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Sample records for care buprenorphine treatment

  1. Optimizing psychosocial support during office-based buprenorphine treatment in primary care: patients’ experiences and preferences

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Aaron D.; Masyukova, Mariya; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine maintenance treatment is effective and has been successfully integrated into HIV and primary care settings. However, one key barrier to providers prescribing buprenorphine is their perception that they are unable to provide adequate counseling or psychosocial support to patients with opioid addiction. This qualitative study investigated supportive elements of office-based buprenorphine treatment that patients perceived to be most valuable. Methods We conducted five focus groups with 33 buprenorphine treatment-experienced participants. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Iterative readings of