biological control systems as well as the cardiovascular control system models. Both inherent and numerical stability are discussed for corresponding analytical and graphic methods and numerical methods.

  18. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  19. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models, and this application is also addressed. As an example of 0D cardiovascular modelling, a small selection of simple models have been represented in the CellML mark-up language and uploaded to the CellML model repository http://models.cellml.org/. They are freely available to the research and education communities. Conclusion Each published cardiovascular model has merit for particular applications. This review categorises 0D and 1D models, highlights their advantages and disadvantages, and thus provides guidance on the selection of models to assist various cardiovascular modelling studies. It also identifies directions for further development, as well as current challenges in the wider use of these models including service to represent boundary conditions for local 3D models and translation to clinical application. PMID:21521508

  20. Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular

    E-print Network

    Lazzaro, John

    Silicon Baroreceptors: Modeling Cardiovascular Pressure Transduction in Analog VLSI John Lazzaro of the baroreceptors in the carotid vessel. Inspired by re- cent work in silicon models of the cochlea [3

  1. Computational Models of the Cardiovascular System and Its Response to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamm, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    Computational models of the cardiovascular system are powerful adjuncts to ground-based and in-flight experiments. We will provide NSBRI with a model capable of simulating the short-term effects of gravity on cardiovascular function. The model from this project will: (1) provide a rational framework which quantitatively defines interactions among complex cardiovascular parameters and which supports the critical interpretation of experimental results and testing of hypotheses. (2) permit predictions of the impact of specific countermeasures in the context of various hypothetical cardiovascular abnormalities induced by microgravity. Major progress has been made during the first 18 months of the program: (1) We have developed an operational first-order computer model capable of simulating the cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress. The model consists of a lumped parameter hemodynamic model and a complete reflex control system. The latter includes cardiopulmonary and carotid sinus reflex limbs and interactions between the two. (2) We have modeled the physiologic stress of tilt table experiments and lower body negative pressure procedures (LBNP). We have verified our model's predictions by comparing them with experimental findings from the literature. (3) We have established collaborative efforts with leading investigators interested in experimental studies of orthostatic intolerance, cardiovascular control, and physiologic responses to space flight. (4) We have established a standardized method of transferring data to our laboratory from the ongoing NSBRI bedrest studies. We use this data to estimate input parameters to our model and compare our model predictions to actual data to further verify our model. (5) We are in the process of systematically simulating current hypotheses concerning the mechanism underlying orthostatic intolerance by matching our simulations to stand test data from astronauts pre- and post-flight. (6) We are in the process of developing a JAVA version of the simulator which will be distributed amongst the cardiovascular team members. Future work on this project involves modifications of the model to represent a rodent (rat) model, further evaluation of the bedrest astronaut and animal data, and systematic investigation of specific countermeasures.

  2. Modeling the cardiovascular system using a nonlinear additive autoregressive model with exogenous input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, M.; Suhrbier, A.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2008-07-01

    The parameters of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability have proved to be useful analytical tools in cardiovascular physics and medicine. Model-based analysis of these variabilities additionally leads to new prognostic information about mechanisms behind regulations in the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we analyze the complex interaction between heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration by nonparametric fitted nonlinear additive autoregressive models with external inputs. Therefore, we consider measurements of healthy persons and patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), with and without hypertension. It is shown that the proposed nonlinear models are capable of describing short-term fluctuations in heart rate as well as systolic blood pressure significantly better than similar linear ones, which confirms the assumption of nonlinear controlled heart rate and blood pressure. Furthermore, the comparison of the nonlinear and linear approaches reveals that the heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects is caused by a higher level of noise as well as nonlinearity than in patients suffering from OSAS. The residue analysis points at a further source of heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects, in addition to heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration. Comparison of the nonlinear models within and among the different groups of subjects suggests the ability to discriminate the cohorts that could lead to a stratification of hypertension risk in OSAS patients.

  3. A dimensionally-heterogeneous closed-loop model for the cardiovascular system and its applications.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P J; Feijóo, R A

    2013-05-01

    In the present work a computational model of the entire cardiovascular system is developed using heterogeneous mathematical representations. This model integrates different levels of detail for the blood circulation. The arterial tree is described by a one dimensional model in order to simulate the wave propagation phenomena that take place at the larger arterial vessels. The inflow and outflow locations of this 1D model are coupled with lumped parameter descriptions of the remainder part of the circulatory system, closing the loop. The four cardiac valves are considered using a valve model which allows for stenoses and regurgitation phenomena. In addition, full 3D geometrical models of arterial districts are embedded in this closed-loop circuit to model the local blood flow in specific vessels. This kind of detailed closed-loop network for the cardiovascular system allows hemodynamics analyses of patient-specific arterial district, delivering naturally the appropriate boundary conditions for different cardiovascular scenarios. An example of application involving the effect of aortic insufficiency on the local hemodynamics of a cerebral aneurism is provided as a motivation to reproduce, through numerical simulation, the hemodynamic environment in patients suffering from infective endocarditis and mycotic aneurisms. The need for incorporating homeostatic control mechanisms is also discussed in view of the large sensitivity observed in the results, noting that this kind of integrative modeling allows such incorporation. PMID:22902782

  4. A Delay Recruitment Model of the Cardiovascular Control System

    E-print Network

    McGuinness, Mark

    of ageing. 1 Introduction Control of blood pressure is critical to human health. Hypertension (high blood system, and use it to explore blood pressure and heart rate variability under short-term baroreflex of baroreflex health, using natural variations in heart rate and blood pressure data, requires a deep

  5. PPAR-? in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Sheng Zhong; Ivashchenko, Christine Y.; Usher, Michael G.; Mortensen, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), an essential transcriptional mediator of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, is increasingly recognized as a key player in inflammatory cells and in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. PPAR-? agonists, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), increase insulin sensitivity, lower blood glucose, decrease circulating free fatty acids and triglycerides, lower blood pressure, reduce inflammatory markers, and reduce atherosclerosis in insulin-resistant patients and animal models. Human genetic studies on PPAR-? have revealed that functional changes in this nuclear receptor are associated with CVD. Recent controversial clinical studies raise the question of deleterious action of PPAR-? agonists on the cardiovascular system. These complex interactions of metabolic responsive factors and cardiovascular disease promise to be important areas of focus for the future. PMID:18288291

  6. A computational physiology approach to personalized treatment models: the beneficial effects of slow breathing on the human cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Fonoberova, Maria; Mezi?, Igor; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Mezi?, Adriana; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Bronya

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ?6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and depression. Yet, little is known about the system-level cardiovascular changes that occur during resonance breathing or the extent to which individuals differ in cardiovascular benefit. This study used a computational physiology approach to dynamically model the human cardiovascular system at rest and during resonance breathing. Noninvasive measurements of heart period, beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration period were obtained from 24 healthy young men and women. A model with respiration as input was parameterized to better understand how the cardiovascular processes that control variability in heart period and blood pressure change from rest to resonance breathing. The cost function used in model calibration corresponded to the difference between the experimental data and model outputs. A good match was observed between the data and model outputs (heart period, blood pressure, and corresponding power spectral densities). Significant improvements in several modeled cardiovascular functions (e.g., blood flow to internal organs, sensitivity of the sympathetic component of the baroreflex, ventricular elastance) were observed during resonance breathing. Individual differences in the magnitude and nature of these dynamic responses suggest that computational physiology may be clinically useful for tailoring heart rate variability biofeedback interventions for the needs of individual patients. PMID:25063789

  7. Development of the Patient-specific Cardiovascular Modeling System Using Immersed Boundary Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Wee-Beng; Lin, Liang-Yu; Tseng, Wen-Yih; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2010-05-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based, patient-specific cardiovascular modeling system is under-developed. The system can identify possible diseased conditions and facilitate physicians' diagnosis at early stage through the hybrid CFD simulation and time-resolved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The CFD simulation is initially based on the three-dimensional heart model developed by McQueen and Peskin, which can simultaneously compute fluid motions and elastic boundary motions using the immersed boundary method. We extend and improve the three-dimensional heart model for the clinical application by including the patient-specific hemodynamic information. The flow features in the ventricles and their responses are investigated under different inflow and outflow conditions during diastole and systole phases based on the quasi-realistic heart model, which takes advantage of the observed flow scenarios. Our results indicate distinct differences between the two groups of participants, including the vortex formation process in the left ventricle (LV), as well as the flow rate distributions at different identified sources such as the aorta, vena cava and pulmonary veins/artery. We further identify some key parameters which may affect the vortex formation in the LV. Thus it is hypothesized that disease-related dysfunctions in intervals before complete heart failure can be observed in the dynamics of transmitral blood flow during early LV diastole.

  8. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  9. The cardiovascular system as coupled oscillators?

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, A; Lotric, M B; Strle, S; Haken, H

    2001-08-01

    Based on physiological knowledge, and on an analysis of signals related to its dynamics, we propose a model of the cardiovascular system. It consists of coupled oscillators. Each of them describes one of the subsystems involved in the regulation of one passage of blood through the circulatory system. The flow of blood through the system of closed tubes-the blood vessels-is described by wave equations. PMID:11556673

  10. Cardiovascular-Respiratory HUT Model including Optimal Control and Comparison to LBNP models

    E-print Network

    Batzel, Jerry

    introduces a model of the cardiovascular and respiratory system which is used to simulate orthostatic stress CONTENTS Contents Contents 2 1 Physiology 3 1.1 General cardiovascular and respiratory system functionCardiovascular-Respiratory HUT Model including Optimal Control and Comparison to LBNP models Martin

  11. Cardiovascular-Respiratory HUT Model including Optimal Control and Comparison to LBNP models

    E-print Network

    Batzel, Jerry

    introduces a model of the cardiovascular and respiratory system which is used to simulate orthostatic stress;2 CONTENTS Contents Contents 2 1 Physiology 3 1.1 General cardiovascular and respiratory system functionCardiovascular-Respiratory HUT Model including Optimal Control and Comparison to LBNP models Martin

  12. BE 508: Quantitative Studies of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems

    E-print Network

    BE 508: Quantitative Studies of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems Spring Semester, 2015 2. structure-function relationships of the respiratory system 3. the structure of the respiratory system (1 lecture) (Handout) 2. Measurements and basic modeling of respiratory function (2

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model integration is progressively moving towards 'digital patient' or 'virtual physiological human' representations. When combined with population-scale numerical models, these models have the potential to reduce the cost, time and risk associated with clinical trials. The adoption of CFD modelling signals a new era in cardiovascular medicine. While potentially highly beneficial, a number of academic and commercial groups are addressing the associated methodological, regulatory, education- and service-related challenges. PMID:26512019

  14. A Priori Identifiability Analysis of Cardiovascular Models

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Saccomani, Maria P.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.

    2013-01-01

    Model parameters, estimated from experimentally measured data, can provide insight into biological processes that are not experimentally measurable. Whether this optimized parameter set is a physiologically relevant complement to the experimentally measured data, however, depends on the optimized parameter set being unique, a model property known as a priori global identifiability. However, a priori identifiability analysis is not common practice in the biological world, due to the lack of easy-to-use tools. Here we present a program, Differential Algebra for Identifiability of Systems (DAISY), that facilitates identifiability analysis. We applied DAISY to several cardiovascular models: systemic arterial circulation (Windkessel, T-Tube) and cardiac muscle contraction (complex stiffness, crossbridge cycling-based). All models were globally identifiable except the T-Tube model. In this instance, DAISY was able to provide insight into making the model identifiable. We applied numerical parameter optimization techniques to estimate unknown parameters in a model DAISY found globally identifiable. While all the parameters could be accurately estimated, a sensitivity analysis was first necessary to identify the required experimental data. Global identifiability is a prerequisite for numerical parameter optimization, and in a variety of cardiovascular models, DAISY provided a reliable, fast, and simple platform to provide this identifiability analysis.

  15. Computational modeling as part of alternative testing strategies in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: inhaled nanoparticle dose modeling based on representative aerosol measurements and corresponding toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilou, Marika; Mavrofrydi, Olga; Housiadas, Christos; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Papazafiri, Panagiota

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the cardiovascular system. Regarding the first objective, a lung transport and deposition model was combined with a lung clearance/retention model to estimate NPs dose in the different regions of the human respiratory tract and some adjacent tissues. On the other hand, CFPD was used to estimate particle transport and deposition of particles in a physiologically based bifurcation created by the third and fourth lung generations (respiratory system), as well as to predict the fate of super-paramagnetic particles suspended in a liquid under the influence of an external magnetic field (cardiovascular system). All the above studies showed that, with proper refinement, the developed computational models and methodologies may serve as an alternative testing strategy, replacing transport/deposition experiments that are expensive both in time and resources and contribute to risk assessment. PMID:24295373

  16. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  17. Vitamin D and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Artaza, Jorge N; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Norris, Keith C

    2009-09-01

    Several epidemiologic and clinical studies have suggested that there is a strong association between hypovitaminosis D and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hypovitaminosis D was reported as a risk factor for increased cardiovascular events among 1739 adult participants in the Framingham Offspring Study. Analysis of more than 13,000 adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) showed that even though hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased prevalence of CVD risk factors, its association with all-cause mortality is independent of these risk factors. Importantly, epidemiologic studies suggested that patients who had chronic kidney disease and were treated with activated vitamin D had a survival advantage when compared with those who did not receive treatment with these agents. Mechanistically, emerging data have linked vitamin D administration with improved cardiac function and reduced proteinuria, and hypovitaminosis D is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation. Preliminary studies suggested that activated vitamin D inhibits the proliferation of cardiomyoblasts by promoting cell-cycle arrest and enhances the formation of cardiomyotubes without inducing apoptosis. Activated vitamin D has also been shown to attenuate left ventricular dysfunction in animal models and humans. In summary, emerging studies suggest that hypovitaminosis D has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, reinforcing its importance as a public health problem. There is a need to advance our understanding of the biologic pathways through which vitamin D affects cardiovascular health and to conduct prospective clinical interventions to define precisely the cardioprotective effects of nutritional vitamin D repletion. PMID:19696220

  18. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines. PMID:18979453

  19. Cardiovascular Toxicities from Systemic Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Wong, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity is unfortunately a potential short- or long-term sequela of breast cancer therapy. Both conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines and newer targeted agents such as trastuzumab can cause varying degrees of cardiac dysfunction. Type I cardiac toxicity is dose-dependent and irreversible, whereas Type II is not dose-dependent and is generally reversible with cessation of the drug. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the cardiovascular effects of systemic breast cancer treatments, with a focus on the putative mechanisms of toxicity, the role of biomarkers, and potential methods of preventing and minimizing cardiovascular complications. PMID:25538891

  20. Amyloid in the cardiovascular system: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kholová, I; Niessen, H W M

    2005-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is a common target of amyloidosis. This review presents the current clinical and diagnostic approach to amyloidosis, with the emphasis on cardiovascular involvement. It summarises recent nomenclature, classification, and pathogenesis of amyloidosis. In addition, non-invasive possibilities are discussed, together with endomyocardial biopsies in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Finally, recent advances in treatment and prognostic implications are presented. PMID:15677530

  1. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

  2. Modeling of Cardiovascular Response to Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, M. Keith

    1999-01-01

    It was the hypothesis of this Project that the Simple lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity generates several purely physical reactions that underlie and may explain, in part, the cardiovascular response to weightlessness. For instance, hydrostatic pressure within the ventricles of the heart may improve cardiac performance by promoting expansion of ventricular volume during diastole. The lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity might, therefore, reduce diastolic filling and cardiac performance. The change in transmural pressure is possible due to the difference in hydrostatic pressure gradients between the blood inside the ventricle and the lung tissue surrounding the ventricle due to their different densities. On the other hand, hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature may reduce cardiac inlet pressures because of the typical location of the heart above the hydrostatic indifference level (the level at which pressure remains constant throughout changes in gravity). Additional physical responses of the body to changing gravitational conditions may influence cardiovascular performance. For instance, fluid shifts from the lower body to the thorax in microgravity may serve to increase central venous pressure (CVP) and boost cardiac output (CO). The concurrent release of gravitational force on the rib cage may tend to increase chest girth and decrease pedcardial pressure, augmenting ventricular filling. The lack of gravity on pulmonary tissue may allow an upward shifting of lung mass, causing a further decrease in pericardial pressure and increased CO. Additional effects include diuresis early in the flight, interstitial fluid shifts, gradual spinal extension and movement of abdominal mass, and redistribution of circulatory impedance because of venous distention in the upper body and the collapse of veins in the lower body. In this project, the cardiovascular responses to changes in intraventricular hydrostatic pressure, in intravascular hydrostatic pressure and, to a limited extent, in extravascular and pedcardial hydrostatic pressure were investigated. A complete hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system was built and flown aboard the NASA KC-135 and a computer model was developed and tested in simulated microgravity. Results obtained with these models have confirmed that a simple lack of hydrostatic pressure within an artificial ventricle causes a decrease in stroke volume. When combined with the acute increase in ventricular pressure associated with the elimination of hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature and the resultant cephalad fluid shift with the models in the upright position, however, stroke volume increased in the models. Imposition of a decreased pedcardial pressure in the computer model and in a simplified hydraulic model increased stroke volume. Physiologic regional fluid shifting was also demonstrated by the models. The unifying parameter characterizing of cardiac response was diastolic ventricular transmural pressure (DVDELTAP) The elimination of intraventricular hydrostatic pressure in O-G decreased DVDELTAP stroke volume, while the elimination of intravascular hydrostatic pressure increased DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the upright posture, but reduced DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the launch posture. The release of gravity on the chest wall and its associated influence on intrathoracic pressure, simulated by a drop in extraventricular pressure4, increased DVDELTAP ans stroke volume.

  3. Model for Predicting Cardiovascular Disease: Insights from a Korean Cardiovascular Risk Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak

    2015-01-01

    The profile and prevalence of risk factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD) are different between Western and Asian populations. In the guidelines, tailored approaches following risk stratification based on CVD risk models are recommended for the primary prevention of CVD in asymptomatic subjects. However, current risk models for predicting CVD in Asian populations are limited. A recent study of a large cohort of asymptomatic Korean individuals developed a CVD risk model to predict global cardiovascular risk that showed good performance in predicting cardiovascular events. This model may be useful for the primary prevention of CVD in East Asian individuals as well as Koreans. PMID:26587465

  4. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Gohean, Jeffrey R.; George, Mitchell J.; Pate, Thomas D.; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G.; Smalling, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to utilize a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device to continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous, pulsatile, valveless, dual piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared to measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared to the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device. PMID:23438771

  5. Exercise and the cardiovascular system: clinical science and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-07-01

    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure. These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and heart failure, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs. PMID:26139859

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23292717

  7. Modeling and simulating human cardiovascular response to acceleration

    E-print Network

    Zamanian, Sam Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The human cardiovascular system routinely encounters conditions that cause it to adapt. For example, when an astronaut enters microgravity, his/her cardiovascular system adapts rapidly to the weightless environment with ...

  8. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside County, CA Pursuant...manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within Sites...

  9. Mathematical biomarkers for the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Luciana A.; Pereira, Valter L.; Muralikrishna, Amita; Albarwani, Sulayma; Brás, Susana; Gouveia, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns, and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e., drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains, and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. PMID:24109456

  10. Mathematical biomarkers for the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Campos, Luciana A; Pereira, Valter L; Muralikrishna, Amita; Albarwani, Sulayma; Brás, Susana; Gouveia, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns, and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e., drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains, and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. PMID:24109456

  11. Clinical models of cardiovascular regulation after weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Jacob, G.; Ertl, A.; Shannon, J.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1996-01-01

    After several days in microgravity, return to earth is attended by alterations in cardiovascular function. The mechanisms underlying these effects are inadequately understood. Three clinical disorders of autonomic function represent possible models of this abnormal cardiovascular function after spaceflight. They are pure autonomic failure, baroreflex failure, and orthostatic intolerance. In pure autonomic failure, virtually complete loss of sympathetic and parasympathetic function occurs along with profound and immediate orthostatic hypotension. In baroreflex failure, various degrees of debuffering of blood pressure occur. In acute and complete baroreflex failure, there is usually severe hypertension and tachycardia, while with less complete and more chronic baroreflex impairment, orthostatic abnormalities may be more apparent. In orthostatic intolerance, blood pressure fall is minor, but orthostatic symptoms are prominent and tachycardia frequently occurs. Only careful autonomic studies of human subjects in the microgravity environment will permit us to determine which of these models most closely reflects the pathophysiology brought on by a period of time in the microgravity environment.

  12. Drug releasing systems in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date. PMID:19379142

  13. Estimation of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance using a multivariate regression model with features selected from the finger photoplethysmogram and routine cardiovascular measurements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) are two important parameters of the cardiovascular system. The ability to measure these parameters continuously and noninvasively may assist in diagnosing and monitoring patients with suspected cardiovascular diseases, or other critical illnesses. In this study, a method is proposed to estimate both the CO and SVR of a heterogeneous cohort of intensive care unit patients (N=48). Methods Spectral and morphological features were extracted from the finger photoplethysmogram, and added to heart rate and mean arterial pressure as input features to a multivariate regression model to estimate CO and SVR. A stepwise feature search algorithm was employed to select statistically significant features. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to assess the generalized model performance. The degree of agreement between the estimation method and the gold standard was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Results The Bland-Altman bias ±precision (1.96 times standard deviation) for CO was -0.01 ±2.70 L min-1 when only photoplethysmogram (PPG) features were used, and for SVR was -0.87 ±412 dyn.s.cm-5 when only one PPG variability feature was used. Conclusions These promising results indicate the feasibility of using the method described as a non-invasive preliminary diagnostic tool in supervised or unsupervised clinical settings. PMID:23452705

  14. O-GlcNAc and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Dassanayaka, Sujith; Jones, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is capable of robust changes in response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli through intricate signaling mechanisms. The area of metabolism has witnessed a veritable renaissance in the cardiovascular system. In particular, the post-translational ?-O-linkage of N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to cellular proteins represents one such signaling pathway that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This highly dynamic protein modification may induce functional changes in proteins and regulate key cellular processes including translation, transcription, and cell death. In addition, its potential interplay with phosphorylation provides an additional layer of complexity to post-translational regulation. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway generally requires glucose to form the nucleotide sugar, UDP-GlcNAc. Accordingly, O-GlcNAcylation may be altered in response to nutrient availability and cellular stress. Recent literature supports O-GlcNAcylation as an autoprotective response in models of acute stress (hypoxia, ischemia, oxidative stress). Models of sustained stress, such as pressure overload hypertrophy, and infarct-induced heart failure, may also require protein O-GlcNAcylation as a partial compensatory mechanism. Yet, in models of Type II diabetes, O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated in the subsequent development of vascular, and even cardiac, dysfunction. This review will address this apparent paradox and discuss the potential mechanisms of O-GlcNAc-mediated cardioprotection and cardiovascular dysfunction. This discussion will also address potential targets for pharmacologic interventions and the unique considerations related to such targets. PMID:24287310

  15. A Pulsatile Cardiovascular Computer Model for Teaching Heart-Blood Vessel Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kenneth; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a model which gives realistic predictions of pulsatile pressure, flow, and volume events in the cardiovascular system. Includes computer oriented laboratory exercises for veterinary and graduate students; equations of the dynamic and algebraic models; and a flow chart for the cardiovascular teaching program. (JN)

  16. User's instructions for the high speed version of the cardiovascular exercise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model and digital computer simulation of the human cardiovascular system and its controls were developed to simulate transient responses to bicycle ergometer exercise. The purpose of the model was to provide a method to analyze cardiovascular control hypotheses which cannot be easily tested in an animal or human or in a spaceflight environment.

  17. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A.; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models. PMID:26539113

  18. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. PMID:12507317

  19. Imaging of cardiovascular complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lin, K; Lloyd-Jones, D M; Li, D; Liu, Y; Yang, J; Markl, M; Carr, J C

    2015-10-01

    In the long-term survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death. Recently, multimodality cardiovascular imaging methods have been adopted for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, which has shown to be associated with both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and SLE-specific conditions. Quantitative imaging biomarkers, which can describe both morphological and functional abnormalities in the heart, are expected to provide new insights to stratify cardiovascular risks and to guide SLE management by assessing individual responses to therapies either protecting the cardiovascular system or suppressing the autoimmune reactions. In this review, we will discuss cutting-edge cardiovascular imaging techniques and potential clinical applications and limitations of those techniques for the evaluation of major SLE-related heart disorders. PMID:26038342

  20. Physiological homology between Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cardiovascular systems

    E-print Network

    Choma, Michael A.

    The physiology of the Drosophila melanogaster cardiovascular system remains poorly characterized compared with its vertebrate counterparts. Basic measures of physiological performance remain unknown. It also is unclear ...

  1. Space weather and cardiovascular system. New findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yury; Breus, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Researches of last two decades have shown that the cardiovascular system represents the most probable target for influence of helio - and geomagnetic activity. Both cardiovascular system and system of blood are connected very closely: one system cannot exist without another. For the same reason the effects perceived by one system, are easily transferred to another. Laboratory tests such as blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and capillary blood velocity (CBV) performed in Scientific Clinical Center JSC "Russian Railways in patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) revealed a high dependence with a level of geomagnetic activity. Results of these and other findings allow to assume that blood itself can be a sensor of geomagnetic fields variations because erythrocytes, platelets, and leucocytes bearing electric charge on membranes, and in a comparable magnetic field can change as own properties and properties of blood flow. It is interesting that not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also the periods of very quiet geomagnetic conditions affect a capillary blood velocity, slowing down it. It was shown during long-term experiment with isolation named 'MARS-500' in spatial facility of the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow as imitation of an extended space mission to Mars. Using digital capillaroscope 'Russia', two crewmembers - medical doctors made records of microcirculation parameters at themselves and other four participants of 'Martian' team. Capillary records were performed before, during, and after period of isolation in medical module of MARS-500 facility. At the period of experiment nobody of crewmembers knew about real geomagnetic conditions. In days of active geomagnetic conditions average CBV has registered as 389 ± 167 ?m/s, that statistically significant (p

  2. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    PubMed

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  3. Degradation Model of Bioabsorbable Cardiovascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiyi; Liu, Xiangkun; Li, Zhonghua; Huang, Chubo; Zhang, Wen; Meng, Juan; Chang, Zhaohua; Hua, Zezhao

    2014-01-01

    This study established a numerical model to investigate the degradation mechanism and behavior of bioabsorbable cardiovascular stents. In order to generate the constitutive degradation material model, the degradation characteristics were characterized with user-defined field variables. The radial strength bench test and analysis were used to verify the material model. In order to validate the numerical degradation model, in vitro bench test and in vivo implantation studies were conducted under physiological and normal conditions. The results showed that six months of degradation had not influenced the thermodynamic properties and mechanical integrity of the stent while the molecular weight of the stents implanted in the in vivo and in vitro models had decreased to 61.8% and 68.5% respectively after six month's implantation. It was also found that the degradation rate, critical locations and changes in diameter of the stents in the numerical model were in good consistency in both in vivo and in vitro studies. It implies that the numerical degradation model could provide useful physical insights and prediction of the stent degradation behavior and evaluate, to some extent, the in-vivo performance of the stent. This model could eventually be used for design and optimization of bioabsorbable stent. PMID:25365310

  4. Predictions of cardiovascular responses during STS reentry using mathematical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.; Srinivasan, R.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological adaptation to weightless exposure includes cardiovascular deconditioning arising in part from a loss of total circulating blood volume and resulting in a reduction of orthostatic tolerance. The crew of the Shuttle orbiter are less tolerant to acceleration forces in the head-to-foot direction during the reentry phase of the flight at a time they must function at a high level of performance. The factors that contribute to orthostatic intolerance during and following reentry and to predict the likelihood of impaired crew performance are evaluated. A computer simulation approach employing a mathematical model of the cardiovascular system is employed. It is shown that depending on the severity of blood volume loss, the reentry acceleration stress may be detrimental to physiologic function and may place the physiologic status of the crew near the borderline of some type of impairment. They are in agreement with conclusions from early ground-based experiments and from observations of early Shuttle flights.

  5. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #21 [m: Cardiovascular System

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    pressure Flap-like valves because blood runs against gravity back to heart #12;ME498/599 CardiovasculatureME498/599 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #21 [m: Cardiovascular System] General Objectives: The cardiovascular system utilizes all four tissue types in the process of delivering nutrients

  6. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #21 [m: Cardiovascular System

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    pressure Flap-like valves because blood runs against gravity back to heart #12;ME411/511 CardiovasculatureME411/511 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #21 [m: Cardiovascular System] General Objectives: The cardiovascular system utilizes all four tissue types in the process of delivering nutrients

  7. A mock circulation model for cardiovascular device evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schampaert, S; Pennings, K A M A; van de Molengraft, M J G; Pijls, N H J; van de Vosse, F N; Rutten, M C M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an integrated mock circulation system that functions in a physiological manner for testing cardiovascular devices under well-controlled circumstances. In contrast to previously reported mock loops, the model includes a systemic, pulmonary, and coronary circulation, an elaborate heart contraction model, and a realistic heart rate control model. The behavior of the presented system was tested in response to changes in left ventricular contractile states, loading conditions, and heart rate. For validation purposes, generated hemodynamic parameters and responses were compared to literature. The model was implemented in a servo-motor driven mock loop, together with a relatively simple lead-lag controller. The pressure and flow signals measured closely mimicked human pressure under both physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, the system's response to changes in preload, afterload, and heart rate indicate a proper implementation of the incorporated feedback mechanisms (frequency and cardiac function control). Therefore, the presented mock circulation allows for generic in vitro testing of cardiovascular devices under well-controlled circumstances. PMID:24622168

  8. Regulation of sympathetic nervous system function after cardiovascular deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasser, E. M.; Moffitt, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans subjected to prolonged periods of bed rest or microgravity undergo deconditioning of the cardiovascular system, characterized by resting tachycardia, reduced exercise capability, and a predisposition for orthostatic intolerance. These changes in cardiovascular function are likely due to a combination of factors, including changes in control of body fluid balance or cardiac alterations resulting in inadequate maintenance of stroke volume, altered arterial or venous vascular function, reduced activation of cardiovascular hormones, and diminished autonomic reflex function. There is evidence indicating a role for each of these mechanisms. Diminished reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent vasoconstriction appear to play an important role. Studies utilizing the hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat, an animal model of deconditioning, evaluated the potential role of altered arterial baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. These studies indicate that HU results in blunted baroreflex-mediated activation of both renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in response to a hypotensive stimulus. HU rats are less able to maintain arterial pressure during hemorrhage, suggesting that diminished ability to increase sympathetic activity has functional consequences for the animal. Reflex control of vasopressin secretion appears to be enhanced following HU. Blunted baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation appears to involve altered central nervous system function. Baroreceptor afferent activity in response to changes in arterial pressure is unaltered in HU rats. However, increases in efferent sympathetic nerve activity for a given decrease in afferent input are blunted after HU. This altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor inputs appears to involve an effect at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Specifically, it appears that tonic GABAA-mediated inhibition of the RVLM is enhanced after HU. Augmented inhibition apparently arises from sources other than the caudal ventrolateral medulla. If similar alterations in control of the sympathetic nervous system occur in humans in response to cardiovascular deconditioning, it is likely that they play an important role in the observed tendency for orthostatic intolerance. Combined with potential changes in vascular function, cardiac function, and hypovolemia, the predisposition for orthostatic intolerance following cardiovascular deconditioning would be markedly enhanced by blunted ability to reflexly activate the sympathetic nervous system.

  9. Molecular Biology of the Cardiovascular System MED/BENG 238

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Molecular Biology of the Cardiovascular System MED/BENG 238 4 Units Winter Quarter 2011 January 4th/17 Roles of Fluid Mechanics in Cardiovascular Molecular Biology Prof. Shu Chien 02/22 - 02/24 Molecular Biology of Atherosclerosis Prof. Wulf Palinski 03/01 ­ 03/03 Molecular Biology of Lipoproteins Prof. Sam

  10. Gravitational Force and the Cardiovascular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Olszowka, A. J.; Rokitka, M. A.; Farhi, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses to changes in gravitational force are considered. Man is ideally suited to his 1-g environment. Although cardiovascular adjustments are required to accommodate to postural changes and exercise, these are fully accomplished for short periods (min). More challenging stresses are those of short-term microgravity (h) and long-term microgravity (days) and of gravitational forces greater than that of Earth. The latter can be simulated in the laboratory and quantitative studies can be conducted.

  11. The paleopathology of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, M R

    1993-01-01

    Paleopathology, the study of disease in ancient remains, adds the dimension of time to our study of health and disease. The oldest preserved heart is from a mummified rabbit of the Pleistocene epoch, over 20,000 years old. Cardiovascular disease has been identified in human mummies from Alaska and Egypt, covering a time span ranging from approximately 3,000 to 300 years ago. An experimental study suggests that the potential exists for identifying a wide range of cardiovascular pathologic conditions in mummified remains. The antiquity and ubiquity of arteriosclerotic heart disease is considered in terms of pathogenesis. Images PMID:8298320

  12. Zebrafish models of cardiovascular diseases and their applications in herbal medicine research.

    PubMed

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Kiat, Hosen; Lee, Simon M Y; Bensoussan, Alan; Sun, Yu-Ting; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chang, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a powerful animal model for cardiovascular research and drug discovery due to its ease of maintenance, genetic manipulability and ability for high-throughput screening. Recent advances in imaging techniques and generation of transgenic zebrafish have greatly facilitated in vivo analysis of cellular events of cardiovascular development and pathogenesis. More importantly, recent studies have demonstrated the functional similarity of drug metabolism systems between zebrafish and humans, highlighting the clinical relevance of employing zebrafish in identifying lead compounds in Chinese herbal medicine with potential beneficial cardiovascular effects. This paper seeks to summarise the scope of zebrafish models employed in cardiovascular studies and the application of these research models in Chinese herbal medicine to date. PMID:26494630

  13. The role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, L; Mäki-Petäjä, K; Cheriyan, J; McEniery, C; Wilkinson, I B

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) play an important role in cardioprotective mechanisms. These include regulating vascular tone, modulating inflammatory responses, improving cardiomyocyte function and reducing ischaemic damage, resulting in attenuation of animal models of cardiovascular risk factors. This review discusses the current knowledge on the role of EETs in endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone in the healthy and in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors, and considers the pharmacological potential of targeting this pathway. PMID:25655310

  14. Cardiovascular Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé-Marqués, Alejandro; Ordóñez-Cañizares, Carmen; Martín-Martínez, María A.; Blanco, Ricardo; Melero-González, Rafael; Ibáñez-Rúan, Jesús; Bernal-Vidal, José Antonio; Tomero-Muriel, Eva; Uriarte-Isacelaya, Esther; Horcada-Rubio, Loreto; Freire-González, Mercedes; Narváez, Javier; Boteanu, Alina L.; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Andreu, José L.; Pego-Reigosa, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article estimates the frequency of cardiovascular (CV) events that occurred after diagnosis in a large Spanish cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and investigates the main risk factors for atherosclerosis. RELESSER is a nationwide multicenter, hospital-based registry of SLE patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical variables, the presence of traditional risk factors, and CV events were collected. A CV event was defined as a myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, and/or peripheral artery disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the possible risk factors for atherosclerosis. From 2011 to 2012, 3658 SLE patients were enrolled. Of these, 374 (10.9%) patients suffered at least a CV event. In 269 (7.4%) patients, the CV events occurred after SLE diagnosis (86.2% women, median [interquartile range] age 54.9 years [43.2–66.1], and SLE duration of 212.0 months [120.8–289.0]). Strokes (5.7%) were the most frequent CV event, followed by ischemic heart disease (3.8%) and peripheral artery disease (2.2%). Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.03 [1.02–1.04]), hypertension (1.71 [1.20–2.44]), smoking (1.48 [1.06–2.07]), diabetes (2.2 [1.32–3.74]), dyslipidemia (2.18 [1.54–3.09]), neurolupus (2.42 [1.56–3.75]), valvulopathy (2.44 [1.34–4.26]), serositis (1.54 [1.09–2.18]), antiphospholipid antibodies (1.57 [1.13–2.17]), low complement (1.81 [1.12–2.93]), and azathioprine (1.47 [1.04–2.07]) as risk factors for CV events. We have confirmed that SLE patients suffer a high prevalence of premature CV disease. Both traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to this higher prevalence. Although it needs to be verified with future studies, our study also shows—for the first time—an association between diabetes and CV events in SLE patients. PMID:26200625

  15. Physiological system integrations with emphasis on the respiratory-cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The integration of two types of physiological system simulations is presented. The long term model is a circulatory system model which simulates long term blood flow variations and compartmental fluid shifts. The short term models simulate transient phenomena of the respiratory, thermoregulatory, and pulsatile cardiovascular systems as they respond to stimuli such as LBNP, exercise, and environmental gaseous variations. An overview of the interfacing approach is described. Descriptions of the variable interface for long term to short term and between the three short term models are given.

  16. BE 508: Quantitative Studies of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems Spring Semester, 2013

    E-print Network

    Vajda, Sandor

    1 BE 508: Quantitative Studies of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems Spring Semester, 2013 of the respiratory system (1 lecture) (Bates, Ch 1) 2. Measurement of respiratory function (2 lectures) (Bates, Ch 2 in disease · Development of morphometric models of the respiratory system · Simulation of lung disease

  17. Cardiovascular and nervous system changes during meditation

    PubMed Central

    Steinhubl, Steven R.; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Patel, Sheila; Boeldt, Debra L.; Mackellar, Geoffrey; Porter, Valencia; Redmond, Jacob T.; Muse, Evan D.; Nicholson, Laura; Chopra, Deepak; Topol, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of benefits have been described for the long-term practice of meditation, yet little is known regarding the immediate neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation. Wireless sensor technology allows, for the first time, multi-parameter and quantitative monitoring of an individual's responses during meditation. The present study examined inter-individual variations to meditation through continuous monitoring of EEG, blood pressure, heart rate and its variability (HRV) in novice and experienced meditators. Methods: Participants were 20 experienced and 20 novice meditators involved in a week-long wellness retreat. Monitoring took place during meditation sessions on the first and last full days of the retreat. All participants wore a patch that continuously streamed ECG data, while half of them also wore a wireless EEG headset plus a non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitor. Results: Meditation produced variable but characteristic EEG changes, significantly different from baseline, even among novice meditators on the first day. In addition, although participants were predominately normotensive, the mean arterial blood pressure fell a small (2–3 mmHg) but significant (p < 0.0001) amount during meditation. The effect of meditation on HRV was less clear and influenced by calculation technique and respiration. No clear relationship between EEG changes, HRV alterations, or mean blood pressure during meditation was found. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate neurological and cardiovascular responses during meditation in both novice and experienced meditators using novel, wearable, wireless devices. Meditation produced varied inter-individual physiologic responses. These results support the need for further investigation of the short- and long-term cardiovascular effects of mental calm and individualized ways to achieve it. PMID:25852526

  18. Computational modeling of cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldt, Thomas; Shim, Eun B.; Kamm, Roger D.; Mark, Roger G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a model of the cardiovascular system capable of simulating the short-term (< or = 5 min) transient and steady-state hemodynamic responses to head-up tilt and lower body negative pressure. The model consists of a closed-loop lumped-parameter representation of the circulation connected to set-point models of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. Model parameters are largely based on literature values. Model verification was performed by comparing the simulation output under baseline conditions and at different levels of orthostatic stress to sets of population-averaged hemodynamic data reported in the literature. On the basis of experimental evidence, we adjusted some model parameters to simulate experimental data. Orthostatic stress simulations are not statistically different from experimental data (two-sided test of significance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons). Transient response characteristics of heart rate to tilt also compare well with reported data. A case study is presented on how the model is intended to be used in the future to investigate the effects of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance.

  19. Effects of apelin on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Folino, Anna; Montarolo, Pier Giorgio; Samaja, Michele; Rastaldo, Raffaella

    2015-07-01

    Apelin is an endogenous peptide acting on the APJ receptor. It consists of several isoforms characterized by different numbers of amino acids. The number of amino acids in the active isoforms range from 36 to 12. Apelin-13 and, to a lesser extent, apelin-36 are considered the most active isoforms with the greatest activity on the cardiovascular homeostasis. The effects normally exerted by the basal level of endogenous apelin can be enhanced not only by its up-regulation, but may also by its exogenous administration. The present review considers the effects of apelin on various aspects of the cardiovascular function, such as cardiac development, vasomotor tone, angiogenesis, myocardial inotropy in healthy and failing hearts as well as the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiac fibrosis and remodeling. Also the biphasic changes in apelin level during the evolution of heart failure are considered. Although the positive inotropic effect exerted by apelin in normal and failing hearts would suggest the use of this peptide in the treatment of heart failure, the limited duration and extent of its effect do not support this possibility, unless a long-lasting (6 h) infusion is performed to overcome the limit of its short life. However, although the data on the characteristics of the inotropic activity do not provide a strong support for the treatment of active heart failure, apelin may be used in the prevention of heart failure because of its activity in limiting the consequences of myocardial ischemia such as infarct size and cardiac remodeling. PMID:25652330

  20. Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Christof; Klose, Kristin; Choi, Yeong-Hoon

    Regenerative medicine encompasses "tissue engineering" - the in vitro fabrication of tissues and/or organs using scaffold material and viable cells - and "cell therapy" - the transplantation or manipulation of cells in diseased tissue in vivo. In the cardiovascular system, tissue engineering strategies are being pursued for the development of viable replacement blood vessels, heart valves, patch material, cardiac pacemakers and contractile myocardium. Anecdotal clinical applications of such vessels, valves and patches have been described, but information on systematic studies of the performance of such implants is not available, yet. Cell therapy for cardiovascular regeneration, however, has been performed in large series of patients, and numerous clinical studies have produced sometimes conflicting results. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the clinical experience with cell therapy for diseases of the cardiovascular system, and to analyse possible factors that may influence its outcome.

  1. Computer modeling of cardiovascular fluidstructure interactions with the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized

    E-print Network

    Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    a number of cardiovascular diseases includ- ing atherosclerosis and aneurysm. Since resolving phenomena between the cardiovascular diseases and the hemodynamic factors. We have devel- oped a computer modeling of cardiovascular diseases. Ó 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Fluid

  2. O-GlcNAc Signaling in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Ngoh, Gladys A.; Facundo, Heberty T.; Zafir, Ayesha; Jones, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular function is regulated at multiple levels. Some of the most important aspects of such regulation involve alterations in an ever-growing list of post-translational modifications. One such modification orchestrates input from numerous metabolic cues to modify proteins and alter their localization and/or function. Known as the beta-O-linkage of N-acetylglucosamine (i.e. O-GlcNAc) to cellular proteins, this unique monosaccharide is involved in a diverse array of physiologic and pathologic functions. This Review will introduce readers to the general concepts related to O-GlcNAc, the regulation of this modification, and its role in primary pathophysiology. Much of the existing literature regarding the role of O-GlcNAcylation in disease addresses the protracted elevations in O-GlcNAcylation observed during diabetes. In this Review, we will focus on the emerging evidence of its involvement in the cardiovascular system. In particular, we will highlight evidence of protein O-GlcNAcylation as an autoprotective alarm or stress response. We will discuss recent literature supporting the idea that promoting O-GlcNAcylation improves cell survival during acute stress (e.g. hypoxia, ischemia, oxidative stress), whereas limiting O-GlcNAcylation exacerbates cell damage in similar models. In addition to addressing the potential mechanisms of O-GlcNAc-mediated cardioprotection, we will discuss technical issues related to studying protein O-GlcNAcylation in biological systems. The reader should gain an understanding of what protein O-GlcNAcylation is, and, that its roles in the acute and chronic disease settings appear distinct. PMID:20651294

  3. Molecular mechanisms of autophagy in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gatica, Damián; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2015-01-30

    Autophagy is a catabolic recycling pathway triggered by various intra- or extracellular stimuli that is conserved from yeast to mammals. During autophagy, diverse cytosolic constituents are enveloped by double-membrane vesicles, autophagosomes, which later fuse with lysosomes or the vacuole to degrade their cargo. Dysregulation in autophagy is associated with a diverse range of pathologies including cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the world. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been characterized widely in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity seems to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that govern autophagosome formation and analyze the link between autophagy and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25634969

  4. [Mathematical modeling for conditionality of cardiovascular disease by housing conditions].

    PubMed

    Meshkov, N A

    2014-01-01

    There was studied the influence of living conditions (housing area per capita, availability of housing water supply, sewerage and central heating) on the morbidity of the cardiovascular diseases in child and adult population. With the method of regression analysis the morbidity rate was established to significantly decrease with the increase in the area of housing, constructed models are statistically significant, respectively, p = 0.01 and p = 0.02. There was revealed the relationship of the morbidity rate of cardiovascular diseases in children and adults with the supply with housing central heating (p = 0.02 and p = 0.009). PMID:25950060

  5. Recent advances in circadian rhythms in cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Yang, Guangrui

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that intrinsic circadian clocks are tightly related to cardiovascular functions. The diurnal changes in blood pressure and heart rate are well known circadian rhythms. Endothelial function, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation exhibit circadian changes as well. The onset of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death, also exhibits temporal trends. Furthermore, there is strong evidence from animal models and epidemiological studies showing that disruption of circadian rhythms is a significant risk factor for many CVDs, and the intervention of CVDs may have a time dependent effect. In this mini review, we summarized recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between circadian rhythm and cardiovascular physiology and diseases including blood pressure regulation and myocardial infarction. PMID:25883568

  6. Circulatory System Understand the roles of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems and

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    Circulatory System Objectives Understand the roles of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, arteries, veins, capillaries blood Lymphatic system #12;Major divisions of the circulatory system Lymphatic and functional differences between arteries, veins and capillaries Distinguish systemic and pulmonary circulation

  7. Hydroxybenzoic acid isomers and the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today we are beginning to understand how phytochemicals can influence metabolism, cellular signaling and gene expression. The hydroxybenzoic acids are related to salicylic acid and salicin, the first compounds isolated that have a pharmacological activity. In this review we examine how a number of hydroxyphenolics have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular problems related to aging such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The compounds focused upon include 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Pyrocatechuic acid), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Protocatechuic acid), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (?-Resorcylic acid) and 3-monohydroxybenzoic acid. The latter two compounds activate the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors with a consequence there is a reduction in adipocyte lipolysis with potential improvements of blood lipid profiles. Several of the other compounds can activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway that increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes, thereby decreasing oxidative stress and associated problems such as endothelial dysfunction that leads to hypertension as well as decreasing generalized inflammation that can lead to problems such as atherosclerosis. It has been known for many years that increased consumption of fruits and vegetables promotes health. We are beginning to understand how specific phytochemicals are responsible for such therapeutic effects. Hippocrates’ dictum of ‘Let food be your medicine and medicine your food’ can now be experimentally tested and the results of such experiments will enhance the ability of nutritionists to devise specific health-promoting diets. PMID:24943896

  8. An Image Processing System for Cardiovascular Wall Motion Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Covvey, H.D.; McLaughlin, P.; Tsotsos, J.K.; Ridsdale, G.; Wigle, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Obtaining data from ventricular and coronary angiograms has largely been limited in the past to visualizing and manually outlining film frames. Methods of manipulating the picture data itself and interacting with the picture in digital (numeric) form have been unavailable, except in the case of nuclear (gamma) imaging systems. We have developed, in cooperation with a local company, a computer-based graphics system to obtain quantitative data directly from cardiovascular images. This modular system extends our ability to process picture data to all types of cardiovascular images. The video display system currently displays 6 bits of gray scale (8 bits maximum) and permits color mapping of gray levels. A variety of graphics functions such as zoom and pan are implemented in the hardware. The hardware system is now operational and program development is underway. The first data being analyzed is that from tantulum intramyocardial markers and contrast angiograms.

  9. Short-term cardiovascular oscillations in man: measuring and modelling the physiologies

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael A; Taylor, J Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Research into cardiovascular variabilities intersects both human physiology and quantitative modelling. This is because respiratory and Mayer wave (or 10 s) cardiovascular oscillations represent the integrated control of a system through both autonomic branches by systemic haemodynamic changes within a fluid-filled, physical system. However, our current precise measurement of short-term cardiovascular fluctuations does not necessarily mean we have an adequate understanding of them. Empirical observation suggests that both respiratory and Mayer wave fluctuations derive from mutable autonomic and haemodynamic inputs. Evidence strongly suggests that respiratory sinus arrhythmia both contributes to and buffers respiratory arterial pressure fluctuations. Moreover, even though virtual abolition of all R-R interval variability by cholinergic blockade suggests that parasympathetic stimulation is essential for expression of these variabilities, respiratory sinus arrhythmia does not always reflect a purely vagal phenomenon. The arterial baroreflex has been cited as the mechanism for both respiratory and Mayer wave frequency fluctuations. However, data suggest that both cardiac vagal and vascular sympathetic fluctuations at these frequencies are independent of baroreflex mechanisms and, in fact, contribute to pressure fluctuations. Results from cardiovascular modelling can suggest possible sources for these rhythms. For example, modelling originally suggested low frequency cardiovascular rhythms derived from intrinsic delays in baroreceptor control, and experimental evidence subsequently corroborated this possibility. However, the complex stochastic relations between and variabilities in these rhythms indicate no single mechanism is responsible. If future study of cardiovascular variabilities is to move beyond qualitative suggestions of determinants to quantitative elucidation of critical physical mechanisms, both experimental design and model construction will have to be more trenchant. PMID:12154170

  10. Differential Role of Leptin and Adiponectin in Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Ghantous, C. M.; Azrak, Z.; Hanache, S.; Abou-Kheir, W.; Zeidan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are differentially expressed adipokines in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are directly associated with adipose tissue mass, while adiponectin levels are downregulated in obesity. Although significantly produced by adipocytes, leptin is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in cases of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. As for the event of left ventricular hypertrophy, researchers have been stirring controversy about the role of leptin in this form of cardiac remodeling. In this review, we discuss how leptin has been shown to play an antihypertrophic role in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy through in vitro experiments, population-based cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Conversely, we also examine how leptin may actually promote left ventricular hypertrophy using in vitro analysis and human-based univariate and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, as opposed to leptin's generally detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, adiponectin is a cardioprotective hormone that reduces left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we also highlight adiponectin signaling and its protective actions on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26064110

  11. Xenobiotic pulmonary exposure and systemic cardiovascular response via neurological links.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Phoebe A; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Hardy, Steven L; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2015-11-15

    The cardiovascular response to xenobiotic particle exposure has been increasingly studied over the last two decades, producing an extraordinary scope and depth of research findings. With the flourishing of nanotechnology, the term "xenobiotic particles" has expanded to encompass not only air pollution particulate matter (PM) but also anthropogenic particles, such as engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Historically, the majority of research in these fields has focused on pulmonary exposure and the adverse physiological effects associated with a host inflammatory response or direct particle-tissue interactions. Because these hypotheses can neither account entirely for the deleterious cardiovascular effects of xenobiotic particle exposure nor their time course, the case for substantial neurological involvement is apparent. Indeed, considerable evidence suggests that not only is neural involvement a significant contributor but also a reality that needs to be investigated more thoroughly when assessing xenobiotic particle toxicities. Therefore, the scope of this review is several-fold. First, we provide a brief overview of the major anatomical components of the central and peripheral nervous systems, giving consideration to the potential biologic targets affected by inhaled particles. Second, the autonomic arcs and mechanisms that may be involved are reviewed. Third, the cardiovascular outcomes following neurological responses are discussed. Lastly, unique problems, future risks, and hurdles associated with xenobiotic particle exposure are discussed. A better understanding of these neural issues may facilitate research that in conjunction with existing research, will ultimately prevent the untoward cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM exposures and/or identify safe ENMs for the advancement of human health. PMID:26386111

  12. Therapeutic applications of circadian rhythms for the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Tsimakouridze, Elena V.; Alibhai, Faisal J.; Martino, Tami A.

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular system exhibits dramatic time-of-day dependent rhythms, for example the diurnal variation of heart rate, blood pressure, and timing of onset of adverse cardiovascular events such as heart attack and sudden cardiac death. Over the past decade, the circadian clock mechanism has emerged as a crucial factor regulating these daily fluctuations. Most recently, these studies have led to a growing clinical appreciation that targeting circadian biology offers a novel therapeutic approach toward cardiovascular (and other) diseases. Here we describe leading-edge therapeutic applications of circadian biology including (1) timing of therapy to maximize efficacy in treating heart disease (chronotherapy); (2) novel biomarkers discovered by testing for genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, or other factors at different times of day and night (chronobiomarkers); and (3) novel pharmacologic compounds that target the circadian mechanism with potential clinical applications (new chronobiology drugs). Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide and new approaches in the management and treatment of heart disease are clearly warranted and can benefit patients clinically. PMID:25941487

  13. Cardiovascular Changes in Animal Models of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lehnen, Alexandre M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans. PMID:23691518

  14. Endothelial Interfaces - Master Gatekeepers of the Cardiovascular System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Sylvia Ann; Pocivavsek, Luka; Zebda, Noureddine; Birukov, Konstantin; Waltman, Mary Jo; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-03-01

    Endothelial cells, master gatekeepers of the cardiovascular system, line its inner boundary from the heart to distant capillaries constantly exposed to blood flow. Inter-endothelial signaling and the monolayer's adhesion to the underlying collagen rich basal lamina are key in physiology and disease. Using neutron scattering, we report the first-ever interfacial structure of endothelial monolayers under dynamic flow conditions mimicking the cardiovascular system. Endothelial adhesion strength (defined as the separation distance l between the basal cell membrane and solid boundary) is explained using developed interfacial potentials and intra-membrane segregation of specific adhesion proteins. Our method provides a powerful tool for the biophysical study of cellular layer adhesion strength in living tissues.

  15. Patient-specific system for prognosis of surgical treatment outcomes of human cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kalinin, Aleksey A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Kossovich, Elena L.; Kossovich, Leonid Y.; Menishova, Liyana R.; Polienko, Asel V.

    2015-03-01

    Object of study: Improvement of life quality of patients with high stroke risk ia the main goal for development of system for patient-specific modeling of cardiovascular system. This work is dedicated at increase of safety outcomes for surgical treatment of brain blood supply alterations. The objects of study are common carotid artery, internal and external carotid arteries and bulb. Methods: We estimated mechanical properties of carotid arteries tissues and patching materials utilized at angioplasty. We studied angioarchitecture features of arteries. We developed and clinically adapted computer biomechanical models, which are characterized by geometrical, physical and mechanical similarity with carotid artery in norm and with pathology (atherosclerosis, pathological tortuosity, and their combination). Results: Collaboration of practicing cardiovascular surgeons and specialists in the area of Mathematics and Mechanics allowed to successfully conduct finite-element modeling of surgical treatment taking into account various features of operation techniques and patching materials for a specific patient. Numerical experiment allowed to reveal factors leading to brain blood supply decrease and atherosclerosis development. Modeling of carotid artery reconstruction surgery for a specific patient on the basis of the constructed biomechanical model demonstrated the possibility of its application in clinical practice at approximation of numerical experiment to the real conditions.

  16. The human cardiovascular system in the absence of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bungo, M. W.; Charles, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The data collected from a Space Shuttle crew to investigate cardiovascular changes due to microgravity are presented. The experimental procedures which involved preflight, immediate postflight, and one week following postflight echocardiograms of 13 individuals are described. The immediate postflight results reveal a 20 percent decrease in stroke volume, a 16 percent decrease in left ventricular diastolic volume index (LVDVI), no change in systolic volume, blood pressure, or cardiac index, and a 24 percent increase in heart rate. One week later a 17 percent stroke volume increase, a 29 percent increase in cardiac index, and normal blood pressure, and LVDVI were observed. It is concluded that upon reexposure to gravity a readaptation process for the cardiovascular system occurs.

  17. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Leonard, J I; Srinivasan, R S; Charles, J B

    1991-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions. PMID:11537147

  18. Impact of Diet-Induced Obesity and Testosterone Deficiency on the Cardiovascular System: A Novel Rodent Model Representative of Males with Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic Syndrome (TDMetS)

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Daniel G.; Elliott, Grace E.; Beck, Belinda R.; Bulmer, Andrew C.; Du Toit, Eugene F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current models of obesity utilise normogonadic animals and neglect the strong relationships between obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male testosterone deficiency (TD). The joint presentation of these conditions has complex implications for the cardiovascular system that are not well understood. We have characterised and investigated three models in male rats: one of diet-induced obesity with the MetS; a second using orchiectomised rats mimicking TD; and a third combining MetS with TD which we propose is representative of males with testosterone deficiency and the metabolic syndrome (TDMetS). Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to two groups and provided ad libitum access to normal rat chow (CTRL) or a high fat/high sugar/low protein “obesogenic” diet (OGD) for 28 weeks (n = 12/group). These groups were further sub-divided into sham-operated or orchiectomised (ORX) animals to mimic hypogonadism, with and without diet-induced obesity (n = 6/group). Serum lipids, glucose, insulin and sex hormone concentrations were determined. Body composition, cardiovascular structure and function; and myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion were assessed. Results OGD-fed animals had 72% greater fat mass; 2.4-fold greater serum cholesterol; 2.3-fold greater serum triglycerides and 3-fold greater fasting glucose (indicative of diabetes mellitus) compared to CTRLs (all p<0.05). The ORX animals had reduced serum testosterone and left ventricle mass (p<0.05). In addition to the combined differences observed in each of the isolated models, the OGD, ORX and OGD+ORX models each had greater CK-MB levels following in vivo cardiac ischemia-reperfusion insult compared to CTRLs (p<0.05). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence to support that the MetS and TD independently impair myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion. The combined OGD+ORX phenotype described in this study is a novel animal model with associated cardiovascular risk factors and complex myocardial pathology which may be representative of male patients presenting with TDMetS. PMID:26366723

  19. The Equine Neonatal Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Marr, Celia M

    2015-12-01

    The neonatal foal is in a transitional state from prenatal to postnatal circulation. Healthy newborn foals often have cardiac murmurs and dysrhythmias, which are usually transient and of little clinical significance. The neonatal foal is prone to infection and cardiac trauma. Echocardiography is the main tool used for valuation of the cardiovascular system. With prompt identification and appropriate action, dysrhythmias and other sequel to cardiac trauma can be corrected. With infection, the management and prognosis are driven by concurrent sepsis. Congenital disease represents an interesting diagnostic challenge for the neonatologist, but surgical correction is not appropriate for most equids. PMID:26612747

  20. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    PubMed

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Hydren, JR and Cohen, BS. Current scientific evidence for a polarized cardiovascular endurance training model. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3523-3530, 2015-Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (?13) and "very hard" (?17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts. PMID:26595137

  1. The actions of the reninangiotensin system on cardiovascular and osmoregulatory function in embryonic chickens

    E-print Network

    Burggren, Warren

    examined the role of the renin­angiotensin system (RAS) in cardiovascular and osmotic homeostasis through and renal systems develop during early life stages. In adults, the renin­angiotensin system (RAS) playsThe actions of the renin­angiotensin system on cardiovascular and osmoregulatory function

  2. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    PubMed

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. PMID:26567567

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation: Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Potential Therapies in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Steven J; Kawai, Tatsuo; O'Brien, Shannon; Thomas, Walter; Harris, Raymond C; Eguchi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation impacts the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of EGFR activity is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat diseases including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, renal fibrosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The capacity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, such as angiotensin II (AngII), to promote EGFR signaling is called transactivation and is well described, yet delineating the molecular processes and functional relevance of this crosstalk has been challenging. Moreover, these critical findings are dispersed among many different fields. The aim of our review is to highlight recent advancements in defining the signaling cascades and downstream consequences of EGFR transactivation in the cardiovascular renal system. We also focus on studies that link EGFR transactivation to animal models of the disease, and we discuss potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26566153

  4. Management of cardiovascular complications in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Skamra, Carly; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE have an excess risk compared with the general population; this is particularly pronounced in younger women with SLE who have an excess risk of over 50-fold compared with population controls. There is a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with SLE compared with controls, as demonstrated by a variety of imaging modalities discussed in this review. The causality of the excess risk of CVD and subclinical atherosclerosis is multifactorial in patients with SLE. While traditional risk factors play a role, after controlling for the traditional Framingham risk factors, the excess risk is still 7.5-fold greater than the general population. This review will also cover novel cardiovascular risk factors and some SLE-specific variables that contribute to CVD risk. This review discusses the risk factor modification and the evidence available for treatment of these risk factors in SLE. There have not yet been any published randomized, controlled trials in patients with SLE with respect to CVD risk factor modifications. Thus, the treatment and management recommendations are based largely on published guidelines for other populations at high risk for CVD. PMID:20305727

  5. TRPV4 channels: physiological and pathological role in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-11-01

    TRPV4 channels are non-selective cation channels permeable to Ca(2+), Na(+), and Mg(2+) ions. Recently, TRPV4 channels have received considerable attention as these channels are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system including endothelial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscles, and peri-vascular nerves. Therefore, these channels possibly play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. TRPV4 channels critically regulate flow-induced arteriogenesis, TGF-?1-induced differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, and heart failure-induced pulmonary edema. These channels also mediate hypoxia-induced increase in proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and progression of pulmonary hypertension. These channels also maintain flow-induced vasodilation and preserve vascular function by directly activating Ca(2+)-dependent KCa channels. Furthermore, these may also induce vasodilation and maintain blood pressure indirectly by evoking the release of NO, CGRP, and substance P. The present review discusses the evidences and the potential mechanisms implicated in diverse responses including arteriogenesis, cardiac remodeling, congestive heart failure-induced pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, flow-induced dilation, regulation of blood pressure, and hypoxic preconditioning. PMID:26415881

  6. Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and atherosclerosis are among the most common causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Experimental animal models of hypertension and atherosclerosis have become a valuable tool for providing information on etiology, pathophysiology, and complications of the disease and on the efficacy and mechanism of action of various drugs and compounds used in treatment. An animal model has been developed to study hypertension and atherosclerosis for several reasons. Compared to human models, an animal model is easily manageable, as compounding effects of dietary and environmental factors can be controlled. Blood vessels and cardiac tissue samples can be taken for detailed experimental and biomolecular examination. Choice of animal model is often determined by the research aim, as well as financial and technical factors. A thorough understanding of the animal models used and complete analysis must be validated so that the data can be extrapolated to humans. In conclusion, animal models for hypertension and atherosclerosis are invaluable in improving our understanding of cardiovascular disease and developing new pharmacological therapies. PMID:26064920

  7. Animal Models to Study Links between Cardiovascular Disease and Renal Failure and Their Relevance to Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, Tim D.; Holt, Stephen G.; Smith, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    The close association between cardiovascular pathology and renal dysfunction is well documented and significant. Patients with conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease like diabetes and hypertension also suffer renal dysfunction. This is unsurprising if the kidney is simply regarded as a “modified blood vessel” and thus, traditional risk factors will affect both systems. Consistent with this, it is relatively easy to comprehend how patients with either sudden or gradual cardiac and or vascular compromise have changes in both renal hemodynamic and regulatory systems. However, patients with pure or primary renal dysfunction also have metabolic changes (e.g., oxidant stress, inflammation, nitric oxide, or endocrine changes) that affect the cardiovascular system. Thus, cardiovascular and renal systems are intimately, bidirectionally and inextricably linked. Whilst we understand several of these links, some of the mechanisms for these connections remain incompletely explained. Animal models of cardiovascular and renal disease allow us to explore such mechanisms, and more importantly, potential therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review various experimental models used, and examine critically how representative they are of the human condition. PMID:26441970

  8. A Large-Scale, Energetic Model of Cardiovascular Homeostasis Predicts Dynamics of Arterial Pressure in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Roytvarf, Alexander; Shusterman, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The energetic balance of forces in the cardiovascular system is vital to the stability of blood flow to all physiological systems in mammals. Yet, a large-scale, theoretical model, summarizing the energetic balance of major forces in a single, mathematically closed system has not been described. Although a number of computer simulations have been successfully performed with the use of analog models, the analysis of energetic balance of forces in such models is obscured by a big number of interacting elements. Hence, the goal of our study was to develop a theoretical model that represents large-scale, energetic balance in the cardiovascular system, including the energies of arterial pressure wave, blood flow, and the smooth muscle tone of arterial walls. Because the emphasis of our study was on tracking beat-to-beat changes in the balance of forces, we used a simplified representation of the blood pressure wave as a trapezoidal pressure-pulse with a strong-discontinuity leading front. This allowed significant reduction in the number of required parameters. Our approach has been validated using theoretical analysis, and its accuracy has been confirmed experimentally. The model predicted the dynamics of arterial pressure in human subjects undergoing physiological tests and provided insights into the relationships between arterial pressure and pressure wave velocity. PMID:18269976

  9. Use of implantable telemetry systems for study of cardiovascular phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Fryer, T. B.; Westbrook, R. M.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary observations of cardiovascular function have been made in four chimpanzees using multichannel implantable units. Measurements of right- and left-sided pressures were periodically made in these animals over a four-month period, including continuous observations for selected 24-hour periods. Pressures recorded with animals in an awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained state were much lower than pressures reported for restrained animals in similar situations. Diurnal variations of pressure tended to occur, but were not as clear-cut as those reported to occur for humans. The ability to implant a transmitter chronically and receive useful multichannel information in the chimpanzee encourages the future use of such implant devices as part of the control system for an artificial heart or directly for use in man.

  10. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VI. Cardiovascular System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the cardiovascular system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Seven units of study are presented: (1) the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system; (2) patient assessment for the cardiac patient; (3) pathophysiology; (4) reading…

  11. 76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases AGENCY: Department...Cardiovascular System, Hearing Impairment, and Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases. The purpose...Acuity (38 CFR 4.85 and 4.86) and (4) Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases (38 CFR...

  12. Modeling and Simulation Approaches for Cardiovascular Function and Their Role in Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, TA; Bergenholm, L; Abdulla, T; Yates, JWT; Evans, N; Chappell, MJ; Mettetal, JT

    2015-01-01

    Systems pharmacology modeling and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis of drug-induced effects on cardiovascular (CV) function plays a crucial role in understanding the safety risk of new drugs. The aim of this review is to outline the current modeling and simulation (M&S) approaches to describe and translate drug-induced CV effects, with an emphasis on how this impacts drug safety assessment. Current limitations are highlighted and recommendations are made for future effort in this vital area of drug research. PMID:26225237

  13. Cell Systems to Investigate the Impact of Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grootaert, Charlotte; Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Van Camp, John

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are a diverse group of micronutrients from plant origin that may serve as antioxidants and that contribute to human health in general. More specifically, many research groups have investigated their protective effect against cardiovascular diseases in several animal studies and human trials. Yet, because of the excessive processing of the polyphenol structure by human cells and the residing intestinal microbial community, which results in a large variability between the test subjects, the exact mechanisms of their protective effects are still under investigation. To this end, simplified cell culture systems have been used to decrease the inter-individual variability in mechanistic studies. In this review, we will discuss the different cell culture models that have been used so far for polyphenol research in the context of cardiovascular diseases. We will also review the current trends in cell culture research, including co-culture methodologies. Finally, we will discuss the potential of these advanced models to screen for cardiovascular effects of the large pool of bioactive polyphenols present in foods and their metabolites. PMID:26569293

  14. Neural Control of the Cardiovascular System in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Benjamin D.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Zuckerman, Julie; Zhang, Rong; Fu, Qi; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Ray, Chet; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Lane, Lynda D.; Giller, Cole A.

    2003-01-01

    During the acute transition from lying supine to standing upright, a large volume of blood suddenly moves from the chest into the legs. To prevent fainting, the blood pressure control system senses this change immediately, and rapidly adjusts flow (by increasing heart rate) and resistance to flow (by constricting the blood vessels) to restore blood pressure and maintain brain blood flow. If this system is inadequate, the brain has a backup plan. Blood vessels in the brain can adjust their diameter to keep blood flow constant. If blood pressure drops, the brain blood vessels dilate; if blood pressure increases, the brain blood vessels constrict. This process, which is called autoregulation, allows the brain to maintain a steady stream of oxygen, even when blood pressure changes. We examined what changes in the blood pressure control system or cerebral autoregulation contribute to the blood pressure control problems seen after spaceflight. We asked: (1) does the adaptation to spaceflight cause an adaptation in the blood pressure control system that impairs the ability of the system to constrict blood vessels on return to Earth?; (2) if such a defect exists, could we pinpoint the neural pathways involved?; and (3) does cerebral autoregulation become abnormal during spaceflight, impairing the body s ability to maintain constant brain blood flow when standing upright on Earth? We stressed the blood pressure control system using lower body negative pressure, upright tilt, handgrip exercise, and cold stimulation of the hand. Standard cardiovascular parameters were measured along with sympathetic nerve activity (the nerve activity causing blood vessels to constrict) and brain blood flow. We confirmed that the primary cardiovascular effect of spaceflight was a postflight reduction in upright stroke volume (the amount of blood the heart pumps per beat). Heart rate increased appropriately for the reduction in stroke volume, thereby showing that changes in heart rate regulation alone cannot be responsible for orthostatic hypotension after spaceflight. All of the astronauts in our study had an increase in sympathetic nerve activity during upright tilting on Earth postflight. This increase was well calibrated for the reduction in stroke volume induced by the upright posture. The results obtained from stimulating the sympathetic nervous system using handgrip exercise or cold stress were also entirely normal during and after spaceflight. No astronaut had reduced cerebral blood flow during upright tilt, and cerebral autoregulation was normal or even enhanced inflight. These experiments show that the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight does not lead to a defect in the regulation of blood vessel constriction via sympathetic nerve activity. In addition, cerebral autoregulation is well-maintained. It is possible that despite the increased sympathetic nerve activity, blood vessels did not respond with a greater degree of constriction than occurred preflight, possibly uncovering a limit of vasoconstrictor reserve.

  15. Preservation of native aortic valve flow and full hemodynamic support with the TORVAD using a computational model of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gohean, Jeffrey R; George, Mitchell J; Chang, Kay-Won; Larson, Erik R; Pate, Thomas D; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G; Smalling, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the stroke volume selection and operational design for the toroidal ventricular assist device (TORVAD), a synchronous, positive-displacement ventricular assist device (VAD). A lumped parameter model was used to simulate hemodynamics with the TORVAD compared with those under continuous-flow VAD support. Results from the simulation demonstrated that a TORVAD with a 30 ml stroke volume ejecting with an early diastolic counterpulse provides comparable systemic support to the HeartMate II (HMII) (cardiac output 5.7 L/min up from 3.1 L/min in simulated heart failure). By taking the advantage of synchronous pulsatility, the TORVAD delivers full hemodynamic support with nearly half the VAD flow rate (2.7 L/min compared with 5.3 L/min for the HMII) by allowing the left ventricle to eject during systole and thus preserving native aortic valve flow (3.0 L/min compared with 0.4 L/min for the HMII, down from 3.1 L/min at baseline). The TORVAD also preserves pulse pressure (26.7 mm Hg compared with 12.8 mm Hg for the HMII, down from 29.1 mm Hg at baseline). Preservation of aortic valve flow with synchronous pulsatile support could reduce the high incidence of aortic insufficiency and valve cusp fusion reported in patients supported with continuous-flow VADs. PMID:25485562

  16. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside County, CA Pursuant to its Authority Under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934,...

  17. G-protein Coupled Receptor Signaling in Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiovascular Cells: Implications for Disease Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dolatshad, Nazanin F; Hellen, Nicola; Jabbour, Richard J; Harding, Sian E; Földes, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell derivatives show promise as an in vitro platform to study a range of human cardiovascular diseases. A better understanding of the biology of stem cells and their cardiovascular derivatives will help to understand the strengths and limitations of this new model system. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of stem cell maintenance and differentiation and have an important role in cardiovascular cell signaling. In this review, we will therefore describe the state of knowledge concerning the regulatory role of GPCRs in both the generation and function of pluripotent stem cell derived-cardiomyocytes, -endothelial, and -vascular smooth muscle cells. We will consider how far the in vitro disease models recapitulate authentic GPCR signaling and provide a useful basis for discovery of disease mechanisms or design of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26697426

  18. G-protein Coupled Receptor Signaling in Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiovascular Cells: Implications for Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dolatshad, Nazanin F.; Hellen, Nicola; Jabbour, Richard J.; Harding, Sian E.; Földes, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell derivatives show promise as an in vitro platform to study a range of human cardiovascular diseases. A better understanding of the biology of stem cells and their cardiovascular derivatives will help to understand the strengths and limitations of this new model system. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of stem cell maintenance and differentiation and have an important role in cardiovascular cell signaling. In this review, we will therefore describe the state of knowledge concerning the regulatory role of GPCRs in both the generation and function of pluripotent stem cell derived-cardiomyocytes, -endothelial, and -vascular smooth muscle cells. We will consider how far the in vitro disease models recapitulate authentic GPCR signaling and provide a useful basis for discovery of disease mechanisms or design of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26697426

  19. A system identification approach to non-invasive central cardiovascular monitoring

    E-print Network

    Hahn, Jin-Oh, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a new system identification approach to non-invasive central cardiovascular monitoring problem. For this objective, this thesis will develop and analyze blind system identification and input signal ...

  20. A simple ballistocardiographic system for a medical cardiovascular physiology course.

    PubMed

    Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    Ballistocardiography is an old, noninvasive technique used to record the movements of the body synchronous with the heartbeat due to left ventricular pump activity. Despite the fact that this technique to measure cardiac output has been superseded by more advanced and precise techniques, it is useful for teaching cardiac cycle physiology in an undergraduate practical course because of its noninvasive application in humans, clear physiological and physiopathological analysis, and practical approach to considering cardiac output issues. In the present report, a simple, low cost, easy-to-build ballistocardiography system is implemented together with a theoretical and practical session that includes Newton's laws, cardiac output, cardiac pump activity, anatomy and physiology of the vessel circulation, vectorial composition, and signal transduction, which makes cardiovascular physiology easy to understand and focuses on the study of cardiac output otherwise seen only with the help of computer simulation or echocardiography. The proposed system is able to record body displacement or force as ballistocardiography traces and its changes caused by different physiological factors. The ballistocardiography session was included in our medical physiology course six years ago with very high acceptance and approval rates from the students. PMID:14627620

  1. Theory and Developments in an Unobtrusive Cardiovascular System Representation: Ballistocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Eduardo; Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent technological improvements, namely in the field of piezoelectric sensors, ballistocardiography – an almost forgotten physiological measurement – is now being object of a renewed scientific interest. Transcending the initial purposes of its development, ballistocardiography has revealed itself to be a useful informative signal about the cardiovascular system status, since it is a non-intrusive technique which is able to assess the body’s vibrations due to its cardiac, and respiratory physiological signatures. Apart from representing the outcome of the electrical stimulus to the myocardium – which may be obtained by electrocardiography – the ballistocardiograph has additional advantages, as it can be embedded in objects of common use, such as a bed or a chair. Moreover, it enables measurements without the presence of medical staff, factor which avoids the stress caused by medical examinations and reduces the patient’s involuntary psychophysiological responses. Given these attributes, and the crescent number of systems developed in recent years, it is therefore pertinent to revise all the information available on the ballistocardiogram’s physiological interpretation, its typical waveform information, its features and distortions, as well as the state of the art in device implementations. PMID:21673836

  2. The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

  3. Computational models of cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress

    E-print Network

    Heldt, Thomas, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to changes in posture has been the focus of numerous investigations in the past. Yet despite considerable, targeted experimental effort, the mechanisms underlying orthostatic intolerance (OI) ...

  4. Identifying Opportunities to Improve Aspirin Utilization for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in a Regional Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Miller, Aaron W.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aspirin is an important part of primary cardiovascular disease prevention, but little is known about aspirin use patterns in regional healthcare systems. This study used electronic health records from the Marshfield Clinic to identify demographic, geographic, and clinical predictors of aspirin utilization in central Wisconsin adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed using 2010-2012 data from patients in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area. Individuals who took aspirin-containing medication daily or every other day were considered regular aspirin users. There were a total of 6,678 adults in the target region who were clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary cardiovascular disease prevention, per national guidelines. Results Aspirin was generally underutilized in this population, with 35% of all clinically indicated adults taking it regularly. Adjusted models found that individuals who were younger, female, not covered by health insurance, did not visit a medical provider regularly, smokers, were not obese, or did not have diabetes were least likely to take aspirin. In addition, there was some local variation in that aspirin use was less common in northeastern communities within the regional service area. Conclusion Several aspirin use disparities were identified in central Wisconsin adults without cardiovascular disease, with particularly low utilization observed in those without diabetes and/or without regular physician contact. Methods of using electronic health records to conduct primary care surveillance as outlined here can be adopted by other large healthcare systems in the state to optimize future cardiovascular disease prevention initiatives. PMID:25739162

  5. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  6. Vasopressin and Oxytocin in Control of the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Japundži?-Žigon, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) are mainly synthesized in the magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Axons from the magnocellular part of the PVN and SON project to neurohypophysis where VP and OT are released in blood to act like hormones. Axons from the parvocellular part of PVN project to extra-hypothalamic brain areas (median eminence, limbic system, brainstem and spinal cord) where VP and OT act like neurotransmitters/modulators. VP and OT act in complementary manner in cardiovascular control, both as hormones and neurotransmitters. While VP conserves water and increases circulating blood volume, OT eliminates sodium. Hyperactivity of VP neurons and quiescence of OT neurons in PVN underlie osmotic adjustment to pregnancy. In most vascular beds VP is a potent vasoconstrictor, more potent than OT, except in the umbilical artery at term. The vasoconstriction by VP and OT is mediated via V1aR. In some vascular beds, i.e. the lungs and the brain, VP and OT produce NO dependent vasodilatation. Peripherally, VP has been found to enhance the sensitivity of the baro-receptor while centrally, VP and OT increase sympathetic outflow, suppresse baro-receptor reflex and enhance respiration. Whilst VP is an important mediator of stress that triggers ACTH release, OT exhibits anti-stress properties. Moreover, VP has been found to contribute considerably to progression of hypertension and heart failure while OT has been found to decrease blood pressure and promote cardiac healing. PMID:23997756

  7. How did Haly Abbas look at the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Mahmoudi Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-03-01

    Persian scholars, especially those who lived during the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine (9th-12th century AD), made significant contributions to the healing arts and secured a place of honor for themselves in the history of this science. Ab? l-?asan Al? ibn al-'Abb?s al-Maj?s? Ahvazi (? 930-994AD), with the Latinized name of Haly Abbas, was a scientist from this part of the world who contributed to the advancement of medicine. He is the author of K?mil al-Sin?'ah al-Tibb?yah (The Perfect Book of the Art of Medicine), also commonly known as al-Kit?b al-Malik? (The Royal Book), a medical encyclopedia renowned for its systematic and precise content. This textbook covers a wide variety of medical issues, among them topics related to the science of cardiology. This paper reviews the main points of Haly Abbas' knowledge of the cardiovascular system, of which little has been written until now. PMID:24452226

  8. Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ka; Doursout, Marie-Françoise; Murad, Ferid

    2008-04-01

    In contrast with the short research history of the enzymatic synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), the introduction of nitrate-containing compounds for medicinal purposes marked its 150th anniversary in 1997. Glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) is the first compound of this category. On October 12, 1998, the Nobel Assembly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology to scientists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning NO as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. NO-mediated signaling is a recognized component in various physiologic processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of platelet and leukocyte aggregation, attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, neurotransmission, and immune defense), to name only a few. NO has also been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, myocarditis, colitis, and nephritis and a large number of pathologic conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Some of these processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission) require only a brief production of NO at low nanomolar concentrations and are dependent on the recruitment of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling. Other processes are associated with direct interaction of NO or reactive nitrogen species derived from it with target proteins and requires a more sustained production of NO at higher concentrations but do not involve the cGMP pathway. PMID:18401228

  9. Metal ions affecting the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Some metals, such as copper and manganese, are essential to life and play irreplaceable roles in, e.g., the functioning of important enzyme systems. Other metals are xenobiotics, i.e., they have no useful role in human physiology and, even worse, as in the case of lead, may be toxic even at trace levels of exposure. Even those metals that are essential, however, have the potential to turn harmful at very high levels of exposure, a reflection of a very basic tenet of toxicology--"the dose makes the poison." Toxic metal exposure may lead to serious risks to human health. As a result of the extensive use of toxic metals and their compounds in industry and consumer products, these agents have been widely disseminated in the environment. Because metals are not biodegradable, they can persist in the environment and produce a variety of adverse effects. Exposure to metals can lead to damage in a variety of organ systems and, in some cases, metals also have the potential to be carcinogenic. Even though the importance of metals as environmental health hazards is now widely appreciated, the specific mechanisms by which metals produce their adverse effects have yet to be fully elucidated. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for most metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to nucleic acids, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Whilst copper, chromium, and cobalt undergo redox-cycling reactions, for metals such as cadmium and nickel the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. This chapter attempts to show that the toxic effects of different metallic compounds may be manifested in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. The knowledge of health effects due to metal exposure is necessary for practising physicians, and should be assessed by inquiring about present and past occupational history and environmental exposure. PMID:21473377

  10. Pulmonary Complications Resulting from Genetic Cardiovascular Disease in Two Rat Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been considered a risk factor for exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms of variation in susceptibility. Pulmonary complications and altered iron homeost...

  11. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and dysregulated iron homeostatis in rat models of cardiovascular disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms ofvariation in susceptibility. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and altere...

  12. Usefulness of serum interleukin-18 in predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease - systems and clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Formanowicz, Dorota; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Pawliczak, El?bieta; Radom, Marcin; Formanowicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to check if serum interleukin-18 (IL-18) predicts 2-year cardiovascular mortality in patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within the previous year. Diabetes mellitus was one of the key factors of exclusion. It was found that an increase in serum concentration of IL-18 above the cut-off point (1584.5?pg/mL) was characterized by 20.63-fold higher risk of cardiovascular deaths among studied patients. IL-18 serum concentration was found to be superior to the well-known cardiovascular risk parameters, like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), glomerular filtration rate, albumins, ferritin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in prognosis of cardiovascular mortality. The best predictive for IL-18 were 4 variables, such as CIMT, NT-proBNP, albumins and hsCRP, as they predicted its concentration at 89.5%. Concluding, IL-18 seems to be important indicator and predictor of cardiovascular death in two-year follow-up among non-diabetic patients suffering from CKD, with history of AMI in the previous year. The importance of IL-18 in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation has been confirmed by systems analysis based on a formal model expressed in the language of Petri nets theory. PMID:26669254

  13. Usefulness of serum interleukin-18 in predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease – systems and clinical approach

    PubMed Central

    Formanowicz, Dorota; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Pawliczak, El?bieta; Radom, Marcin; Formanowicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to check if serum interleukin-18 (IL-18) predicts 2-year cardiovascular mortality in patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within the previous year. Diabetes mellitus was one of the key factors of exclusion. It was found that an increase in serum concentration of IL-18 above the cut-off point (1584.5?pg/mL) was characterized by 20.63-fold higher risk of cardiovascular deaths among studied patients. IL-18 serum concentration was found to be superior to the well-known cardiovascular risk parameters, like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), glomerular filtration rate, albumins, ferritin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in prognosis of cardiovascular mortality. The best predictive for IL-18 were 4 variables, such as CIMT, NT-proBNP, albumins and hsCRP, as they predicted its concentration at 89.5%. Concluding, IL-18 seems to be important indicator and predictor of cardiovascular death in two-year follow-up among non-diabetic patients suffering from CKD, with history of AMI in the previous year. The importance of IL-18 in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation has been confirmed by systems analysis based on a formal model expressed in the language of Petri nets theory. PMID:26669254

  14. The impact of the circadian timing system on cardiovascular and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Yang, Jessica N.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that adverse cardiovascular events peak in the morning (i.e., between 6 AM and noon) and that shift work is associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. The endogenous circadian timing system modulates certain cardiovascular risk markers to be highest (e.g., cortisol, nonlinear dynamic heart rate control, and platelet activation) or to respond most unfavorably to stressors such as exercise (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vagal cardiac modulation) at an internal body time corresponding to the time of day when adverse cardiovascular events most likely occur. This indicates that the circadian timing system and its interaction with external cardiovascular stressors (e.g., physical activity) could contribute to the morning peak in adverse cardiovascular events. Moreover, circadian misalignment and simulated night work have adverse effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function. This suggests that misalignment between the behavioral cycle and the circadian timing system in shift workers contributes to that population’s increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22877674

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Modeling Using Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Node, Koichi; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened up a new scientific frontier in medicine. This technology has made it possible to obtain pluripotent stem cells from individuals with genetic disorders. Because iPSCs carry the identical genetic anomalies related to those disorders, iPSCs are an ideal platform for medical research. The pathophysiological cellular phenotypes of genetically heritable heart diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, have been modeled on cell culture dishes using disease-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. These model systems can potentially provide new insights into disease mechanisms and drug discoveries. This review focuses on recent progress in cardiovascular disease modeling using iPSCs, and discusses problems and future perspectives concerning their use. PMID:26274955

  16. Pathophysiological effects of RhoA and Rho-associated kinase on cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Cai, Anping; Li, Liwen; Zhou, Yingling

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, growing evidence from basic and clinical researches reveal that small guanosine triphosphate binding protein ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) and its main effector Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) play central and complex roles in cardiovascular systems, and increasing RhoA and ROCK activity is associated with a broad range of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Favorable outcomes have been observed with ROCK inhibitors treatment. In this review, we briefly summarize the pathophysiological roles of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway on cardiovascular system, displaying the potential benefits in the cardiovascular system with controlling RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. PMID:26556565

  17. [Peculiarities of cardiovascular system pathology depending on psychological profile in patients of senior age groups].

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, I O

    2013-01-01

    Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:24640706

  18. [Cardiovascular system research at the Institute of Drug Research].

    PubMed

    Mátyus, P

    2001-01-01

    The most significant achievements in the cardiovascular research areas have been reviewed. Among the beta-adrenoceptor blockers, antihypertensive, positive inotropic, and antiarrhythmic compounds synthesized and investigated at the IDR, a number of new drug candidates have been found and studied in clinical phases. One compound has been marketed (Tobanum, beta-adrenoceptor blocker). PMID:11769098

  19. ANIMAL MODELS: CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, CNS INJURY AND ULTRAFINE PARTICLE BIOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Animal Core studies will help to answer the question of why subpopulations are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes following PM exposure. They will identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms which underlie cardiovascular susceptibility. Exposure-response rel...

  20. High-Frequency Ultrasound for the Study of Early Mouse Embryonic Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Greco, Adelaide; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Albanese, Sandra; Ragucci, Monica; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Auletta, Luigi; Gargiulo, Sara; Lamagna, Francesco; Salvatore, Marco; Mancini, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    An accurate diagnosis of congenital heart defects during fetal development is critical for interventional planning. Mice can be used to generate animal models with heart defects, and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging enables in utero imaging of live mouse embryos. A wide range of physiological measurements is possible using Doppler-HFUS imaging; limitations of any single measurement warrant a multiparameter approach to characterize cardiovascular function. Doppler-HFUS was used to explore the embryonic (heart, aorta) and extraembryonic (umbilical blood flow) circulatory systems to create a database in normal mouse embryos between 9.5 and 16.5 days of gestation. Multivariate analyses were performed to explore correlations between gestational age and embryo echocardiographic parameters. Heart rate and peak velocity in the aorta were positively correlated with gestational time, whereas cardiac cycle length, isovolumetric relaxation time, myocardial performance index, and arterial deceleration time of the umbilical cord were negatively correlated with it. Doppler-HFUS facilitated detailed characterization of the embryonic mouse circulation and represents a useful tool for investigation of the early mouse embryonic cardiovascular system. PMID:26142278

  1. [Hydrogen sulfide as a biologically active mediator in the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Be?towski, Jerzy

    2004-07-19

    Recent studies suggest that apart from nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is another inorganic gaseous mediator in the cardiovascular system. H2S is synthesized from L-cysteine by either cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) or cystathionin gamma--lyase (CSE), both using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B6) as a cofactor. CBS is the main H2S-producing enzyme in the brain and CSE is involved in H2S formation in the cardiovascular system. H2S induces hypotension in vivo and vasodilation vitro by opening KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chronic administration of CSE inhibitor induces arterial hypertension in the rat. In addition, decreased H2S generation has been demonstrated in the vasculature of spontaneously hypertensive rat, in experimental hypertension induced by NO synthase blockade, and in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, and administration of exogenous H2S donor has significant therapeutic effects in these models. Deficiency of H2S may contribute to atherogenesis in some patients with hyperhomocysteinemia, in whom the metabolism of homocysteine to cysteine and H2S is compromised by vitamin B6 deficiency. Reduced H2S production in the brain was observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, excess of H2S may lead to mental retardation in patients with Down's syndrome and may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypotension associated with septic shock. PMID:15280798

  2. [Adverse effects of ultrafine particles on the cardiovascular system and its mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Yi, Tie-ci; Li, Jian-ping

    2014-12-18

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the major threats to human. Air pollution, which , as it become a problem too serious to be ignored in China, is known to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Among all pollutants, ultrafine particles ( UFPs) , defined as particles with their diameter less than 0. 1 f.Lm, are a specific composition. They are very small in size, large in quantity and surface area, and most important, capable of passing through the air-blood barrier. These unique features of UFPs make them special in their impact on cardiovascular system. Nowadays, the influence of UFPs on the cardiovascular system has become a hot topic. On the one side, studies have shown that UFPs can cause inflammation and oxidative stress in the lung, and then induce systemic inflammation by releasing cytokine and reactive oxygen species into the circulation. On the other side, UFPs themselves can "spillout"into the circulation and interact with their targets. By this way, UFPs directly affect endothelial cells, myocardial cells and the autonomic nervous system, which ultimately result in increased cardiovascular events. We intend to make an overview about the recent progress about the influence of UFPs on human cardiovascular disease and the related mechanisms, and argue for more attention to this issue. PMID:25651605

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Models and Longitudinal Changes in Cognition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephanie L.; Ding, Jie; Tang, Eugene Y. H.; Siervo, Mario; Robinson, Louise; Jagger, Carol; Stephan, Blossom C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have consistently been associated with poor cognitive function and incident dementia. Whether cardiovascular disease prediction models, developed to predict an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease or stroke, are also informative for predicting risk of cognitive decline and dementia is not known. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to compare cohort studies examining the association between cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognitive function or risk of incident cognitive impairment or dementia. Materials and Methods Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched from inception to March 28, 2014. From 3,413 records initially screened, 21 were included. Results The association between numerous different cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive outcomes has been tested, including Framingham and non-Framingham risk models. Five studies examined dementia as an outcome; fourteen studies examined cognitive decline or incident cognitive impairment as an outcome; and two studies examined both dementia and cognitive changes as outcomes. In all studies, higher cardiovascular disease risk scores were associated with cognitive changes or risk of dementia. Only four studies reported model prognostic performance indices, such as Area Under the Curve (AUC), for predicting incident dementia or cognitive impairment and these studies all examined non-Framingham Risk models (AUC range: 0.74 to 0.78). Conclusions Cardiovascular risk prediction models are associated with cognitive changes over time and risk of dementia. Such models are easily obtainable in clinical and research settings and may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of future cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:25478916

  4. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (p<0.02) or Bach's Cantata No. 169 'Gott soll allein mein Herze haben' (70.9±2.9 cm/s) (p<0.02). There was no significant difference in cerebral flow during rest (67.6±3.3 cm/s) or when listening to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (69.4±3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (p<0.001). In addition the score was better after surgery in the music group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (p<0.001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make relaxing, preoperative music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (p<0.02). Vocal and orchestral music produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (p<0.05). The greatest benefit on health is visible with classical music and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health and probably prolong life, particularly music by Bach, Mozart or Italian composers. PMID:21062776

  5. Computational modelling and evaluation of cardiovascular response under pulsatile impeller pump support

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yubing; Brown, Alistair G.; Lawford, Patricia V.; Arndt, Andreas; Nuesser, Peter; Hose, D. Rodney

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a numerical simulation of cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition under the support of a Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump-type ventricular assist device (VAD). The model is implemented using the CellML modelling language. To investigate the potential of using the Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump to produce physiologically meaningful arterial pulse pressure within the various physiological constraints, a series of VAD-assisted cardiovascular cases are studied, in which the pulsation ratio and the phase shift of the VAD motion profile are systematically changed to observe the cardiovascular responses in each of the studied cases. An optimization process is proposed, including the introduction of a cost function to balance the importance of the characteristic cardiovascular variables. Based on this cost function it is found that a pulsation ratio of 0.35 combined with a phase shift of 200° produces the optimal cardiovascular response, giving rise to a maximal arterial pulse pressure of 12.6 mm Hg without inducing regurgitant pump flow while keeping other characteristic cardiovascular variables within appropriate physiological ranges. PMID:22670203

  6. Comprehensive physiological cardiovascular model enables automatic correction of hemodynamics in patients with acute life-threatening heart failure.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shimizu, Shuji; Shishido, Toshiaki; Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Saving life of patients with acute life-threatening heart failure is a major challenge. One has to correct several fatal hemodynamic abnormalities at the same time within a limited time frame. The formulation of such complicated treatments enables the development of a system that can be used to save automatically lives of patients with acute heart failure, an autopilot system. To accomplish this, we established a comprehensive physiological cardiovascular model, on which we based the design of the autopilot system. By translating hemodynamics into cardiovascular parameters (pumping ability, vascular resistance, blood volume), and by controlling each of these with individual drugs, we were able to correct blood pressure, cardiac output, and left atrial pressure to the target values rapidly (5.2 +/- 6.6, 6.8 +/- 4.6, and 11.7 +/- 9.8 minutes), stably, and simultaneously. PMID:17945972

  7. Possible mechanisms of the cardiovascular effects of inhaled particles: systemic translocation and prothrombotic effects.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Hoet, Peter H M; Nemery, Benoit

    2004-04-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fine particles with a diameter <2.5 microm (PM2.5) have an important role in triggering biological responses. These particles, and particularly the ultrafine fraction (<100 nm) penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract. Recently, we have demonstrated that ultrafine particles are able to translocate from the lung into the systemic circulation in hamsters and humans. In urban areas, diesel engines are considered to be the major source of PM2.5. We therefore evaluated the acute effect (1 h) of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in a hamster model of peripheral vascular thrombosis induced by free-radical mediated endothelial injury, using intravenous Rose Bengal and local illumination. Intratracheal doses of 5-500 microg of DEP per animal induced inflammation with elevation of neutrophils, total proteins and histamine in bronchoalveolar lavage. DEP enhanced experimental arterial and venous platelet rich-thrombus formation in vivo. Blood samples taken from hamsters 30 and 60 min after instillation of DEP caused platelet activation, when analyzed in the Platelet Function Analyser (PFA-100). The direct addition of DEP to untreated hamster blood also caused platelet aggregation. These effects persisted up to 24 h after instillation. Our results provide plausible mechanistic explanations for the epidemiologically established link between air pollution and acute cardiovascular effects. PMID:15093270

  8. Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Results Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c, waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Conclusions Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:24102972

  9. Adrenoreceptors and nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Corbi, Graziamaria; Izzo, Viviana; Vecchione, Carmine; Filippelli, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a small molecule that continues to attract much attention from the scientific community. Since its discovery, it has been evident that NO has a crucial role in the modulation of vascular tone. Moreover, NO is involved in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. NO effects can be either dependent or independent on cGMP, and rely also upon several mechanisms such as the amount of NO, the compartmentalization of the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis (NOS), and the local redox conditions. Several evidences highlighted the correlation among adrenoreceptors activity, vascular redox status and NO bioavailability. It was suggested a possible crosstalk between NO and oxidative stress hallmarks in the endothelium function and adaptation, and in sympathetic vasoconstriction control. Adrenergic vasoconstriction is a balance between a direct vasoconstrictive effect on smooth muscle and an indirect vasorelaxant action caused by ?2- and ?-adrenergic endothelial receptor-triggered NO release. An increased oxidative stress and a reduction of NO bioavailability shifts this equilibrium causing the enhanced vascular adrenergic responsiveness observed in hypertension. The activity of NOS contributes to manage the adrenergic pathway, thus supporting the idea that the endothelium might control or facilitate ?-adrenergic effects on the vessels and the polymorphic variants in ?2-receptors and NOS isoforms could influence aging, some pathological conditions and individual responses to drugs. This seems to be dependent, almost in part, on differences in the control of vascular tone exerted by NO. Given its involvement in such important mechanisms, the NO pathway is implicated in aging process and in both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. Thus, it is essential to pinpoint NO involvement in the regulation of vascular tone for the effective clinical/therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PMID:24223559

  10. [Urine proteome study for the evaluation of cardiovascular system state after spaceflight in human].

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    In order to find markers to assess the functional state of the cardiovascular system before and after spaceflight (first and seventh day after landing), we analyzed the urine proteome in ten cosmonauts aged of 35 to 51 years who have completed 169 to 199-day spaceflight onboard the ISS. A special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo, Germany). A total of 238 proteins was identified. According to the TIGER database, a tissue origin was established for 129 proteins. We identified 20 proteins related to the cardiovascular system. It was found that changes in cosmonauts' urine proteome comprehensively reflect the adaptive responses of cardiovascular, renal and neuroendocrine systems to long-term microgravity conditions. PMID:25508572

  11. [Urine proteome study for the evaluation of cardiovascular system state after spaceflight in human].

    PubMed

    Pastukhova, L Kh; Kononikhin, A S; Ti?s, E S; Popova, I A; Dobrokhotov, I V; Ivanisenko, V A; Nikolaev, E N; Larina, I M

    2013-08-01

    In order to find markers to assess the functional state of the cardiovascular system before and after spaceflight (first and seventh day after landing), we analyzed the urine proteome in ten cosmonauts aged of 35 to 51 years who have completed 169 to 199-day spaceflight onboard the ISS. A special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo, Germany). A total of 238 proteins was identified. According to the TIGER database, a tissue origin was established for 129 proteins. We identified 20 proteins related to the cardiovascular system. It was found that changes in cosmonauts' urine proteome comprehensively reflect the adaptive responses of cardiovascular, renal and neuroendocrine systems to long-term microgravity conditions. PMID:25470945

  12. High-Resolution Cardiovascular MRI by Integrating Parallel Imaging With Low-Rank and Sparse Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Anthony G.; Zhang, Haosen; Zhao, Bo; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as a powerful tool for cardiovascular imaging because of its unique potential to measure blood flow, cardiac wall motion, and tissue properties jointly. However, many clinical applications of cardiac MRI have been limited by low imaging speed. In this paper, we present a novel method to accelerate cardiovascular MRI through the integration of parallel imaging, low-rank modeling, and sparse modeling. This method consists of a novel image model and specialized data acquisition. Of particular novelty is the proposed low-rank model component, which is specially adapted to the particular low-rank structure of cardiovascular signals. Simulations and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate the method, as well as an analysis of the low-rank structure of a numerical cardiovascular phantom. Cardiac imaging experiments were carried out on both human and rat subjects without the use of ECG or respiratory gating and without breath holds. The proposed method reconstructed 2-D human cardiac images up to 22 fps and 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm spatial resolution and 3-D rat cardiac images at 67 fps and 0.65 mm × 0.65 mm × 0.31 mm spatial resolution. These capabilities will enhance the practical utility of cardiovascular MRI. PMID:23744657

  13. Imbalance between endothelial damage and repair: a gateway to cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mak, Anselm; Kow, Nien Yee

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and it leads to excessive cardiovascular complications in these patients. Despite the improved awareness of cardiovascular disease and advent of clinical diagnostics, the process of atherogenesis in most patients remains clinically silent until symptoms and signs of cardiovascular complications develop. As evidence has demonstrated that vascular damage is already occurring before clinically overt cardiovascular disease develops in lupus patients, intervention at the preclinical stage of atherogenesis would be plausible. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction, one of the earliest steps of atherogenesis, has been demonstrated to occur in lupus patients even when they are naïve for cardiovascular disease. Currently known "endothelium-toxic" factors including type 1 interferon, proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cells, immune complexes, costimulatory molecules, neutrophils extracellular traps, lupus-related autoantibodies, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia, coupled with the aberrant functions of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) which are crucial to vascular repair, likely tip the balance towards endothelial dysfunction and propensity to develop cardiovascular disease in lupus patients. In this review, altered physiology of the endothelium, factors leading to perturbed vascular repair contributed by lupus EPC and the impact of proatherogenic factors on the endothelium which potentially lead to atherosclerosis in lupus patients will be discussed. PMID:24790989

  14. Regulation of the Apelinergic System and Its Potential in Cardiovascular Disease: Peptides and Small Molecules as Tools for Discovery.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sanju; Harris, Danni L; Maitra, Rangan; Runyon, Scott P

    2015-10-22

    Apelin peptides and the apelin receptor represent a relatively new therapeutic axis for the potential treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several reports suggest apelin receptor activation with apelin peptides results in cardioprotection as noted through positive ionotropy, angiogenesis, reduction of mean arterial blood pressure, and apoptosis. Considering the potential therapeutic benefit attainable through modulation of the apelinergic system, research is expanding to develop novel therapies that limit the inherent rapid degradation of endogenous apelin peptides and produce metabolically stable small molecule agonists and antagonists to more rigorously interrogate the apelin receptor system. This review details the structure-activity relationships for chemically modified apelin peptides and recent disclosures of small molecule agonists and antagonists and summarizes the peer reviewed and patented literature. Development of metabolically stable ligands of apelin receptor and their effects in various models over the coming years will hopefully lead to establishment of this receptor as a validated target for cardiovascular indications. PMID:26102594

  15. Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) Programme, phase I (cardiovascular system)

    PubMed Central

    Ostovar, Afshin; Nabipour, Iraj; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin; Darabi, Hossein; Vahdat, Katayoun; Ravanipour, Maryam; Mehrdad, Neda; Raeisi, Alireza; Heidari, Gholamreza; Shafiee, Gita; Haeri, Mohammadjavad; Pourbehi, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Farshad; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Aghaei Meybodi, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid; Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Nemati, Reza; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Barekat, Maryam; Amini, Abdullatif; Salimipour, Houman; Dobaradaran, Sina; Moshtaghi, Darab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of the Bushehr Elderly Health Programme, in its first phase, is to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their association with major adverse cardiovascular events. Participants Between March 2013 and October 2014, a total of 3000 men and women aged ?60?years, residing in Bushehr, Iran, participated in this prospective cohort study (participation rate=90.2%). Findings to date Baseline data on risk factors, including demographic and socioeconomic status, smoking and medical history, were collected through a modified WHO MONICA questionnaire. Vital signs and anthropometric measures, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, were also measured. 12-lead electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted on all participants, and total of 10?cc venous blood was taken, and sera was separated and stored at –80°C for possible future use. Preliminary data analyses showed a noticeably higher prevalence of risk factors among older women compared to that in men. Future plans Risk factor assessments will be repeated every 5?years, and the participants will be followed during the study to measure the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. Moreover, the second phase, which includes investigation of bone health and cognition in the elderly, was started in September 2015. Data are available at the Persian Gulf Biomedical Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran, for any collaboration. PMID:26674503

  16. The effects of exercise on blood flow with reference to the human cardiovascular system: a finite element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a theoretical investigation into the effects of vasomotion on blood through the human cardiovascular system. The finite element method has been used to analyse the model. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation may be effected either through the action of the central nervous system or autoregulation. One of the conditions responsible for vasomotion is exercise. The proposed model has been solved and quantitative results of flows and pressures due to changing the conductances of specific networks of arterioles, capillaries and venules comprising the arms, legs, stomach and their combinations have been obtained.

  17. Parameter-optimized model of cardiovascular-rotary blood pump interactions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Einly; Dokos, Socrates; Cloherty, Shaun L; Salamonsen, Robert F; Mason, David G; Reizes, John A; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-02-01

    A lumped parameter model of human cardiovascular-implantable rotary blood pump (iRBP) interaction has been developed based on experimental data recorded in two healthy pigs with the iRBP in situ. The model includes descriptions of the left and right heart, direct ventricular interaction through the septum and pericardium, the systemic and pulmonary circulations, as well as the iRBP. A subset of parameters was optimized in a least squares sense to faithfully reproduce the experimental measurements (pressures, flows and pump variables). Our fitted model compares favorably with our experimental measurements at a range of pump operating points. Furthermore, we have also suggested the importance of various model features, such as the curvilinearity of the end systolic pressure-volume relationship, the Starling resistance, the suction resistance, the effect of respiration, as well as the influence of the pump inflow and outflow cannulae. Alterations of model parameters were done to investigate the circulatory response to rotary blood pump assistance under heart failure conditions. The present model provides a valuable tool for experiment designs, as well as a platform to aid in the development and evaluation of robust physiological pump control algorithms. PMID:19770086

  18. Modeling cardiovascular hemodynamics using the lattice Boltzmann method on massively parallel supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, Amanda Elizabeth

    Accurate and reliable modeling of cardiovascular hemodynamics has the potential to improve understanding of the localization and progression of heart diseases, which are currently the most common cause of death in Western countries. However, building a detailed, realistic model of human blood flow is a formidable mathematical and computational challenge. The simulation must combine the motion of the fluid, the intricate geometry of the blood vessels, continual changes in flow and pressure driven by the heartbeat, and the behavior of suspended bodies such as red blood cells. Such simulations can provide insight into factors like endothelial shear stress that act as triggers for the complex biomechanical events that can lead to atherosclerotic pathologies. Currently, it is not possible to measure endothelial shear stress in vivo, making these simulations a crucial component to understanding and potentially predicting the progression of cardiovascular disease. In this thesis, an approach for efficiently modeling the fluid movement coupled to the cell dynamics in real-patient geometries while accounting for the additional force from the expansion and contraction of the heart will be presented and examined. First, a novel method to couple a mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann fluid model to the microscopic molecular dynamics model of cell movement is elucidated. A treatment of red blood cells as extended structures, a method to handle highly irregular geometries through topology driven graph partitioning, and an efficient molecular dynamics load balancing scheme are introduced. These result in a large-scale simulation of the cardiovascular system, with a realistic description of the complex human arterial geometry, from centimeters down to the spatial resolution of red-blood cells. The computational methods developed to enable scaling of the application to 294,912 processors are discussed, thus empowering the simulation of a full heartbeat. Second, further extensions to enable the modeling of fluids in vessels with smaller diameters and a method for introducing the deformational forces exerted on the arterial flows from the movement of the heart by borrowing concepts from cosmodynamics are presented. These additional forces have a great impact on the endothelial shear stress. Third, the fluid model is extended to not only recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics, but also a wider range of Knudsen numbers, which is especially important in micro- and nano-scale flows. The tradeoffs of many optimizations methods such as the use of deep halo level ghost cells that, alongside hybrid programming models, reduce the impact of such higher-order models and enable efficient modeling of extreme regimes of computational fluid dynamics are discussed. Fourth, the extension of these models to other research questions like clogging in microfluidic devices and determining the severity of co-arctation of the aorta is presented. Through this work, a validation of these methods by taking real patient data and the measured pressure value before the narrowing of the aorta and predicting the pressure drop across the co-arctation is shown. Comparison with the measured pressure drop in vivo highlights the accuracy and potential impact of such patient specific simulations. Finally, a method to enable the simulation of longer trajectories in time by discretizing both spatially and temporally is presented. In this method, a serial coarse iterator is used to initialize data at discrete time steps for a fine model that runs in parallel. This coarse solver is based on a larger time step and typically a coarser discretization in space. Iterative refinement enables the compute-intensive fine iterator to be modeled with temporal parallelization. The algorithm consists of a series of prediction-corrector iterations completing when the results have converged within a certain tolerance. Combined, these developments allow large fluid models to be simulated for longer time durations than previously possible.

  19. Using models in cardiovascular research: report on the satellite meeting to the International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Models in Cardiovascular Research.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, S A; Chan, V

    2001-10-01

    Humans have used animals for centuries to understand their own biology. From September 2-4, 2001, scientists from around the world converged on Brisbane, in Australia, to discuss the use of animal models in cardiovascular research at a satellite meeting to the 34th International Congress of Physiological Sciences (August 26-September 1, 2001, Christchurch, New Zealand). The appropriateness of each model to the human disease was a major consideration. Other themes were the use of models to understand pathological processes, and to determine potential new targets for pharmacological intervention. PMID:11838321

  20. Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (?2) test and hypothesis test (?) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (?2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were ?2 = 85.652 and ?2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing a high trend of CVD risk factors. PMID:25861661

  1. P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system and their potential as therapeutic targets in disease.

    PubMed

    Ralevic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets in the treatment of cardiovascular disease is discussed. PMID:25515516

  2. A Follow-Up Study of Medical Students' Biomedical Understanding and Clinical Reasoning Concerning the Cardiovascular System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…

  3. Mouse models to study the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on brain structure and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bink, Diewertje I; Ritz, Katja; Aronica, Eleonora; van der Weerd, Louise; Daemen, Mat JAP

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical data indicates that hemodynamic changes caused by cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart failure, and hypertension affect cognition. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of the resulting vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) are poorly understood. One reason for the lack of mechanistic insights in VCI is that research in dementia primarily focused on Alzheimer's disease models. To fill in this gap, we critically reviewed the published data and various models of VCI. Typical findings in VCI include reduced cerebral perfusion, blood–brain barrier alterations, white matter lesions, and cognitive deficits, which have also been reported in different cardiovascular mouse models. However, the tests performed are incomplete and differ between models, hampering a direct comparison between models and studies. Nevertheless, from the currently available data we conclude that a few existing surgical animal models show the key features of vascular cognitive decline, with the bilateral common carotid artery stenosis hypoperfusion mouse model as the most promising model. The transverse aortic constriction and myocardial infarction models may be good alternatives, but these models are as yet less characterized regarding the possible cerebral changes. Mixed models could be used to study the combined effects of different cardiovascular diseases on the deterioration of cognition during aging. PMID:23963364

  4. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  5. Alcohol and the cardiovascular system: a double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Katsiki, Niki; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2014-01-01

    Low to moderate alcohol intake has been associated with beneficial effects on the heart and the vasculature, including improvements in several established and emerging cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as reduced risk for several metabolic diseases, CVD morbidity and mortality. Binge and heavy drinking exert the opposite effects, leading to increased risks for all the above conditions. With regard to beverage type, there is some evidence supporting red wine superiority in cardioprotection, although other beverages have also been reported to exert beneficial metabolic and vascular effects when consumed in moderate amounts. In this narrative review we discuss the associations between alcohol consumption and CVD morbidity and mortality. Alcohol-induced effects on established and emerging CVD risk factors are also discussed taking into consideration different drinking patterns. Physicians should screen for excessive alcohol use and advise individuals to limit their alcohol intake to moderate amounts (up to 20-30 g/day for men and 10-20 g/day for women), preferably consumed with meals. The question of whether alcohol intake should be encouraged as a measure to prevent CVD remains unanswered. PMID:24953395

  6. Magnetic Resonance Cardiorhythmography as a Method of Study of Human's Cardiovascular System Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, E. A.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this article a highly sensitive method for graphic recording of cardiogram by detecting the signal of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of human finger has been developed and signals directly related to movement of blood ejected by the heart into the vessels have been studied. Changes in the behavior of signals depending on the condition of the cardiovascular system of person have been discovered.

  7. TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised rats

    Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

  8. 38 CFR 4.104 - Schedule of ratings-cardiovascular system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-cardiovascular system. 4.104 Section 4.104 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS..., documented by laboratory tests 100 Thereafter: With history of documented myocardial infarction, resulting...

  9. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. PMID:26377556

  10. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  11. Meeting report from the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research. Protecting the cardiovascular system from ischemia: between bench and bedside.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Alba-Alba, Corina; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boisvert, William A; Bøtker, Hans E; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Fleming, Ingrid; Garcia-Dorado, David; Lecour, Sandrine; Liehn, Elisa; Marber, Michael S; Marina, Nephtali; Mayr, Manuel; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Miura, Tetsuji; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Salinas-Estefanon, Eduardo M; Ong, Sang-Bing; Schnittler, Hans J; Sanchez-Vega, Jose T; Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Yarullina, Dina; Yellon, Derek M; Preissner, Klaus T; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in basic cardiovascular research as well as their translation into the clinical situation were the focus at the last "New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research meeting". Major topics included the characterization of new targets and procedures in cardioprotection, deciphering new players and inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic heart disease as well as uncovering microRNAs and other biomarkers as versatile and possibly causal factors in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Although a number of pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury or atherosclerosis can be simulated and manipulated in diverse animal models, also to challenge new drugs for intervention, patient studies are the ultimate litmus test to obtain unequivocal information about the validity of biomedical concepts and their application in the clinics. Thus, the open and bidirectional exchange between bench and bedside is crucial to advance the field of ischemic heart disease with a particular emphasis of understanding long-lasting approaches in cardioprotection. PMID:26667317

  12. Unmasking Silent Endothelial Activation in the Cardiovascular System Using Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Belliere, Julie; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Choudhury, Robin P.; Quenault, Aurélien; Le Béhot, Audrey; Delage, Christine; Chauveau, Dominique; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial activation is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases, acting either as a cause or a consequence of organ injury. To date, we lack suitable methods to measure endothelial activation in vivo. In the present study, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method allowing non-invasive endothelial activation mapping in the vasculature of the main organs affected during cardiovascular diseases. In clinically relevant contexts in mice (including systemic inflammation, acute and chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and normal aging), we provided evidence that this method allows detecting endothelial activation before any clinical manifestation of organ failure in the brain, kidney and heart with an exceptional sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrated that diabetes mellitus induces chronic endothelial cells activation in the kidney and heart. Moreover, aged mice presented activated endothelial cells in the kidneys and the cerebrovasculature. Interestingly, depending on the underlying condition, the temporospatial patterns of endothelial activation in the vascular beds of the cardiovascular system were different. These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting silent endothelial activation occurring in conditions associated with high cardiovascular risk using molecular MRI. PMID:26379785

  13. Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence?tomography

    PubMed Central

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Tearney, Gary J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Southern, James F.; Brezinski, Mark E.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1997-01-01

    Studies investigating normal and abnormal cardiac development are frequently limited by an inability to assess cardiovascular function within the intact organism. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new method of micron-scale, noninvasive imaging based on the measurement of backscattered infrared light, was introduced for the high resolution assessment of structure and function in the developing Xenopus laevis cardiovascular system. Microstructural details, such as ventricular size and wall positions, were delineated with OCT at 16-?m resolution and correlated with histology. Three-dimensional representation of the cardiovascular system also was achieved by repeated cross-sectional imaging at intervals of 25 ?m. In addition to structural information, OCT provides high speed in vivo axial ranging and imaging, allowing quantitative dynamic activity, such as ventricular ejection fraction, to be assessed. The sensitivity of OCT for dynamic assessment was demonstrated with an inotropic agent that altered cardiac function and dimensions. Optical coherence tomography is an attractive new technology for assessing cardiovascular development because of its high resolution, its ability to image through nontransparent structures, and its inexpensive portable design. In vivo and in vitro imaging are performed at a resolution approaching that of histopathology without the need for animal killing. PMID:9113976

  14. Unmasking Silent Endothelial Activation in the Cardiovascular System Using Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Belliere, Julie; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Choudhury, Robin P; Quenault, Aurélien; Le Béhot, Audrey; Delage, Christine; Chauveau, Dominique; Schanstra, Joost P; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial activation is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases, acting either as a cause or a consequence of organ injury. To date, we lack suitable methods to measure endothelial activation in vivo. In the present study, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method allowing non-invasive endothelial activation mapping in the vasculature of the main organs affected during cardiovascular diseases. In clinically relevant contexts in mice (including systemic inflammation, acute and chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and normal aging), we provided evidence that this method allows detecting endothelial activation before any clinical manifestation of organ failure in the brain, kidney and heart with an exceptional sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrated that diabetes mellitus induces chronic endothelial cells activation in the kidney and heart. Moreover, aged mice presented activated endothelial cells in the kidneys and the cerebrovasculature. Interestingly, depending on the underlying condition, the temporospatial patterns of endothelial activation in the vascular beds of the cardiovascular system were different. These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting silent endothelial activation occurring in conditions associated with high cardiovascular risk using molecular MRI. PMID:26379785

  15. Foreign materials found in the cardiovascular system after instrumentation or surgery (Including a guide to their light microscopic identification).

    PubMed

    Walley, V M; Stinson, W A; Upton, C; Santerre, J P; Mussivand, T; Masters, R G; Ghadially, F N

    1993-01-01

    Foreign materials are often seen by light microscopy in surgical or autopsy specimens sent from the cardiovascular clinical services. This paper describes the range of materials that may be recovered in such specimens and provides a pictorial guide to aid in their identification. The spectrum of medical and nonmedical foreign materials that may be encountered in the cardiovascular system is discussed. PMID:25990674

  16. Space Weather and a State of Cardiovascular System of Human Being with a Weakened Adaptation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, S. N.

    As has been shown in [Samsonov et al., 2013] even at the considerable disturbances of space weather parameters a healthy human being did not undergo painful symptoms although measurements of objective physiological indices showed their changes. At the same time the state of health of people with the weakened adaptation system under the same conditions can considerably be deteriorated up to fatal outcome. The analysis of results of the project "Heliomed" and the number of calls for the emergency medical care (EMC) around Yakutsk as to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has shown:- the total number of calls for EMC concerning myocardial infarction (MI) per year near the geomagnetic disturbance maximum (1992) exceeds the number of calls per year near the geomagnetic activity minimum (1998) by a factor of 1,5 and concerning to strokes - by a factor of 1,8.- maxima of MI are observed during spring and autumn periods coinciding with maxima of geophysical disturbance;- the coincidence of 30-32 daily periods in a power spectrum of MI with the same periods in power spectra of space weather parameters (speeds and density of the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, geophysical disturbance);- the existence of 3 maxima of the number of calls for EMC: a) at the moment of disturbance on the Sun; during a geophysical disturbance (in 2-4 days after a disturbance on the Sun); in 2-4 days after a geophysical disturbance;- the availability of coincidence of insignificant disturbances of space weather parameters with changes of the functional state of cardiovascular system of a human being with the weakened adaptation system and the occurrence of MI and strokes at considerable values of such disturbances is explained by a quasi-logarithmic dependence of the response of human being organisms to the environment disturbance intensity.

  17. Nighttime instabilities of neurophysiological, cardiovascular, and respiratory activity: integrative modeling and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Vladimir; Troy, William C; Abdelmessih, Medhat; Hoffman, Stacy; Nemec, Jan; Strollo, Patrick J; London, Barry; Lampert, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Unstable (cyclical alternating pattern, or CAP) sleep is associated with surges of sympathetic nervous system activity, increased blood pressure and vasoconstriction, heightened baroreflex sensitivity, and unstable heart rhythm and breathing. In susceptible persons, CAP sleep provokes clinically significant events, including hypertensive crises, sleep-disordered breathing, and cardiac arrhythmias. Here we explore the neurophysiology of CAP sleep and its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory functions. We show that: (i) an increase in neurophysiological recovery rate can explain the emergence of slow, self-sustained, hypersynchronized A1 CAP-sleep pattern and its transition to the faster A2-A3 CAP-sleep patterns; (ii) in a two-dimensional, continuous model of cardiac tissue with heterogeneous action potential duration (APD) distribution, heart rate accelerations during CAP sleep may encounter incompletely recovered electrical excitability in cell clusters with longer APD. If the interaction between short cycle length and incomplete, spatially heterogeneous repolarization persists over multiple cycles, irregularities and asymmetry of depolarization front may accumulate and ultimately lead to a conduction block, retrograde conduction, breakup of activation waves, reentrant activity, and arrhythmias; and (iii) these modeling results are consistent with the nighttime data obtained from patients with structural heart disease (N=13) that show clusters of atrial and ventricular premature beats occurring during the periods of unstable heart rhythm and respiration that accompany CAP sleep. In these patients, CAP sleep is also accompanied by delayed adaptation of QT intervals and T-wave alternans. PMID:26341647

  18. Cardiovascular and other dynamic systems in long-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper examines the physiology of the cardiovascular system, and to a lesser extent the endocrine, renal, and hematopoietic systems. The paper highlights the aspects of these areas that are most pertinent to space manufacturing, i.e., working in space. Areas covered include the physiological costs of working in microgravity and partial gravity (e.g., the moon or Mars), countermeasures to potentially adverse physiological adaptations, and problems associated with return to earth after long periods of weightlessness.

  19. The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

  20. Characterization of Coherent Structures in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Shadden, Shawn C.; Taylor, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in blood flow modeling have provided highly resolved, four-dimensional data of fluid mechanics in large vessels. The motivation for such modeling is often to better understand how flow conditions relate to health and disease, or to evaluate interventions that affect, or are affected by, blood flow mechanics. Vessel geometry and the pulsatile pumping of blood leads to complex flow, which is often difficult to characterize. This article discusses a computational method to better characterize blood flow kinematics. In particular, we compute Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) to study flow in large vessels. We demonstrate that LCS can be used to characterize flow stagnation, flow separation, partitioning of fluid to downstream vasculature, and mechanisms governing stirring and mixing in vascular models. This perspective allows valuable under-standing of flow features in large vessels beyond methods traditionally considered. PMID:18437573

  1. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, B. V.; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Historically acknowledged as toxic gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are now recognized as the predominant members of a new family of signaling molecules, “gasotransmitters” in mammals. While H2S is biosynthesized by three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MST) from L-cysteine and homocysteine, NO is generated endogenously from L-arginine by the action of various isoforms of NOS. Both gases have been transpired as the key and independent regulators of many physiological functions in mammalian cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune systems. The analogy between these two gasotransmitters is evident not only from their paracrine mode of signaling, but also from the identical and/or shared signaling transduction pathways. With the plethora of research in the pathophysiological role of gasotransmitters in various systems, the existence of interplay between these gases is being widely accepted. Chemical interaction between NO and H2S may generate nitroxyl (HNO), which plays a specific effective role within the cardiovascular system. In this review article, we have attempted to provide current understanding of the individual and interactive roles of H2S and NO signaling in mammalian cardiovascular system, focusing particularly on heart contractility, cardioprotection, vascular tone, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress. PMID:26640616

  2. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, B V; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Historically acknowledged as toxic gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are now recognized as the predominant members of a new family of signaling molecules, "gasotransmitters" in mammals. While H2S is biosynthesized by three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MST) from L-cysteine and homocysteine, NO is generated endogenously from L-arginine by the action of various isoforms of NOS. Both gases have been transpired as the key and independent regulators of many physiological functions in mammalian cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune systems. The analogy between these two gasotransmitters is evident not only from their paracrine mode of signaling, but also from the identical and/or shared signaling transduction pathways. With the plethora of research in the pathophysiological role of gasotransmitters in various systems, the existence of interplay between these gases is being widely accepted. Chemical interaction between NO and H2S may generate nitroxyl (HNO), which plays a specific effective role within the cardiovascular system. In this review article, we have attempted to provide current understanding of the individual and interactive roles of H2S and NO signaling in mammalian cardiovascular system, focusing particularly on heart contractility, cardioprotection, vascular tone, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress. PMID:26640616

  3. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed Central

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) – in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories – impairs the cardiovascular system. METHODS: Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. RESULTS: After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight/final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration-effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed. PMID:21165364

  4. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Azevedo, Bruna; Barros Furieri, Lorena; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Frizera Vassallo, Paula; Ronacher Simões, Maylla; Fiorim, Jonaina; Rossi de Batista, Priscila; Fioresi, Mirian; Rossoni, Luciana; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, María Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Valentim Vassallo, Dalton

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced. PMID:22811600

  5. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  6. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in response to certain stimuli such as hypoxia, acute cardiac stress, shear stress, hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation. Consequently, the levels of circulating microvesicles will reflect the balance between dynamic mechanisms for release and clearance. The present review describes the range of triggers currently known to lead to microvesicle release from different cellular origins into the circulation. Specifically, the published data are used to summarize the dynamic impact of these triggers on the degree and rate of microvesicle release. Secondly, a summary of the current understanding of microvesicle clearance via different cellular systems, including the endothelial cell and macrophage, is presented, based on reported studies of clearance in experimental models and clinical scenarios, such as transfusion or cardiac stress. Together, this information can be used to provide insights into potential underlying biological mechanisms that might explain the increases or decreases in circulating microvesicle levels that have been reported and help to design future clinical studies. PMID:26359252

  7. What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

  8. Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

  9. Cardiovascular Surgery Residency Program: Training Coronary Anastomosis Using the Arroyo Simulator and UNIFESP Models

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Miguel Angel; Gomes, Walter José; Bras, Ademir Massarico; de Araújo, Thiago Cavalcante Vila Nova; Mota, André Lupp; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Coutinho, Rafael Viana dos S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. METHODS First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. RESULTS The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. CONCLUSION 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art.

  10. The endothelin system as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease: great expectations or bleak house?

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, N S; Hadoke, P W F; Bagnall, A J; Webb, D J

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. As such, pharmacological manipulation of the ET system might represent a promising therapeutic goal. Many clinical trials have assessed the potential of ET receptor antagonists in cardiovascular disease, the most positive of which have resulted in the licensing of the mixed ET receptor antagonist bosentan, and the selective ETA receptor antagonists, sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In contrast, despite encouraging data from in vitro and animal studies, outcomes in human heart failure have been disappointing, perhaps illustrating the risk of extrapolating preclinical work to man. Many further potential applications of these compounds, including resistant hypertension, chronic kidney disease, connective tissue disease and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage are currently being investigated in the clinic. Furthermore, experience from previous studies should enable improved trial design and scope remains for development of improved compounds and alternative therapeutic strategies. Although ET-converting enzyme inhibitors may represent one such alternative, there have been relatively few suitable compounds developed, and consequently, clinical experience with these agents remains extremely limited. Recent advances, together with an increased understanding of the biology of the ET system provided by improved experimental tools (including cell-specific transgenic deletion of ET receptors), should allow further targeting of clinical trials to diseases in which ET is involved and allow the therapeutic potential for targeting the ET system in cardiovascular disease to be fully realized. PMID:17965745

  11. Systolic time interval data acquisition system. Specialized cardiovascular studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition system for noninvasive measurement of systolic time intervals is described. R-R interval from the ECG determines instantaneous heart rate prior to the beat to be measured. Total electromechanical systole (Q-S2) is measured from the onset of the ECG Q-wave to the onset of the second heart sound (S2). Ejection time (ET or LVET) is measured from the onset of carotid upstroke to the incisure. Pre-ejection period (PEP) is computed by subtracting ET from Q-S2. PEP/ET ratio is computed directly.

  12. Nnuclear uptake and retention of a synthetic progestin in the cardiovascular system of the baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.J.; McGill, H.C. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    It has long been known that there is a sexual dimorphism in the incidence of coronary heart disease. This observation, together with more recent reports of increased cardiovascular disease associated with the use of oral contraceptives, led to a search for steroid receptors in the cardiovascular system. In this study the nuclear uptake and retention of a synthetic progestin was examined in the cardiovascular system of the baboons. Long term oophorectomized baboons were primed with estradiol benzoate for 3 days before the experiment (50 micrograms/kg, im) and adrenalectomized 2 days before the experiment. On the day of the experiment, the animals were injected under anesthesia with 2.5 micrograms/kg BW (/sup 3/H)ORG 2058 (16 alpha-ethyl-21-hydroxy-19-nor-(6,7-/sup 3/H)pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) or with (/sup 3/H) ORG 2058 plus a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled progesterone (control). One hour after the injection, the animals were rapidly exsanguinated, and parts of the cardiovascular system were removed and processed for autoradiography. Localization of the synthetic progestin was found in nuclei of between 25-75% of all smooth muscle cells of the media of all arteries examined and to a lesser extent in the nuclei of the fibroblasts and others cells of the adventitia. Localization of the synthetic progestin in the heart was limited to approximately 1% of the myocardial cells and less than 5% of interstitial cell nuclei. The pattern of localization found differs from that for estrogen and androgen and suggests the possible presence of estrogen-independent progesterone receptors in smooth muscle cells of the media of the aorta and coronary arteries.

  13. OCT imaging of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing D.; Stamper, Debra L.; Patel, Nirlep A.; Saunders, Kathleen; Plummer, Sam; Schenck, John; Rogowska, Ika; Fujimoto, James G.; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2002-07-01

    In this presentation, the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the prevention of myocardial infarction and early identification of osteoarthritis is discussed. Myocardial infarction or a heart attack is the leading cause of death worldwide. It results from an acute loss of blood flow to a region of the heart resulting in death to that heart tissue. Most heart attacks are caused by small, thin walled lipid filled plaques which can not be detected by currently available imaging technologies. This paper outlines some of the advances demonstrating the potential of OCT for the identification of high risk plaque. Osteoarthritis is a major cause of mobility in the industrialized world. The hallmark of the disease is a degradation of articular cartilage. As new therapeutics have been shown to be effective in animal models, there effectiveness in humans remains unclear as there is no effective method for accurate monitoring changes in cartilage. In the second part of this manuscript, the effectiveness of OCT for monitoring articular cartilage is described.

  14. Physical activity ameliorates cardiovascular health in elderly subjects: the functional role of the ? adrenergic system

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Gaetano; Ciccarelli, Michele; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a complex process characterized by a gradual decline in organ functional reserves, which eventually reduces the ability to maintain homeostasis. An exquisite feature of elderly subjects, which constitute a growing proportion of the world population, is the high prevalence of cardiovascular disorders, which negatively affect both the quality of life and the life expectancy. It is widely acknowledged that physical activity represents one of the foremost interventions capable in reducing the health burden of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, the benefits of moderate-intensity physical activity have been established both in young and elderly subjects. Herein we provide a systematic and updated appraisal of the literature exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms evoked by physical activity in the elderly, focusing on the functional role of the ? adrenergic system. PMID:23964243

  15. Experimental Models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Relationship with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, Venus; Robson, Lesley G

    2010-01-01

    Almost every boy that has Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) will develop cardiac problems. Whereas, it used to be respiratory problems that was the main cause of death in these DMD boys; with the advent of better respiratory care it is now the cardiac involvement that is becoming the most common cause of their death. Once the heart is affected, there is progressive deterioration in the function of the heart over time. The main problem is the death of the cardiomyocytes. The cause of the cardiomyocyte death is due to the loss of dystrophin, this makes the sarcolemma more susceptible to damage, and leads to a cascade of calcium influx, calcium activated proteases and ultimately the death of the cardiomyocyte. The dead cardiomyocytes are replaced by fibrotic tissue, which results in a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) developing, which begins in the base of the left ventricle and progresses to involve the entire left ventricle. The treatments used for the DMD cardiomyopathy are based on ones designed for other forms of cardiac weakness and include ACE-inhibitors and ?-blockers. New therapies based around the pathophysiology in DMD are now being introduced. This review will look at the pathophysiology of the cardiac problems in DMD and how the various animal models that are available can be used to design new treatment options for DMD boys. PMID:21258567

  16. Improving the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Primary Health Care: The Model for Prevention Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel C; Cochrane, Thomas; Williams, Lauren T; Clancy, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, and accounted for nearly 31% of all deaths in Australia in 2011. The primary health care sector is at the frontline for addressing CVD, however, an evidence-to-practice gap exists in CVD risk assessment and management. General practice plays a key role in CVD risk assessment and management, but this sector cannot provide ongoing lifestyle change support in isolation. Community-based lifestyle modification services and programs provided outside the general practice setting have a key role in supporting and sustaining health behavior change. Fostering linkages between the health sector and community-based lifestyle services, and creating sustainable systems that support these sectors is important. Objective The objective of the study Model for Prevention (MoFoP) is to take a case study approach to examine a CVD risk reduction intervention in primary health care, with the aim of identifying the key elements required for an effective and sustainable approach to coordinate CVD risk reduction across the health and community sectors. These elements will be used to consider a new systems-based model for the prevention of CVD that informs future practice. Methods The MoFoP study will use a mixed methods approach, comprising two complementary research elements: (1) a case study, and (2) a pre/post quasi-experimental design. The case study will consider the organizations and systems involved in a CVD risk reduction intervention as a single case. The pre/post experimental design will be used for HeartLink, the intervention being tested, where a single cohort of patients between 45 and 74 years of age (or between 35 and 74 years of age if Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) considered to be at high risk for a CVD event will be recruited through general practice, provided with enhanced usual care and additional health behavior change support. A range of quantitative and qualitative data will be collected. This will include individual health and well being data collected at baseline and again at 12 months for HeartLink participants, and systems related data collected over the period of the intervention to inform the case study. Results The intervention is currently underway, with results expected in late 2015. Conclusions Gaining a better understanding of CVD prevention in primary health care requires a research approach that can capture and express its complexity. The MoFoP study aims to identify the key elements for effective CVD prevention across the health and community sectors, and to develop a model to better inform policy and practice in this key health priority area for Australia. PMID:25008232

  17. Simulation of a G-tolerance curve using the pulsatile cardiovascular model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, M.; Srinivasan, R.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation study, performed to assess the ability of the cardiovascular model to reproduce the G tolerance curve (G level versus tolerance time) is reported. A composite strength duration curve derived from experimental data obtained in human centrifugation studies was used for comparison. The effects of abolishing automomic control and of blood volume loss on G tolerance were also simulated. The results provide additional validation of the model. The need for the presence of autonomic reflexes even at low levels of G is pointed out. The low margin of safety with a loss of blood volume indicated by the simulation results underscores the necessity for protective measures during Shuttle reentry.

  18. Development of a multivariable model to predict vulnerability in older American patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Susan P; Schnelle, John; Nwosu, Samuel K; Schildcrout, Jonathan; Goggins, Kathryn; Cawthon, Courtney; Mixon, Amanda S; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Kripalani, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify vulnerable cardiovascular patients in the hospital using a self-reported function-based screening tool. Participants Prospective observational cohort study of 445 individuals aged ?65?years admitted to a university medical centre hospital within the USA with acute coronary syndrome and/or decompensated heart failure. Methods Participants completed an inperson interview during hospitalisation, which included vulnerable functional status using the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13), sociodemographic, healthcare utilisation practices and clinical patient-specific measures. A multivariable proportional odds logistic regression model examined associations between VES-13 and prior healthcare utilisation, as well as other coincident medical and psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Results Vulnerability was highly prevalent (54%) and associated with a higher number of clinic visits, emergency room visits and hospitalisations (all p<0.001). A multivariable analysis demonstrating a 1-point increase in VES-13 (vulnerability) was independently associated with being female (OR 1.55, p=0.030), diagnosis of heart failure (OR 3.11, p<0.001), prior hospitalisations (OR 1.30, p<0.001), low social support (OR 1.42, p=0.007) and depression (p<0.001). A lower VES-13 score (lower vulnerability) was associated with increased health literacy (OR 0.70, p=0.002). Conclusions Vulnerability to functional decline is highly prevalent in hospitalised older cardiovascular patients and was associated with patient risk factors for adverse outcomes and an increased use of healthcare services. PMID:26316650

  19. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Daniel; Veulemans, Verena; Horn, Patrick; Chatrou, Martijn L.; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Kelm, Malte; Schurgers, Leon J.; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05) and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05) calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01). MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures. PMID:26295257

  20. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; ?lhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ?mol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 ?mol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 ?mol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  1. Recent insights and therapeutic perspectives of angiotensin-(1-9) in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Ocaranza, Maria Paz; Michea, Luis; Chiong, Mario; Lagos, Carlos F; Lavandero, Sergio; Jalil, Jorge E

    2014-11-01

    Chronic RAS (renin-angiotensin system) activation by both AngII (angiotensin II) and aldosterone leads to hypertension and perpetuates a cascade of pro-hypertrophic, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and atherogenic effects associated with cardiovascular damage. In 2000, a new pathway consisting of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme2), Ang-(1-9) [angiotensin-(1-9)], Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] and the Mas receptor was discovered. Activation of this novel pathway stimulates vasodilation, anti-hypertrophy and anti-hyperplasia. For some time, studies have focused mainly on ACE2, Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor, and their biological properties that counterbalance the ACE/AngII/AT1R (angiotensin type 1 receptor) axis. No previous information about Ang-(1-9) suggested that this peptide had biological properties. However, recent data suggest that Ang-(1-9) protects the heart and blood vessels (and possibly the kidney) from adverse cardiovascular remodelling in patients with hypertension and/or heart failure. These beneficial effects are not modified by the Mas receptor antagonist A779 [an Ang-(1-7) receptor blocker], but they are abolished by the AT2R (angiotensin type 2 receptor) antagonist PD123319. Current information suggests that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-9) are mediated via the AT2R. In the present review, we summarize the biological effects of the novel vasoactive peptide Ang-(1-9), providing new evidence of its cardiovascular-protective activity. We also discuss the potential mechanism by which this peptide prevents and ameliorates the cardiovascular damage induced by RAS activation. PMID:25029123

  2. Significance of the Development of a Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance and Reporting System in India

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of global morbidity and mortality and is the leading cause of death in the Indian subcontinent projected to contribute to deaths expected to double by 2015. The social and economic impact of these staggering projections highlight the need for a centralized effort to monitor and evaluate behavioral and physiological risk factors for CVD. Limited evidence on existing surveillance systems suggest that the key to an effective monitoring and evaluation (M and E) program for CVD surveillance in India relies upon the World Health Organization's STEP-wise model. Key recommendations for the Ministry of Health include the development of a national CVD surveillance program with expertise and a quality-improvement mechanism to receive continuous input from similar surveillance programs in likeminded countries. Structure of the surveillance system would include; (1) the development of process measures for CVD risk factor’ based surveillance M and E systems for early detection of CVD at the local-level, (2) the development of trigger based data reporting responsibilities to State-based monitoring teams including incentives for accuracy in data reporting and the use of data-driven evidence to target risk specific intervention and prevention on Central Government monitoring teams with reporting feedback to the State and local-levels and (3) the creation of health policy to require the use of data to target risk specific prevention for intervention and developing local technical capacity. Such a system would provide significant cost and social benefits, presenting an evidence based data driven cost-effective business case for scale-up and potential use in areas comprising similar demographics. Future research should focus on the inclusion of a systematic critique of the reported data for the challenges to surveillance systems in India and the examination of the effect of an incentivized reporting system on the states. Further inquiry into the types of reporting and lessons from other countries’ surveillance programs with alternative strategies to a national approach should address potential imitations at the ground or peripheral levels. PMID:24347902

  3. Development of Diagnostic Reference Levels Using a Real-Time Radiation Dose Monitoring System at a Cardiovascular Center in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsu; Seo, Deoknam; Choi, Inseok; Nam, Sora; Yoon, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunji; Her, Jae; Han, Seonggyu; Kwon, Soonmu; Park, Hunsik; Yang, Dongheon; Kim, Jungmin

    2015-12-01

    Digital cardiovascular angiography accounts for a major portion of the radiation dose among the examinations performed at cardiovascular centres. However, dose-related information is neither monitored nor recorded systemically. This report concerns the construction of a radiation dose monitoring system based on digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data and its use at the cardiovascular centre of the University Hospitals in Korea. The dose information was analysed according to DICOM standards for a series of procedures, and the formulation of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) at our cardiovascular centre represents the first of its kind in Korea. We determined a dose area product (DAP) DRL for coronary angiography of 75.6 Gy cm(2) and a fluoroscopic time DRL of 318.0 s. The DAP DRL for percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention was 213.3 Gy cm(2), and the DRL for fluoroscopic time was 1207.5 s. PMID:25700616

  4. Elevation of fasting insulin and its association with cardiovascular disease risk in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tso, Tim K; Huang, Wen-Nan

    2009-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with premature atherosclerosis. We previously showed that SLE patients have a higher risk of insulin resistance (IR) and abnormal insulin secretion. The present study was to further investigate the relationship between fasting insulin levels and both classic and novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. Body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose and insulin, lipid profile, oxidation markers, fibrinolytic factors, vascular function factors, and disease-specific variables were determined in a total of 87 female SLE patients. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate the IR and secretion. SLE patients had significantly higher fasting insulin, HOMA IR, HOMA beta-cell, titers of autoantibodies against oxidized low density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, homocysteine, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than age-matched healthy controls. There were no statistical differences in disease duration, anti-dsDNA, C3, C4, disease activity, and medication dosage between SLE patients stratified by fasting insulin levels. However, mean values for BMI, insulin, HOMA IR, HOMA beta-cell, triglyceride (TG), homocysteine, and baPWV were significantly higher in the SLE patients with hyperinsulinemia when compared with those SLE controls. In addition, fasting insulin levels were positively correlated with TG, homocysteine, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and baPWV in SLE patients. The elevation of fasting insulin levels in SLE patients is not only associated with IR, but is related to classic and novel cardiovascular risk factors. This study concludes that there is an insulin-related cardiovascular disease risk in SLE. PMID:19037607

  5. Noise, sleep and poor health: Modeling the relationship between road traffic noise and cardiovascular problems.

    PubMed

    Fyhri, Aslak; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2010-10-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with exposure to traffic noise. Studies supporting a noise-stress-health model have suggested links between noise level and increased noradrenalin concentrations in urine, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Among the more commonly documented effects, sleep disturbances have been regarded as being the most serious. Both noise annoyance and sleep disturbance have been proposed as important mediators of the impact of noise on health. The present paper investigates the relationships among long-term noise exposure, annoyance, sleeping problems and subjective health complaints by the use of a structural equation model. Further, it aims at giving insight into how noise sensitivity is related to sleep disturbances from road traffic noise. Finally, it examines whether any effect of noise exposure or response to noise can be detected on prevalence of cardiovascular problems, when information on sleep disturbances is included in a model. Data from a questionnaire survey conducted among a population sample in Oslo (N=2786) are combined with nighttime noise levels calculated from outside each respondents dwelling, at the bedroom façade. The results of the analysis showed significant relationships between noise annoyance at night and sleeping problems. The model also showed strong links among pseudoneurological complaints, annoyance and sleeping problems, thus pointing to the importance of including information on psychosomatic disorders and mild psychological problems in future studies looking at potential health effects of noise. The analysis showed no relationship between neither noise exposure nor response to noise and cardiovascular problems. PMID:20708214

  6. Model-Based Assessment of Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chaicharn, Jarree; Lin, Zheng; Chen, Maida L.; Ward, Sally L.D.; Keens, Thomas; Khoo, Michael C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To quantitatively assess daytime autonomic cardiovascular control in pediatric subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Design: Respiration, R-R intervals, and noninvasive continuous blood pressure were monitored in awake subjects in the supine and standing postures, as well as during cold face stimulation. Setting: Sleep disorders laboratory in a hospital setting. Participants: Ten pediatric patients (age 11.4 ± 3.6 years) with moderate to severe OSAS (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index = 21.0 ± 6.6/ h) before treatment and 10 age-matched normal control subjects (age 11.5 ± 3.7 years). Measurements and Results: Spectral analysis of heart rate variability revealed that high-frequency power was similar and the ratio of low- to high-frequency power was lower in subjects with OSAS vs control subjects. The closed-loop minimal model allowed heart rate variability to be partitioned into a component mediated by respiratory-cardiac coupling and a baroreflex component, whereas blood pressure variability was assumed to result from the direct effects of respiration and fluctuations in cardiac output. Baroreflex gain was lower in subjects with OSAS vs control subjects. Under orthostatic stress, respiratory-cardiac coupling gain decreased in both subject groups, but baroreflex gain decreased only in controls. The model was extended to incorporate time-varying parameter changes for analysis of the data collected during cold face stimulation: cardiac output gain increased in controls but remained unchanged in OSAS. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that vagal modulation of the heart remains relatively normal in pediatric subjects with OSAS. However, baseline cardiovascular sympathetic activity is elevated, and reactivity to autonomic challenges is impaired. Citation: Chaicharn J; Lin Z; Chen ML; Ward SLD; Keens T; Khoo MCK. Model-based assessment of cardiovascular autonomic control in children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2009;32(7):927-938. PMID:19639756

  7. Generation and Characterization of Patient-Specific iPSC Model for Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Ki; Ran, X; Lai, K W H; Lau, V Y M; Siu, D C W; Tse, H F

    2016-01-01

    Advances in differentiation of cardiomyocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) were emerged as a tool for modeling of cardiovascular disease that recapitulates the phenotype for the purpose of drug screening, biomarker discovery, and testing of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as a modifier for disease stratification. Here, we describe the (1) retroviral reprogramming strategies in the generation of human iPSC, (2) methodology in characterization of iPSC in order to identify the stem cell clones with the best quality, and (3) protocol of cardiac differentiation by modulation of Wnt signaling and ?-catenin pathway. PMID:26126449

  8. [Role of inorganic nitrite and nitric oxide in the function of cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    This manuscript reviews the role of nitrite and NO dependent mechanisms in the regulation of cardiovascular system. The endo- and exogenous sources of nitrite as well as different pathways of its formation discussed in respect to nitrite reductases activities and nitric oxide formation. The role of nitrite and its metabolites in the regulation of myocardium contractility and effect on peripheral blood resistance are reviewed as well as its dependence from redox and cyclooxygenase reaction. Multiple data supporting the role of nitrite and NO in energy homeostasis and mitochondrial respiration are provided. Additionally, some molecular aspects of cardioprotective, pathological and eco-physiological effects of nitrite are discussed. PMID:25508362

  9. [Role of inorganic nitrite and nitric oxide in the function of cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Shumilova, T E; Nozdrachev, A D; Fedorova, M A

    2014-03-01

    This manuscript reviews the role of nitrite and NO dependent mechanisms in the regulation of cardiovascular system. The endo- and exogenous sources of nitrite as well as different pathways of its formation discussed in respect to nitrite reductases activities and nitric oxide formation. The role of nitrite and its metabolites in the regulation of myocardium contractility and effect on peripheral blood resistance are reviewed as well as its dependence from redox and cyclooxygenase reaction. Multiple data supporting the role of nitrite and NO in energy homeostasis and mitochondrial respiration are provided. Additionally, some molecular aspects of cardioprotective, pathological and eco-physiological effects of nitrite are discussed. PMID:25464731

  10. [Characteristics of the human cardiovascular system in the human diving response].

    PubMed

    Baranova, T I

    2004-01-01

    Comparative-evolutional research of diving response showed that mechanisms of its expression had much in common in humans and in animals. Firstly, it involves a reflex bradycardia, vasoconstriction of peripheral vessels, and blood flow centralization. But, unlike animals whose diving response has some typical species peculiarities, human diving response is rather diverse. Four types of cardiovascular system response to face submersion were revealed: over-reactive, reactive, paradoxical, and nonreactive. These types were chosen according to the bradycardia character. It is also supposed that the occurrence of individual maximal R--R-interval, while serving as a signal to apnea stopping, is among the reasons of apnea activity limitation. PMID:15143489

  11. The circadian organization of the cardiovascular system in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In normal conditions, the temporal organization of blood pressure (BP) is mainly controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. Above all, the monoaminergic systems (including variations in activity of the autonomous nervous system, and in secretion of biogenic amines) appear to integrate the major driving factors of temporal variability, but evidence is available also for a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, opioid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and endothelial systems, as well as other vasoactive peptides. Many hormones with established actions on the cardiovascular system (arginine vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, melatonin, somatotropin, insulin, steroids, serotonin, CRF, ACTH, TRH, endogenous opioids, and prostaglandin E2) are also involved in sleep induction or arousal, which in turn affects BP regulation. Hence, physical, mental, and pathological stimuli which may drive activation or inhibition of these neuroendocrine effectors of biological rhythmicity, may also interfere with the temporal BP structure. On the other hand, the immediate adaptation of the exogenous components of BP rhythms to the demands of the environment are modulated by the circadian-time-dependent responsiveness of the biological oscillators and their neuroendocrine effectors. These notions may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapeutics of hypertension, myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiac arrhythmias and all kind of acute cardiovascular accidents. For instance, the normal temporal balance between external stimuli and neurohumoral influences with endogenous rhythmicity is preserved in uncomplicated, essential hypertension, whereas it is frequently lost in complicated and secondary forms of hypertension where gross alterations are found in the circadian profile of BP. When all the gates of the critical physiologic functions are aligned at the same time, the susceptibility, and thus risk, of adverse events becomes extremely high, even in the presence of minor environmental stimuli that could be usually harmless, and circadian rhythms of cardiovascular events are observed. This implies that one cannot afford to miss what happens during day but also night. Moreover, the requirement for preventive and therapeutic interventions varies predictably during the 24 h, suggesting that the delivery of protective or preventive medications should be synchronized in time in proportion to need, as determined by established rhythmic patterns in cardiovascular function as well as risk, in a manner that will avert or minimize their undesired side effects. PMID:24851400

  12. Absence of cardiovascular manifestations in a haploinsufficient Tgfbr1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Renard, Marjolijn; Trachet, Bram; Casteleyn, Christophe; Campens, Laurence; Cornillie, Pieter; Callewaert, Bert; Deleye, Steven; Vandeghinste, Bert; van Heijningen, Paula M; Dietz, Harry; De Vos, Filip; Essers, Jeroen; Staelens, Steven; Segers, Patrick; Loeys, Bart; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne; De Backer, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant arterial aneurysm disease belonging to the spectrum of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)-associated vasculopathies. In its most typical form it is characterized by the presence of hypertelorism, bifid uvula/cleft palate and aortic aneurysm and/or arterial tortuosity. LDS is caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in the genes encoding TGF? receptor 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and -2), which lead to a paradoxical increase in TGF? signaling. To address this apparent paradox and to gain more insight into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease, we characterized a new Tgfbr1 mouse model carrying a p.Y378* nonsense mutation. Study of the natural history in this model showed that homozygous mutant mice die during embryonic development due to defective vascularization. Heterozygous mutant mice aged 6 and 12 months were morphologically and (immuno)histochemically indistinguishable from wild-type mice. We show that the mutant allele is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay, expected to result in haploinsufficiency of the mutant allele. Since this haploinsufficiency model does not result in cardiovascular malformations, it does not allow further study of the process of aneurysm formation. In addition to providing a comprehensive method for cardiovascular phenotyping in mice, the results of this study confirm that haploinsuffciency is not the underlying genetic mechanism in human LDS. PMID:24587008

  13. Study of nanosensor systems for hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Hypertension and hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are on a rise. At-least 970 million people in the world and Seventy percent of the American adults are affected by high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Even though blood pressure monitoring systems are readily available, the number of people being affected has been increasing. Most of the blood pressure monitoring systems require cumbersome approaches. Even the noninvasive techniques have not lowered the number of people affected nor did at-least increase the user base of these systems. Uncontrolled or untreated hypertension may lead to various cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, hypertensive crisis, lacunar infarcts intracerebral damage, microaneurysm, and cardiovascular disorders including heart failure, myocardial infraction, and ischemic heart disease. Hypertension is rated as the one of the most important causes of premature death in spite of the technical advances in biomedical technology. This paper briefs a review of the widely adopted blood pressure monitoring methods, research techniques, and finally, proposes a concept of implementing nanosensors and wireless communication for real time non-invasive blood pressure monitoring.

  14. Comparing the cardiovascular therapeutic indices of glycopyrronium and tiotropium in an integrated rat pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety model.

    PubMed

    Trifilieff, Alexandre; Ethell, Brian T; Sykes, David A; Watson, Kenny J; Collingwood, Steve; Charlton, Steven J; Kent, Toby C

    2015-08-15

    Long acting inhaled muscarinic receptor antagonists, such as tiotropium, are widely used as bronchodilator therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although this class of compounds is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated in COPD patients the cardiovascular safety of tiotropium has recently been questioned. We describe a rat in vivo model that allows the concurrent assessment of muscarinic antagonist potency, bronchodilator efficacy and a potential for side effects, and we use this model to compare tiotropium with NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), a recently approved inhaled muscarinic antagonist for COPD. Anaesthetized Brown Norway rats were dosed intratracheally at 1 or 6h prior to receiving increasing doses of intravenous methacholine. Changes in airway resistance and cardiovascular function were recorded and therapeutic indices were calculated against the ED50 values for the inhibition of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. At both time points studied, greater therapeutic indices for hypotension and bradycardia were observed with glycopyrronium (19.5 and 28.5 fold at 1h; >200 fold at 6h) than with tiotropium (1.5 and 4.2 fold at 1h; 4.6 and 5.5 fold at 6h). Pharmacokinetic, protein plasma binding and rat muscarinic receptor binding properties for both compounds were determined and used to generate an integrated model of systemic M2 muscarinic receptor occupancy, which predicted significantly higher M2 receptor blockade at ED50 doses with tiotropium than with glycopyrronium. In our preclinical model there was an improved safety profile for glycopyrronium when compared with tiotropium. PMID:26026369

  15. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Ashley N; Clayton, Robert P; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that ?-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits. PMID:26729111

  16. Modeling the impact of scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen turnover in engineered cardiovascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Argento, G; de Jonge, N; Söntjens, S H M; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Baaijens, F P T

    2015-06-01

    The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and computational microscale model to quantitatively understand the interplay between scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen synthesis and degradation. Using input from experimental studies, we hypothesize that both the microstructure of the scaffold and the loading conditions influence collagen turnover. The evaluation of the mechanical and topological properties of in vitro engineered constructs reveals that the formation of extracellular matrix layers on top of the scaffold surface influences the mechanical anisotropy on the construct. Results show that the microscale model can successfully capture the collagen arrangement between the fibers of an electrospun scaffold under static and cyclic loading conditions. Contact guidance by the scaffold, and not applied load, dominates the collagen architecture. Therefore, when the collagen grows inside the pores of the scaffold, pronounced scaffold anisotropy guarantees the development of a construct that mimics the mechanical anisotropy of the native cardiovascular tissue. PMID:25319256

  17. Model-based parameter estimation using cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldt, T.; Shim, E. B.; Kamm, R. D.; Mark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a cardiovascular model that is capable of simulating the short-term (< or approximately equal to 3 min) transient hemodynamic response to gravitational stress and a gradient-based optimization method that allows for the automated estimation of model parameters from simulated or experimental data. We perform a sensitivity analysis of the transient heart rate response to determine which parameters of the model impact the heart rate dynamics significantly. We subsequently include only those parameters in the estimation routine that impact the transient heart rate dynamics substantially. We apply the estimation algorithm to both simulated and real data and showed that restriction to the 20 most important parameters does not impair our ability to match the data.

  18. Relation of Total and Cardiovascular Death Rates to Climate System, Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Qualls, Clifford; Kloner, Robert A; Laskey, Warren K

    2015-10-15

    A distinct seasonal pattern in total and cardiovascular death rates has been reported. The factors contributing to this pattern have not been fully explored. Seven locations (average total population 71,354,000) were selected where data were available including relatively warm, cold, and moderate temperatures. Over the period 2004 to 2009, there were 2,526,123 all-cause deaths, 838,264 circulatory deaths, 255,273 coronary heart disease deaths, and 135,801 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) deaths. We used time series and multivariate regression modeling to explore the association between death rates and climatic factors (temperature, dew point, precipitation, barometric pressure), influenza levels, air pollution levels, hours of daylight, and day of week. Average seasonal patterns for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were very similar across the 7 locations despite differences in climate. After adjusting for multiple covariates and potential confounders, there was a 0.49% increase in all-cause death rate for every 1°C decrease. In general, all-cause, circulatory, coronary heart disease and STEMI death rates increased linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature effect varied by location, including temperature's linear slope, cubic fit, positional shift on the temperature axis, and the presence of circulatory death increases in locally hot temperatures. The variable effect of temperature by location suggests that people acclimatize to local temperature cycles. All-cause and circulatory death rates also demonstrated sizable associations with influenza levels, dew point temperature, and barometric pressure. A greater understanding of how climate, temperature, and barometric pressure influence cardiovascular responses would enhance our understanding of circulatory and STEMI deaths. PMID:26297511

  19. Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System Function and Aerobic Capacity in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hägglund, Harriet; Uusitalo, Arja; Peltonen, Juha E.; Koponen, Anne S.; Aho, Jyrki; Tiinanen, Suvi; Seppänen, Tapio; Tulppo, Mikko; Tikkanen, Heikki O.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has been reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in healthy subjects, but this relationship is unknown in T1D. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in T1D individuals. Ten T1D patients (34?±?7?years) and 11 healthy control (CON; 31?±?6?years) age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. ANS function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with a graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to maneuvers in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians) than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p?cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in T1D. PMID:22973238

  20. Association of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity with cardiovascular risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tso, T K; Huang, W N; Huang, H Y; Chang, C K

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with premature atherosclerosis. Increasing arterial stiffness is closely associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered to be an indicator of arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. Age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBS), plasma lipid profile, plasma homocysteine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), baPWV, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and SLE-related factors were determined in a total of 83 SLE patients (12 males and 71 females). All SLE patients were further classified into two subgroups according to baPWV value (baPWV < 1400 cm/s, n=37 versus baPWV > 1400 cm/s, n=46). The mean baPWV value of studied SLE patients was 1520 +/- 381 cm/s. Age, BMI, SBP, DBP, FBS, TBARS and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in SLE patients with baPWV value > 1400cm/s than in SLE patients with baPWV value < 1400cm/s. In addition, baPWV correlated significantly with age, SBP, DBP, FBS and homocysteine. Moreover, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that age and SBP were independently associated with baPWV. The results of this study indicate a possible link between vascular stiffness measured by baPWV and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:16335579

  1. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Zannad, Faiez; De Backer, Guy; Graham, Ian; Lorenz, Matthias; Mancia, Giuseppe; Morrow, David A; Reiner, Zeljko; Koenig, Wolfgang; Dallongeville, Jean; Macfadyen, Robert J; Ruilope, Luis M; Wilhelmsen, Lars

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention. PMID:22220636

  2. Milan PM1 Induces Adverse Effects on Mice Lungs and Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Francesca; Sancini, Giulio; Longhin, Eleonora; Mantecca, Paride; Camatini, Marina; Palestini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?); macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2); heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NF?B-p50); inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); endothelial-selectin (E-selectin)), cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70); caspase-8-p18), and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1)). Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NF?B-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO); plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin); fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)). PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:23509745

  3. Sent to Destroy: The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Regulates Cell Signaling and Protein Quality Control in Cardiovascular Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Monte S.; Townley-Tilson, W.H. Davin; Kang, Eunice Y.; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Patterson, Cam

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in biological processes integral to the development of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. The UPS prototypically recognizes specific protein substrates and places polyubiquitin chains on them for subsequent destruction by the proteasome. This system is in place to degrade not only misfolded and damaged proteins, but is essential also in regulating a host of cell signaling pathways involved in proliferation, adaptation to stress, regulation of cell size, and cell death. During the development of the cardiovascular system, the UPS regulates cell signaling by modifying transcription factors, receptors, and structural proteins. Later, in the event of cardiovascular diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and ischemia reperfusion injury, ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome are implicated in protecting and exacerbating clinical outcomes. However, when misfolded and damaged proteins are ubiquitinated by the UPS, their destruction by the proteasome is not always possible due to their aggregated confirmations. Recent studies have discovered how these ubiquitinated misfolded proteins can be destroyed by alternative “specific” mechanisms. The cytosolic receptors p62, NBR, and HDAC6 recognize aggregated ubiquitinated proteins and target them for autophagy in the process of “selective autophagy”. Even the ubiquitination of multiple proteins within whole organelles that drive the more general macro-autophagy may be due, in part, to similar ubiquitin-driven mechanisms. In summary, the cross-talk between the UPS and autophagy highlight the pivotal and diverse roles the UPS plays in maintaining protein quality control and regulating cardiovascular development and disease. PMID:20167943

  4. Flipped classroom model improves graduate student performance in cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology.

    PubMed

    Tune, Johnathan D; Sturek, Michael; Basile, David P

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a traditional lecture-based curriculum versus a modified "flipped classroom" curriculum of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology delivered to first-year graduate students. Students in both courses were provided the same notes and recorded lectures. Students in the modified flipped classroom were required to watch the prerecorded lectures before class and then attend class, where they received a quiz or homework covering material in each lecture (valued at 25% of the final grade) followed by a question and answer/problem-solving period. In the traditional curriculum, attending lectures was optional and there were no quizzes. Evaluation of effectiveness and student performance was achieved by having students in both courses take the same multiple-choice exams. Within a comparable group of graduate students, participants in the flipped course scored significantly higher (P ? 0.05) on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and weighted cumulative sections by an average of >12 percentage points. Exam averages for students in the flipped course also tended to be higher on the renal section by ?11 percentage points (P = 0.06). Based on our experience and responses obtained in blinded student surveys, we propose that the use of homework and in-class quizzes were critical motivating factors that likely contributed to the increase in student exam performance. Taken together, our findings support that the flipped classroom model is a highly effective means in which to disseminate key physiological concepts to graduate students. PMID:24292907

  5. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockade for cardiovascular diseases: current status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Terry KW; Kam, Kevin KH; Yan, Bryan P; Lam, Yat-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) results in vasoconstriction, muscular (vascular and cardiac) hypertrophy and fibrosis. Established arterial stiffness and cardiac dysfunction are key factors contributing to subsequent cardiovascular and renal complications. Blockade of RAAS has been shown to be beneficial in patients with hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, chronic systolic heart failure, stroke and diabetic renal disease. An aggressive approach for more extensive RAAS blockade with combination of two commonly used RAAS blockers [ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] yielded conflicting results in different patient populations. Combination therapy is also associated with more side effects, in particular hypotension, hyperkalaemia and renal impairment. Recently published ONTARGET study showed ACEI/ARB combination therapy was associated with more adverse effects without any increase in benefit. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program responded with a new warning: ‘Do not use ACEI and ARB in combination’. However, the European Society of Cardiology in their updated heart failure treatment guidelines still recommended ACEI/ARB combo as a viable option. This apparent inconsistency among guidelines generates debate as to which approach of RAAS inhibition is the best. The current paper reviews the latest evidence of isolated ACEI or ARB use and their combination in cardiovascular diseases, and makes recommendations for their prescriptions in specific patient populations. PMID:20590619

  6. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Freeman, R.

    1999-01-01

    We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.

  7. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Its Pharmacological Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Diseases: Complex and Critical Issues.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Rossi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factor able to promote development and progression of several cardiovascular diseases, including left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure. Also, it is one of the major driven of high cardiovascular risk profile in patients with metabolic complications, including obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as in those with renal disease. Thus, effective control of hypertension is a key factor for any preventing strategy aimed at reducing the burden of hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases in the clinical practice. Among various regulatory and contra-regulatory systems involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal diseases, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role. However, despite the identification of renin and the availability of various assays for measuring its plasma activity, the specific pathophysiological role of RAS has not yet fully characterized. In the last years, however, several notions on the RAS have been improved by the results of large, randomized clinical trials, performed in different clinical settings and in different populations treated with RAS inhibiting drugs, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and antagonists of the AT1 receptor for angiotensin II (ARBs). These findings suggest that the RAS should be considered to have a central role in the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases, for both therapeutic and preventive purposes, without having to measure its level of activation in each patient. The present document will discuss the most critical issues of the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases with a specific focus on RAS blocking agents, including ACE inhibitors and ARBs, in the light of the most recent evidence supporting the use of these drugs in the clinical management of hypertension and hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26403596

  8. Nesfatin-1 exerts cardiovascular actions in brain: possible interaction with the central melanocortin system.

    PubMed

    Yosten, Gina L C; Samson, Willis K

    2009-08-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide that was shown to suppress food intake through a melanocortin-3/4 receptor-dependent mechanism. Since nesfatin-1 mRNA is detected in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and because many peptides that alter food intake also influence cardiovascular function, we tested the ability of centrally administered nesfatin-1 to affect mean arterial pressure (MAP) in conscious, freely moving rats. Significant increases in MAP were observed following intracerebroventricular administration of nesfatin-1. Pretreatment with either the melanocortin-3/4 receptor antagonist, SHU9119 (intracerebroventricular), or the alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine (intra-arterial), abrogated the rise in MAP induced by nesfatin-1, indicating that nesfatin-1 may interact with the central melanocortin system to increase sympathetic nerve activity and lead to an increase in MAP. Thus we have identified a novel action of nesfatin-1, in addition to its anorexigenic effects, to stimulate autonomic nervous system activity. PMID:19474390

  9. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  10. Comparison of Prediction Model for Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction Using Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fangfang; Li, Zhongtao; Yu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Linuo

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop the artificial neural network (ANN) and multivariable logistic regression (LR) analyses for prediction modeling of cardiovascular autonomic (CA) dysfunction in the general population, and compare the prediction models using the two approaches. Methods and Materials We analyzed a previous dataset based on a Chinese population sample consisting of 2,092 individuals aged 30–80 years. The prediction models were derived from an exploratory set using ANN and LR analysis, and were tested in the validation set. Performances of these prediction models were then compared. Results Univariate analysis indicated that 14 risk factors showed statistically significant association with the prevalence of CA dysfunction (P<0.05). The mean area under the receiver-operating curve was 0.758 (95% CI 0.724–0.793) for LR and 0.762 (95% CI 0.732–0.793) for ANN analysis, but noninferiority result was found (P<0.001). The similar results were found in comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in the prediction models between the LR and ANN analyses. Conclusion The prediction models for CA dysfunction were developed using ANN and LR. ANN and LR are two effective tools for developing prediction models based on our dataset. PMID:23940593

  11. The Kallikrein-Kinin System as a Regulator of Cardiovascular and Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2015-01-01

    Autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine hormonal systems help regulate cardiovascular and renal function. Any change in the balance among these systems may result in hypertension and target organ damage, whether the cause is genetic, environmental or a combination of the two. Endocrine and neuroendocrine vasopressor hormones such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), aldosterone, and catecholamines are important for regulation of blood pressure and pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ damage. While the role of vasodepressor autacoids such as kinins is not as well defined, there is increasing evidence that they are not only critical to blood pressure and renal function but may also oppose remodeling of the cardiovascular system. Here we will primarily be concerned with kinins, which are oligopeptides containing the aminoacid sequence of bradykinin. They are generated from precursors known as kininogens by enzymes such as tissue (glandular) and plasma kallikrein. Some of the effects of kinins are mediated via autacoids such as eicosanoids, nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and/or tissue plasminogen activator (†PA). Kinins help protect against cardiac ischemia and play an important part in preconditioning as well as the cardiovascular and renal protective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARB). But the role of kinins in the pathogenesis of hypertension remains controversial. A study of Utah families revealed that a dominant kallikrein gene expressed as high urinary kallikrein excretion was associated with a decreased risk of essential hypertension. Moreover, researchers have identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) that distinguishes the kallikrein gene family found in one strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) from a homologous gene in normotensive Brown Norway rats, and in recombinant inbred substrains derived from these SHR and Brown Norway rats this RFLP cosegregated with an increase in blood pressure. However, humans, rats and mice with a deficiency in one or more components of the kallikrein-kinin-system (KKS) or chronic KKS blockade do not have hypertension. In the kidney, kinins are essential for proper regulation of papillary blood flow and water and sodium excretion. B2-KO mice appear to be more sensitive to the hypertensinogenic effect of salt. Kinins are involved in the acute antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors but not their chronic effects (save for mineralocorticoidsalt-induced hypertension). Kinins appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and skin inflammation; they act on innate immunity as mediators of inflammation by promoting maturation of dendritic cells, which activate the body’s adaptive immune system and thereby stimulate mechanisms that promote inflammation. On the other hand, kinins acting via NO contribute to the vascular protective effect of ACE inhibitors during neointima formation. In myocardial infarction produced by ischemia/reperfusion, kinins help reduce infarct size following preconditioning or treatment with ACE inhibitors. In heart failure secondary to infarction, the therapeutic effects of ACE inhibitors are partially mediated by kinins via release of NO, while drugs that activate the angiotensin type 2 receptor act in part via kinins and NO. Thus kinins play an important role in regulation of cardiovascular and renal function as well as many of the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs on target organ damage in hypertension. PMID:23737209

  12. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, {sup 201}Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of {sup 82}Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: {sup 82}Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice.

  13. Modeling Cardiovascular Diseases with Patient-Specific Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Paul W; Diecke, Sebastian; Matsa, Elena; Sharma, Arun; Wu, Haodi; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    The generation of cardiomyocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides a source of cells that accurately recapitulate the human cardiac pathophysiology. The application of these cells allows for modeling of cardiovascular diseases, providing a novel understanding of human disease mechanisms and assessment of therapies. Here, we describe a stepwise protocol developed in our laboratory for the generation of hiPSCs from patients with a specific disease phenotype, long-term hiPSC culture and cryopreservation, differentiation of hiPSCs to cardiomyocytes, and assessment of disease phenotypes. Our protocol combines a number of innovative tools that include a codon-optimized mini intronic plasmid (CoMiP), chemically defined culture conditions to achieve high efficiencies of reprogramming and differentiation, and calcium imaging for assessment of cardiomyocyte phenotypes. Thus, this protocol provides a complete guide to use a patient cohort on a testable cardiomyocyte platform for pharmacological drug assessment. PMID:25690476

  14. Future cardiovascular disease in China: Markov model and risk factor scenario projections from the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model-China

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Andrew; Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Dong; Coxson, Pamela; Wang, Y. Claire; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Jing; Cheng, Jun; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Shen, Yu-Ming; He, Jiang; Goldman, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Background The relative effects of individual and combined risk factor trends on future cardiovascular disease in China have not been quantified in detail. Methods and Results Future risk factor trends in China were projected based on prior trends. Cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke) in adults ages 35 to 84 years was projected from 2010 to 2030 using the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model–China, a Markov computer simulation model. With risk factor levels held constant, projected annual cardiovascular events increased by >50% between 2010 and 2030 based on population aging and growth alone. Projected trends in blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes (increases), and active smoking (decline) would increase annual cardiovascular disease events by an additional 23%, an increase of approximately 21.3 million cardiovascular events and 7.7 million cardiovascular deaths over 2010 to 2030. Aggressively reducing active smoking in Chinese men to 20% prevalence in 2020 and 10% prevalence in 2030 or reducing mean systolic blood pressure by 3.8 mm Hg in men and women would counteract adverse trends in other risk factors by preventing cardiovascular events and 2.9 to 5.7 million total deaths over 2 decades. Conclusions Aging and population growth will increase cardiovascular disease by more than a half over the coming 20 years, and projected unfavorable trends in blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes, and body mass index may accelerate the epidemic. National policy aimed at controlling blood pressure, smoking, and other risk factors would counteract the expected future cardiovascular disease epidemic in China. PMID:20442213

  15. Apelin, Elabela/Toddler, and biased agonists as novel therapeutic agents in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peiran; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Apelin and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) have emerged as a key signalling pathway in the cardiovascular system. The peptide is a potent inotropic agent and vasodilator. Remarkably, a peptide, Elabela/Toddler, that has little sequence similarity to apelin, has been proposed as a second endogenous apelin receptor ligand and is encoded by a gene from a region of the genome previously classified as 'non-coding'. Apelin is downregulated in pulmonary arterial hypertension and heart failure. To replace the missing endogenous peptide, 'biased' apelin agonists have been designed that preferentially activate G protein pathways, resulting in reduced ?-arrestin recruitment and receptor internalisation, with the additional benefit of attenuating detrimental ?-arrestin signalling. Proof-of-concept studies support the clinical potential for apelin receptor biased agonists. PMID:26143239

  16. Apelin, Elabela/Toddler, and biased agonists as novel therapeutic agents in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peiran; Maguire, Janet J.; Davenport, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Apelin and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) have emerged as a key signalling pathway in the cardiovascular system. The peptide is a potent inotropic agent and vasodilator. Remarkably, a peptide, Elabela/Toddler, that has little sequence similarity to apelin, has been proposed as a second endogenous apelin receptor ligand and is encoded by a gene from a region of the genome previously classified as ‘non-coding’. Apelin is downregulated in pulmonary arterial hypertension and heart failure. To replace the missing endogenous peptide, ‘biased’ apelin agonists have been designed that preferentially activate G protein pathways, resulting in reduced ?-arrestin recruitment and receptor internalisation, with the additional benefit of attenuating detrimental ?-arrestin signalling. Proof-of-concept studies support the clinical potential for apelin receptor biased agonists. PMID:26143239

  17. The implication of protein malnutrition on cardiovascular control systems in rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernanda C.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2015-01-01

    The malnutrition in early life is associated with metabolic changes and cardiovascular impairment in adulthood. Deficient protein intake-mediated hypertension has been observed in clinical and experimental studies. In rats, protein malnutrition also increases the blood pressure and enhances heart rate and sympathetic activity. In this review, we discuss the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on the resting mean arterial pressure and heart rate and their variabilities, cardiovascular reflexes sensitivity, cardiac autonomic balance, sympathetic and renin-angiotensin activities and neural plasticity during adult life. These insights reveal an interesting prospect on the autonomic modulation underlying the cardiovascular imbalance and provide relevant information on preventing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26388783

  18. Mutations affecting the formation and function of the cardiovascular system in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Stainier, D Y; Fouquet, B; Chen, J N; Warren, K S; Weinstein, B M; Meiler, S E; Mohideen, M A; Neuhauss, S C; Solnica-Krezel, L; Schier, A F; Zwartkruis, F; Stemple, D L; Malicki, J; Driever, W; Fishman, M C

    1996-12-01

    As part of a large-scale mutagenesis screen of the zebrafish genome, we have identified 58 mutations that affect the formation and function of the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system is particularly amenable for screening in the transparent zebrafish embryo because the heart and blood vessels are prominent and their function easily examined. We have classified the mutations affecting the heart into those that affect primarily either morphogenesis or function. Nine mutations clearly disrupt the formation of the heart. cloche deletes the endocardium. In cloche mutants, the myocardial layer forms in the absence of the endocardium but is dysmorphic and exhibits a weak contractility. Two loci, miles apart and bonnie and clyde, play a critical role in the fusion of the bilateral tubular primordia. Three mutations lead to an abnormally large heart and one to the formation of a diminutive, dysmorphic heart. We have found no mutation that deletes the myocardial cells altogether, but one, pandora, appears to eliminate the ventricle selectively. Seven mutations interfere with vascular integrity, as indicated by hemorrhage at particular sites. In terms of cardiac function, one large group exhibits a weak beat. In this group, five loci affect both chambers and seven a specific chamber (the atrium or ventricle). For example, the weak atrium mutation exhibits an atrium that becomes silent but has a normally beating ventricle. Seven mutations affect the rhythm of the heart causing, for example, a slow rate, a fibrillating pattern or an apparent block to conduction. In several other mutants, regurgitation of blood flow from ventricle to atrium is the most prominent abnormality, due either to the absence of valves or to poor coordination between the chambers with regard to the timing of contraction. The mutations identified in this screen point to discrete and critical steps in the formation and function of the heart and vasculature. PMID:9007248

  19. Tenascin-C and mechanotransduction in the development and diseases of cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Living tissue is composed of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). In the heart and blood vessels, which are constantly subjected to mechanical stress, ECM molecules form well-developed fibrous frameworks to maintain tissue structure. ECM is also important for biological signaling, which influences various cellular functions in embryonic development, and physiological/pathological responses to extrinsic stimuli. Among ECM molecules, increased attention has been focused on matricellular proteins. Matricellular proteins are a growing group of non-structural ECM proteins highly up-regulated at active tissue remodeling, serving as biological mediators. Tenascin-C (TNC) is a typical matricellular protein, which is highly expressed during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer invasion. The expression is tightly regulated, dependent on the microenvironment, including various growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical stress. In the heart, TNC appears in a spatiotemporal-restricted manner during early stages of development, sparsely detected in normal adults, but transiently re-expressed at restricted sites associated with tissue injury and inflammation. Similarly, in the vascular system, TNC is strongly up-regulated during embryonic development and under pathological conditions with an increase in hemodynamic stress. Despite its intriguing expression pattern, cardiovascular system develops normally in TNC knockout mice. However, deletion of TNC causes acute aortic dissection (AAD) under strong mechanical and humoral stress. Accumulating reports suggest that TNC may modulate the inflammatory response and contribute to elasticity of the tissue, so that it may protect cardiovascular tissue from destructive stress responses. TNC may be a key molecule to control cellular activity during development, adaptation, or pathological tissue remodeling. PMID:25120494

  20. Targeting cardiovascular protection: the concept of dual renin-angiotensin system control.

    PubMed

    Unger, Thomas; Jakobsen, Anne; Heroys, Jose; Ralph, Ann; Rees, Tomas; Shaw, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, and blockade of this system now forms a central part of strategies to reduce the risk for cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure and reducing the risk for cardiovascular events, but both classes of drug have some limitations. Plasma concentrations of angiotensin II increase during ACE-inhibitor therapy in some patients, partly as a result of the production of angiotensin II via non-ACE pathways; furthermore, elevated aldosterone concentrations can occur in a significant proportion of patients. ARBs block the deleterious effects of angiotensin II at angiotensin type 1 receptors irrespective of the origin of the peptide, but the beneficial effects of kinins may be diminished. ARB therapy results in activation of angiotensin type 2 receptors, resulting in potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiproliferative effects, but the clinical significance of these effects remains controversial. Some ARBs, particularly telmisartan, have been shown to act as partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy with ACE inhibitors and ARBs offers the potential for effective blood pressure control, decreased aldosterone production, enhanced kinin activity, and increased insulin sensitivity. The potential clinical benefits of this approach in high-risk patients are currently being investigated in the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET), which is comparing therapy using a combination of telmisartan plus ramipril with the use of each drug in monotherapy. PMID:18449381

  1. SUBCHRONIC PULMONARY PATHOLOGY, IRON-OVERLOAD AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY AFTER LIBBY AMPHIBOLE EXPOSURE IN RAT MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Surface-available iron (Fe) is proposed to contribute to asbestos-induced toxicity through the production of reactive oxygen species.Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that rat models of cardiovascular disease with coexistent Fe overload would be incre...

  2. Development and validation of an ankle brachial index risk model for the prediction of cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Fowkes, FGR; Murray, GD; Butcher, I; Folsom, AR; Hirsch, AT; Couper, DJ; DeBacker, G; Kornitzer, M; Newman, AB; Sutton-Tyrrell, KC; Cushman, M; Lee, AJ; Price, JF; D’Agostino, RB; Murabito, JM; Norman, PE; Masaki, KH; Bouter, LM; Heine, RJ; Stehouwer, CDA; McDermott, MM; Stoffers, HEJH; Knottnerus, JA; Ogren, M; Hedblad, B; Koenig, W; Meisinger, C; Cauley, JA; Franco, OH; Hunink, MGM; Hofman, A; Witteman, JC; Criqui, MH; Langer, RD; Hiatt, WR; Hamman, RF

    2015-01-01

    Background The ankle brachial index (ABI) is related to risk of cardiovascular events independent of the Framingham risk score (FRS). The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a risk model for cardiovascular events incorporating the ABI and FRS. Design An analysis of participant data from 18 cohorts in which 24,375 men and 20,377 women free of coronary heart disease had ABI measured and were followed up for events. Methods Subjects were divided into a development and internal validation dataset and an external validation dataset. Two models, comprising FRS and FRS + ABI, were fitted for the primary outcome of major coronary events. Results In predicting events in the external validation dataset, C-index for the FRS was 0.672 (95% CI 0.599 to 0.737) in men and 0.578 (95% CI 0.492 to 0.661) in women. The FRS + ABI led to a small increase in C-index in men to 0.685 (95% CI 0.612 to 0.749) and large increase in women to 0.690 (95% CI 0.605 to 0.764) with net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 4.3% (95% CI 0.0 to 7.6%, p = 0.050) and 9.6% (95% CI 6.1 to 16.4%, p < 0.001), respectively. Restricting the FRS + ABI model to those with FRS intermediate 10-year risk of 10 to 19% resulted in higher NRI of 15.9% (95% CI 6.1 to 20.6%, p < 0.001) in men and 23.3% (95% CI 13.8 to 62.5%, p = 0.002) in women. However, incorporating ABI in an improved newly fitted risk factor model had a nonsignificant effect: NRI 2.0% (95% CI 2.3 to 4.2%, p = 0.567) in men and 1.1% (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0%, p = 0.483) in women. Conclusions An ABI risk model may improve prediction especially in individuals at intermediate risk and when performance of the base risk factor model is modest. PMID:24367001

  3. First-Year Medical Students' Conceptual Understanding of and Resistance to Conceptual Change Concerning the Central Cardiovascular System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Sodervik, Ilona; Vilppu, Henna; Kaapa, Pekka; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Medical students often have initial understanding concerning medical domains, such as the central cardiovascular system (CCVS), when they enter the study programme. These notions may to some extent be in conflict with scientific understanding, which can be seen as a challenge for medical teaching. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyse…

  4. Nitrergic system and plasmatic methylarginines: Evidence of their role in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Mussap, Michele; Bassareo, Valentina; Flore, Giovanna; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis, in turn preceded by endothelial dysfunction, underlies a series of important cardiovascular diseases. Reduced bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide, by increasing vascular tone and promoting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, plays a key role in the onset of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, are associated with future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. Recent reports have demonstrated that another methylarginine, i.e., symmetric dimethylarginine, is also involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Almost a decade ago, prematurity at birth and intrauterine growth retardation were first associated with a potential negative influence on the cardiovascular apparatus, thus constituting risk factors or leading to early onset of cardiovascular diseases. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. Accordingly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are higher among former preterm adults than in those born at term. The aim of this paper was to undertake a comprehensive literature review focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms resulting in both reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased methylarginine levels in subjects born preterm. Evidence of the involvement of these compounds in the perinatal programming of cardiovascular risk are also discussed. PMID:26004093

  5. O-GlcNAcylation and oxidation of proteins: is signalling in the cardiovascular system becoming sweeter?

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Victor V.; Spitler, Kathryn; Choi, Hyehun; Webb, R. Clinton; Tostes, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is an unusual form of protein glycosylation, where a single-sugar [GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)] is added (via ?-attachment) to the hydroxyl moiety of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. A complex and extensive interplay exists between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation. Many phosphorylation sites are also known glycosylation sites, and this reciprocal occupancy may produce different activities or alter the stability in a target protein. The interplay between these two post-translational modifications is not always reciprocal, as some proteins can be concomitantly phosphorylated and O-GlcNAcylated, and the adjacent phosphorylation or O-GlcNAcylation can regulate the addition of either moiety. Increased cardiovascular production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), termed oxidative stress, has been consistently reported in various chronic diseases and in conditions where O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated as a contributing mechanism for the associated organ injury/protection (for example, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, arterial hypertension, aging and ischaemia). In the present review, we will briefly comment on general aspects of O-GlcNAcylation and provide an overview of what has been reported for this post-translational modification in the cardiovascular system. We will then specifically address whether signalling molecules involved in redox signalling can be modified by O-GlcNAc (O-linked GlcNAc) and will discuss the critical interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and ROS generation. Experimental evidence indicates that the interactions between O-GlcNAcylation and oxidation of proteins are important not only for cell regulation in physiological conditions, but also under pathological states where the interplay may become dysfunctional and thereby exacerbate cellular injury. PMID:22757958

  6. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  7. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  8. Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Sandhya; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Hollingsworth, Amanda; Piche, Matthew; Tai, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging. PMID:24077237

  9. Targeted versus universal prevention. a resource allocation model to prioritize cardiovascular prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus brings an increased risk for cardiovascular complications and patients profit from prevention. This prevention also suits the general population. The question arises what is a better strategy: target the general population or diabetes patients. Methods A mathematical programming model was developed to calculate optimal allocations for the Dutch population of the following interventions: smoking cessation support, diet and exercise to reduce overweight, statins, and medication to reduce blood pressure. Outcomes were total lifetime health care costs and QALYs. Budget sizes were varied and the division of resources between the general population and diabetes patients was assessed. Results Full implementation of all interventions resulted in a gain of 560,000 QALY at a cost of €640 per capita, about €12,900 per QALY on average. The large majority of these QALY gains could be obtained at incremental costs below €20,000 per QALY. Low or high budgets (below €9 or above €100 per capita) were predominantly spent in the general population. Moderate budgets were mostly spent in diabetes patients. Conclusions Major health gains can be realized efficiently by offering prevention to both the general and the diabetic population. However, a priori setting a specific distribution of resources is suboptimal. Resource allocation models allow accounting for capacity constraints and program size in addition to efficiency. PMID:21974836

  10. A Model of Cardiovascular Disease Giving a Plausible Mechanism for the Effect of Fractionated Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Little, Mark P.; Gola, Anna; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary heart disease and stroke, the two major causes of death in developed society. There is emerging evidence of excess risk of cardiovascular disease at low radiation doses in various occupationally exposed groups receiving small daily radiation doses. Assuming that they are causal, the mechanisms for effects of chronic fractionated radiation exposures on cardiovascular disease are unclear. We outline a spatial reaction-diffusion model for atherosclerosis and perform stability analysis, based wherever possible on human data. We show that a predicted consequence of multiple small radiation doses is to cause mean chemo-attractant (MCP-1) concentration to increase linearly with cumulative dose. The main driver for the increase in MCP-1 is monocyte death, and consequent reduction in MCP-1 degradation. The radiation-induced risks predicted by the model are quantitatively consistent with those observed in a number of occupationally-exposed groups. The changes in equilibrium MCP-1 concentrations with low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are also consistent with experimental and epidemiologic data. This proposed mechanism would be experimentally testable. If true, it also has substantive implications for radiological protection, which at present does not take cardiovascular disease into account. The Japanese A-bomb survivor data implies that cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality contribute similarly to radiogenic risk. The major uncertainty in assessing the low-dose risk of cardiovascular disease is the shape of the dose response relationship, which is unclear in the Japanese data. The analysis of the present paper suggests that linear extrapolation would be appropriate for this endpoint. PMID:19851450

  11. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  12. Modification of cardiovascular and renal risk factors using antagonists of the endothelin system 

    E-print Network

    MacIntyre, Iain McGregor

    2014-11-28

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important independent risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, patients with CKD are far more likely to die from CVD than reach end stage renal disease. ...

  13. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OZONE-INDUCED INJURY AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION IN RAT MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant status are common pathologic factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is hypothesized that individuals with chronic CVD are more susceptible to environmental exposures due to underlying oxidative stress. To determine the ...

  14. ALTERATIONS OF FE HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MODELS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO CARDIOPULMONARY TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Fe homeostasis can be disrupted in human cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We addressed how dysregulation of Fe homeostasis affected the pulmonary inflammation/oxidative stress response and disease progression after exposure to Libby amphibole (LA), an asbestifonn mine...

  15. Exploring disease activity and cardiovascular events by raised serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine among systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Elmageed, Amany M Elsaeed Abd; Ahmed, Iman K; Saleh, Bothaina I; Ali, Salwa R

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide inhibitor and a potential independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. The current study attempted to investigate the association of serum ADMA levels to serological markers and cardiovascular events among Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients. The study included 45 subjects (91.1% female), divided equally into 3 groups: patients with lupus flare, patients without flare according to SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and apparently healthy individuals. Serum ADMA, ANA, Anti-ds DNA, C3, ESR, and lipid profile were measured. There was a significantly higher ADMA level among active patients, with history of cardiovascular events, compared to inactive and control subjects. There were positive correlations between ADMA levels and anti-ds DNA, ESR, SLEDAI, and cardiovascular events, but negative correlation with C3, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol. In conclusion, high serum ADMA level may represents an independent risk factor for disease activity and poor prognosis among lupus patients. PMID:23082479

  16. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Blood Vessel Models: Toward Developing a Prognostic Tool to Assess Cardiovascular Function Changes in Prolonged Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatzimavroudis, George P.; Spirka, Thomas A.; Setser, Randolph M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2004-01-01

    One of NASA's objectives is to be able to perform a complete, pre-flight, evaluation of cardiovascular changes in astronauts scheduled for prolonged space missions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown promise as a method for estimating cardiovascular function during reduced gravity conditions. For this purpose, MRI can provide geometrical information, to reconstruct vessel geometries, and measure all spatial velocity components, providing location specific boundary conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of MRI-based model reconstruction and measured boundary conditions for CFD simulations. An aortic arch model and a carotid bifurcation model were scanned in a 1.5T Siemens MRI scanner. Axial MRI acquisitions provided images for geometry reconstruction (slice thickness 3 and 5 mm; pixel size 1x1 and 0.5x0.5 square millimeters). Velocity acquisitions provided measured inlet boundary conditions and localized three-directional steady-flow velocity data (0.7-3.0 L/min). The vessel walls were isolated using NIH provided software (ImageJ) and lofted to form the geometric surface. Constructed and idealized geometries were imported into a commercial CFD code for meshing and simulation. Contour and vector plots of the velocity showed identical features between the MRI velocity data, the MRI-based CFD data, and the idealized-geometry CFD data, with less than 10% differences in the local velocity values. CFD results on models reconstructed from different MRI resolution settings showed insignificant differences (less than 5%). This study illustrated, quantitatively, that reliable CFD simulations can be performed with MRI reconstructed models and gives evidence that a future, subject-specific, computational evaluation of the cardiovascular system alteration during space travel is feasible.

  17. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  18. Cardiovascular System Response to Carbon Dioxide and Exercise in Oxygen-Enriched Environment at 3800 m

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohui; Liu, Xiaopeng; Qin, Zhifeng; Gu, Zhao; Wang, Guiyou; Shi, Weiru; Wen, Dongqing; Yu, Lihua; Luo, Yongchang; Xiao, Huajun

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study explores the responses of the cardiovascular system as humans exercise in an oxygen-enriched room at high altitude under various concentrations of CO2. Methods: The study utilized a hypobaric chamber set to the following specifications: 3800 m altitude with 25% O2 and different CO2 concentrations of 0.5% (C1), 3.0% (C2) and 5.0% (C3). Subjects exercised for 3 min three times, separated by 30 min resting periods in the above-mentioned conditions, at sea level (SL) and at 3800 m altitude (HA). The changes of heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure were analyzed. Results: Total power (TP) and high frequency power (HF) decreased notably during post-exercise at HA. HF increased prominently earlier the post-exercise period at 3800 m altitude with 25% O2 and 5.0% CO2 (C3), while low frequency power (LF) changed barely in all tests. The ratios of LF/HF were significantly higher during post-exercise in HA, and lower after high intensity exercise in C3. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased significantly in HA and C3. Conclusions: Parasympathetic activity dominated in cardiac autonomic modulation, and heart rate and blood pressure increased significantly after high intensity exercise in C3. PMID:26393634

  19. [High cardiovascular complications in systemic lupus erythematosus: physiopathology and risk management].

    PubMed

    Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Rougier, Jean-Philippe; Noël, Nicolas; Ronco, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Today, cardiovascular mortality is the first cause of mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A 40-year-old woman with SLE is over 50 times more likely to have a myocardial infraction than a healthy woman of similar age. The high CV risk has a double origin: an early and progressive atherosclerosis and a prothrombotic propensity. Multiple factors are incriminated, including a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors in SLE population, as well as SLE-specific factors. Autoantibodies can modify lipid profile, induce tissue factor synthesis, favour clotting and endothelial apoptosis. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and permanent chronic inflammation are present. Treatments are occasionally involved. To reduce more efficiently CV risk in SLE patients, we propose to consider SLE has a complete CV risk factor that should be implemented for CV risk management. This medical procedure of CV risk estimation is unusual in young patients. Its implementation in SLE patients requires a modification of medical practices. CV risk management in SLE patients include identification of optimal targets for each traditional risk factor and SLE specific treatments. PMID:19733524

  20. Absence of Chlamydia pneumoniae and signs of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Corinna S; Kumar, Swati; Salciccioli, Louis; Kutlin, Andrei; Lazar, Jason; Rahim, Imran; Suss, Amy; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Moallem, Hamid Jack

    2008-05-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated atherogenesis. A recent study suggested that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection might also be a contributing factor in the development of atherogenesis in patients with SLE. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association of C. pneumoniae infection with markers of atherosclerosis in adolescents with SLE compared with age-matched healthy controls. History and exam focused on cardiovascular risk factors were obtained from 20 patients with SLE and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Laboratory studies included serum lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Detection of C. pneumoniae in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in nasopharyngeal swab specimens was performed. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) was determined by sonography in all subjects. C. pneumoniae DNA was not detected in PBMCs of any of the patients or controls. Nasopharyngeal cultures were also negative for C. pneumoniae in all patients. CIMT was slightly higher in the SLE group (0.48 +/- 0.049) compared with controls (0.454 +/- 0.041, p = 0.29). There was no significant difference between the two groups in body mass index, blood pressure, hsCRP, and serum cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL). Serum triglycerides were higher in the lupus group (p = 0.03). Children and adolescents with SLE might have accelerated atherosclerosis; however, we did not observe an association with C. pneumoniae infection in this population. PMID:18080155

  1. Increased proteoglycan synthesis by the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lipke, D.W.; Couchman, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats was examined by in vivo and in vitro labeling of glycosaminoglycans with 35SO4 in rats made hypertensive for short (4 days) and longer (14 days) durations. With in vivo labeling, only tissues directly exposed to elevated pressure (left ventricle, LV and aorta above the clip, AOR increases) exhibited elevated PG synthesis after 4 days of hypertension. By 14 days, tissues both exposed to (LV and AOR increases) and protected from elevated pressure (right ventricle and kidney) exhibited elevated PG synthetic rates. Slight elevations in the proportion of galactosaminoglycans were observed with a concurrent proportional decrease in heparan sulfate PGs. Using the in vitro labeling procedure, no significant increases in PG synthesis were observed in any tissue at either 4 days or 14 days of hypertension. These data indicate that: (1) coarctation hypertension stimulates PG production that is dependent initially on increased pressure and later, on additional non-pressure related factors, (2) these other factors are responsible for enhanced PG production in tissues not directly exposed to pressure overload, (3) pressure and/or these other factors are essential for enhanced PG production in coarctation hypertension, and (4) synthesis of all GAG types appears to be affected.

  2. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

    PubMed Central

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25590934

  3. Development of anatomophysiologic knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system: from Egyptians to Harvey.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A; Couto, Lucélio B

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25590934

  4. The application of novel visualization and modeling methods to the study of cardiovascular disease is vital to the development of innovative diagnostic techniques, including those that may aid in the early detection and

    E-print Network

    The application of novel visualization and modeling methods to the study of cardiovascular disease detection and prevention of cardiovascular disorders. This work focuses on the application of particle image

  5. Systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors predict rapid progression of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    del Rincón, Inmaculada; Polak, Joseph F; O’Leary, Daniel H; Battafarano, Daniel F; Erikson, John M; Restrepo, Jose F; Molina, Emily; Escalante, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate atherosclerosis progression and identify influencing factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used carotid ultrasound to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) in RA patients, and ascertained cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, inflammation markers and medications. A second ultrasound was performed approximately 3 years later. We calculated the progression rate by subtracting the baseline from the follow-up IMT, divided by the time between the two scans. We used logistic regression to identify baseline factors predictive of rapid progression. We tested for interactions of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with CV risk factors and medication use. Results Results were available for 487 RA patients. The mean (SD) common carotid IMT at baseline was 0.571 mm (0.151). After a mean of 2.8 years, the IMT increased by 0.050 mm (0.055), p?0.001, a progression rate of 0.018 mm/year (95% CI 0.016 to 0.020). Baseline factors associated with rapid progression included the number of CV risk factors (OR 1.27 per risk factor, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.61), and the ESR (OR 1.12 per 10 mm/h, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23). The ESR×CV risk factor and ESR×medication product terms were significant, suggesting these variables modify the association between the ESR and IMT progression. Conclusions Systemic inflammation and CV risk factors were associated with rapid IMT progression. CV risk factors may modify the role of systemic inflammation in determining IMT progression over time. Methotrexate and antitumour necrosis factor agents may influence IMT progression by reducing the effect of the systemic inflammation on the IMT. PMID:24845391

  6. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine as a Surrogate Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Systemic Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Sandoo, Aamer; Kitas, George D.

    2012-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed an increased life expectancy of patients suffering with systemic rheumatic diseases, mainly due to improved management, advanced therapies and preventative measures. However, autoimmune disorders are associated with significantly enhanced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality not fully explained by traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. It has been suggested that interactions between high-grade systemic inflammation and the vasculature lead to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which may account for the excess risk for CVD events in this population. Diminished nitric oxide synthesis—due to down regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase—appears to play a prominent role in the imbalance between vasoactive factors, the consequent impairment of the endothelial hemostasis and the early development of atherosclerosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is one of the most potent endogenous inhibitors of the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and it is a newly discovered risk factor in the setting of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and adverse cardiovascular events. In the context of systemic inflammatory disorders there is increasing evidence that ADMA contributes to the vascular changes and to endothelial cell abnormalities, as several studies have revealed derangement of nitric oxide/ADMA pathway in different disease subsets. In this article we discuss the role of endothelial dysfunction in patients with rheumatic diseases, with a specific focus on the nitric oxide/ADMA system and we provide an overview on the literature pertaining to ADMA as a surrogate marker of subclinical vascular disease. PMID:23202900

  7. Association of working hours with biological indices related to the cardiovascular system among engineers in a machinery manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Iwasaki, K; Oka, T; Hisanaga, N

    1999-10-01

    A field survey of 278 engineers (20-59 years) in a machinery manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the association of working hours with biological indices related to the cardiovascular system (heart rate variability, blood pressure and serum levels of magnesium, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cholesterol). Average working hours (defined as <"hours at workplace" + "half a commuting time">) and sleeping hours in this study were 60.2 +/- 6.3 hr/week and 6.6 +/- 0.8 hr/day respectively. There were no significant relationships between working hours and biological indices related to the cardiovascular system, but sleeping hours was closely related to working hours negatively. Furthermore, the serum DHEA-S level was significantly related to sleeping hours positively. Combining these two results, it appeared that long working hours might lower the serum DHEA-S level due to the reduction of sleeping hours. PMID:10547962

  8. MRI-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Experimental Vascular Models: Toward the Development of an Approach for Prediction of Cardiovascular Changes During Prolonged Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirka, T. A.; Myers, J. G.; Setser, R. M.; Halliburton, S. S.; White, R. D.; Chatzimavroudis, G. P.

    2005-01-01

    A priority of NASA is to identify and study possible risks to astronauts health during prolonged space missions [l]. The goal is to develop a procedure for a preflight evaluation of the cardiovascular system of an astronaut and to forecast how it will be affected during the mission. To predict these changes, a computational cardiovascular model must be constructed. Although physiology data can be used to make a general model, a more desirable subject-specific model requires anatomical, functional, and flow data from the specific astronaut. MRI has the unique advantage of providing images with all of the above information, including three-directional velocity data which can be used as boundary conditions in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program [2,3]. MRI-based CFD is very promising for reproduction of the flow patterns of a specific subject and prediction of changes in the absence of gravity. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of this approach by reconstructing the geometry of MRI-scanned arterial models and reproducing the MRI-measured velocities using CFD simulations on these geometries.

  9. A biochemical rationale for the discrete behavior of nitroxyl and nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Katrina M.; Paolocci, Nazareno; Katori, Tatsuo; Thomas, Douglas D.; Ford, Eleonora; Bartberger, Michael D.; Espey, Michael G.; Kass, David A.; Feelisch, Martin; Fukuto, Jon M.; Wink, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The redox siblings nitroxyl (HNO) and nitric oxide (NO) have often been assumed to undergo casual redox reactions in biological systems. However, several recent studies have demonstrated distinct pharmacological effects for donors of these two species. Here, infusion of the HNO donor Angeli's salt into normal dogs resulted in elevated plasma levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide, whereas neither the NO donor diethylamine/NONOate nor the nitrovasodilator nitroglycerin had an appreciable effect on basal levels. Conversely, plasma cGMP was increased by infusion of diethylamine/NONOate or nitroglycerin but was unaffected by Angeli's salt. These results suggest the existence of two mutually exclusive response pathways that involve stimulated release of discrete signaling agents from HNO and NO. In light of both the observed dichotomy of HNO and NO and the recent determination that, in contrast to the O2/\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\pagestyle{empty} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} couple, HNO is a weak reductant, the relative reactivity of HNO with common biomolecules was determined. This analysis suggests that under biological conditions, the lifetime of HNO with respect to oxidation to NO, dimerization, or reaction with O2 is much longer than previously assumed. Rather, HNO is predicted to principally undergo addition reactions with thiols and ferric proteins. Calcitonin gene-related peptide release is suggested to occur via altered calcium channel function through binding of HNO to a ferric or thiol site. The orthogonality of HNO and NO may be due to differential reactivity toward metals and thiols and in the cardiovascular system, may ultimately be driven by respective alteration of cAMP and cGMP levels. PMID:12865500

  10. Periodic limb movements during sleep and their effect on the cardiovascular system: is there a final answer?

    PubMed

    Nannapaneni, Srikant; Ramar, Kannan

    2014-04-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) is a sleep-related movement disorder characterized by repetitive limb movements during sleep, seen predominantly in the legs but also occasionally involving the arms. These movements may be associated with arousals that can lead to increases in sympathetic tone, resulting in tachycardia and elevated systolic blood pressure. Chronic sustained tachycardia and elevated systolic blood pressure are known to be associated with the development of arrhythmias, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and congestive heart failure. However, the data are not entirely clear on whether untreated PLMS is associated with these cardiovascular risks. This review examines the current evidence on whether PLMS has any effect on the cardiovascular system. PMID:24656911

  11. Genome-wide identification of long noncoding RNAs in rat models of cardiovascular and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Mell, Blair; Joe, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an emerging class of genomic regulatory molecules reported in various species. In the rat, which is one of the major mammalian model organisms, discovery of lncRNAs on a genome-wide scale is lagging. Renal lncRNA sequencing and lncRNA transcriptome analysis were conducted in 3 rat strains that are widely used in cardiovascular and renal research: the Dahl salt-sensitive rat, the spontaneously hypertensive rat, and the Dahl salt-resistant rat. Through the RNA sequencing approach, 3273 transcripts were identified as rat lncRNAs. A majority of lncRNAs were without predicted target genes. Differential expression of 273 and 749 lncRNAs was detected between Dahl salt-sensitive versus Dahl salt-resistant and Dahl salt-sensitive versus spontaneously hypertensive rat comparisons, respectively. To couple the observed differential expression of lncRNAs with the status of mRNAs, an mRNA transcriptome analysis was conducted. Several cis mRNA genes were coregulated with lncRNAs. Of these, the protein expression status of 4 target genes, Asb3, Chac2, Pex11b, and Sp5, were differentially expressed between the relevant strain comparisons, thereby suggesting that the differentially expressed lncRNAs associated with these genes are candidate genetic determinants of blood pressure. This study serves as a first-generation catalog of rat lncRNAs and illustrates the prioritization of lncRNAs as candidates for complex polygenic traits. PMID:25385761

  12. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Tae; Okano, Shozo

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation frequency, 14 times/min. Respiration was regulated so that the PaCO2 was approximately 35 to 40 mmHg before the start of the experiment. PP with CO2 (intraperitoneal pressure 15 mmHg) and a postural change (15°C) was performed during the experiment. As parameters of circulatory kinetics, heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), femoral venous pressure (FVP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured. As parameters of respiratory kinetics, airway pressure (PAW) and blood gas (BG) were measured. There were significant increases in HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, FVP, CO, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the horizontal position. There were significant increases in CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the Trendelenburg position. There were significant increases in the MPAP, CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the inverse Trendelenburg position. There was a significant difference in FVP after PP between the Trendelenburg position and inverse Trendelenburg position. The results of this experiment suggest that appropriate anesthesia control, such as changing the ventilation conditions after PP, is required for laparoscopic surgery under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane. PMID:26027843

  13. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in the rat.

    PubMed

    Saper, C B; Kibbe, M R; Hurley, K M; Spencer, S; Holmes, H R; Leahy, K M; Needleman, P

    1990-12-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a potent dilator of aorta and renal and cerebral arteries and inhibits sympathetic tone in the heart in several mammalian species. We examined the possibility that a molecule related to porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP), which acts at the same receptor sites as atrial natriuretic peptide, might provide an alternative source of natriuretic peptide to the cardiovascular system in the rat. An antiserum against pBNP demonstrated profuse immunoreactive innervation of the heart, cerebrovascular tree, and renal arteries. pBNP-like immunoreactive fibers ran in bundles along the surface of the heart, innervating the atria most heavily and penetrating the ventricular myocardium along the coronary arteries. There was greater density of innervation of the right side of the heart compared with the left, particularly in the ventricles, suggesting a parasympathetic origin. The entire cerebrovascular tree was innervated by immunoreactive pBNP fibers, with the densest concentration of immunoreactive fibers along the surface of the internal carotid, middle cerebral, posterior communicating, and anterior cerebral arteries. The proximal renal arteries were not innervated, but as they approached the kidney, they were invested by bundles of immunoreactive pBNP fibers. These axons followed the major branches of the renal artery into the kidney parenchyma, running along the surface of the arterioles up to their entrance into the renal glomeruli. No immunoreactive innervation of the aorta or proximal brachiocephalic, subclavian, or carotid arteries was seen. A substance related to pBNP may serve as a neuromodulator regulating cardiac output as well as blood flow in certain vascular beds. PMID:1978807

  14. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology.

    PubMed

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A; Hill, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. In this Review, we discuss the potential for targeting autophagy therapeutically and our vision for where this exciting biology may lead in the future. PMID:25654551

  15. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and function; excessive or insufficient levels of autophagic flux can each contribute to heart disease pathogenesis. In this Review, we discuss the potential for targeting autophagy therapeutically and our vision for where this exciting biology may lead in the future. PMID:25654551

  16. Flipped Classroom Model Improves Graduate Student Performance in Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Renal Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tune, Johnathan D.; Sturek, Michael; Basile, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a traditional lecture-based curriculum versus a modified "flipped classroom" curriculum of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology delivered to first-year graduate students. Students in both courses were provided the same notes and recorded lectures. Students in the…

  17. Examination of Susceptibility to Libby Amphibole Asbestos-Induced Injury in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects, no studies have been done assessing the influence of the disease on the development of lung injury induced by asbestos exposure. In this study we examined lung ...

  18. The Development of a Model for Adult Education in Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Villano, Maurice W.

    Two nutrition education modules were developed on cardiovascular disease and fat-controlled diet consisting of a self-instruction leader's guide and teaching package to conduct learning sessions for the participants. The sessions consisted of an audio-visual presentation, situations related to the module topic, group discussion, role-playing,…

  19. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OXIDATIVE INJURY AND COMPENSATORY MECHANISMS: INSIGHTS FROM RODENT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the number one cause for human mortality and nearly 25% of the population develops chronic CVD at an age of 65 years or older. Environmental and genetic interactions govern pathogenesis. Increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant stat...

  20. Sheep (Ovis aries) as a Model for Cardiovascular Surgery and Management before, during, and after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    DiVincenti, Louis; Westcott, Robin; Lee, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Because of its similarity to humans in important respects, sheep (Ovis aries) are a common animal model for translational research in cardiovascular surgery. However, some unique aspects of sheep anatomy and physiology present challenges to its use in these complicated experiments. In this review, we discuss relevant anatomy and physiology of sheep and discuss management before, during, and after procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a concise source of information for veterinarians, technicians, and researchers developing and implementing protocols with this model. PMID:25255065

  1. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF ?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers. PMID:26387441

  2. Pathophysiology of isoprostanes in the cardiovascular system: implications of isoprostane-mediated thromboxane A2 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jochen; Ripperger, Anne; Frantz, Stefan; Ergün, Süleyman; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2014-01-01

    Isoprostanes are free radical-catalysed PG-like products of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, which are widely recognized as reliable markers of systemic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, activation of enzymes, such as COX-2, may contribute to isoprostane formation. Indeed, formation of isoprostanes is considerably increased in various diseases which have been linked to oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may predict the atherosclerotic burden and the risk of cardiovascular complications in the latter patients. In addition, several isoprostanes may directly contribute to the functional consequences of oxidant stress via activation of the TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TP), for example, by affecting endothelial cell function and regeneration, vascular tone, haemostasis and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this context, experimental and clinical data suggest that selected isoprostanes may represent important alternative activators of the TP receptor when endogenous TxA2 levels are low, for example, in aspirin-treated individuals with CVD. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of isoprostane formation, biochemistry and (patho) physiology in the cardiovascular context. PMID:24646155

  3. Modeling of dynamic cardiovascular responses during G-transition-induced orthostatic stress in pitch and roll rotations.

    PubMed

    Melek, William W; Lu, Ziren; Kapps, Alex; Cheung, Bob

    2002-12-01

    Dynamic and fuzzy models for a typical subject's cardiovascular response to the orthostatic stress have been developed based on experimental data. In our original study (Cheung et al., 1999), arterial blood pressure (BP) time-series data were obtained using a man-rated tilt table that applies gigahertz-acceleration transitions from +0.861 Gz [head-up (HU)] to -0.707 G [head-down (HD)] and back to +0.861 Gz (HU) using either pitch or roll rotations (Cheung et al., 1999). G transitions of different duration and onset rates are common in fighter maneuvers. Based on these data, two types of predictive models have been developed in this paper: 1) second-order discrete-time models that predict BP dynamics during pitch and roll rotations and 2) fuzzy logic models that predict important variations in a subject's cardiovascular dynamics induced by HU-to-HD and HD-to-HU transitions. These two types of models assist in providing an operationally important predictive view on the characteristics of BP responses to orthostatic stress induced by pitch and roll rotations of a fighter jet pilot. The new models are being currently utilized in the design of operational recommendations for more G-tolerant operational flight regimes (e.g., split-S tactical maneuver) than the ones currently in use for modern combat aircraft. PMID:12549730

  4. NASA'S Standard Measures During Bed Rest: Adaptations in the Cardiovascular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Martin, David S.; Cromwell, Roni L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted analog of space flight that has been used extensively to investigate physiological adaptations in a larger number of subjects in a shorter amount of time than can be studied with space flight and without the confounding effects associated with normal mission operations. However, comparison across studies of different bed rest durations, between sexes, and between various countermeasure protocols have been hampered by dissimilarities in bed rest conditions, measurement protocols, and testing schedules. To address these concerns, NASA instituted standard bed rest conditions and standard measures for all physiological disciplines participating in studies conducted at the Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU) at the University of Texas-Medical Branch. Investigators for individual studies employed their own targeted study protocols to address specific hypothesis-driven questions, but standard measures tests were conducted within these studies on a non-interference basis to maximize data availability while reducing the need to implement multiple bed rest studies to understand the effects of a specific countermeasure. When possible, bed rest standard measures protocols were similar to tests nominally used for medically-required measures or research protocols conducted before and after Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. Specifically, bed rest standard measures for the cardiovascular system implemented before, during, and after bed rest at the FARU included plasma volume (carbon monoxide rebreathing), cardiac mass and function (2D, 3D and Doppler echocardiography), and orthostatic tolerance testing (15- or 30-minutes of 80 degree head-up tilt). Results to-date indicate that when countermeasures are not employed, plasma volume decreases and the incidence of presyncope during head-up tilt is more frequent even after short-duration bed rest while reductions in cardiac function and mass are progressive as bed rest duration increases. Additionally, while plasma volume loss can be corrected and cardiac mass can be prevented with properly applied countermeasures, orthostatic tolerance is more difficult to protect when supine exercise is the only countermeasure. Similar results have been observed after space flight. Plasma volume, cardiac chamber volume, and orthostatic tolerance recover relatively quickly with resumption of ambulation and normal activity levels after bed rest but restoration of cardiac mass is prolonged.

  5. Applications of SPICE for modeling miniaturized biomedical sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, C. W.; Nagle, H. T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for a miniaturized signal conditioning system for biopotential and ion-selective electrode arrays. The system consists of three main components: sensors, interconnections, and signal conditioning chip. The model for this system is based on SPICE. Transmission-line based equivalent circuits are used to represent the sensors, lumped resistance-capacitance circuits describe the interconnections, and a model for the signal conditioning chip is extracted from its layout. A system for measurements of biopotentials and ionic activities can be miniaturized and optimized for cardiovascular applications based on the development of an integrated SPICE system model of its electrochemical, interconnection, and electronic components.

  6. Toxics of Tobacco Smoke and Cardiovascular System: From Functional to Cellular Damage.

    PubMed

    Leone, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Manufactured tobacco contains over 4, 000 toxic substances, but only a few exert adverse cardiovascular effects. Nicotine and its metabolites, carbon monoxide, thiocyanate and some aromatic amines play a strong, although different, role to determine cardiovascular damage. Of these substances, however, nicotine, acting by the double mechanism of addiction and receptor-binding, and carbon monoxide by increasing the production of carboxyhemoglobin and hypoxia, are the main determinants of the damage. The development of the alterations of heart and blood vessels follows a typical way, initially consisting of functional responses that become irreversible pathological lesions at the time. Myocardium and endothelial cells are the targets where cigarette smoking exerts its effects. The first displays functional and pathological disorders primarily related to ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, including experimental cardiomyopathy from smoking, and heart failure, while the second should be interpreted as a structure, which shows early alterations caused by smoking as clearly evident, repeatable and typically depending on smoking toxicity. Cardiovascular damage has a functional onset, which, at the time, leads to irreversible morphological damage of myocardial and endothelial cells. PMID:26234797

  7. From form to function: the role of Nox4 in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Haigh, Stephen; Barman, Scott; Fulton, David J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of proteins is comprised of seven members, including Noxes1–5 and the Duoxes 1 and 2. Nox4 is readily distinguished from the other Nox isoforms by its high level of expression in cardiovascular tissues and unique enzymatic properties. Nox4 is constitutively active and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributed by Nox4 is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level although there is recent evidence for post-translational control. Nox4 emits a different pattern of ROS and its subcellular localizations, tissue distribution and influence over signaling pathways is different from the other Nox enzymes. Previous investigations have revealed that Nox4 is involved in oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and hypertension, cardiac failure and ischemic stroke. However, many important questions remain regarding the functional significance of Nox4 in health and disease, including the role of Nox4 subcellular localization and its downstream targets. The goal of this review is to summarize the recent literature on the genetic and enzymatic regulation, subcellular localization, signaling pathways, and the role of Nox4 in cardiovascular disease states. PMID:23125837

  8. Mechanism of tissue-selective drug action in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Terrance D; Triggle, David J; Walker, Michael J A; Maurice, Donald H

    2005-04-01

    Analysis of the human genome project tells us that there may be as few as 3000 genes that are likely to be good drug targets. Although the number of targets is still very large, these data have been interpreted by some to mean that the pharmaceutical industry may someday run out of novel drug targets. Despite the doom and gloom of such analysis, there is considerable reason for optimism. Drugs may exhibit selectivity of action beyond that predicted by target expression alone. Drugs that act at a single molecular target may have very different pharmacology and, as a result, different therapeutic uses. Three well-characterized model systems are highlighted to illustrate this point. The first model system is exemplified by nifedipine and verapamil, both of which act on L-type calcium channels. Both drugs are used to treat hypertension, but only verapamil can be used to produce atrioventricular block in patients with atrial fibrillation. The second model system describes the therapeutic exploitation of unusual conditions that occur in the ischemic myocardium to produce drugs that are more effective for suppressing ischemia-induced arrhythmias. The third model system discusses the mechanisms through which phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors act selectively to facilitate penile erection while having little effect in the non-penile vasculature that also expresses PDE5. PMID:15821157

  9. Cardiovascular effects of erythropoietin an update.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Anantha Vijay R; d'Uscio, Livius V; Katusic, Zvonimir S

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a therapeutic product of recombinant DNA technology and it has been in clinical use as stimulator of erythropoiesis over the last two decades. Identification of EPO and its receptor (EPOR) in the cardiovascular system expanded understanding of physiological and pathophysiological role of EPO. In experimental models of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, EPO exerts protection either by preventing apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells, or by increasing endothelial production of nitric oxide. In addition, EPO stimulates mobilization of progenitor cells from bone marrow thereby accelerating repair of injured endothelium and neovascularization. A novel signal transduction pathway involving EPOR--?-common heteroreceptor is postulated to enhance EPO-mediated tissue protection. A better understanding of the role of ?-common receptor signaling as well as development of novel analogs of EPO with enhanced nonhematopoietic protective effects may expand clinical application of EPO in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:21081221

  10. Macroscopic two-pump two-vasculature cardiovascular model to support treatment of acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Uemura, Kazunori; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shimizu, Shuji; Inagaki, Masashi; Shishido, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of hemodynamics remains a challenge even for expert cardiologists, partially due to a lack of an appropriate macroscopic model. We attempted to amend three major problems of Guyton's conceptual model (unknown left atrial pressure, unilateral heart damage, blood redistribution) and developed a comprehensive macroscopic model of hemodynamics that provides quantitative information. We incorporated a third axis of left atrial pressure, resulting in a 3D coordinate system. Pump functions of left and right heart are expressed by an integrated cardiac output curve, and the capacitive function of total vasculature by a venous return surface. The equations for both the cardiac output curve and venous return surface would facilitate precise diagnosis (especially evaluation of blood volume) and choice of appropriate treatments, including application to autopilot systems. PMID:19965188

  11. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  12. Poor sleep and cardiovascular function in children.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Silja; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Feldt, Kimmo; Jones, Alexander; Lahti, Jari; Pyhälä, Riikka; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan; Räikkönen, Katri

    2011-07-01

    We investigated whether sleep quantity and quality were related to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity in children. We studied term-born, healthy 8.0-year olds (SD: 1.4 years) without sleep-disordered breathing (231 and 265 children provided valid data for analyses of ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity, respectively). Sleep was registered with an actigraph for 6 nights on average (SD: 1.2; range: 3 to 13 nights). Ambulatory blood pressure was measured for 24-hours (41% nonschool days) with an oscillometric device. The children underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children, during which blood pressure, electrocardiography, and thoracic impedance were recorded and processed offline to give measures of cardiovascular and autonomic function. Neither quantity nor quality of sleep was related to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure or cardiovascular reactivity after accounting for major covariates (sex, age, height, body mass index, and parental education). Although lower sympathetic nervous system activation and higher cardiac activation under stress were found in the group of children who slept for short duration when they were compared with the average sleep duration group, these associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing and were not seen in linear regression models of the effects of sleep duration. These findings do not support the mainstream of epidemiological findings, derived from samples more heterogeneous in age, sociodemographic characteristics, and health, suggesting that poor sleep is associated with an unhealthy cardiovascular phenotype. PMID:21555678

  13. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-01-01

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P < 0.01). LW fetuses were within the normal weight span showing minor growth dysproportionality at 0.76 gestation favouring heart and brain, with a primary growth of carcass between 0.76 and 0.87 gestation (P < 0.05). While twins largely contributed to LW fetuses, weight differences between singletons and twins were absent at 0.76 and modest at 0.87 gestation, underscoring the fact that twins belong to normality in fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P < 0.05). At this age, FBP and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity were increased in LW fetuses (P < 0.05), suggesting increased sympathetic activity and immaturity of circulatory control. Development of vagal modulation of fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P < 0.01). These functional associations were largely independent of twin pregnancies. We conclude, low fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17218361

  14. Cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    2015-10-21

    Essential facts Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an umbrella term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. It includes coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and transient ischaemic attack. CVD is the leading cause of death in England and Wales, accounting for almost one third of all deaths. PMID:26488967

  15. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  16. Role of endotoxemia in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus challenges in a canine model of human septic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Natanson, C; Danner, R L; Elin, R J; Hosseini, J M; Peart, K W; Banks, S M; MacVittie, T J; Walker, R I; Parrillo, J E

    1989-01-01

    Using different types of bacteria and a canine model simulating human septic shock, we investigated the role of endotoxin in cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Either Escherichia coli (a microorganism with endotoxin) or Staphylococcus aureus (a microorganism without endotoxin) were placed in an intraperitoneal clot in doses of viable or formalin-killed bacteria. Cardiovascular function of conscious animals was studied using simultaneous radionuclide heart scans and thermodilution cardiac outputs. Serial plasma endotoxin levels were measured. S. aureus produced a pattern of reversible cardiovascular dysfunction over 7-10 d that was concordant (P less than 0.01) with that of E. coli. Although this cardiovascular pattern was not altered by formalin killing (S. aureus and E. coli), formalin-killed organisms produced a lower mortality and less myocardial depression (P less than 0.01). S. aureus, compared to E. coli, produced higher postmortem concentrations of microorganisms and higher mortality (P less than 0.025). E. coli produced significant endotoxemia (P less than 0.01), though viable organisms (versus nonviable) resulted in higher endotoxin blood concentrations (P less than 0.05). Significant endotoxemia did not occur with S. aureus. Thus, in the absence of endotoxemia, S. aureus induced the same cardiovascular abnormalities of septic shock as E. coli. These findings indicate that structurally and functionally distinct microorganisms, with or without endotoxin, can activate a common pathway resulting in similar cardiovascular injury and mortality. PMID:2642920

  17. Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull© Energy Drink Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cavka, Ana; Stupin, Marko; Panduric, Ana; Plazibat, Ana; Cosic, Anita; Rasic, Lidija; Debeljak, Zeljko; Martinovic, Goran; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull© on (1) blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2) cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3) reaction time, (4) cognitive functions, and (5) response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (N=38). Methods. Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull© intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500?mL of Red Bull©. Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull© intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull© consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull© consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull© significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject's attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull© has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:26124829

  18. Contrasting actions of diesel exhaust particles on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and the effects of thymoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Zia, Shaheen; Marzouqi, Fatima; Al-Dhaheri, Amna; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Dhanasekaran, Subramanian; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H; Kazzam, Elsadig E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acute exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to acute cardiopulmonary events, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the acute (at 4 and 18 h) effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on cardiopulmonary parameters in mice and the protective effect of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa. Mice were given, intratracheally, either saline (control) or DEP (30 µg·per mouse). KEY RESULTS At 18 h (but not 4 h) after giving DEP, there was lung inflammation and loss of lung function. At both 4 and 18 h, DEP caused systemic inflammation characterized by leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentrations and reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased only at 18 h. DEP reduced platelet numbers and aggravated in vivo thrombosis in pial arterioles. In vitro, addition of DEP (0.1–1 µg·mL?1) to untreated blood-induced platelet aggregation. Pretreatment of mice with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced decrease of SBP and leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentration and decreased plasma SOD activity. Thymoquinone also prevented the decrease in platelet numbers and the prothrombotic events but not platelet aggregation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS At 4 h after DEP exposure, the cardiovascular changes did not appear to result from pulmonary inflammation but possibly from the entry of DEP and/or their associated components into blood. However, at 18 h, DEP induced significant changes in pulmonary and cardiovascular functions along with lung inflammation. Pretreatment with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced cardiovascular changes. PMID:21501145

  19. Cardiovascular System Changes and Related Risk Factors in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Gao, Lu; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Yilin; Wu, Yue; Fang, Ligang; Deng, Kan; Yao, Yong; Lian, Wei; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular complications are known to be the main determinants of reduced life expectancy and decreased quality of life in acromegaly patients. Our study aimed to provide insight into the cardiovascular changes that occur in acromegaly patients and to investigate the correlative risk factors. Methods. A total of 108 patients definitively diagnosed with acromegaly and 108 controls matched for age and gender were recruited into study and control groups, respectively. Standard echocardiography was performed on all of the participants, and data were collected and analyzed. Results. All acromegaly patients presented with structural cardiac changes, including a larger heart cavity, thicker myocardial walls, and increased great vessel diameters compared with the control group. Additionally, the acromegaly patients presented with reduced diastolic function. Aging and increased body mass index (BMI) were correlated with myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; a longer disease duration was correlated with larger great vessel diameters. Conclusions. Ageing and increased BMI are independent risk factors for acromegalic cardiomyopathy, and a long disease duration results in the expansion of great vessels. Increased efforts should be made to diagnose acromegaly at an early stage and to advise acromegaly patients to maintain a healthy weight. PMID:26600803

  20. Analysis of Maternal and Fetal Cardiovascular Systems During Hyperglycemic Pregnancy in the Non-Obese Diabetic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Aasa, Kristiina L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.; Adams, Michael A.; Croy, B. Anne

    2013-01-01

    Pre-conception or gestationally-induced diabetes increases morbidities and elevates long-term cardiovascular disease risks in women and their children. Spontaneously hyperglycemic (d)-NOD/ShiLtJ females, a type 1 diabetes model, develop bradycardia and hypotension after midpregnancy compared with normoglycemic, age and gestation day (gd)-matched controls (c-NOD). We hypothesized that onset of the placental circulation at gd9–10 and rapid fetal growth from gd14 correlate with aberrant hemodynamic outcomes in d-NOD females. To develop further gestational time course correlations between maternal cardiac and renal parameters, high-frequency ultrasonography was applied to virgin and gd8–16 d- and c-NODs. Cardiac output and left ventricular (LV) mass increased in c- but not d-NODs. Ultrasound and postmortem histopathology showed overall greater LV dilation in d- than c-NOD mice in mid-late gestation. These changes suggest blunted remodeling and altered functional adaptation of d-NOD hearts. Umbilical cord ultrasounds revealed lower fetal heart rates from gd12 and lower umbilical flow velocities at gd14 and 16 in d- versus c-NOD pregnancies. From gd14–16, d-NOD fetal losses exceeded those of c-NOD. Similar aberrant responses in human diabetic pregnancies may elevate postpartum maternal and child cardiovascular risk, particularly if mothers lack adequate prenatal care or have poor glycemic control over gestation. PMID:23636813

  1. The genetic and metabolic determinants of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes: recent insights from animal models and clinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Kohen Avramoglu, Rita; Laplante, Marc-André; Le Quang, Khai; Deshaies, Yves; Després, Jean-Pierre; Larose, Eric; Mathieu, Patrick; Poirier, Paul; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Sweeney, Gary; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti; Marette, André

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular complications (CVC) are the most common causes of death in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However the pathophysiological determinants and molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of CVC in T2D are poorly understood. We have undertaken the challenging task of identifying some of the genetic and clinical determinants of CVC through a unique multidisciplinary approach involving Canadian and Finnish investigators. We are studying novel animal models combining atherosclerosis, diet-induced obesity and T2D to understand the molecular basis of CVC in obesity-linked T2D. We are also conducting clinical studies to identify key determinants of CVC in T2D patients and to determine whether a lifestyle modification program targeting loss of visceral adipose tissue/ectopic fat could be associated with clinical benefits in these patients. Together, we strongly believe that we can fill some gaps in our understanding of the CVC pathogenesis in T2D and identify novel therapeutic targets and hope that this new knowledge may be translated into the design of effective clinical interventions to optimally reduce cardiovascular risk in T2D subjects. PMID:24500564

  2. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  3. Evaluation of the electromechanical properties of the cardiovascular system after prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Johnson, R. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Devices and techniques for measuring and analyzing systolic time intervals and quantitative phonocardiograms were initiated during Apollo 17. The data show that the systolic time interval from Apollo 17 crewmen remained elevated longer postflight than the response criteria of heart rate, blood pressure, and percent change in leg volume all of which had returned to preflight levels by the second day postflight. Although the systolic time interval values were only slightly outside the preflight fiducial limits, this finding suggested that: the analysis of systolic time intervals may help to identify the mechanisms of postflight orthostatic intolerance by virtue of measuring ventricular function more directly and, the noninvasive technique may prove useful in determining the extent and duration of cardiovascular instability after long duration space flight. The systolic time intervals obtained on the Apollo 17 crewmen during lower body negative pressure were similar to those noted in patients with significant heart disease.

  4. [Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics].

    PubMed

    Scibona, Paula; Angriman, Federico; Simonovich, Ventura; Heller, Martina M; Belloso, Waldo H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical practice takes into account information based on population studies and benefits observed in large populations or cohorts. However, individual patients present great differences in both toxicity and clinical efficacy that can be explained by variations in adherence, unknown drug to drug interactions and genetic variability. The latter seems to explain from 20% up to 95% of patient to patient variability. Treating patients with cardiovascular disorders faces the clinician with the challenge to include genomic analysis into daily practice. There are several examples within cardiovascular disease of treatments that can vary in toxicity or clinical usefulness based on genetic changes. One of the main factors affecting the efficacy of Clopidogrel is the phenotype associated with polymorphisms in the gene CYP 2C9. Furthermore, regarding oral anticoagulants, changes in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play an important role in changing the clinical response to anticoagulation. When analyzing statin treatment, one of their main toxicities (myopathy) can be predicted by the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. The potential for prediction of toxicity and clinical efficacy from the use of genetic analysis warrants further studies aiming towards its inclusion in daily clinical practice. PMID:24636047

  5. Pleiotropic effects of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya R.; Sowers, James R.; Jia, Guanghong

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that removes NH2-terminal dipeptides from various substrate hormones, chemokines, neuropeptides, and growth factors. Two known substrates of DPP-4 include the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide, which are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in response to postprandial hyperglycemia and account for 60–70% of postprandial insulin secretion. DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) block degradation of GLP-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide, extend their insulinotropic effect, and improve glycemia. Since 2006, several DPP-4i have become available for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials confirm that DPP-4i raises GLP-1 levels in plasma and improves glycemia with very low risk for hypoglycemia and other side effects. Recent studies also suggest that DPP-4i confers cardiovascular and kidney protection, beyond glycemic control, which may reduce the risk for further development of the multiple comorbidities associated with obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease. The notion that DPP-4i may improve CVD outcomes by mechanisms beyond glycemic control is due to both GLP-1-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. The CVD protective effects by DPP-4i result from multiple factors including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, adipose tissue dysfunction, dysfunctional immunity, and antiapoptotic properties of these agents in the heart and vasculature. This review focuses on cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the CVD protective effects of DPP-4i beyond favorable effects on glycemic control. PMID:24929856

  6. Ozone exposure and systemic biomarkers: Evaluation of evidence for adverse cardiovascular health impacts.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Pizzurro, Daniella M; Lynch, Heather N; Zu, Ke; Venditti, Ferdinand J

    2015-05-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal relationship between short-term (< 30 days) ozone exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects; however, biological mechanisms to link transient effects with chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been established. Some studies assessed changes in circulating levels of biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, vasoreactivity, lipidology, and glucose metabolism after ozone exposure to elucidate a biological mechanism. We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to determine if there is evidence supporting an association between changes in these biomarkers and short-term ozone exposure that would indicate a biological mechanism for CVD below the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 parts per billion (ppb). Epidemiology findings were mixed for all biomarker categories, with only a few studies reporting statistically significant changes and with no consistency in the direction of the reported effects. Controlled human exposure studies of 2 to 5 hours conducted at ozone concentrations above 75 ppb reported small elevations in biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress that were of uncertain clinical relevance. Experimental animal studies reported more consistent results among certain biomarkers, although these were also conducted at ozone exposures well above 75 ppb and provided limited information on ozone exposure-response relationships. Overall, the current WoE does not provide a convincing case for a causal relationship between short-term ozone exposure below the NAAQS and adverse changes in levels of biomarkers within and across categories, but, because of study limitations, they cannot not provide definitive evidence of a lack of causation. PMID:25959700

  7. CVSim: An Open-Source Cardiovascular Simulator for Teaching and Research

    E-print Network

    Heldt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    CVSim is a lumped-parameter model of the human cardiovascular system that has been developed and used for research and for teaching quantitative physiology courses at MIT and Harvard Medical School since 1984. We present ...

  8. SMARTHealth India: Development and Field Evaluation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support System for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anushka; Raghu, Arvind; Clifford, Gari D; Maulik, Pallab K; Mohammad Abdul, Ameer; Mogulluru, Kishor; Tarassenko, Lionel; MacMahon, Stephen; Peiris, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature death and disability in India and yet few people at risk of CVD are able to access best practice health care. Mobile health (mHealth) is a promising solution, but very few mHealth interventions have been subjected to robust evaluation in India. Objective The objectives were to develop a multifaceted, mobile clinical decision support system (CDSS) for CVD management and evaluate it for use by public nonphysician health care workers (NPHWs) and physicians in a rural Indian setting. Methods Plain language clinical rules were developed based on standard guidelines and programmed into a computer tablet app. The algorithm was validated and field-tested in 11 villages in Andhra Pradesh, involving 11 NPHWs and 3 primary health center (PHC) physicians. A mixed method evaluation was conducted comprising clinical and survey data and in-depth patient and staff interviews to understand barriers and enablers to the use of the system. Then this was thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results During validation of the algorithm, there was an initial agreement for 70% of the 42 calculated variables between the CDSS and SPSS software outputs. Discrepancies were identified and amendments were made until perfect agreement was achieved. During field testing, NPHWs and PHC physicians used the CDSS to screen 227 and 65 adults, respectively. The NPHWs identified 39% (88/227) of patients for referral with 78% (69/88) of these having a definite indication for blood pressure (BP)-lowering medication. However, only 35% (24/69) attended a clinic within 1 month of referral, with 42% (10/24) of these reporting continuing medications at 3-month follow-up. Physicians identified and recommended 17% (11/65) of patients for BP-lowering medications. Qualitative interviews identified 3 interrelated interview themes: (1) the CDSS had potential to change prevailing health care models, (2) task-shifting to NPHWs was the central driver of change, and (3) despite high acceptability by end users, actual transformation was substantially limited by system-level barriers such as patient access to doctors and medicines. Conclusions A tablet-based CDSS implemented within primary health care systems has the potential to help improve CVD outcomes in India. However, system-level barriers to accessing medical care limit its full impact. These barriers need to be actively addressed for clinical innovations to be successful. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2013/06/003753; http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/showallp.php?mid1=6259&EncHid=51761.70513&userName=CTRI/2013/06/003753 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6UBDlrEuq). PMID:25487047

  9. How mitochondrial dysfunction affects zebrafish development and cardiovascular function: an in vivo model for testing mitochondria-targeted drugs

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Brígida R; Santos, Miguel M; Fonseca-Silva, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Oliveira, Jorge M A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone. Experimental Approach Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were chronically and acutely exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors and quinone analogues. Concentration-response curves, developmental and cardiovascular phenotyping were performed together with sequence analysis of inhibitor-binding mitochondrial subunits in zebrafish versus mouse, human and parasites. Phenotype rescuing was assessed in co-exposure assays. Key Results Complex I and II inhibitors induced developmental abnormalities, but their submaximal toxicity was not additive, suggesting active alternative pathways for complex III feeding. Complex III inhibitors evoked a direct normal-to-dead transition. ATP synthase inhibition arrested gastrulation. Menadione induced hypochromic anaemia when transiently present following primitive erythropoiesis. Atovaquone was over 1000-fold less lethal in zebrafish than reported for Plasmodium falciparum, and its toxicity partly rescued by the ubiquinone precursor 4-hydroxybenzoate. Idebenone and decylubiquinone delayed rotenone- but not myxothiazol- or antimycin-evoked cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion and Implications This study characterizes pharmacologically induced mitochondrial dysfunction phenotypes in zebrafish, laying the foundation for comparison with future studies addressing mitochondrial dysfunction in this model organism. It has relevant implications for interpreting zebrafish disease models linked to complex I/II inhibition. Further, it evidences zebrafish's potential for in vivo efficacy or toxicity screening of ubiquinone analogues or antiparasitic mitochondria-targeted drugs. PMID:23758163

  10. Mathematical circulatory system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method of modeling a circulatory system including a regulatory mechanism parameter. In one embodiment, a regulatory mechanism parameter in a lumped parameter model is represented as a logistic function. In another embodiment, the circulatory system model includes a compliant vessel, the model having a parameter representing a change in pressure due to contraction of smooth muscles of a wall of the vessel.

  11. Cardiovascular Disease-Related Parameters and Oxidative Stress in SHROB Rats, a Model for Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Lluís, Laura; Sánchez-Martos, Vanessa; Taltavull, Núria; Romeu, Marta; Pazos, Manuel; Méndez, Lucía; Miranda, Aníbal; Cascante, Marta; Medina, Isabel; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2014-01-01

    SHROB rats have been suggested as a model for metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a situation prior to the onset of CVD or type-2 diabetes, but information on descriptive biochemical parameters for this model is limited. Here, we extensively evaluate parameters related to CVD and oxidative stress (OS) in SHROB rats. SHROB rats were monitored for 15 weeks and compared to a control group of Wistar rats. Body weight was recorded weekly. At the end of the study, parameters related to CVD and OS were evaluated in plasma, urine and different organs. SHROB rats presented statistically significant differences from Wistar rats in CVD risk factors: total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apoA1, apoB100, abdominal fat, insulin, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, ICAM-1 and PAI-1. In adipose tissue, liver and brain, the endogenous antioxidant systems were activated, yet there was no significant oxidative damage to lipids (MDA) or proteins (carbonylation). We conclude that SHROB rats present significant alterations in parameters related to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, thrombotic activity, insulin resistance and OS measured in plasma as well as enhanced redox defence systems in vital organs that will be useful as markers of MetS and CVD for nutrition interventions. PMID:25115868

  12. NEP systems model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, Jim; George, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Various aspects of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems analysis and modeling are discussed. The following specific topics are covered: (1) systems analysis challenges; (2) goals for NEP systems analysis; (3) the Nuclear Propulsion Office approach; and (4) NEP subsystem model development. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  13. Cardiovascular response to thermoregulatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Yavar, Zubin; Sun, Qinghua

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of extreme climate events are occurring in the setting of ongoing climate change, with an increase in both the intensity and frequency. It has been shown that ambient temperature challenges have a direct and highly varied impact on cardiovascular health. With a rapidly growing amount of literature on this issue, we aim to review the recent publications regarding the impact of cold and heat on human populations with regard to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality/morbidity while also examining lag effects, vulnerable subgroups, and relevant mechanisms. Although the relative risk of morbidity/mortality associated with extreme temperature varied greatly across different studies, both cold and hot temperatures were associated with a positive mean excess of cardiovascular deaths or hospital admissions. Cause-specific study of CVD morbidity/mortality indicated that the sensitivity to temperature was disease-specific, with different patterns for acute and chronic ischemic heart disease. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality was associated with some characteristics of the populations, including sex, age, location, socioeconomic condition, and comorbidities such as cardiac diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Temperature-induced damage is thought to be related to enhanced sympathetic reactivity followed by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin system, as well as dehydration and a systemic inflammatory response. Future research should focus on multidisciplinary adaptation strategies that incorporate epidemiology, climatology, indoor/building environments, energy usage, labor legislative perfection, and human thermal comfort models. Studies on the underlying mechanism by which temperature challenge induces pathophysiological response and CVD await profound and lasting investigation. PMID:26432837

  14. Modular Modeling System Model Builder

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, C.S.; Matthews, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    The latest release of the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Model Builder adds still more time-saving features to an already powerful MMS dynamic-simulation tool set. The Model Builder takes advantage of 32-bit architecture within the Microsoft Windows 95/NT{trademark} Operating Systems to better integrate a mature library of power-plant components. In addition, the MMS Library of components can now be modified and extended with a new tool named MMS CompGen{trademark}. The MMS Model Builder allows the user to quickly build a graphical schematic representation for a plant by selecting from a library of predefined power plant components to dynamically simulate their operation. In addition, each component has a calculation subroutine stored in a dynamic-link library (DLL), which facilitates the determination of a steady-state condition and performance of routine calculations for the component. These calculations, termed auto-parameterization, help avoid repetitive and often tedious hand calculations for model initialization. In striving to meet the needs for large models and increase user productivity, the MMS Model Builder has been completely revamped to make power plant model creation and maintainability easier and more efficient.

  15. Modeling of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  16. The Role of Notch in the Cardiovascular System: Potential Adverse Effects of Investigational Notch Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Paola; Mele, Donato; Caliceti, Cristiana; Pannella, Micaela; Fortini, Cinzia; Clementz, Anthony George; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Aquila, Giorgio; Ameri, Pietro; Ferrari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the Notch pathway is a new promising therapeutic approach for cancer patients. Inhibition of Notch is effective in the oncology setting because it causes a reduction of highly proliferative tumor cells and it inhibits survival of cancer stem cells, which are considered responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Additionally, since Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)-activated Notch signaling is a major modulator of angiogenesis, anti-Dll4 agents are being investigated to reduce vascularization of the tumor. Notch plays a major role in the heart during the development and, after birth, in response to cardiac damage. Therefore, agents used to inhibit Notch in the tumors (gamma secretase inhibitors and anti-Dll4 agents) could potentially affect myocardial repair. The past experience with trastuzumab and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for cancer therapy demonstrates that the possible cardiotoxicity of agents targeting shared pathways between cancer and heart and the vasculature should be considered. To date, Notch inhibition in cancer patients has resulted only in mild gastrointestinal toxicity. Little is known about the potential long-term cardiotoxicity associated to Notch inhibition in cancer patients. In this review, we will focus on mechanisms through which inhibition of Notch signaling could lead to cardiomyocytes and endothelial dysfunctions. These adverse effects could contrast with the benefits of therapeutic responses in cancer cells during times of increased cardiac stress and/or in the presence of cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:25629006

  17. Influences of thigh cuffs on the cardiovascular system during 7-day head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Arbeille, P; Herault, S; Fomina, G; Roumy, J; Alferova, I; Gharib, C

    1999-12-01

    Thigh cuffs, presently named "bracelets," consist of two straps fixed to the upper part of each thigh, applying a pressure of 30 mmHg. The objective was to evaluate the cardiac, arterial, and venous changes in a group of subjects in head-down tilt (HDT) for 7 days by using thigh cuffs during the daytime, and in a control group not using cuffs. The cardiovascular parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Seven days in HDT reduced stroke volume in both groups (-10%; P < 0.05). Lower limb vascular resistance decreased more in the cuff group than in the control group (-29 vs. -4%; P < 0.05). Cerebral resistance increased in the control group only (+6%; P < 0.05). The jugular vein increased (+45%; P < 0.05) and femoral and popliteal veins decreased in cross-sectional area in both groups (-45 and -8%, respectively; P < 0.05). Carotid diameter tended to decrease (-5%; not significant) in both groups. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and total resistance did not change significantly. After 8 h with thigh cuffs, the cardiac and arterial parameters had recovered their pre-HDT level except for blood pressure (+6%; P < 0.05). Jugular vein size decreased from the pre-HDT level (-21%; P < 0.05), and femoral and popliteal vein size increased (+110 and +136%, respectively; P < 0.05). The thigh cuffs had no effect on the development of orthostatic intolerance during the 7 days in HDT. PMID:10601164

  18. What is next in nitric oxide research? From cardiovascular system to cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ka; Murad, Ferid

    2014-12-01

    The broad role of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP in biochemistry and biology as important messenger molecules is evident from the numerous publications in this research field. NO and cGMP have been known as components of the key signaling pathway in regulating numerous processes such as vascular dilation, blood pressure, neurotransmission, cardiovascular function, and renal function. In spite of almost 150,000 publications with nitric oxide and cyclic GMP, there are few publications regarding the effects of these messenger molecules on gene regulation, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. Our research data with embryonic stem cells and several cancer cell lines suggest that nitric oxide, its receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and sGC's product cyclic GMP can regulate the processes of proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we have found that undifferentiated stem cells and some malignant tumors such as human glioma have decreased levels of sGC and translocation of the sGC?1 subunit to the nucleus. We propose that sGC and cyclic GMP function as tumor suppressors. An understanding of the mechanisms of the translocation of the sGC?1 subunit into the nucleus and the possible regulation of gene expression of NO and/or cyclic CMP could lead to novel and innovative approaches to cancer therapy and stem cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25153032

  19. Glyphosate-based herbicides potently affect cardiovascular system in mammals: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gress, Steeve; Lemoine, Sandrine; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-04-01

    In glyphosate (G)-based herbicides (GBHs), the declared active principle G is mixed with several adjuvants that help it to penetrate the plants' cell membranes and its stabilization and liposolubility. Its utilization is growing with genetically modified organisms engineered to tolerate GBH. Millions of farmers suffer poisoning and death in developing countries, and occupational exposures and suicide make GBH toxicity a worldwide concern. As GBH is found in human plasma, widespread hospital facilities for measuring it should be encouraged. Plasma determination is an essential prerequisite for risk assessment in GBH intoxication. Only when standard ECGs were performed, at least one abnormal ECG was detected in the large majority of cases after intoxication. QTc prolongation and arrhythmias along with first-degree atrioventricular block were observed after GBH intoxication. Thus, life-threatening arrhythmias might be the cause of death in GBH intoxication. Cardiac cellular effects of GBH were reviewed along with few case reports in men and scanty larger studies. We observed in two mammalian species (rats and rabbits) direct cardiac electrophysiological changes, conduction blocks and arrhythmias among GBH-mediated effects. Plasmatic (and urine) level determinations of G and electrocardiographic Holter monitoring seem warranted to ascertain whether cardiovascular risk among agro-alimentary workers might be defined. PMID:25245870

  20. System Advisor Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a performance and economic model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry, ranging from project managers and engineers to incentive program designers, technology developers, and researchers.

  1. Comparing Different Policy Scenarios to Reduce the Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods in UK: Impact on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Using a Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Patricia V. L.; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Newton, Alex; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of non-communicable diseases partly reflects growing exposure to ultra-processed food products (UPPs). These heavily marketed UPPs are cheap and convenient for consumers and profitable for manufacturers, but contain high levels of salt, fat and sugars. This study aimed to explore the potential mortality reduction associated with future policies for substantially reducing ultra-processed food intake in the UK. Methods and Findings We obtained data from the UK Living Cost and Food Survey and from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. By the NOVA food typology, all food items were categorized into three groups according to the extent of food processing: Group 1 describes unprocessed/minimally processed foods. Group 2 comprises processed culinary ingredients. Group 3 includes all processed or ultra-processed products. Using UK nutrient conversion tables, we estimated the energy and nutrient profile of each food group. We then used the IMPACT Food Policy model to estimate reductions in cardiovascular mortality from improved nutrient intakes reflecting shifts from processed or ultra-processed to unprocessed/minimally processed foods. We then conducted probabilistic sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Approximately 175,000 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths might be expected in 2030 if current mortality patterns persist. However, halving the intake of Group 3 (processed) foods could result in approximately 22,055 fewer CVD related deaths in 2030 (minimum estimate 10,705, maximum estimate 34,625). An ideal scenario in which salt and fat intakes are reduced to the low levels observed in Group 1 and 2 could lead to approximately 14,235 (minimum estimate 6,680, maximum estimate 22,525) fewer coronary deaths and approximately 7,820 (minimum estimate 4,025, maximum estimate 12,100) fewer stroke deaths, comprising almost 13% mortality reduction. Conclusions This study shows a substantial potential for reducing the cardiovascular disease burden through a healthier food system. It highlights the crucial importance of implementing healthier UK food policies. PMID:25679527

  2. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts thermally dependent cholinergic tone on the cardiovascular system in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Marks, Chris; Eme, John; Elsey, Ruth M; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions play a major role in shaping reptilian embryonic development, but studies addressing the impact of interactions between chronic and acute environmental stressors on embryonic systems are lacking. In the present study, we investigated thermal dependence of cholinergic and adrenergic cardiovascular tone in embryonic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and assessed possible phenotypic plasticity in a chronic hypoxic incubation treatment. We compared changes in heart rate (f H) and mean arterial blood pressure (P M) for chronically hypoxic and normoxic-incubated embryos after cholinergic and adrenergic blockade following three different acute temperature treatments: (1) 30 °C (control incubation temperature), (2) acute, progressive decrease 30-24 °C then held at 24 °C, and (3) acute, progressive increase 30-36 °C then held at 36 °C. f H progressively fell in response to decreasing temperature and rose in response to increasing temperature. P M did not significantly change with decreasing temperature, but was lowered significantly with increasing acute temperature in the normoxic group at 90 % of development only. Propranolol administration (? adrenergic antagonist) produced a significant f H decrease at 24, 30, and 36 °C that was similar at all temperatures for all groups. For normoxic-incubated embryos at 90 % of development, atropine administration (cholinergic antagonist) significantly increased f H in both 24 and 36 °C treatments, but not in the 30 °C control treatment. This atropine response at 24 and 36 °C demonstrated acute thermally dependent cholinergic tone on f H late in development for normoxic-incubated, but not chronically hypoxic-incubated embryos. Collectively, data indicated that cardiovascular control mechanisms in embryonic alligators may be activated by thermal extremes, and the maturation of control mechanisms was delayed by chronic hypoxia. PMID:23632626

  3. Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Medicine ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    methods, and novel therapeutic measures of various cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, heart of cardiovascular diseases ·Imaging techniques (echocardiography, MRI, CT, RI, NOGA) in cardiovas- cular diseases polymorphisms and risk factors in cardiovascular disease ·Differentiation of smooth muscle cells

  4. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HGF/Met in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Simona; Sala, Valentina; Gatti, Stefano; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2015-12-01

    Met tyrosine kinase receptor, also known as c-Met, is the HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor. The HGF/Met pathway has a prominent role in cardiovascular remodelling after tissue injury. The present review provides a synopsis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HGF/Met in the heart and blood vessels. In vivo, HGF/Met function is particularly important for the protection of the heart in response to both acute and chronic insults, including ischaemic injury and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Accordingly, conditional deletion of Met in cardiomyocytes results in impaired organ defence against oxidative stress. After ischaemic injury, activation of Met provides strong anti-apoptotic stimuli for cardiomyocytes through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. Recently, we found that HGF/Met is also important for autophagy regulation in cardiomyocytes via the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. HGF/Met induces proliferation and migration of endothelial cells through Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) activation. In fibroblasts, HGF/Met antagonizes the actions of TGF?1 (transforming growth factor ?1) and AngII (angiotensin II), thus preventing fibrosis. Moreover, HGF/Met influences the inflammatory response of macrophages and the immune response of dendritic cells, indicating its protective function against atherosclerotic and autoimmune diseases. The HGF/Met axis also plays an important role in regulating self-renewal and myocardial regeneration through the enhancement of cardiac progenitor cells. HGF/Met has beneficial effects against myocardial infarction and endothelial dysfunction: the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying repair function in the heart and blood vessels are common and include pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. Thus administration of HGF or HGF mimetics may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of both coronary and peripheral artery disease. PMID:26561593

  5. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  6. Therapeutic manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hadoke, Patrick WF; Iqbal, Javaid; Walker, Brian R

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic potential for manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease was revolutionized by the recognition that access of glucocorticoids to their receptors is regulated in a tissue-specific manner by the isozymes of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Selective inhibitors of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 have been shown recently to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. This article addresses the possibility that inhibition of 11?-hydroxsteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in cells of the cardiovascular system contributes to this beneficial action. The link between glucocorticoids and cardiovascular disease is complex as glucocorticoid excess is linked with increased cardiovascular events but glucocorticoid administration can reduce atherogenesis and restenosis in animal models. There is considerable evidence that glucocorticoids can interact directly with cells of the cardiovascular system to alter their function and structure and the inflammatory response to injury. These actions may be regulated by glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid receptors but are also dependent on the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases which may be expressed in cardiac, vascular (endothelial, smooth muscle) and inflammatory (macrophages, neutrophils) cells. The activity of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in these cells is dependent upon differentiation state, the action of pro-inflammaotory cytokines and the influence of endogenous inhibitors (oxysterols, bile acids). Further investigations are required to clarify the link between glucocorticoid excess and cardiovascular events and to determine the mechanism through which glucocorticoid treatment inhibits atherosclerosis/restenosis. This will provide greater insights into the potential benefit of selective 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19239478

  7. Instrumentation for Non-Invasive Assessment of Cardiovascular Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    It is critically important to be able to assess alterations in cardiovascular regulation during and after space flight. We propose to develop an instrument for the non-invasive assessment of such alterations that can be used on the ground and potentially during space flight. This instrumentation would be used by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team at multiple sites for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system and the evaluation of countermeasures. In particular, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team will use this instrumentation in conjunction with ground-based human bed-rest studies and during application of acute stresses e.g., tilt, lower body negative pressure, and exercise. In future studies, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team anticipates using this instrumentation to study astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The instrumentation may also be used by the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team, the Neurovestibular Team and the Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team to measure changes in autonomic nervous function. The instrumentation will be based on a powerful new technology - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - which has been developed in our laboratory. CSI provides a non-invasive approach for the study of alterations in cardiovascular regulation. This approach involves the analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in physiologic signals such as heart rate and non-invasively measured arterial blood pressure in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of multiple physiologic mechanisms, CSI provides a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject.

  8. Evaluation of HDL-modulating interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction using a systems pharmacology approach.

    PubMed

    Gadkar, Kapil; Lu, James; Sahasranaman, Srikumar; Davis, John; Mazer, Norman A; Ramanujan, Saroja

    2016-01-01

    The recent failures of cholesteryl ester transport protein inhibitor drugs to decrease CVD risk, despite raising HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, suggest that pharmacologic increases in HDL-C may not always reflect elevations in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the process by which HDL is believed to exert its beneficial effects. HDL-modulating therapies can affect HDL properties beyond total HDL-C, including particle numbers, size, and composition, and may contribute differently to RCT and CVD risk. The lack of validated easily measurable pharmacodynamic markers to link drug effects to RCT, and ultimately to CVD risk, complicates target and compound selection and evaluation. In this work, we use a systems pharmacology model to contextualize the roles of different HDL targets in cholesterol metabolism and provide quantitative links between HDL-related measurements and the associated changes in RCT rate to support target and compound evaluation in drug development. By quantifying the amount of cholesterol removed from the periphery over the short-term, our simulations show the potential for infused HDL to treat acute CVD. For the primary prevention of CVD, our analysis suggests that the induction of ApoA-I synthesis may be a more viable approach, due to the long-term increase in RCT rate. PMID:26522778

  9. A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Matthee, Joep; Kearney, Mary; van Elk, Kathelijn; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved. PMID:26393647

  10. A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Matthee, Joep; Kearney, Mary; van Elk, Kathelijn; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved. PMID:26393647

  11. Galectin-3 Participates in Cardiovascular Remodeling Associated With Obesity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; López-Ándres, Natalia; Jurado-López, Raquel; Rousseau, Elodie; Bartolomé, Mará Visitación; Fernández-Celis, Amaya; Rossignol, Patrick; Islas, Fabian; Antequera, Alfonso; Prieto, Santiago; Luaces, María; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, and arterial stiffness are some of the alterations through which obesity affects the cardiovascular system. Fibrosis and inflammation are important mechanisms underlying cardiovascular remodeling, although the precise promoters involved in these processes are still unclear. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) induces inflammation and fibrosis in the cardiovascular system. We have investigated the potential role of Gal-3 in cardiac damage in morbidly obese patients, and we have evaluated the protective effect of the Gal-3 inhibition in the occurrence of cardiovascular fibrosis and inflammation in an experimental model of obesity. Morbid obesity is associated with alterations in cardiac remodeling, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity and hypertension are the main determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy. Insulin resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and circulating levels of C-reactive protein and Gal-3 are associated with a worsening of diastolic function in morbidly obese patients. Obesity upregulates Gal-3 production in the cardiovascular system in a normotensive animal model of diet-induced obesity by feeding for 6 weeks a high-fat diet (33.5% fat). Gal-3 inhibition with modified citrus pectin (100 mg/kg per day) reduced cardiovascular levels of Gal-3, total collagen, collagen I, transforming and connective growth factors, osteopontin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the heart and aorta of obese animals without changes in body weight or blood pressure. In morbidly obese patients, Gal-3 levels are associated with diastolic dysfunction. In obese animals, Gal-3 blockade decreases cardiovascular fibrosis and inflammation. These data suggest that Gal-3 could be a novel therapeutic target in cardiac fibrosis and inflammation associated with obesity. PMID:26351031

  12. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  13. 77 FR 8117 - Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Endovascular Suturing System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...artery. The system is comprised of the implant device and an endovascular delivery device used to implant the endovascular suture. FDA has identified...artery. The system is comprised of the implant device and an endovascular delivery...

  14. Efficient computation of interacting model systems.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, J; Schranz, C; Knöbel, C; Wingender, J; Koch, E; Möller, K

    2013-06-01

    Physiological processes in the human body can be predicted by mathematical models. Medical Decision Support Systems (MDSS) might exploit these predictions when optimizing therapy settings. In critically ill patients depending on mechanical ventilation, these predictions should also consider other organ systems of the human body. In a previously presented framework we combine elements of three model families: respiratory mechanics, cardiovascular dynamics and gas exchange. Computing combinations of moderately complex submodels showed to be computationally costly thus limiting the applicability of those model combinations in an MDSS. A decoupled computing approach was therefore developed, which enables individual evaluation of every submodel. Direct model interaction is not possible in separate calculations. Therefore, interface signals need to be substituted by estimates. These estimates are iteratively improved by increasing model detail in every iteration exploiting the hierarchical structure of the implemented model families. Simulation error converged to a minimum after three iterations. Maximum simulation error showed to be 1.44% compared to the original common coupled computing approach. Simulation error was found to be below measurement noise generally found in clinical data. Simulation time was reduced by factor 34 using one iteration and factor 13 using three iterations. Following the proposed calculation scheme moderately complex model combinations seem to be applicable for model based decision support. PMID:23395682

  15. Reinforced Pericardium as a Hybrid Material for Cardiovascular Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bracaglia, Laura G.; Yu, Li; Hibino, Narutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pericardium-based cardiovascular devices are currently bound by a 10-year maximum lifetime due to detrimental calcification and degradation. The goal of this work is to develop a novel synthetic material to create a lasting replacement for malfunctioning or diseased tissue in the cardiovascular system. This study couples poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and a natural biomaterial together in an unprecedented hybrid composite and evaluates the composite versus the standard glutaraldehyde-treated tissue. The polymer reinforcement is hypothesized to provide initial physical protection from proteolytic enzymes and degradation, but leave the original collagen and elastin matrix unaltered. The calcification rate and durability of the hybrid material are evaluated in vitro and in an in vivo subdermal animal model. Results demonstrate that PPF is an effective support and leads to significantly less calcium deposition, important metrics when evaluating cardiovascular material. By avoiding chemical crosslinking of the tissue and associated side effects, PPF-reinforced pericardium as a biohybrid material offers a promising potential direction for further development in cardiovascular material alternatives. Eliminating the basis for the majority of cardiovascular prosthetic failures could revolutionize expectations for extent of cardiovascular repair. PMID:25236439

  16. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  17. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  18. Synchronisation and coupling analysis: applied cardiovascular physics in sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kramer, Jan; Muller, Andreas; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is a physiological process with an internal program of a number of well defined sleep stages and intermediate wakefulness periods. The sleep stages modulate the autonomous nervous system and thereby the sleep stages are accompanied by different regulation regimes for the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The differences in regulation can be distinguished by new techniques of cardiovascular physics. The number of patients suffering from sleep disorders increases unproportionally with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop highly-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Methods of cardiovascular physics are used to analyze heart rate, blood pressure and respiration to detect changes of the autonomous nervous system in different diseases. Data driven modeling analysis, synchronization and coupling analysis and their applications to biosignals in healthy subjects and patients with different sleep disorders are presented. Newly derived methods of cardiovascular physics can help to find indicators for these health risks. PMID:24111247

  19. Emerging developmental model systems.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2006-10-01

    This primer briefly describes four emerging animal model systems that promise to provide insights into specific aspects of developmental biology. Highlighted here are two relatively well-characterized model systems, Gasterosteus aculeatus (three-spine stickleback fish) and Schmidtea mediterranea (planarian), as well as two organisms on which research is in its infancy, Carollia perspicillata (short-tailed fruit bat), and the basal metazoan, Trichoplax adhaerens. Scientists who helped develop these species into model systems discuss why they chose to research these animals. PMID:16881053

  20. INVITED REVIEW Comparative cardiovascular physiology: future trends,

    E-print Network

    Burggren, Warren

    understood aspects of the interaction of the cardiovascular system with the lymphatic, renal and digestive Department of Zoology and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC unanswered questions in the control of the cardiovascular system, emphasizing autonomic control, hypoxic

  1. Large Scale Expansion of Human Umbilical Cord Cells in a Rotating Bed System Bioreactor for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Reichardt, Anne; Polchow, Bianca; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Henrich, Wolfgang; Hetzer, Roland; Lueders, Cora

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of human umbilical cord cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering requires production of large numbers of well-characterized cells under controlled conditions. In current research projects, the expansion of cells to be used to create a tissue construct is usually performed in static cell culture systems which are, however, often not satisfactory due to limitations in nutrient and oxygen supply. To overcome these limitations dynamic cell expansion in bioreactor systems under controllable conditions could be an important tool providing continuous perfusion for the generation of large numbers of viable pre-conditioned cells in a short time period. For this purpose cells derived from human umbilical cord arteries were expanded in a rotating bed system bioreactor for up to 9 days. For a comparative study, cells were cultivated under static conditions in standard culture devices. Our results demonstrated that the microenvironment in the perfusion bioreactor was more favorable than that of the standard cell culture flasks. Data suggested that cells in the bioreactor expanded 39 fold (38.7 ± 6.1 fold) in comparison to statically cultured cells (31.8 ± 3.0 fold). Large-scale production of cells in the bioreactor resulted in more than 3 x 108 cells from a single umbilical cord fragment within 9 days. Furthermore cell doubling time was lower in the bioreactor system and production of extracellular matrix components was higher. With this study, we present an appropriate method to expand human umbilical cord artery derived cells with high cellular proliferation rates in a well-defined bioreactor system under GMP conditions. PMID:23847691

  2. Rodent Studies of Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoukas, Artin A.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in blood pressure can occur for two reasons: 1) A decrease in cardiac output resulting from the altered contractility of the heart or through changes in venous filling pressure via the Frank Starling mechanism or; 2) A change in systemic vascular resistance. The observed changes in cardiac output and blood pressure after long term space flight cannot be entirely explained through changes in contractility or heart rate alone. Therefore, alterations in filling pressure mediated through changes in systemic venous capacitance and arterial resistance function may be important determinants of cardiac output and blood pressure after long term space flight. Our laboratory and previous studies have shown the importance of veno-constriction mediated by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex system on overall circulatory homeostasis and in the regulation of cardiac output. Our proposed experiments test the overall hypothesis that alterations in venous capacitance function and arterial resistance by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex system are an important determinant of the cardiac output and blood pressure response seen in astronauts after returning to earth from long term exposure to microgravity. This hypothesis is important to our overall understanding of circulatory adjustments made during long term space flight. It also provides a framework for investigating counter measures to reduce the incidence of orthostatic hypotension caused by an attenuation of cardiac output. We continue to use hind limb unweighted (HLU) rat model to simulate the patho physiological effects as they relate to cardiovascular deconditioning in microgravity. We have used this model to address the hypothesis that microgravity induced cardiovascular deconditioning results in impaired vascular responses and that these impaired vascular responses result from abnormal alpha-1 AR signaling. The impaired vascular reactivity results in attenuated blood pressure and cardiac output responses to an orthostatic challenge. We have used in vitro vascular reactivity assays to explore abnormalities in vascular responses in vessels from HLU animals and, cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements to characterize changes in hemodynamics following HLU.

  3. SYSTEMIC BIOMARKERS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF RAT DISEASE MODELS EMPLOYED IN AIR POLLUTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) models are used for identification of mechanisms of susceptibility to air pollution. We hypothesized that baseline systemic biomarkers and cardiac gene expression in CVD rat models will have influence on their ozone-induced lung inflammation. Male 12-...

  4. Cardiovascular responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular system's adaptive changes during and after spaceflight are discussed. Cephalic fluid shifts are demonstrated by photographs along with calf girth and leg volume changes. Inflight measurements show an increase in average resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure, and a sympathetic-parasympathetic neural imbalance. Postflight findings include a small but reversible decrease in the left ventricular muscle mass. Since 1980, NASA's research has emphasized cardiovascular deconditioning and countermeasures: hemodynamic changes, endocrine and neurohumoral aspects, etiologic factors, and lower body negative pressure devices. Though human beings acclimate to the space environment, questions concerning the immediate and long-term aspects of spaceflight need to be answered for adequate planning of extended space missions.

  5. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

  6. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Demonstrate Distinctive Pulmonary Gene Expressions for Vascular Response Genes: Impact of Ozone Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative gene expression profiling of multiple tissues from rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can help decode the transcriptional program that governs organ-specific functions. We examined expressions of CVD genes in the lungs of ...

  7. Pulmonary Toxicity and Modifications in Iron Homeostasis Following Libby Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) develop iron dysregulation which may influence pulmonary toxicity and injury upon exposure to asbestos. We hypothesized spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats woul...

  8. 78 FR 36702 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of Intra-Aortic Balloon and Control Systems (IABP) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... and control system devices into class III after receiving no comments on the proposed rule (45 FR 7939...-aortic balloon and control system devices (52 FR 17736; May 11, 1987). In 2009, FDA published an order... the 90-day period. Since these devices were classified in 1980, the 30-month period has expired (45...

  9. Applicability of the polynomial chaos expansion method for personalization of a cardiovascular pulse wave propagation model.

    PubMed

    Huberts, W; Donders, W P; Delhaas, T; van de Vosse, F N

    2014-12-01

    Patient-specific modeling requires model personalization, which can be achieved in an efficient manner by parameter fixing and parameter prioritization. An efficient variance-based method is using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE), but it has not been applied in the context of model personalization, nor has it ever been compared with standard variance-based methods for models with many parameters. In this work, we apply the gPCE method to a previously reported pulse wave propagation model and compare the conclusions for model personalization with that of a reference analysis performed with Saltelli's efficient Monte Carlo method. We furthermore differentiate two approaches for obtaining the expansion coefficients: one based on spectral projection (gPCE-P) and one based on least squares regression (gPCE-R). It was found that in general the gPCE yields similar conclusions as the reference analysis but at much lower cost, as long as the polynomial metamodel does not contain unnecessary high order terms. Furthermore, the gPCE-R approach generally yielded better results than gPCE-P. The weak performance of the gPCE-P can be attributed to the assessment of the expansion coefficients using the Smolyak algorithm, which might be hampered by the high number of model parameters and/or by possible non-smoothness in the output space. PMID:25377937

  10. Large animal models of atherosclerosis - new tools for persistent problems in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Shim, J; Al-Mashhadi, R H; Sørensen, C B; Bentzon, J F

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke caused by atherosclerosis are leading causes of illness and death worldwide. Small animal models have provided insight into the fundamental mechanisms driving early atherosclerosis, but it is increasingly clear that new strategies and research tools are needed to translate these discoveries into improved prevention and treatment of symptomatic atherosclerosis in humans. Key challenges include better understanding of processes in late atherosclerosis, factors affecting atherosclerosis in the coronary bed, and the development of reliable imaging biomarker tools for risk stratification and monitoring of drug effects in humans. Efficient large animal models of atherosclerosis may help tackle these problems. Recent years have seen tremendous advances in gene-editing tools for large animals. This has made it possible to create gene-modified minipigs that develop atherosclerosis with many similarities to humans in terms of predilection for lesion sites and histopathology. Together with existing porcine models of atherosclerosis that are based on spontaneous mutations or severe diabetes, such models open new avenues for translational research in atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the merits of different animal models of atherosclerosis and give examples of important research problems where porcine models could prove pivotal for progress. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26414760

  11. Chemical compositions and properties of Schinus areira L. essential oil on airway inflammation and cardiovascular system of mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, María C; Rossetti, Víctor; Grondona, Ezequiel; Lo Presti, Silvina; Paglini, Patricia M; Rivero, Virginia; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose was to investigate the effects of essential plant-oil of Schinus areira L. on hemodynamic functions in rabbits, as well as myocardial contractile strength and airways inflammation associated to bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. This study shows the important properties of the essential oil (EO) of S. areira studied and these actions on lung with significant inhibition associated to LPS, all of which was assessed in mice bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and evidenced by stability of the percentage of alveolar macrophages, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor-? concentration, and without pathway modifications in conjugated dienes activity. Clinical status (morbidity or mortality), macroscopic morphology and lung/body weight index were unaffected by the administration of the EO S. areira. Furthermore, the ex vivo analysis of isolated hearts demonstrated the negative inotropic action of the EO of S. areira in a mice model, and in rabbits changes in the hemodynamic parameters, such as a reduction of systolic blood pressure. We conclude that EO S. areira could be responsible for modifications on the cardiovascular and/or airway parameters. PMID:22546367

  12. Is procrastination a vulnerability factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease? Testing an extension of the procrastination-health model.

    PubMed

    Sirois, Fuschia M

    2015-06-01

    Personality is an important epidemiological factor for understanding health outcomes. This study investigated the associations of trait procrastination with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (HT/CVD) and maladaptive coping by testing an extension of the procrastination-health model among individuals with and without HT/CVD. Individuals with self-reported HT/CVD (N = 182) and healthy controls (N = 564), from a community sample, completed an online survey including measures of personality, coping, and health outcomes. Logistic regression analysis controlling for demographic and higher order personality factors found that older age, lower education level and higher procrastination scores were associated with HT/CVD. Moderated mediation analyses with bootstrapping revealed that procrastination was more strongly associated with maladaptive coping behaviours in participants with HT/CVD than the healthy controls, and the indirect effects on stress through maladaptive coping were larger for the HT/CVD sample. Results suggest procrastination is a vulnerability factor for poor adjustment to and management of HT/CVD. PMID:25804373

  13. Systemic and Vascular Alterations in Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rats Exposed to Libby Amphibole

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Acute pulmonary injury and chronic disease can impact systemic vasculature because the lung capillary network can release inflammogenic and vasoactive mediators into the circulation. Occupational exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) type asbestos is associated with increas...

  14. Canister Model, Systems Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-09-29

    This packges provides a computer simulation of a systems model for packaging nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel in canisters. The canister model calculates overall programmatic cost, number of canisters, and fuel and waste inventories for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (other initial conditions can be entered).

  15. Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Steerable Cardiac Ablation Catheter Remote Control System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-09-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26422836

  16. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in normal cardiovascular homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were carried out on adult mongrel dogs (20 to 30 kilograms) to investigate the importance of the renin-angiotensin system. Results indicate that the renin-angiotensin system plays a major role in the maintenance of circulatory homeostasis when extracellular fluid volume is depleted. It was also found that angiotensin II concentration, in addition to renal perfusion pressure, is a factor in the regulation of renin release.

  17. Determination of the effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension and therapy on the cardiovascular system of rats by impedance cardiography

    PubMed Central

    Buyukakilli, Belgin; Gurgul, Serkan; C?t?r?k, Derya; Hallioglu, Olgu; Ozeren, Murat; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of bosentan, sildenafil, and combined therapy on the cardiovascular system using impedance cardiography (ICG) in rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods Seventy male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into five groups. A single dose of MCT was given to all rats, except to the control group. After 4 weeks, bosentan, sildenafil, and combined treatment was started and lasted for 3 weeks. The last group that developed PAH did not receive any medication. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed to determine the PAH development. Thoracic fluid content index (TFCI), stroke volume index (SI), heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), and myocardial contractility index (IC) were determined. All procedures were performed at the baseline and after 4 and 7 weeks. Results Echocardiographic parameters showed that the all MCT-injected rats developed PAH. There were no significant inter- and intra-group differences in TFCI, SI, and IC (P?>?0.05), but at the 7th week, CI value in the sildenafil-treated PAH rats was significantly higher than in other groups and HR of PAH rats with combined therapy was significantly lower than in other groups. Conclusion PAH did not have an effect on LV function of rats, or if it did, the effect was compensated by physiological processes. Also, sildenafil treatment deteriorated the LV cardiac index. PMID:25358882

  18. Overweight Is a Major Contributor to Atherosclerosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients at Apparent Low Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sacre, Karim; Escoubet, Brigitte; Zennaro, Maria-Christina; Chauveheid, Marie-Paule; Gayat, Etienne; Papo, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. We aimed to determine whether overweight (defined as a body mass index [BMI] > 25?kg/m2) contributed to subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE patients at low risk for CVD according to traditional factors. Wall thickness of the internal carotid artery (ICWT) measured at the carotid bulb and carotid plaques were assessed in 49 SLE patients asymptomatic for CVD and 49 controls matched on Framingham score. Factors associated to ICWT were identified and multivariate analysis was performed. SLE patients and controls displayed a low 10-year risk for CVD according to Framingham score (mean 1.9?±?3.5 in SLE vs 1.8?±?3.2% in controls, P?=?0.37). ICWT (P?

  19. Cardiovascular Disease in Latin American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study and a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%–79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

  20. Patient-specific assessment of cardiovascular function by combination of clinical data and computational model with applications to patients undergoing Fontan operation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fuyou; Sughimoto, Koichi; Matsuo, Kozo; Liu, Hao; Takagi, Shu

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of cardiovascular function is becoming increasingly important for the care of patients with single-ventricle defects. However, most measurement methods available in the clinical setting cannot provide a separate measure of cardiac function and loading conditions. In the present study, a numerical method has been proposed to compensate for the limitations of clinical measurements. The main idea was to estimate the parameters of a cardiovascular model by fitting model simulations to patient-specific clinical data via parameter optimization. Several strategies have been taken to establish a well-posed parameter optimization problem, including clinical data-matched model development, parameter selection based on an extensive sensitivity analysis, and proper choice of parameter optimization algorithm. The numerical experiments confirmed the ability of the proposed parameter optimization method to uniquely determine the model parameters given an arbitrary set of clinical data. The method was further tested in four patients undergoing the Fontan operation. Obtained results revealed a prevalence of ventricular abnormalities in the patient cohort and at the same time demonstrated the presence of marked inter-patient differences and preoperative to postoperative changes in cardiovascular function. Because the method allows a quick assessment and makes use of clinical data available in clinical practice, its clinical application is promising. PMID:24753499

  1. PS2-12: Opportunities to Improve Aspirin Utilization for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in a Regional Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Jeffrey; Miller, Aaron; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Aspirin is a cornerstone of primary cardiovascular disease prevention, but little is known about aspirin use patterns in primary care populations. Aspirin pharmacoepidemiology research presents some particular challenges within the HMO Research Network because aspirin is typically obtained over-the-counter and does not routinely appear in pharmacy claims data. This study leveraged electronic health records from the Marshfield Clinic to identify demographic, clinical, and geographic predictors of aspirin use in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was used with years 2010–2012 data from 45–79 year old adults in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area. Individuals who reported regular use (daily or every other day) of aspirin-containing medications during their most recent ambulatory encounter, or had an aspirin contraindication, were considered adherent to aspirin therapy. Results Per national guideline, there were 6,950 adults in the target population who were clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary cardiovascular disease prevention. Aspirin was underutilized in this population overall, with less than half of all clinically indicated adults adherent to aspirin therapy. Statistically adjusted models found that individuals who were younger, female, not covered by health insurance, did not visit a medical provider regularly, were not obese, or did not have diabetes were least likely to use aspirin. In addition, aspirin use was less common in northeastern communities within the Marshfield Clinic service area. Conclusions Demographic patterns of aspirin use in this study were largely consistent with previous findings, noting several aspirin use disparities in central Wisconsin adults without cardiovascular disease. Aspirin use was particularly low in those without diabetes and/or without regular physician contact. The methods outlined here on using electronic health records to conduct aspirin pharmacosurveillance can be adopted and refined by other HMO Research Network partners to optimize future cardiovascular disease (primary) prevention initiatives.

  2. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed. PMID:21465906

  3. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-01-01

    A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

  4. The Intelligent System of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Based on Extension Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baiqing; Li, Yange; Zhang, Lin

    This thesis gives the general definition of the concepts of extension knowledge, extension data mining and extension data mining theorem in high dimension space, and also builds the IDSS integrated system by the rough set, expert system and neural network, develops the relevant computer software. From the diagnosis tests, according to the common diseases of myocardial infarctions, angina pectoris and hypertension, and made the test result with physicians, the results shows that the sensitivity, specific and accuracy diagnosis by the IDSS are all higher than the physicians. It can improve the rate of the accuracy diagnosis of physician with the auxiliary help of this system, which have the obvious meaning in low the mortality, disability rate and high the survival rate, and has strong practical values and further social benefits.

  5. Systems Biology Approaches and Applications in Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Diseases

    E-print Network

    Meng, Q; Mäkinen, VP; Luk, H; Yang, X

    2013-01-01

    fat cell differentiation for obesity, insulin resistance, and T2D; liver-liver core subnetwork that is highly enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism and fatfat pad mass in knockout or transgenic mouse models via modulation of genes involved in meta- bolic pathways and a liver

  6. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method ofmore »Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.« less

  7. Investigating Autonomic Control of the Cardiovascular System: A Battery of Simple Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher D.; Roe, Sean; Tansey, Etain A.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system constantly control the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions) and blood vessels (predominantly the sympathetic division) to maintain appropriate blood pressure and organ blood flow over sometimes widely varying conditions. This can be adversely affected by…

  8. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

    2014-07-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917

  9. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B.; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917

  10. Can cardiovascular clinical characteristics be identified and outcome models be developed from an in-patient claims database?

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S; Deaton, C; Shaw, L; Mahoney, E; Morris, D C; Saunders, C; Canup, D; Connolly, S; Culler, S; Becker, E R; Kosinski, A; Boccuzzi, S J

    1999-07-15

    The objective of this study was to assess whether administrative (claims) databases can be used to assess clinical variables and predict outcome. Although administrative databases are useful for assessing resource utilization, their utility for assessing clinical information is less certain. Prospectively gathered clinical databases, however, are expensive and not widely available. The UB92 formulation of the hospital bill was used as an administrative source of data and compared with the clinical cardiovascular database at Emory University. The claims database was compared with the clinical database for 11 variables. Outcome models were developed with multivariate methods. A total of 11,883 patients who underwent catheterization (5,255 underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA] and 3,794 underwent coronary artery bypass surgery [CABG]) between 1991 and 1995 were included. For some variables, the claims database correlated well (diabetes, sensitivity 87%, specificity 99%), whereas for others the claims database was less accurate (peripheral vascular disease, sensitivity 20%, specificity 99%). Uncertain coding in the claims database, which can result in the same code being used for co-morbid states and severity of disease, as well as complications, limited the ability of claims to predict outcome. Clinical databases may also be limited by lack of objectivity and missing data. The utility of claims databases to assess severity of disease and co-morbid states is limited, and outcome modeling and risk assessment from claims databases may be inappropriate and spurious. Developing better data standards and less expensive methods for acquisition of clinical data is necessary for improved outcome assessment. PMID:10426334

  11. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feilong; Lerman, Amir; Herrmann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an integral part of the protein metabolism and protein quality control in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in a number of biological processes of significance for vascular biology and pathology such as oxidative stress, inflammation, foam cell formation, and apoptosis. This review summarizes both indirect and direct lines of evidence for a role of the UPS in atherosclerosis from the initiation to the progression and complication stage and concludes with a future perspective. PMID:26064796

  12. Advances in a fully integrated intravascular OCT-ultrasound system for cardiovascular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Joe; Li, Jiawen; Li, Xiang; Yin, Jiechen; Zhang, Jun; Hoang, Khiet; Patel, Pranav; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are two popular techniques for the detection and determination of atherosclerosis. IVUS allows visualization of plaques while also providing a large penetration depth to determine plaque volume. Intracoronary OCT provides the ability to capture microscopic features associated with high risk plaque. Traditionally to utilize the benefits of both modalities, separate probes and systems had to be used one at a time to image a vessel. We present work required to create a combined OCT IVUS system capable of simultaneous imaging to detect atherosclerotic plaques. A novel integrated probe of size 0.69 mm OD featuring sequential placement of components was created to acquire co-registered images within small coronary vessels. By utilizing commercial graphics processing units (GPUs) real time visualization of acquired data is possible up to a maximum 48 frames per second per channel. In vitro studies on human coronary artery samples as well as in vivo studies in rabbits and pigs show various plaque buildups in both OCT and IVUS images which match histology results, demonstrating the capabilities of the system.

  13. Exercise hemodynamics during extended continuous flow left ventricular assist device support: the response of systemic cardiovascular parameters and pump performance.

    PubMed

    Martina, Jerson; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Rutten, Marcel; Kirkels, J Hans; Klöpping, Corinne; Rodermans, Ben; Sukkel, Eveline; Hulstein, Nelienke; Mol, Bas; Lahpor, Jaap

    2013-09-01

    Patients on continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) are able to return to an active lifestyle and perform all sorts of physical activities. This study aims to evaluate exercise hemodynamics in patients with a HeartMate II cf-LVAD (HM II). Thirty (30) patients underwent a bicycle exercise test. Along with exercise capacity, systemic cardiovascular responses and pump performance were evaluated at 6 and 12 months after HM II implantation. From rest to maximum exercise, heart rate increased from 87 ± 14 to 140 ± 32 beats/minute (bpm) (P<0.01), while systolic arterial blood pressure increased from 93 ± 12 to 116 ± 21 mm?Hg (P<0.01). Total cardiac output (TCO) increased from 4.1 ± 1.1 to 8.5 ± 2.8 L/min (P<0.01) while pump flow increased less, from 5.1 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.6 L/min (P<0.01). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased from 1776 ± 750 to 1013 ± 83 dynes.s/cm(5) (P<0.001) and showed the strongest correlation with TCO (r=?-0.72; P<0.01). Exercise capacity was affected by older age, while blood pressure increased significantly in men compared with women. Exercise capacity remained consistent at 6 and 12 months after HM II implantation, 51% ± 13% and 52% ± 13% of predicted VO2 max for normal subjects corrected for age and gender. In conclusion, pump flow of the HM II may contribute partially to TCO during exercise, while SVR was the strongest determinant of TCO. PMID:24074245

  14. Translational approaches to understanding metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Drager, Luciano F; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; O'Donnell, Christopher P; Cravo, Sergio L; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Machado, Benedito H

    2015-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be independently associated with several cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. To determine how OSA can increase cardiovascular risk, animal models have been developed to explore the underlying mechanisms and the cellular and end-organ targets of the predominant pathophysiological disturbance in OSA-intermittent hypoxia. Despite several limitations in translating data from animal models to the clinical arena, significant progress has been made in our understanding of how OSA confers increased cardiovascular risk. It is clear now that the hypoxic stress associated with OSA can elicit a broad spectrum of pathological systemic events including sympathetic activation, systemic inflammation, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. This review provides an update of the basic, clinical, and translational advances in our understanding of the metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular consequences of OSA and highlights the most recent findings and perspectives in the field. PMID:26232233

  15. Optical systems integrated modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, Robert R.; Laskin, Robert A.; Brewer, SI; Burrows, Chris; Epps, Harlan; Illingworth, Garth; Korsch, Dietrich; Levine, B. Martin; Mahajan, Vini; Rimmer, Chuck

    1992-01-01

    An integrated modeling capability that provides the tools by which entire optical systems and instruments can be simulated and optimized is a key technology development, applicable to all mission classes, especially astrophysics. Many of the future missions require optical systems that are physically much larger than anything flown before and yet must retain the characteristic sub-micron diffraction limited wavefront accuracy of their smaller precursors. It is no longer feasible to follow the path of 'cut and test' development; the sheer scale of these systems precludes many of the older techniques that rely upon ground evaluation of full size engineering units. The ability to accurately model (by computer) and optimize the entire flight system's integrated structural, thermal, and dynamic characteristics is essential. Two distinct integrated modeling capabilities are required. These are an initial design capability and a detailed design and optimization system. The content of an initial design package is shown. It would be a modular, workstation based code which allows preliminary integrated system analysis and trade studies to be carried out quickly by a single engineer or a small design team. A simple concept for a detailed design and optimization system is shown. This is a linkage of interface architecture that allows efficient interchange of information between existing large specialized optical, control, thermal, and structural design codes. The computing environment would be a network of large mainframe machines and its users would be project level design teams. More advanced concepts for detailed design systems would support interaction between modules and automated optimization of the entire system. Technology assessment and development plans for integrated package for initial design, interface development for detailed optimization, validation, and modeling research are presented.

  16. Biomechanics of the cardiovascular system: the aorta as an illustratory example

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Ghassan S

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics relates the function of a physiological system to its structure. The objective of biomechanics is to deduce the function of a system from its geometry, material properties and boundary conditions based on the balance laws of mechanics (e.g. conservation of mass, momentum and energy). In the present review, we shall outline the general approach of biomechanics. As this is an enormously broad field, we shall consider a detailed biomechanical analysis of the aorta as an illustration. Specifically, we will consider the geometry and material properties of the aorta in conjunction with appropriate boundary conditions to formulate and solve several well-posed boundary value problems. Among other issues, we shall consider the effect of longitudinal pre-stretch and surrounding tissue on the mechanical status of the vessel wall. The solutions of the boundary value problems predict the presence of mechanical homeostasis in the vessel wall. The implications of mechanical homeostasis on growth, remodelling and postnatal development of the aorta are considered. PMID:17015300

  17. A tethering system for direct measurement of cardiovascular function in the caged baboon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    A device suitable for the continuous measurement of physiological activity in large, conscious monkeys has permitted the direct recording of systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate in caged baboons. The device comprises a lightweight fiberglass backpack, retained in place on the baboon by a thoracic elastic band and shoulder straps, and a flexible stainless steel tether connecting the pack to an electrocannular slip-ring in the top center of the baboon's cage. A chronically indwelling arterial catheter inserted retrograde into the abdominal aorta via the internal iliac artery and connected to a small pressure transducer on the pack provides direct measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. Body fluids can be sampled or drugs administered via an indwelling catheter in the inferior vena cava. Electrical and fluid connections between the fiberglass pack and recording and infusion equipment located outside the cage pass through the flexible tether and remain protected from the subject. The reliability of the tethering system has been demonstrated in physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral experiments with baboons.

  18. euHeart: personalized and integrated cardiac care using patient-specific cardiovascular modelling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nic; de Vecchi, Adelaide; McCormick, Matthew; Nordsletten, David; Camara, Oscar; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Delingette, Hervé; Sermesant, Maxime; Relan, Jatin; Ayache, Nicholas; Krueger, Martin W.; Schulze, Walther H. W.; Hose, Rod; Valverde, Israel; Beerbaum, Philipp; Staicu, Cristina; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos; Hunter, Peter; Weese, Juergen; Lehmann, Helko; Chapelle, Dominique; Rezavi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The loss of cardiac pump function accounts for a significant increase in both mortality and morbidity in Western society, where there is currently a one in four lifetime risk, and costs associated with acute and long-term hospital treatments are accelerating. The significance of cardiac disease has motivated the application of state-of-the-art clinical imaging techniques and functional signal analysis to aid diagnosis and clinical planning. Measurements of cardiac function currently provide high-resolution datasets for characterizing cardiac patients. However, the clinical practice of using population-based metrics derived from separate image or signal-based datasets often indicates contradictory treatments plans owing to inter-individual variability in pathophysiology. To address this issue, the goal of our work, demonstrated in this study through four specific clinical applications, is to integrate multiple types of functional data into a consistent framework using multi-scale computational modelling. PMID:22670205

  19. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  20. Climate system modeling program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Climate System Modeling Project is a component activity of NSF's Climate Modeling, Analysis and Prediction Program, supported by the Atmospheric Sciences Program, Geosciences Directorate. Its objective is to accelerate progress toward reliable prediction of global and regional climate changes in the decades ahead. CSMP operates through workshops, support for post-docs and graduate students and other collaborative activities designed to promote interdisciplinary and strategic work in support of the overall objective (above) and specifically in three areas, (1) Causes of interdecadal variability in the climate system, (2) Interactions of regional climate forcing with global processes, and (3) Scientific needs of climate assessment.

  1. Modeling the earth system

    SciTech Connect

    Ojima, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  2. Resveratrol and cardiovascular health--promising therapeutic or hopeless illusion?

    PubMed

    Tang, Philip Chiu-Tsun; Ng, Yam-Fung; Ho, Susan; Gyda, Michael; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in Polygonum cuspidatum, grapes, peanuts and berries, as well as their manufactured products, especially red wine. Resveratrol is a pharmacologically active compound that interacts with multiple targets in a variety of cardiovascular disease models to exert protective effects or induce a reduction in cardiovascular risks parameters. This review attempts to primarily serve to summarize the current research findings regarding the putative cardioprotective effects of resveratrol and the molecular pathways underlying these effects. One intent is to hopefully provide a relatively comprehensive resource for clues that may prompt ideas for additional mechanistic studies which might further elucidate and strengthen the role of the stilbene family of compounds in cardiovascular disease and cardioprotection. Model systems that incorporate a significant functional association with tissues outside of the cardiovascular system proper, such as adipose (cell culture, obesity models) and pancreatic (diabetes) tissues, were reviewed, and the molecular pathways and/or targets related to these models and influenced by resveratrol are discussed. Because the body of work encompassing the stilbenes and other phytochemicals in the context of longevity and the ability to presumably mitigate a plethora of afflictions is replete with conflicting information and controversy, especially so with respect to the human response, we tried to remain as neutral as possible in compiling and presenting the more current data with minimal commentary, permitting the reader free reign to extract the knowledge most helpful to their own investigations. PMID:25151891

  3. Adaptive responses of the cardiovascular system to prolonged spaceflight conditions: assessment with Holter monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Bungo, M. W.; Charles, J. B.; Goldberger, A. L.; Nikulina, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents selected findings obtained with Holter monitoring from two crew members of the expedition, performed during a 175-day space mission on board orbital space station "MIR." Using mathematical processing of daily cardiointervals files, 5-minute sections of records were analyzed consecutively. Then, the average daily values of indices, the average-per-every-eight-hours values (morning, evening, night) and mean values per hour were computed. The results of analysis showed that prolonged exposure of man to microgravity conditions leads to important functional alteration in human neuroautonomic regulatory mechanisms. Both crew members had significant increase of heart rate, the rise of stress index, the decrease in power of the spectrum in the range of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These marked signs of activation of the sympathetic section of the vegetative nervous system showed individual variations. The analysis of the daily collection of cardiointervals with Holter monitoring allows us to understand and forecast the functional feasibilities of the human organism under a variety of stress conditions associated with acute and chronic microgravity exposure.

  4. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Antonio; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Di Segni, Chantal; Persano, Mariasara; Gadotti, Giovanni; Silvestrini, Andrea; Festa, Roberto; Tiano, Luca; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions. PMID:24351864

  5. Effects of clinically relevant acute hypercapnic and metabolic acidosis on the cardiovascular system: an experimental porcine study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hypercapnic acidosis (HCA) that accompanies lung-protective ventilation may be considered permissive (a tolerable side effect), or it may be therapeutic by itself. Cardiovascular effects may contribute to, or limit, the potential therapeutic impact of HCA; therefore, a complex physiological study was performed in healthy pigs to evaluate the systemic and organ-specific circulatory effects of HCA, and to compare them with those of metabolic (eucapnic) acidosis (MAC). Methods In anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs, HCA was induced by increasing the inspired fraction of CO2 (n?=?8) and MAC (n?=?8) by the infusion of HCl, to reach an arterial plasma pH of 7.1. In the control group (n?=?8), the normal plasma pH was maintained throughout the experiment. Hemodynamic parameters, including regional organ hemodynamics, blood gases, and electrocardiograms, were measured in vivo. Subsequently, isometric contractions and membrane potentials were recorded in vitro in the right ventricular trabeculae. Results HCA affected both the pulmonary (increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)) and systemic (increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP), decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR)) circulations. Although the renal perfusion remained unaffected by any type of acidosis, HCA increased carotid, portal, and, hence, total liver blood flow. MAC influenced the pulmonary circulation only (increase in MPAP and PVR). Both MAC and HCA reduced the stroke volume, which was compensated for by an increase in heart rate to maintain (MAC), or even increase (HCA), the cardiac output. The right ventricular stroke work per minute was increased by both MAC and HCA; however, the left ventricular stroke work was increased by HCA only. In vitro, the trabeculae from the control pigs and pigs with acidosis showed similar contraction force and action-potential duration (APD). Perfusion with an acidic solution decreased the contraction force, whereas APD was not influenced. Conclusions MAC preferentially affects the pulmonary circulation, whereas HCA affects the pulmonary, systemic, and regional circulations. The cardiac contractile function was reduced, but the cardiac output was maintained (MAC), or even increased (HCA). The increased ventricular stroke work per minute revealed an increased work demand placed by acidosis on the heart. PMID:24377654

  6. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Dundon, Benjamin K; Torpey, Kim; Nelson, Adam J; Wong, Dennis TL; Duncan, Rae F; Meredith, Ian T; Faull, Randall J; Worthley, Stephen G; Worthley, Matthew I

    2014-01-01

    Aim Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via “gold standard” imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001). Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01]), left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01]), and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase) (P<0.01). Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased at follow up (9.0%±9% vs 3.0%±6%) (P=0.01). No significant change in aortic distensibility was identified. Conclusion In patients with end-stage renal failure, fistula-formation is associated with an increase in cardiac output, dilation of all cardiac chambers and deterioration in endothelial function. PMID:25258554

  7. Metabolomic Quantitative Trait Loci (mQTL) Mapping Implicates the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Cardiovascular Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, William E.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Stevens, Robert; Craig, Damian; Bain, James R.; Grass, Elizabeth; Haynes, Carol; Kwee, Lydia; Qin, Xuejun; Slentz, Dorothy H.; Krupp, Deidre; Muehlbauer, Michael; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Shah, Svati H.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of certain circulating short-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (SCDA), long-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (LCDA) and medium chain acylcarnitine (MCA) metabolites are heritable and predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Little is known about the biological pathways that influence levels of most of these metabolites. Here, we analyzed genetics, epigenetics, and transcriptomics with metabolomics in samples from a large CVD cohort to identify novel genetic markers for CVD and to better understand the role of metabolites in CVD pathogenesis. Using genomewide association in the CATHGEN cohort (N = 1490), we observed associations of several metabolites with genetic loci. Our strongest findings were for SCDA metabolite levels with variants in genes that regulate components of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (USP3, HERC1, STIM1, SEL1L, FBXO25, SUGT1) These findings were validated in a second cohort of CATHGEN subjects (N = 2022, combined p = 8.4x10-6–2.3x10-10). Importantly, variants in these genes independently predicted CVD events. Association of genomewide methylation profiles with SCDA metabolites identified two ER stress genes as differentially methylated (BRSK2 and HOOK2). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) pathway analyses driven by gene variants and SCDA metabolites corroborated perturbations in ER stress and highlighted the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) arm. Moreover, culture of human kidney cells in the presence of levels of fatty acids found in individuals with cardiometabolic disease, induced accumulation of SCDA metabolites in parallel with increases in the ER stress marker BiP. Thus, our integrative strategy implicates the UPS arm of the ER stress pathway in CVD pathogenesis, and identifies novel genetic loci associated with CVD event risk. PMID:26540294

  8. Metabolomic Quantitative Trait Loci (mQTL) Mapping Implicates the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Cardiovascular Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kraus, William E; Muoio, Deborah M; Stevens, Robert; Craig, Damian; Bain, James R; Grass, Elizabeth; Haynes, Carol; Kwee, Lydia; Qin, Xuejun; Slentz, Dorothy H; Krupp, Deidre; Muehlbauer, Michael; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Gregory, Simon G; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2015-11-01

    Levels of certain circulating short-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (SCDA), long-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (LCDA) and medium chain acylcarnitine (MCA) metabolites are heritable and predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Little is known about the biological pathways that influence levels of most of these metabolites. Here, we analyzed genetics, epigenetics, and transcriptomics with metabolomics in samples from a large CVD cohort to identify novel genetic markers for CVD and to better understand the role of metabolites in CVD pathogenesis. Using genomewide association in the CATHGEN cohort (N = 1490), we observed associations of several metabolites with genetic loci. Our strongest findings were for SCDA metabolite levels with variants in genes that regulate components of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (USP3, HERC1, STIM1, SEL1L, FBXO25, SUGT1) These findings were validated in a second cohort of CATHGEN subjects (N = 2022, combined p = 8.4x10-6-2.3x10-10). Importantly, variants in these genes independently predicted CVD events. Association of genomewide methylation profiles with SCDA metabolites identified two ER stress genes as differentially methylated (BRSK2 and HOOK2). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) pathway analyses driven by gene variants and SCDA metabolites corroborated perturbations in ER stress and highlighted the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) arm. Moreover, culture of human kidney cells in the presence of levels of fatty acids found in individuals with cardiometabolic disease, induced accumulation of SCDA metabolites in parallel with increases in the ER stress marker BiP. Thus, our integrative strategy implicates the UPS arm of the ER stress pathway in CVD pathogenesis, and identifies novel genetic loci associated with CVD event risk. PMID:26540294

  9. Endothelin-2, the forgotten isoform: emerging role in the cardiovascular system, ovarian development, immunology and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Lowell; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-2 [ET-2; also known as vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC), in rodents] differs from endothelin-1 (ET-1) by only two amino acids, and unlike the third isoform, endothelin-3 (ET-3), it has the same affinity as ET-1 for both ETA and ETB receptors. It is often assumed that ET-2 would mimic the actions of the more abundant ET-1 and current pharmacological interventions used to inhibit the ET system would also block the actions of ET-2. These assumptions have focused research on ET-1 with ET-2 studied in much less detail. Recent research suggests that our understanding of the ET family requires re-evaluation. Although ET-2 is very similar in structure as well as pharmacology to ET-1, and may co-exist in the same tissue compartments, there is converging evidence for an important and distinct ET-2 pathway. Specifically is has been demonstrated that ET-2 has a key role in ovarian physiology, with ET-2-mediated contraction proposed as a final signal facilitating ovulation. Furthermore, ET-2 may also have a pathophysiological role in heart failure, immunology and cancer. Comparison of ET-2 versus ET-1 mRNA expression suggests this may be accomplished at the level of gene expression but differences may also exist in peptide synthesis by enzymes such as endothelin converting enzymes (ECEs) and chymase, which may allow the two pathways to be distinguished pharmacologically and become separate drug targets. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Endothelin. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.168.issue-1 PMID:22118774

  10. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 ?M in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 ?bpm in heart rate and 51 ?mmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 ?M and 30 ?M, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation. PMID:26157557

  11. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  12. Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Sebastian; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. According to lessons from the past, improvement of endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular disease by systemic, unspecific, oral antioxidant therapy are obviously too simplistic an approach. Source- and cell organelle-specific antioxidants as well as activators of intrinsic antioxidant defense systems might be more promising. Since basic research demonstrated the contribution of different inflammatory cells to vascular oxidative stress and clinical trials identified chronic inflammatory disorders as risk factors for cardiovascular events, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are closely associated with inflammation. Therefore, modulation of the inflammatory response is a new and promising approach in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Classical anti-inflammatory therapeutic compounds, but also established drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory abilities, demonstrated protective effects in various models of cardiovascular disease. However, results from ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of immunomodulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26251902

  13. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  14. Hypothetical Exposure Limits for Oil-Based Metalworking Fluids and Cardiovascular Mortality in a Cohort of Autoworkers: Structural Accelerated Failure Time Models in a Public Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Sally; Peters, Annette; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to aerosolized particles of oil-based metalworking fluid was recently linked to deaths from ischemic heart disease. The current recommended exposure limits might be insufficient. Studying cardiovascular mortality is challenging because symptoms can induce sicker workers to reduce their exposure, causing healthy-worker survivor bias. G-estimation of accelerated failure time models reduces this bias and permits comparison of multiple exposure interventions. Michigan autoworkers from the United AutoWorkers–General Motors cohort (n = 38,666) were followed from 1941 through 1994. Separate binary variables indicated whether annual exposure exceeded a series of potential limits. Separate g-estimation analyses for each limit yielded the total number of life-years that could have been saved among persons who died from specific cardiovascular causes by enforcing that exposure limit. Banning oil-based fluids would have saved an estimated 4,003 (95% confidence interval: 2,200, 5,807) life-years among those who died of ischemic heart disease. Estimates for cardiovascular disease overall, acute myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular disease were 3,500 (95% confidence interval: 1,350, 5,651), 2,932 (95% confidence interval: 1,587, 4,277), and 917 (95% confidence interval: ?80, 1,913) life-years, respectively. A limit of 0.01 mg/m3 would have had a similar impact on cerebrovascular disease but one only half as great on ischemic heart disease. Analyses suggest that limiting exposure to metalworking fluids could have saved many life-years lost to cardiovascular diseases in this cohort. PMID:25816818

  15. Genetic Analysis of the Cardiac Methylome at Single Nucleotide Resolution in a Model of Human Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz-Brice, Martyna; Collins, Melissa J.; Gellert, Pascal; Maratou, Klio; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Rotival, Maxime; Butt, Shahena; Game, Laurence; Atanur, Santosh S.; Silver, Nicholas; Norsworthy, Penny J.; Langley, Sarah R.; Petretto, Enrico; Pravenec, Michal; Aitman, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic marks such as cytosine methylation are important determinants of cellular and whole-body phenotypes. However, the extent of, and reasons for inter-individual differences in cytosine methylation, and their association with phenotypic variation are poorly characterised. Here we present the first genome-wide study of cytosine methylation at single-nucleotide resolution in an animal model of human disease. We used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a model of cardiovascular disease, and the Brown Norway (BN) control strain, to define the genetic architecture of cytosine methylation in the mammalian heart and to test for association between methylation and pathophysiological phenotypes. Analysis of 10.6 million CpG dinucleotides identified 77,088 CpGs that were differentially methylated between the strains. In F1 hybrids we found 38,152 CpGs showing allele-specific methylation and 145 regions with parent-of-origin effects on methylation. Cis-linkage explained almost 60% of inter-strain variation in methylation at a subset of loci tested for linkage in a panel of recombinant inbred (RI) strains. Methylation analysis in isolated cardiomyocytes showed that in the majority of cases methylation differences in cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes were strain-dependent, confirming a strong genetic component for cytosine methylation. We observed preferential nucleotide usage associated with increased and decreased methylation that is remarkably conserved across species, suggesting a common mechanism for germline control of inter-individual variation in CpG methylation. In the RI strain panel, we found significant correlation of CpG methylation and levels of serum chromogranin B (CgB), a proposed biomarker of heart failure, which is evidence for a link between germline DNA sequence variation, CpG methylation differences and pathophysiological phenotypes in the SHR strain. Together, these results will stimulate further investigation of the molecular basis of locally regulated variation in CpG methylation and provide a starting point for understanding the relationship between the genetic control of CpG methylation and disease phenotypes. PMID:25474312

  16. Short-term use of telmisartan attenuates oxidation and improves Prdx2 expression more than antioxidant ?-blockers in the cardiovascular systems of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sae Mi; Choi, Sung Hyun; Jung, Monica Dha Yea; Lim, Sung Cil; Baek, Sang Hong

    2015-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes are required to maintain homeostasis. The loss of this balance can cause excessive ROS production and damage to the cardiovascular tissues. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and ?-blockers with antioxidant effects may inhibit ROS in the cardiovascular system. In this study, we directly compared the effects of ARBs and ?-blockers with antioxidant properties on cardiovascular protection and the regulation of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) numbers in the setting of oxidative stress in hypertensive rats. To compare the effects of the drugs, animals were divided into the following groups: Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), untreated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and SHR treated with tempol (TEMP, 5?mg?kg(-1) per day), trichlorothiazide (TCTZ, 1.6?mg?kg(-1) per day), atenolol (25?mg?kg(-1) per day), nebivolol (NEBL, 5?mg?kg(-1) per day), carvedilol (CVDL, 30?mg?kg(-1) per day) or telmisartan (TERT, 5?mg?kg(-1) per day). Following 2 weeks of treatment, blood pressures (BPs) and aortic wall thicknesses were similarly reduced in each antihypertensive drug-treated group. Superoxide anion and malondialdehyde levels were significantly reduced following treatment with NEBL, CVDL and TERT. Additionally, the expression levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were also reduced in the TERT-, CVDL- and NEBL-treated groups. Furthermore, these drugs improved both EPC numbers and the expression levels of peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2), an antioxidant enzyme, in the heart and kidneys but not the aorta. Cardiac Prdx2 expression, in particular, was markedly improved by TERT, NEBL and CVDL treatment, and renal Prdx2 expression was enhanced by TEMP. Our data indicate that short-term treatment with TERT may have more beneficial effects on cardiovascular protection, EPC number improvements and Prdx2 expression compared with CVDL and NEBL. In conclusion, TERT may positively modulate the balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant properties and demonstrate capabilities beyond its BP-lowering effects. PMID:25319599

  17. Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Colcombe, Stanley J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Scalf, Paige; McAuley, Edward; Cohen, Neal J.; Webb, Andrew; Jerome, Gerry J.; Marquez, David X.; Elavsky, Steriani

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is thought to offset declines in cognitive performance, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in humans. Research using animal models shows that aerobic training increases cortical capillary supplies, the number of synaptic connections, and the development of new neurons. The end result is a brain that is more efficient, plastic, and adaptive, which translates into better performance in aging animals. Here, in two separate experiments, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, in humans that increases in cardiovascular fitness results in increased functioning of key aspects of the attentional network of the brain during a cognitively challenging task. Specifically, highly fit (Study 1) or aerobically trained (Study 2) persons show greater task-related activity in regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices that are involved in spatial selection and inhibitory functioning, when compared with low-fit (Study 1) or nonaerobic control (Study 2) participants. Additionally, in both studies there exist groupwise differences in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, which is thought to monitor for conflict in the attentional system, and signal the need for adaptation in the attentional network. These data suggest that increased cardiovascular fitness can affect improvements in the plasticity of the aging human brain, and may serve to reduce both biological and cognitive senescence in humans. PMID:14978288

  18. Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging.

    PubMed

    Colcombe, Stanley J; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I; Scalf, Paige; McAuley, Edward; Cohen, Neal J; Webb, Andrew; Jerome, Gerry J; Marquez, David X; Elavsky, Steriani

    2004-03-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is thought to offset declines in cognitive performance, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in humans. Research using animal models shows that aerobic training increases cortical capillary supplies, the number of synaptic connections, and the development of new neurons. The end result is a brain that is more efficient, plastic, and adaptive, which translates into better performance in aging animals. Here, in two separate experiments, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, in humans that increases in cardiovascular fitness results in increased functioning of key aspects of the attentional network of the brain during a cognitively challenging task. Specifically, highly fit (Study 1) or aerobically trained (Study 2) persons show greater task-related activity in regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices that are involved in spatial selection and inhibitory functioning, when compared with low-fit (Study 1) or nonaerobic control (Study 2) participants. Additionally, in both studies there exist groupwise differences in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, which is thought to monitor for conflict in the attentional system, and signal the need for adaptation in the attentional network. These data suggest that increased cardiovascular fitness can affect improvements in the plasticity of the aging human brain, and may serve to reduce both biological and cognitive senescence in humans. PMID:14978288

  19. UK Centre for Cardiovascular

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    of cardiovascular disease and diabetes to improve human life It is an important team effort between the UniversityT AGAINST hEART DISEASE 7 #12;CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND DIAbETES IS A GLObAL ChALLENGE Diabetes-centre imaging trials. Our work showing the superiority of MRI for diagnosing cardiovascular disease has

  20. Autologous Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Seeding Technology and Biocompatibility Testing For Cardiovascular Devices in Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Alexandra E.; Lane, Whitney O.; Gage, Shawn M.; Haseltine, Justin M.; Galinat, Lauren J.; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M.; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Truskey, George A.; Achneck, Hardean E.

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardiovascular devices are manufactured from artificial materials (e.g. titanium (Ti), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene), which pose the risk of thromboemboli formation1,2,3. We have developed a method to line the inside surface of Ti tubes with autologous blood-derived human or porcine endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)4. By implanting Ti tubes containing a confluent layer of porcine EPCs in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of pigs, we tested the improved biocompatibility of the cell-seeded surface in the prothrombotic environment of a large animal model and compared it to unmodified bare metal surfaces5,6,7 (Figure 1). This method can be used to endothelialize devices within minutes of implantation and test their antithrombotic function in vivo. Peripheral blood was obtained from 50 kg Yorkshire swine and its mononuclear cell fraction cultured to isolate EPCs4,8. Ti tubes (9.4 mm ID) were pre-cut into three 4.5 cm longitudinal sections and reassembled with heat-shrink tubing. A seeding device was built, which allows for slow rotation of the Ti tubes. We performed a laparotomy on the pigs and externalized the intestine and urinary bladder. Sharp and blunt dissection was used to skeletonize the IVC from its bifurcation distal to the right renal artery proximal. The Ti tubes were then filled with fluorescently-labeled autologous EPC suspension and rotated at 10 RPH x 30 min to achieve uniform cell-coating9. After administration of 100 USP/ kg heparin, both ends of the IVC and a lumbar vein were clamped. A 4 cm veinotomy was performed and the device inserted and filled with phosphate-buffered saline. As the veinotomy was closed with a 4-0 Prolene running suture, one clamp was removed to de-air the IVC. At the end of the procedure, the fascia was approximated with 0-PDS (polydioxanone suture), the subcutaneous space closed with 2-0 Vicryl and the skin stapled closed. After 3 - 21 days, pigs were euthanized, the device explanted en-block and fixed. The Ti tubes were disassembled and the inner surfaces imaged with a fluorescent microscope. We found that the bare metal Ti tubes fully occluded whereas the EPC-seeded tubes remained patent. Further, we were able to demonstrate a confluent layer of EPCs on the inside blood-contacting surface. Concluding, our technology can be used to endothelialize Ti tubes within minutes of implantation with autologous EPCs to prevent thrombosis of the device. Our surgical method allows for testing the improved biocompatibility of such modified devices with minimal blood loss and EPC-seeded surface disruption. PMID:21931293

  1. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li; Xiong, Xing-jiang; Fan, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA. PMID:26074984

  2. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  3. Optogenetic approach for functional assays of the cardiovascular system by light activation of the vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Li, Shan-Shan; Jin, Xin; Cui, Ningren; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major challenge to modern medicine. Intervention to cardiovascular cells is crucial for treatment of the diseases. Here we report a novel intervention to vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells by optogenetics. Channelrhodopsin in a tandem with YFP was selectively expressed in smooth muscle of transgenic mice in which YFP fluorescence was found in arterial walls of various tissues. In dissociated VSM cells from the mice blue light evoked inward currents, leading to depolarization and contraction. In isolated mesenteric arterial rings, optostimulation produced vasoconstriction that was reproducible, sustained, light intensity-dependent and comparable to popular vasoconstrictors. Blue light raised robustly coronary resistance without significant effects on heart rate and pulse pressure. Optostimulation produced renal vasoconstriction as well. The optical vasoconstriction had temporal resolutions less than 40s in these organs. These results indicate that optical vasoconstriction can be effectively produced in various organs with channelrhodopsin expression in VSM cells. PMID:25869510

  4. Proactive Multifactorial Intervention Strategy Reduces the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Estimated with Region-Specific Risk Assessment Models in Pacific Asian Patients Participating in the CRUCIAL Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Joo; Sutradhar, Santosh; Yunis, Carla; Westergaard, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Despite race, ethnic, and regional differences in cardiovascular disease risk, many worldwide hypertension management guidelines recommend the use of the Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equation to guide treatment decisions. This subanalysis of the recently published CRUCIAL trial compared the treatment-related reductions in calculated CHD and stroke risk among Pacific Asian (PA) patients using a variety of region-specific risk assessment models. As a result, greater reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed in the proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI) arm compared with the usual care arm at Week 52 for PA patients. The relative percentage change in 10-yr CHD risk between baseline and Week 52 in the PMI versus usual care arms was greatest using the NIPPON DATA80 fatal CHD model (LS [least square] mean difference -42.6%), and similar in the SCORE fatal CHD and Framingham total CHD models (LS mean difference -29.4% and -30.8%, respectively). The single-pill based PMI approach is consistently effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk, evaluated using a variety of risk assessment models. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00407537) PMID:24339703

  5. System Analysis Data, Systems, Modelling

    E-print Network

    Rostock, Universität

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3 Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.4 Parameters, Inputs, Outputs characterising a system or process. An observable is some characteristic of a system which can, in principle, in principle, be measured. It is defined as a mapping from state space X to the set of real numbers : j : X R

  6. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health – ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system’s resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  7. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica , Madrid ; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana; Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

    2010-07-15

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from <1 to 118 {mu}g/L. Compared to the overall Spanish population, sex- and age-adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular (SMR 1.10), coronary (SMR 1.18), and cerebrovascular (SMR 1.04) disease were increased in municipalities with arsenic concentrations in drinking water >10 {mu}g/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations <1 {mu}g/L, fully adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates were increased by 2.2% (-0.9% to 5.5%) and 2.6% (-2.0% to 7.5%) in municipalities with arsenic concentrations between 1-10 and>10 {mu}g/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  8. Adaptive plasticity in vestibular influences on cardiovascular control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, B. J.; Holmes, M. J.; Jian, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected in both human subjects and animal models indicate that the vestibular system influences the control of blood pressure. In animals, peripheral vestibular lesions diminish the capacity to rapidly and accurately make cardiovascular adjustments to changes in posture. Thus, one role of vestibulo-cardiovascular influences is to elicit changes in blood distribution in the body so that stable blood pressure is maintained during movement. However, deficits in correcting blood pressure following vestibular lesions diminish over time, and are less severe when non-labyrinthine sensory cues regarding body position in space are provided. These observations show that pathways that mediate vestibulo-sympathetic reflexes can be subject to plastic changes. This review considers the adaptive plasticity in cardiovascular responses elicited by the central vestibular system. Recent data indicate that the posterior cerebellar vermis may play an important role in adaptation of these responses, such that ablation of the posterior vermis impairs recovery of orthostatic tolerance following subsequent vestibular lesions. Furthermore, recent experiments suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs to the central vestibular system may be important in controlling blood pressure during movement, particularly following vestibular dysfunction. A number of sensory inputs appear to be integrated to produce cardiovascular adjustments during changes in posture. Although loss of any one of these inputs does not induce lability in blood pressure, it is likely that maximal blood pressure stability is achieved by the integration of a variety of sensory cues signaling body position in space.

  9. The reaction of the cardio-vascular and sympathico-adrenal systems to intellectual activity with emotional stress. [human operator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomashevskaya, L. I.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of emotiogenic factors on an operator's intellectual activity were studied for differing working regimes on an experimental control panel that provided for light, sonic, and electrocutaneous stimuli. The latter stimulus was activated automatically if the subject gave an incorrect response. It was shown that the working capacity of the operator under stress depends to a great extent on the effect of the emotiogenic factors on the individual functioning characteristics of the cardiovascular and sympathetic-adrenal systems. Moral, intellectual, willpower, emotional, and other personality traits are decisive factors of operator function.

  10. The influence of systematic pulse-limited physical exercise on the parameters of the cardiovascular system in patients over 65 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Chomiuk, Tomasz; Mamcarz, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The influence of physical exercise on the parameters of the cardiovascular system of elderly persons has not been sufficiently investigated yet. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of regular 6-week physical exercise using the Nordic walking (NW) method in a group of elderly persons on their physical performance and regulation of selected parameters assessing the cardiovascular system. Material and methods Fifty patients over 65 years of age participated in the study. The study encompassed: medical interview, physical examination, resting ECG, spiroergometry examination, 6MWT (6-minute walk test) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). During the exercise programme, the pulse was monitored using pulsometers. After the completion of the training, check-up tests assessing the same parameters were performed. The control group consisted of 18 persons over 65 years of age with similar cardiovascular problems. Results In the test group, duration of the physical effort increased by 1.02 min (p = 0.0001), the maximum load increased by 10.68 W (p = 0.0001), values of VO2max by 2.10 (p = 0.0218), distance improved in 6MWT by 75.04 m (p = 0.00001), systolic blood pressure decreased by 5.50 mm Hg (p = 0.035) and diastolic blood pressure by 3.50 mm Hg (p = 0.054) as compared to the control group. Conclusions Systematic NW physical exercise limited by the pulse had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of elderly persons as assessed with main parameters. A short 6-week programme of endurance exercises had a hypotensive effect in elderly persons over 65 years of age. PMID:23671429

  11. Cardiovascular adverse effects of newer antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Mago, Rajnish; Tripathi, Neeta; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-05-01

    Newer antidepressants that are more selective in their neurotransmitter effects include the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and others (agomelatine, bupropion, mirtazapine, reboxetine, vilazodone, vortioxetine). This article systematically reviews data from a variety of sources regarding the potential adverse effects of these medications on various cardiovascular parameters. Potential biochemical mechanisms by which these antidepressants may adversely affect the cardiovascular system are also discussed. Antidepressants that are associated with higher cardiovascular risk (SNRIs, reboxetine), lower risk (SSRIs), and without current evidence of cardiovascular risk (agomelatine, mirtazapine, vilazodone, vortioxetine) are identified. The FDA's recommendations regarding citalopram are organized and summarized, and situations with higher risk of cardiovascular adverse effects are identified. PMID:24738823

  12. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  13. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Zourdos, Michael C; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  14. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  15. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  16. Modeling the effects of indoor passive smoking at home, work, or other households on adult cardiovascular and mental health: the Scottish Health Survey, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2014-03-01

    Passive smoking has contributed increased risks of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and mortality, but the cumulative effects from work or other households were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to model the effects of indoor passive smoking from own home, work, and other households in a country-wide, population-based setting. Data in the Scottish Health Survey between 2008 and 2011 after the law banning smoking in public places were analyzed. Information including demographics, lifestyle factors, and self-reported cardiovascular disease and mental health was obtained by household interview. Analyses included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment, it was observed that being exposed to indoor passive smoking, in particular in more than two places of exposure, was significantly associated with risks of stroke, angina, heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, and GHQ ? 12. The significance remained for angina, GHQ ? 12 and probably heart attack in never smokers. The cumulative risks also impacted on sleep problems, self-recognition, making decisions, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, happiness and self-worth. The significance remained for sleep problems, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, and happiness in never smokers. Elimination of indoor passive smoking from different sources should still be a focus in future public health programs. PMID:24633145

  17. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System.

    PubMed

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

  18. Home and Clinical Cardiovascular Care Center (H4C): a Framework for Integrating Body Sensor Networks and QTRU Cryptography System

    PubMed Central

    Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Sokouti, Massoud; Pezeshkian, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Quick responds to heart attack patients before arriving to hospital is a very important factor. In this paper, a combined model of Body Sensor Network and Personal Digital Access using QTRU cipher algorithm in Wifi networks is presented to efficiently overcome these life threatening attacks. The algorithm for optimizing the routing paths between sensor nodes and an algorithm for reducing the power consumption are also applied for achieving the best performance by this model. This system is consumes low power and has encrypting and decrypting processes. It also has an efficient routing path in a fast manner. PMID:24252988

  19. Investigation of the cardiovascular effects of apelin 

    E-print Network

    Hamilton-Smith, Katherine Mary; Smith, Katherine Mary Hamilton

    2011-07-05

    Apelin was discovered in 1998 as the endogenous peptide ligand of the orphan APJ receptor. The apelin system is well conserved across vertebrate species and is reported to have cardiovascular effects including positive ...

  20. Research opportunities in cardiovascular deconditioning, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, M. N. (editor); Talbot, J. M. (editor)

    1983-01-01

    The deconditioning of the cardiovascular system that occurs during spaceflight, NASA's current and projected research program, and the conclusions and suggestions of the ad hoc Working Group are summarized.

  1. Tobacco and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Prajeena; Pant, Sadip; Rodriguez, Alexis Phillip; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco consumption has been inextricably intertwined with society and its evolution. At one time, centuries ago, thought to be a sign of refinement and nobility, fortunately, this perception has been changing worldwide. Currently, this change in perception has been so dramatic that laws are enacted to limit tobacco exposure through second-hand smokers. Countless studies continue to emerge on tobacco's healthcare toll to the point that we now consider indisputable facts that smokers have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, among many others. However, there are other less well-known emerging facts that still require close attention such as the effect on the immune and hematopoietic systems. Tobacco smoke is injurious to all major organs in our bodies. With over 30 known carcinogens, it should not be surprising that it affects all aspects of human health. In this chapter, we will focus on the effects of tobacco on cardiovascular health. PMID:25225032

  2. Certain peculiarities of the functioning of the cardiovascular system in bedrest conditions during horizontal and antiorthostatic body positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The adequate modeling of physiological reactions inherent to the state of weightlessness has become a matter of particular urgency in space medicine. This modeling is necessary for studying the phenomenology and degree of disorders, prognostication of the crew's health, and developing the various preventive measures employed in space flights. A comparison is made of the physiological effects brought about by bed rest in a horizontal and antiorthostatic body position. A study is done of the influence of brief antiorthostatic hypokinesia, simulating the acute period of adaptation to weightlessness, on circulation and on a number of involved analytical systems. The basic model accepted is antiorthostatic hypokinesia with a body position declination angle of 4 deg (head lower than feet). The experiment's duration is dictated by the objectives of the research.

  3. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  4. Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and tobacco use in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative costs and health effects of interventions to combat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and tobacco related disease in order to guide the allocation of resources in developing countries. Design Cost effectiveness analysis of 123 single or combined prevention and treatment strategies for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and smoking by means of a lifetime population model. Setting Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE) and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Data sources Demographic and epidemiological data were taken from the WHO databases of mortality and global burden of disease. Estimates of intervention coverage, effectiveness, and resource needs were drawn from clinical trials, observational studies, and treatment guidelines. Unit costs were taken from the WHO-CHOICE (Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective) price database. Main outcome measures Cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Results Most of the interventions studied were considered highly cost effective, meaning they generate one healthy year of life at a cost of <$Int2000 (which is the gross domestic product per capita of the two regions considered here). Interventions that offer particularly good monetary value, and which could be considered for prioritised implementation or scale up, include demand reduction strategies of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (<$Int950 and <$Int200 per DALY averted in AfrE and SearD respectively); combination drug therapy for people with a >25% chance of experiencing a cardiovascular event over the next decade, either alone or together with specific multidrug regimens for the secondary prevention of post-acute ischaemic heart disease and stroke (<$Int150 and <$Int230 per DALY averted in AfrE and SearD respectively); and retinopathy screening and glycaemic control for patients with diabetes (<$Int2100 and <$Int950 per DALY averted in AfrE and SearD respectively). Conclusion This comparative economic assessment has identified a set of population-wide and individual strategies for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease that are inexpensive and cost effective in low resource settings. PMID:22389337

  5. Cardiovascular tissue engineering I. Perfusion bioreactors: a review.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir A; Yost, Michael J; Visconti, Richard; Twal, Waleed; Trusk, Thomas; Wen, Xuejun; Ozolanta, Iveta; Kadishs, Arnolds; Prestwich, Glenn D; Terracio, Louis; Markwald, Roger R

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a fast-evolving field of biomedical science and technology with future promise to manufacture living tissues and organs for replacement, repair, and regeneration of diseased organs. Owing to the specific role of hemodynamics in the development, maintenance, and functioning of the cardiovascular system, bioreactors are a fundamental of cardiovascular tissue engineering. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology for cardiovascular tissue engineering is a direct sequence of previous historic successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques. Bioreactors provide a fluidic environment for tissue engineered tissue and organs, and guarantee their viability, maturation, biomonitoring, testing, storage, and transportation. There are different types of bioreactors and they vary greatly in their size, complexity, and functional capabilities. Although progress in design and functional properties of perfusion bioreactors for tissue engineered blood vessels, heart valves, and myocardial patches is obvious, there are some challenges and insufficiently addressed issues, and room for bioreactor design improvement and performance optimization. These challenges include creating a triple perfusion bioreactor for vascularized tubular tissue engineered cardiac construct; designing and manufacturing fluidics-based perfused minibioreactors; incorporation of systematic mathematical modeling and computer simulation based on computational fluid dynamics into the bioreactor designing process; and development of automatic systems of hydrodynamic regime control. Designing and engineering of built-in noninvasive biomonitoring systems is another important challenge. The optimal and most efficient perfusion and conditioning regime, which accelerates tissue maturation of tissue-engineered constructs also remains to be determined. This is a first article in a series of reviews on critical elements of cardiovascular tissue engineering technology describing the current status, unsolved problems, and challenges of bioreactor technology in cardiovascular tissue engineering and outlining future trends and developments. PMID:16700652

  6. ?2- and ?1-Adrenoceptor Expression Exhibits a Common Regulatory Pattern With GRK2 and GRK5 in Human and Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Montó, Fermí; Oliver, Eduardo; Vicente, Diana; Buendía, Francisco; Rueda, Joaquín; Agüero, Jaime; Almenar, Luis; Valldecabres, Carmen; Rovira, Eduardo; Muedra, Vicente; Noguera, María A; Ivorra, María D; D?Ocon, Pilar

    2015-11-01

    To explore if genic expression of ?1- or ?2-adrenoceptors (ARs) exhibits a common regulatory pattern with G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 2, GRK3, or GRK5 expression, we determined messenger RNA levels for these genes in different tissues from human and animal models of cardiovascular disease. We measured genic expression by qRT polymerase chain reaction in the left and right ventricles or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy (n = 21), hypertensive (n = 20), heart failure (n = 24), and heart transplanted patients (n = 17) or in left ventricle, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and kidney from spontaneously hypertensive rats or L-N-methyl-arginine-induced hypertensive rats and their respective controls (n = 4-5). In diseased versus healthy subjects and rats, parallel changes in messenger RNA levels of GRK2 and ?2-AR or GRK5 and ?1-AR were observed in each territory. Therefore, without excluding other regulatory mechanisms, the parallelism observed suggests a common regulatory pattern for the ?1-AR/GRK5 and ?2-AR/GRK2 genes, which is independent of cellular type or pathology. This highlights the need to focus not only on GRKs but also on ?1- or ?2-AR changes to completely understand the involvement of ?-AR/GRK pathways in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26248277

  7. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  8. ASTP ranging system mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, M. R.; Robinson, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented of the VHF ranging system to analyze the performance of the Apollo-Soyuz test project (ASTP). The system was adapted for use in the ASTP. The ranging system mathematical model is presented in block diagram form, and a brief description of the overall model is also included. A procedure for implementing the math model is presented along with a discussion of the validation of the math model and the overall summary and conclusions of the study effort. Detailed appendices of the five study tasks are presented: early late gate model development, unlock probability development, system error model development, probability of acquisition and model development, and math model validation testing.

  9. System of systems modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Thompson, Bruce Miles; Longsine, Dennis E.; Shirah, Donald N.; Cranwell, Robert M.

    2005-02-01

    Analyzing the performance of a complex System of Systems (SoS) requires a systems engineering approach. Many such SoS exist in the Military domain. Examples include the Army's next generation Future Combat Systems 'Unit of Action' or the Navy's Aircraft Carrier Battle Group. In the case of a Unit of Action, a system of combat vehicles, support vehicles and equipment are organized in an efficient configuration that minimizes logistics footprint while still maintaining the required performance characteristics (e.g., operational availability). In this context, systems engineering means developing a global model of the entire SoS and all component systems and interrelationships. This global model supports analyses that result in an understanding of the interdependencies and emergent behaviors of the SoS. Sandia National Laboratories will present a robust toolset that includes methodologies for developing a SoS model, defining state models and simulating a system of state models over time. This toolset is currently used to perform logistics supportability and performance assessments of the set of Future Combat Systems (FCS) for the U.S. Army's Program Manager Unit of Action.

  10. Long Pentraxin 3: Experimental and Clinical Relevance in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bonacina, Fabrizia; Baragetti, Andrea; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and belongs, together with the C-reactive protein (CRP) and other acute phase proteins, to the pentraxins' superfamily: soluble, multifunctional, pattern recognition proteins. Pentraxins share a common C-terminal pentraxin domain, which in the case of PTX3 is coupled to an unrelated long N-terminal domain. PTX3 in humans, like CRP, correlates with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is independently associated with the risk of developing vascular events. Studies addressing the potential physiopathological role of CRP in the cardiovascular system were so far inconclusive and have been limited by the fact that the sequence and regulation have not been conserved during evolution between mouse and man. On the contrary, the conservation of sequence, gene organization, and regulation of PTX3 supports the translation of animal model findings in humans. While PTX3 deficiency is associated with increased inflammation, cardiac damage, and atherosclerosis, the overexpression limits carotid restenosis after angioplasty. These observations point to a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 potentially associated with the ability of tuning inflammation and favor the hypothesis that the increased levels of PTX3 in subjects with cardiovascular diseases may reflect a protective physiological mechanism, which correlates with the immunoinflammatory response observed in several cardiovascular disorders. PMID:23690668

  11. [Modern technology in cardiovascular medicine].

    PubMed

    Bolz, A

    2010-08-01

    Despite basic physiologic principles being well known for more than 300 years, the diagnosis and therapy of cardiovascular diseases are still in their early beginnings. For example, 100 years ago sudden cardiac arrest was regarded as the result of toxic gases. The diagnosis of ventricular fibrillation or treatment with a defibrillator are very recent developments. We are currently experiencing a technological revolution, which is rapidly changing cardiovascular medicine. This publication is focused on electrical devices and tries to identify some of the innovation mainstreams using a few examples to demonstrate these. Four megatrends are explained in more detail: the influence of wireless technology, information technology, micro systems technology, and thinking in systems. This paper is aimed at stimulating active researchers and engineers to detect the rapid changes that we often do not observe in our daily work. The author hopes that this stimulation will lead to new ideas and combinations. PMID:20700781

  12. Cardiovascular Health Issues in Inner City Populations.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Dhruv; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Inner city populations in high-income countries carry a disproportionately high burden of cardiovascular disease. Although low individual socioeconomic status has long been associated with higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, there is a growing body of evidence that area-level socioeconomic status may also have a major effect on cardiovascular outcomes. A lack of supermarkets, limited green space, and high rates of violent crime in inner city neighbourhoods result in poor dietary intake and low rates of physical activity among residents. The physical and social environments of inner city neighbourhoods may also contribute to high rates of comorbid mental illness in disadvantaged urban populations. Mental illness may lead to the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors through its impact on health behaviours, effects of psychiatric medications, and sequelae of substance abuse. Individuals residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods experience reduced access to both primary preventive and acute in-hospital cardiovascular care. This may be driven by financial disincentives for caring for patients with low socioeconomic status, as well as system capacity issues in the inner city, and patient-level differences in health-seeking behaviours. Small-scale studies of interventions to improve individual-level health behaviours and access to care in the inner city have demonstrated some success in improving cardiovascular outcomes through the use of mobile clinics, health coaching, and case management approaches. There is a need for further research into community-wide interventions to improve the cardiovascular health of inner city populations. PMID:26321435

  13. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance: still tantalizing

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Guttman, Michael A; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Saikus, Christina E; Lederman, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    The often touted advantages of MR guidance remain largely unrealized for cardiovascular interventional procedures in patients. Many procedures have been simulated in animal models. We argue these opportunities for clinical interventional MR will be met in the near future. This paper reviews technical and clinical considerations and offers advice on how to implement a clinical-grade interventional cardiovascular MR (iCMR) laboratory. We caution that this reflects our personal view of the "state of the art." PMID:19114017

  14. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

  15. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  16. Cardiovascular function during sustained +G/z/ stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    The development of aerospace systems capable of very high levels of positive vertical accelerators stress has created a need for a better understanding of the cardiovascular responses to acceleration. Using a canine model, the heart and cardiovascular system were instrumented to continuously measure coronary blood flow, cardiac output, left ventricular and aortic root pressure, and oxygen saturation in the aorta, coronary sinus, and right ventricle. The animals were exposed to acceleration profiles up to +6 G, 120 s at peak G; a seatback angle of 45 deg was simulated in some experiments. Radiopaque contrast medium was injected to visualize the left ventricular chamber, coronary vasculature, aorta, and branches of the aorta. The results suggest mechanisms responsible for arrhythmias which may occur, and subendocardial hemorrhage which has been reported in other animals.

  17. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  18. Thioredoxins in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F; Parinandi, Narasimham; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2015-11-01

    Key thioredoxin (Trx) system components are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), Trx reductase (TrxR), and Trx. TrxR catalyzes disulfide reduction in Trx with NADPH as cofactor. Because Trx is an antioxidant, oxidative stress results in an increase in Trx, which has a reduced disulfide component. If Trx is suppressed, oxidative stress in higher. In contrast a decrease in oxidative stress is associated with low Trx levels. Trx is involved in inflammation, apoptosis, embryogenesis, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review focuses on the Trx system in CVD. Abnormal Trx binding occurs in mouse familial combined hyperlipidemia; however, this has not been confirmed in humans. Congestive heart failure is a manifestation of many CVDs, which may be improved by attenuating oxidative stress through the suppression of Trx and decreased reactive oxygen species. Angiotensin II is associated with hypertension and other CVDs, and its receptor blockade results in decreased oxidative stress with reduced Trx levels. Inflammation is a major causative factor of CVDs, and myocarditis as an example, is associated with increased Trx levels. Vascular endothelial dysfunction has an association with CVD. This dysfunction is alleviated by hormone replacement therapy, which involves decreased oxidative stress and Trx levels. Diabetes mellitus has a major association with CVDs; increase in Trx levels may reflect insulin resistance. Identification of Trx system abnormalities may lead to innovative approaches to treat multiple CVDs and other pathologies. PMID:26417924

  19. Cardiovascular Repercussions of the Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Pavlidis, Antonios N; Kallistratos, Manolis S; Fitsios, Athanasios; Bratsas, Athanasios; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Manolis, Athanasios J; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a primarily ophthalmological disorder caused by deposition of whitish-gray protein on the lens, iris, and multiple other eye tissues. There is increasing evidence over the previous years that pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a systemic disorder with various extraocular manifestations and has recently been linked to several cardiovascular disorders. The present article aims to summarize the current knowledge on cardiovascular implications of this well-described clinical entity. PMID:24083219

  20. Imaging of cardiovascular dynamics in early mouse embryos with swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Liebling, Michael; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-02-01

    Congenital cardiovascular defects are very common, occurring in 1% of live births, and cardiovascular failures are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths in infants. To improve diagnostics, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities, we need to understand not only how cells form the heart and vessels but also how physical factors such as heart contraction and blood flow influence heart development and changes in the circulatory network. Mouse models are an excellent resource for studying cardiovascular development and disease because of the resemblance to humans, rapid generation time, and availability of mutants with cardiovascular defects linked to human diseases. In this work, we present results on development and application of Doppler Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (DSS-OCT) for imaging of cardiovascular dynamics and blood flow in the mouse embryonic heart and vessels. Our studies demonstrated that the spatial and temporal resolution of the DSS-OCT makes it possible to perform sensitive measurements of heart and vessel wall movements and to investigate how contractile waves facilitate the movement of blood through the circulatory system.

  1. Interstate Variation in Modifiable Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shivani A.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the role of state-level differences in modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in contributing to state disparities in cardiovascular mortality rates in the US. Methods Adults aged 45–74 in 2010 were examined. We constructed a CV risk index summarizing state-level exposure to current smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol abstinence, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and diabetes using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Outcomes were cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between the CV risk index and mortality outcomes. Models accounted for state-level socioeconomic characteristics and other potential confounders. Results Risk factors were highly correlated at the state-level (Cronbach's alpha 0.85 (men) and 0.92 (women). Each +1SD difference in the cardiovascular risk index was associated with higher adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates by 41.0 (95%CI?=?26.3, 55.7) and 33.3 (95%CI?=?24.4, 42.2) deaths per 100,000 for men and women, respectively. The index accounted for 8% (men) and 11% (women) of the variation in state-level cardiovascular mortality. Comparable associations were also observed for coronary heart disease and stroke mortality. Conclusions CV risk factors were highly correlated at the state-level and were independently associated with state CV mortality, suggesting the utility of generalized CV risk reduction. PMID:25003975

  2. Cardiovascular Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, Peter; Schneider, Sue

    1999-01-01

    It was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity responses in-flight and post-flight on neurolab appeared appropriate, enough bed-rest and post-flight stand test data, along with animal model data suggest that vasoconstriction was compromised. The mechanism of this compromised vasoconstriction needs to be delineated. Other major findings concerning microgravity and physiological regulatory systems are that: I . Thermoregulatory adaptation appear to suggest some decrements in the control of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating; 2. Calcium resorption and dietary calcium need to be defined for differing durations of spaceflight, especially as the effects of excess calcium on vasomotor function appears to be detrimental; 3. Neurohumoral mechanisms of microgravity induced changes in neural function and the regulation of plasma volume and total body water, bone resorption and autonomic neural control of the circulation need further delineation; 4. As performance of work tasks become prolonged, the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in microgravity needs to be used in the recovery period from prolonged work tasks.

  3. Structural dynamics system model reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Rose, T. L.; Wada, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    Loads analysis for structural dynamic systems is usually performed by finite element models. Because of the complexity of the structural system, the model contains large number of degree-of-freedom. The large model is necessary since details of the stress, loads and responses due to mission environments are computed. However, a simplified model is needed for other tasks such as pre-test analysis for modal testing, and control-structural interaction studies. A systematic method of model reduction for modal test analysis is presented. Perhaps it will be of some help in developing a simplified model for the control studies.

  4. Impact of ovarian function on cardiovascular health in women: focus on hypertension.

    PubMed

    Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Gilbert, Emily L; Ryan, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are generally lower in premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. The lower blood pressure levels in premenopausal women are associated with a lower risk of the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. In contrast, menopause, a state characterized by a physiologic reduction in ovarian hormone levels, is associated with progressive increases in blood pressure and an overall increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. These observations suggest an association between blood pressure regulation and changes in ovarian hormone levels, estrogens in particular. In addition to menopause, the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease is also dramatically increased in premenopausal women with chronic diseases such as diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. Studies suggest that these chronic diseases may be associated with an imbalance in ovarian hormones, which may explain the increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in these women. However, the use of hormone therapy to manage the risk and prevent the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in women remains controversial. The precise mechanisms by which estrogens contribute to the regulation of blood pressure are still not completely understood. However, accumulating evidence suggests that modulating the activity of locally active hormone systems is one of the major mechanisms by which estrogens exert their effects on target organs, including the vasculature, kidneys, and immune system. In particular, the interaction between estrogens and the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular function in both humans and experimental models. This review summarizes our current understanding of the mechanisms by which estrogens regulate blood pressure and the potential use of hormone therapy in prevention of hypertension and consequent cardiovascular risk. PMID:24493934

  5. Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    a world-class education, and conduct cutting- edge cardiovascular research. As heart disease remains into improved tools for cardiovascular disease detection, prevention and treatment. In late 2012, Dr. Robert CStanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 1 2013­2014 #12;Stanford Cardiovascular Institute | page 2

  6. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    systems, energy efficiency, simulation modeling, validation,simulation models for modeling water heating equipment and distribution systemsimulation models for water heaters and hot water distribution systems and to recommend strategies for better modeling those systems.

  7. Adverse effects of cigarette and noncigarette smoke exposure on the autonomic nervous system: mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Middlekauff, Holly R; Park, Jeanie; Moheimani, Roya S

    2014-10-21

    This review summarizes the detrimental effects of cigarette and noncigarette emission exposure on autonomic function, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of acute and chronic modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. We propose that the nicotine and fine particulate matter in tobacco smoke lead to increased sympathetic nerve activity, which becomes persistent via a positive feedback loop between sympathetic nerve activity and reactive oxidative species. Furthermore, we propose that baroreflex suppression of sympathetic activation is attenuated in habitual smokers; that is, the baroreflex plays a permissive role, allowing sympathoexcitation to occur without restraint in the setting of increased pressor response. This model is also applicable to other nontobacco cigarette emission exposures (e.g., marijuana, waterpipes [hookahs], electronic cigarettes, and even air pollution). Fortunately, emerging data suggest that baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function may be restored after smoking cessation, providing further evidence in support of the health benefits of smoking cessation. PMID:25323263

  8. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  9. Development of hollow microspheres as floating controlled-release systems for cardiovascular drugs: preparation and release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Soppimath, K S; Kulkarni, A R; Aminabhavi, T M

    2001-07-01

    Hollow microspheres of cellulose acetate loaded with four cardiovascular drugs (nifedipine [NFD], nicardapine hydrochloride [NCD], verapamil hydrochloride [VRP], and dipyridamole [DIP]) were prepared by a novel solvent diffusion-evaporation method. The oil-in-water emulsion prepared in an aqueous solution of 0.05% poly(vinyl alcohol) medium with ethyl acetate, a water-soluble and less toxic solvent, was used as the dispersing solvent. The yield of the microspheres was up to 80%. The microspheres had smooth surfaces, with free-flowing and good-packing properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed their hollow structures, with sizes in the range 489-350 microm. The microspheres tended to float over the gastric media for more than 12 h. The drug loaded in hollow microspheres was in an amorphous state, as confirmed by differential scanning microscopy (DSC). The release of the drugs was controlled for more than 8 h. The release kinetics followed different transport mechanisms depending on the nature of the drug molecules. PMID:11548857

  10. [State of the cardiovascular system in patients with decompensated mitral valve defect under conditions of high altitude].

    PubMed

    Iusupova, N Ia; Kuda?berdiev, E M; Narbekov, O N

    1976-06-01

    A clinical study was conducted in 236 patients with decompensated mitral valve disease--permanent residents of the areas located at various altitudes in the Pamirs and Tien Shan (760 to 4,200 m above the sea level). The main parameters of haemodynamics were studied by means of the dye dilution method in 158 of them, as well as the indices of cardiodynamics by way of polycardiography. The data obtained in 120 normal individuals living in foothills (760 m) served as control. It was demonstrated that with the same stages of cardiac insufficiency, the most striking changes in the haemo- and cardiodynamics were noted among the residents of the high altitude areas. Among those living at medium altitudes (1,650 to 2,020 m), the cardiac output and the left ventricular function appeared to be reduced most distinctly. These patients also exhibited a clear relationship between the main variables of the cardiovascular functions and the severity of cardiac insufficiency. The revealed clinical and functional peculiarities of the decompensated mitral valve disease in mountaneers are atrributable to the effect of hypoxic hyposy upon the regulation of the respiration and the pulmonary circulation. PMID:139491

  11. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24719499

  12. Reaction modeling in geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, A.

    2012-12-01

    Natural volcanic geothermal systems are open systems in term of matter and energy. Such systems are complex to model in terms of fluid chemistry, fluid flow and energy budget. Reaction modeling may be used to gain insight and possibly quantify chemical processes occurring within a system, for example fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction. Methods have been developed within the WATCH (Bjarnason, 1994; Arnórsson et al., 2007) and PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) programs to simulate reactions of multicomponent and multiphase systems to 300°C. The models include boiling and phase segregation (open system boiling), fluid-fluid mixing and fluid-rock interaction (gas-water-rock interaction). The models have been applied to quantify processes within the Hellisheidi geothermal system, Iceland. Open system boiling and fluid-rock interaction were simulated as a function of temperature, initial fluid composition and extent of reaction (T-X-?). In addition the interactions of magmatic gases with geothermal fluids and rocks were modeled. In this way various component behavior has been traced within the geothermal system and compared with observations of fluid composition and mineralogy. In addition, the reaction models have been used to evaluate the geochemical feasibility and best conditions of gas (CO2 and H2S) and waste water injection into geothermal system.

  13. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  14. The programming of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, K L

    2015-10-01

    In spite of improving life expectancy over the course of the previous century, the health of the U.S. population is now worsening. Recent increasing rates of type 2 diabetes, obesity and uncontrolled high blood pressure predict a growing incidence of cardiovascular disease and shortened average lifespan. The daily >$1billion current price tag for cardiovascular disease in the United States is expected to double within the next decade or two. Other countries are seeing similar trends. Current popular explanations for these trends are inadequate. Rather, increasingly poor diets in young people and in women during pregnancy are a likely cause of declining health in the U.S. population through a process known as programming. The fetal cardiovascular system is sensitive to poor maternal nutritional conditions during the periconceptional period, in the womb and in early postnatal life. Developmental plasticity accommodates changes in organ systems that lead to endothelial dysfunction, small coronary arteries, stiffer vascular tree, fewer nephrons, fewer cardiomyocytes, coagulopathies and atherogenic blood lipid profiles in fetuses born at the extremes of birthweight. Of equal importance are epigenetic modifications to genes driving important growth regulatory processes. Changes in microRNA, DNA methylation patterns and histone structure have all been implicated in the cardiovascular disease vulnerabilities that cross-generations. Recent experiments offer hope that detrimental epigenetic changes can be prevented or reversed. The large number of studies that provide the foundational concepts for the developmental origins of disease can be traced to the brilliant discoveries of David J.P. Barker. PMID:26173733

  15. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of gases, liquids and PM (particulate matter). In the modern urban world, PM is principally derived from fossil fuel combustion with individual constituents varying in size from a few nanometres to 10 microm in diameter. In addition to the ambient concentration, the pollution source and chemical composition may play roles in determining the biological toxicity and subsequent health effects. Nevertheless, studies from across the world have consistently shown that both short- and long-term exposures to PM are associated with a host of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischaemia and infarctions, heart failure, arrhythmias, strokes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Evidence from cellular/toxicological experiments, controlled animal and human exposures and human panel studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which particle exposure may both trigger acute events as well as prompt the chronic development of cardiovascular diseases. PM inhaled into the pulmonary tree may instigate remote cardiovascular health effects via three general pathways: instigation of systemic inflammation and/or oxidative stress, alterations in autonomic balance, and potentially by direct actions upon the vasculature of particle constituents capable of reaching the systemic circulation. In turn, these responses have been shown to trigger acute arterial vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmias and pro-coagulant/thrombotic actions. Finally, long-term exposure has been shown to enhance the chronic genesis of atherosclerosis. Although the risk to one individual at any single time point is small, given the prodigious number of people continuously exposed, PM air pollution imparts a tremendous burden to the global public health, ranking it as the 13th leading cause of morality (approx. 800,000 annual deaths). PMID:18691154

  16. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

  17. Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

  18. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  19. Cardiovascular and related agents.

    PubMed

    Mátyus, P

    2001-10-01

    Research activities of the Hungarian Institute of Drug Research in the field of cardiovascular agents are reviewed. Many promising drug candidates were found including a compound already marketed. Novel concepts for drug research were developed as well. PMID:11686092

  20. Colchicine for cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Colchicine is an ancient drug with anti-inflammatory effects especially on neutrophils. These cells are critically involved in pericardial and atherosclerotic plaques inflammation, thus representing a new potential target for new therapies to treat and especially prevent cardiovascular events such as pericarditis, atrial fibrillation triggered by inflammation and ischemic vascular events. The aim of the present review is to briefly review the essential pharmacology and explore potential efficacy and safety of colchicine for new emerging cardiovascular indications. PMID:26632860

  1. Prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jay N

    2015-07-01

    Meaningful prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires prolongation of life to age 90 or 100 free of morbid events. This requires early detection of the CVD phenotypes and effective treatment to slow their progression. We present a strategy for screening and evaluation of the population that should accomplish that goal with potential benefits on both cost and cardiovascular health. Studies to document the effectiveness of this strategy are urgently needed. PMID:25601035

  2. Launch systems operations cost modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Mark K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the launch systems operations modeling portion of a larger model development effort, NASA's Space Operations Cost Model (SOCM), led by NASA HQ. The SOCM study team, which includes cost and technical experts from each NASA Field Center and various contractors, has been tasked to model operations costs for all future NASA mission concepts including planetary and Earth orbiting science missions, space facilities, and launch systems. The launch systems operations modeling effort has near term significance for assessing affordability of our next generation launch vehicles and directing technology investments, although it provides only a part of the necessary inputs to assess life cycle costs for all elements that determine affordability for a launch system. Presented here is a methodology to estimate requirements associated with a launch facility infrastructure, or Spaceport, from start-up/initialization into steady-state operation. Included are descriptions of the reference data used, the unique estimating methodology that combines cost lookup tables, parametric relationships, and constructively-developed correlations of cost driver input values to collected reference data, and the output categories that can be used by economic and market models. Also, future plans to improve integration of launch vehicle development cost models, reliability and maintainability models, economic and market models, and this operations model to facilitate overall launch system life cycle performance simulations will be presented.

  3. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) & cardiovascular disease: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Deepak Y.; Xavier, Denis; Sigamani, Alben; Pais, Prem

    2015-01-01

    The role of low grade systemic inflammation as evidenced by elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease has been intensely investigated through observational studies and clinical trials in the past two decades. On the basis of evidence that has accrued, hsCRP measurement has been integrated into the Reynolds risk scoring system to predict cardiovascular risk. The JUPITER trial proved the benefit of statins in cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with low grades of systemic inflammation and ‘normal’ cholesterol levels. However, substantial evidence has been generated from western studies. We, therefore, conducted a scoping review for studies done in India with a view to identify gaps in evidence and make further recommendations. Most Indian studies had small sample sizes and short term follow ups. There were no large population based prospective studies where patients were followed up for long periods of time for major cardiovascular end points. An analysis of the hsCRP level from the control arms of case-control studies derived a mean hsCRP value of 1.88 mg/l, which is higher than the western population where values < 1 mg/l are classified as low cardiovascular risk. Further large prospective cohort studies with longer term follow ups are essential before we can make further recommendations to integrate hsCRP into risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:26458341

  4. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) & cardiovascular disease: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Deepak Y; Xavier, Denis; Sigamani, Alben; Pais, Prem

    2015-09-01

    The role of low grade systemic inflammation as evidenced by elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease has been intensely investigated through observational studies and clinical trials in the past two decades. On the basis of evidence that has accrued, hsCRP measurement has been integrated into the Reynolds risk scoring system to predict cardiovascular risk. The JUPITER trial proved the benefit of statins in cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with low grades of systemic inflammation and 'normal' cholesterol levels. However, substantial evidence has been generated from western studies. We, therefore, conducted a scoping review for studies done in India with a view to identify gaps in evidence and make further recommendations. Most Indian studies had small sample sizes and short term follow ups. There were no large population based prospective studies where patients were followed up for long periods of time for major cardiovascular end points. An analysis of the hsCRP level from the control arms of case-control studies derived a mean hsCRP value of 1.88 mg/l, which is higher than the western population where values < 1 mg/l are classified as low cardiovascular risk. Further large prospective cohort studies with longer term follow ups are essential before we can make further recommendations to integrate hsCRP into risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:26458341

  5. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors in Kenya: evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System using the WHO STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Mwangi, Ann; Chege, Patrick; Simiyu, Chrispinus J.; Aswa, Daniel F.; Odhiambo, David; Obala, Andrew A.; Ayuo, Paul; Khwa-Otsyula, Barasa O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in western Kenya using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). Design Population-based survey of residents in an HDSS Setting Webuye Division in Bungoma East District, Western Province of Kenya Patients 4037 adults ?18 years of age Interventions Home-based survey using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance Main outcome measures Self-report of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake Results The median age of the population was 35 years (IQR: 26–50). Less than 6% of the population reported high blood pressure or blood sugar. Tobacco and alcohol use were reported in 7% and 16% of the population, respectively. The majority of the population (93%) was physically active. The average number of days per week that participants reported intake of fruits (3.1 +/? 0.1) or vegetables (1.6 +/? 0.1) was low. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women were more likely to report a history of high blood pressure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.9–3.9), less likely to report using tobacco (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06–0.11), less likely to report alcohol use (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15–0.21) or eat ?5 servings per day of fruits or vegetables (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99) compared to men. Conclusions The most common cardiovascular risk factors in peri-urban western Kenya are tobacco use, alcohol use and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Our data reveal locally-relevant sub-group differences that could inform future prevention efforts. PMID:23872588

  6. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jani?, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Šabovi?, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    The world population is aging and the number of old people is continuously increasing. Arterial structure and function change with age, progressively leading to arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness is best characterized by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is its surrogate marker. It has been shown that PWV could improve cardiovascular event prediction in models that included standard risk factors. Consequently, it might therefore enable better identification of populations at high-risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review is focused on a survey of different pharmacological therapeutic options for decreasing arterial stiffness. The influence of several groups of drugs is described: antihypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates), statins, peroral antidiabetics, advanced glycation end-products (AGE) cross-link breakers, anti-inflammatory drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, and vasopeptidase inhibitors. All of these have shown some effect in decreasing arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, further studies are needed which should address the influence of arterial stiffness diminishment on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). PMID:25170513

  7. Optimization of nanoparticles for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadifar, Mohammad; Kelly, Michael E.; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2015-06-01

    Nano-particulate delivery systems have increasingly been playing important roles in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Properties of nanoparticles (e.g. size, polydispersity, loading capacity, zeta potential, morphology) are essential to system functions. Notably, these characteristics are regulated by fabrication variables, but in a complicated manner. This raises a great need to optimize fabrication process variables to ensure the desired nanoparticle characteristics. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental study on this matter, along with a novel method, the so-called Geno-Neural approach, to analyze, predict and optimize fabrication variables for desired nanoparticle characteristics. Specifically, ovalbumin was used as a protein model of growth factors used in cardiovascular tissue regeneration, and six fabrication variables were examined with regard to their influence on the characteristics of nanoparticles made from high molecular weight poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The six-factor five-level central composite rotatable design was applied to the conduction of experiments, and based on the experimental results, a geno-neural model was developed to determine the optimum fabrication conditions. For desired particle sizes of 150, 200, 250 and 300 nm, respectively, the optimum conditions to achieve the low polydispersity index, higher negative zeta potential and higher loading capacity were identified based on the developed geno-neural model and then evaluated experimentally. The experimental results revealed that the polymer and the external aqueous phase concentrations and their interactions with other fabrication variables were the most significant variables to affect the size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, loading capacity and initial burst release of the nanoparticles, while the electron microscopy images of the nanoparticles showed their spherical geometries with no sign of large pores or cracks on their surfaces. The release study revealed that the onset of the third phase of release can be affected by the polymer concentration. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that ovalbumin structural integrity is preserved during the encapsulation process. Findings from this study would greatly contribute to the design of high molecular weight poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for prolonged release patterns in cardiovascular engineering.

  8. Development of a hydraulic model of the human systemic circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, M. K.; Dharmalingham, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical and numeric models of the human circulation are constructed for a number of objectives, including studies and training in physiologic control, interpretation of clinical observations, and testing of prosthetic cardiovascular devices. For many of these purposes it is important to quantitatively validate the dynamic response of the models in terms of the input impedance (Z = oscillatory pressure/oscillatory flow). To address this need, the authors developed an improved physical model. Using a computer study, the authors first identified the configuration of lumped parameter elements in a model of the systemic circulation; the result was a good match with human aortic input impedance with a minimum number of elements. Design, construction, and testing of a hydraulic model analogous to the computer model followed. Numeric results showed that a three element model with two resistors and one compliance produced reasonable matching without undue complication. The subsequent analogous hydraulic model included adjustable resistors incorporating a sliding plate to vary the flow area through a porous material and an adjustable compliance consisting of a variable-volume air chamber. The response of the hydraulic model compared favorably with other circulation models.

  9. Physics of the Circulatory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heuvelen, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some calculations and demonstrations illustrating the role of physics in cardiovascular system. Describes a model for the system, work done by the heart, pressure in blood vessel, and gravitational effects. (YP)

  10. Environmental factors in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosselman, Kristen E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-11-01

    Environmental exposure is an important but underappreciated risk factor contributing to the development and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heart and vascular system are highly vulnerable to a number of environmental agents-ambient air pollution and the metals arsenic, cadmium, and lead are widespread and the most-extensively studied. Like traditional risk factors, such as smoking and diabetes mellitus, these exposures advance disease and mortality via augmentation or initiation of pathophysiological processes associated with CVD, including blood-pressure control, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, vascular function, and atherogenesis. Although residence in highly polluted areas is associated with high levels of cardiovascular risk, adverse effects on cardiovascular health also occur at exposure levels below current regulatory standards. Considering the widespread prevalence of exposure, even modest contributions to CVD risk can have a substantial effect on population health. Evidence-based clinical and public-health strategies aimed at reducing environmental exposures from current levels could substantially lower the burden of CVD-related death and disability worldwide. PMID:26461967

  11. Cardiovascular pharmacology of estradiol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Tofovic, Stevan P; Jackson, Edwin K

    2004-02-01

    A discussion of the role of endogenous estradiol metabolites in mediating important biological actions of estradiol is essentially nonexistent in standard textbooks of pharmacology and endocrinology. Indeed, the prevailing view is that all biological effects of estradiol are initiated by binding of estradiol per se to estrogen receptors and that estradiol metabolites are more or less irrelevant. This orthodox view, which is most likely incorrect, is the fundamental premise (an estrogen is an estrogen is an estrogen) underlying the design of important clinical trials such as the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study and the Women's Health Initiative Study. Accumulating data provide convincing evidence that some metabolites of estradiol, the major estrogen secreted by human ovaries, are biologically active and mediate multiple effects on the cardiovascular and renal systems that are largely independent of estrogen receptors. More specifically, metabolites of estradiol, particularly catecholestradiols and methoxyestradiols, induce multiple estrogen receptor-independent actions that protect the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys from disease. These protective effects are mediated in part by the inhibition of the ability of vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and glomerular mesangial cells to migrate, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix proteins, as well as by an improvement in vascular endothelial cell function. The purpose of this review is to highlight the cardiovascular and renal pharmacology of catecholestradiols and methoxyestradiols. The take home message is simple: that when it comes to cardiovascular and renal protection, the concept that all estrogenic compounds are created equal may not be true. PMID:14657266

  12. Cardiovascular Dementia - A Different Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Udhaya; Heese, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The number of dementia patients has been growing in recent years and dementia represents a significant threat to aging people all over the world. Recent research has shown that the number of people affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. The rapidly increasing financial and personal costs will affect the world's economies, health care systems, and many families. Researchers are now exploring a possible connection among AD, vascular dementia (VD), diabetes mellitus (type 2, T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CD). This correlation may be due to a strong association of cardiovascular risk factors with AD and VD, suggesting that these diseases share some biologic pathways. Since heart failure is associated with an increased risk of AD and VD, keeping the heart healthy may prove to keep the brain healthy as well. The risk for dementia is especially high when diabetes mellitus is comorbid with severe systolic hypertension or heart disease. In addition, the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) is independently associated with cardinal neuropathological lesions of AD. Thus, the contribution of T2DM and CD to AD and VD implies that cardiovascular therapies may prove useful in preventing AD and dementia. PMID:20448820

  13. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  14. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  15. Evaluation of HDL-modulating interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction using a systems pharmacology approach[S

    PubMed Central

    Gadkar, Kapil; Lu, James; Sahasranaman, Srikumar; Davis, John; Mazer, Norman A.; Ramanujan, Saroja

    2016-01-01

    The recent failures of cholesteryl ester transport protein inhibitor drugs to decrease CVD risk, despite raising HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, suggest that pharmacologic increases in HDL-C may not always reflect elevations in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the process by which HDL is believed to exert its beneficial effects. HDL-modulating therapies can affect HDL properties beyond total HDL-C, including particle numbers, size, and composition, and may contribute differently to RCT and CVD risk. The lack of validated easily measurable pharmacodynamic markers to link drug effects to RCT, and ultimately to CVD risk, complicates target and compound selection and evaluation. In this work, we use a systems pharmacology model to contextualize the roles of different HDL targets in cholesterol metabolism and provide quantitative links between HDL-related measurements and the associated changes in RCT rate to support target and compound evaluation in drug development. By quantifying the amount of cholesterol removed from the periphery over the short-term, our simulations show the potential for infused HDL to treat acute CVD. For the primary prevention of CVD, our analysis suggests that the induction of ApoA-I synthesis may be a more viable approach, due to the long-term increase in RCT rate. PMID:26522778

  16. Sex Differences in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Intapad, Suttira; Ojeda, Norma B.; Dasinger, John Henry

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) proposes that adverse events during early life program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Experimental models provide proof of concept but also indicate that insults during early life program sex differences in adult blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. This review will highlight the potential mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24583768

  17. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Alteration in Cardiovascular Regulation and Function During Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps, as a result, effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. In this project we apply a powerful, new method - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system so that effective countermeasures can be developed. CSI involves the mathematical analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in non-invasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV - respiratory activity) in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of all the physiologic mechanisms coupling these signals, CSI provides a model of the closed-loop cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject. The model includes quantitative descriptions of the heart rate baroreflex, autonomic function, as well as other important physiologic mechanisms. We are in the process of incorporating beat-to-beat fluctuations of stroke volume into the CSI technique in order to quantify additional physiologic mechanisms such as those involved in control of peripheral vascular resistance and alterations in cardiac contractility. We apply CSI in conjunction with the two general protocols of the Human Studies Core project. The first protocol involves ground-based, human head down tilt bed rest to simulate microgravity and acute stressors - upright tilt, standing and bicycle exercise - to provide orthostatic and exercise challenges. The second protocol is intended to be the same as the first but with the addition of sleep deprivation to determine whether this contributes to cardiovascular alterations. In these studies, we focus on the basic physiologic mechanisms responsible for the alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function during the simulated microgravity in order to formulate hypotheses regarding what countermeasures are likely to be most effective. Compared to our original proposal, the protocol we are using has been slightly modified to lengthen the bed rest period to 16 days and streamline the data collection. These modifications provide us data on a longer bed rest period and have enabled us to increase our subject throughput. Based on review of our preliminary data we have decided to test a countermeasure which is applied the very end of the bed rest period. We will use the same bed rest protocol to test this countermeasure. We anticipate completing the baseline data collection in our first protocol plus testing of the countermeasure in an additional eight subjects, at which time we plan to initiate the second protocol which includes sleep deprivation. In future studies, we plan to apply CSI to test other potential countermeasures in conjunction with the same bed rest, sleep deprivation and acute stressor models. We also anticipate applying CSI for studying astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The application of CSI is providing information relevant to the development and evaluation of effective countermeasures allowing humans to adapt appropriately upon re-exposure to a gravity field, and to live and work for longer periods of time in microgravity.

  18. Model systems in neurotoxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Shahar, A. ); Goldberg, A.M. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 33 papers. Some of the titles are: Establishment of cell lines from primary cultures by transfection with SV40 large T antigen gene; Molecular cloning of human cholinesterase genes: Potential applications in neurotoxicology; Neurotoxicity testing of chlorinated hydrocarbons by measuring specific neuronal and glial cell functions; Genetic and pharmacological models of muscle inactivity; and Overexpression of the human CuZnSOD gene in transfected cells: Implication to Down Syndrome.

  19. Dynamic modeling of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.; White, J.

    1995-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC) Process and Project Engineering (P&PE) personnel continue to refine and modify dynamic modeling or simulations for advanced power systems. P&PE, supported by Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc. (G/C), has adapted PC/TRAX commercial dynamic software to include equipment found in advanced power systems. PC/TRAX`s software contains the equations that describe the operation of standard power plant equipment such as gas turbines, feedwater pumps, and steam turbines. The METC team has incorporated customized dynamic models using Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) code for pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustors, carbonizers, and other components that are found in Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (APFBC) systems. A dynamic model of a commercial-size APFBC power plant was constructed in order to determine representative operating characteristics of the plant and to gain some insight into the best type of control system design. The dynamic model contains both process and control model components. This presentation covers development of a model used to describe the commercial APFBC power plant. Results of exercising the model to simulate plant performance are described and illustrated. Information gained during the APFBC study was applied to a dynamic model of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC system. Some initial results from this study are also presented.

  20. ASN reputation system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Steve; Erbacher, Robert F.

    2015-05-01

    Network security monitoring is currently challenged by its reliance on human analysts and the inability for tools to generate indications and warnings for previously unknown attacks. We propose a reputation system based on IP address set membership within the Autonomous System Number (ASN) system. Essentially, a metric generated based on the historic behavior, or misbehavior, of nodes within a given ASN can be used to predict future behavior and provide a mechanism to locate network activity requiring inspection. This will provide reinforcement of notifications and warnings and lead to inspection for ASNs known to be problematic even if initial inspection leads to interpretation of the event as innocuous. We developed proof of concept capabilities to generate the IP address to ASN set membership and analyze the impact of the results. These results clearly show that while some ASNs are one-offs with individual or small numbers of misbehaving IP addresses, there are definitive ASNs with a history of long term and wide spread misbehaving IP addresses. These ASNs with long histories are what we are especially interested in and will provide an additional correlation metric for the human analyst and lead to new tools to aid remediation of these IP address blocks.

  1. Modeling formalisms in Systems Biology

    E-print Network

    Machado, Daniel

    Systems Biology has taken advantage of computational tools and high-throughput experimental data to model several biological processes. These include signaling, gene regulatory, and metabolic networks. However, most of ...

  2. TRPV in hypertension, inflammation, and end organ damage: an imminent target of therapy for cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The possible role of several neurohormonal factors in pathogenesis of hypertension has been studied extensively both in humans and experimental animal models. However, controversial data from some of previous studies are indecisive and call for reassessment and development of new targets. This mini-review presents some of the most recent findings about the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels in development of hypertension and its pathology. Recent findings TRPV1, activated by novel endovanilloids or altered pH, temperature, and/or local hymodynamics, may serve as a distinct molecular sensor detecting sodium and water balance and may play a role in preventing salt-induced hypertension and tissue damage. Impairment of the TRPV1 system may contribute to increased salt sensitivity, inflammation, and end organ damage. Summary Emerging evidence indicates that TRPV1 plays a key role in cardiovascular health and disease by acting as a sensor and regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis and a protector against cardiovascular injury. Given the huge population who suffers from cardiovascular disease, the study of the TRPV1 system may improve our understanding of pathogenesis of several common cardiovascular disorders and may lead to development of therapy for hypertension, inflammation, and organ damage. PMID:18520720

  3. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore »allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  4. Cardiovascular regulation during sleep quantified by symbolic coupling traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhrbier, A.; Riedl, M.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2010-12-01

    Sleep is a complex regulated process with short periods of wakefulness and different sleep stages. These sleep stages modulate autonomous functions such as blood pressure and heart rate. The method of symbolic coupling traces (SCT) is used to analyze and quantify time-delayed coupling of these measurements during different sleep stages. The symbolic coupling traces, defined as the symmetric and diametric traces of the bivariate word distribution matrix, allow the quantification of time-delayed coupling. In this paper, the method is applied to heart rate and systolic blood pressure time series during different sleep stages for healthy controls as well as for normotensive and hypertensive patients with sleep apneas. Using the SCT, significant different cardiovascular mechanisms not only between the deep sleep and the other sleep stages but also between healthy subjects and patients can be revealed. The SCT method is applied to model systems, compared with established methods, such as cross correlation, mutual information, and cross recurrence analysis and demonstrates its advantages especially for nonstationary physiological data. As a result, SCT proves to be more specific in detecting delays of directional interactions than standard coupling analysis methods and yields additional information which cannot be measured by standard parameters of heart rate and blood pressure variability. The proposed method may help to indicate the pathological changes in cardiovascular regulation and also the effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on the cardiovascular system.

  5. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    System biology models holistically describe, in a quantitative fashion, the relationships between different levels of a biologic system. Relationships between individual components of a system are delineated. System biology models describe how the components of the system inter...

  6. Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: The Future of Cardiovascular Therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to drug therapy vary from benefit to no effect to adverse effects which can be serious or occasionally fatal. Increasing evidence supports the idea that genetic variants can play a major role in this spectrum of responses. Well-studied examples in cardiovascular therapeutics include predictors of steady-state warfarin dosage, predictors of reduced efficacy among patients receiving clopidogrel for drug eluting stents, and predictors of some serious adverse drug effects. This review summarizes contemporary approaches to identifying and validating genetic predictors of variability in response to drug treatment. Approaches to incorporating this new knowledge into clinical care, and the barriers to this concept, are addressed. PMID:23200096

  7. Maui Electrical System Model Development

    E-print Network

    .1.2 Independent Power Producers 2 2.1.3 Load Demand 2 2.2 Dynamics 4 2.2.1 Load Flow 4 2.2.1.1 Database Conversion 10 3.1 Dynamics 10 3.1.1 Load Flow 10 3.1.2 Dynamic Model Data 10 3.1.2.1 Governor/Turbine Model 10 3Maui Electrical System Model Development: Data and Assumptions Prepared for the U.S. Department

  8. Policy Invalidation in System Models

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.3 Role-Based Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2 Insider ThreatsPolicy Invalidation in System Models Tobias Stig Lindø s072461 Kongens Lyngby 2012 IMM-PhD-2012-defined system policies. The results show us that policy invalidation, based on static analysis, is useful

  9. Photovoltaic Systems Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mir Shahed

    2010-11-01

    This thesis deals with the implementation of generalized photovoltaic model and integration of the same with 7-bus electrical utility system to evaluate the impact that the photovoltaic generator have on the utility system. Among all the impacts that the photovoltaic generator have on the utility system, voltage rise of the power distribution line at the position where the Photovoltaic generator is connected due to reverse power flow from the photovoltaic model has been one of the major problem. Therefore, this thesis proposes the steady-state simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of battery-integrated PV system on avoiding the over voltage problem. Further, fault analysis is done to study the effect of the PV model on the utility network during faults and it is deduced that the impact of the PV model on the utility system voltage during faults is nominal. The photovoltaic model/generator and the 7-bus utility system is developed using Matlab/Simulink software package. The developed photovoltaic model can be represented as PV cell, module or an array. The model is developed with icons that are easy to understand. The developed model takes into consideration cell's working temperature, amount of sunlight (irradiance) available, voltage of the circuit when the circuit is open and current of the circuit when it is shorted. The developed Photovoltaic model is then integrated with a Li-ion battery, over here battery serves two purposes first it will store the excess power from the Photovoltaic generator if any, during the day time and in night the battery acts as an generator and deliver the power to the utility or connected load with the help of an invertors.

  10. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System: A Report From the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M; Krauss, Ronald M; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J A; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-10-01

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. PMID:26429085

  11. Beat to beat variability in cardiovascular variables: noise or music?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, M. L.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Smith, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular variables such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and the shape of electrocardiographic complexes all fluctuate on a beat to beat basis. These fluctuations have traditionally been ignored or, at best, treated as noise to be averaged out. The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the homeodynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Modern signal processing techniques provide a means of analyzing beat to beat fluctuations in cardiovascular signals, so as to permit a quantitative, noninvasive or minimally invasive method of assessing closed loop hemodynamic regulation and cardiac electrical stability. This method promises to provide a new approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of alterations in cardiovascular regulation and stability.

  12. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  13. Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Maria A. I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Torén, Kjell; Svartengren, Magnus; Bäckstrand, Björn; Johnsson, Tommy; Cooper-Kuhn, Christiana M.; Åberg, N. David; Nilsson, Michael; Kuhn, H. Georg

    2009-01-01

    During early adulthood, a phase in which the central nervous system displays considerable plasticity and in which important cognitive traits are shaped, the effects of exercise on cognition remain poorly understood. We performed a cohort study of all Swedish men born in 1950 through 1976 who were enlisted for military service at age 18 (N = 1,221,727). Of these, 268,496 were full-sibling pairs, 3,147 twin pairs, and 1,432 monozygotic twin pairs. Physical fitness and intelligence performance data were collected during conscription examinations and linked with other national databases for information on school achievement, socioeconomic status, and sibship. Relationships between cardiovascular fitness and intelligence at age 18 were evaluated by linear models in the total cohort and in subgroups of full-sibling pairs and twin pairs. Cardiovascular fitness, as measured by ergometer cycling, positively associated with intelligence after adjusting for relevant confounders (regression coefficient b = 0.172; 95% CI, 0.168–0.176). Similar results were obtained within monozygotic twin pairs. In contrast, muscle strength was not associated with cognitive performance. Cross-twin cross-trait analyses showed that the associations were primarily explained by individual specific, non-shared environmental influences (?80%), whereas heritability explained <15% of covariation. Cardiovascular fitness changes between age 15 and 18 y predicted cognitive performance at 18 y. Cox proportional-hazards models showed that cardiovascular fitness at age 18 y predicted educational achievements later in life. These data substantiate that physical exercise could be an important instrument for public health initiatives to optimize educational achievements, cognitive performance, as well as disease prevention at the society level. PMID:19948959

  14. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently been investigated. In this article, we review the emerging role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease. Recent Advances: Changes in mitochondrial dynamics have been implicated in vascular smooth cell proliferation, cardiac development and differentiation, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, and heart failure. Critical Issues: Many of the experimental studies investigating mitochondrial dynamics in the cardiovascular system have been confined to cardiac cell lines, vascular cells, or neonatal cardiomyocytes, in which mitochondria are distributed throughout the cytoplasm and are free to move. However, in the adult heart where mitochondrial movements are restricted by their tightly-packed distribution along myofibrils or beneath the subsarcolemma, the relevance of mitochondrial dynamics is less obvious. The investigation of transgenic mice deficient in cardiac mitochondrial fission or fusion proteins should help elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the adult heart. Future Directions: Investigating the role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiovascular health and disease should result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for treating patients with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability globally. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 400—414. PMID:22793879

  15. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is c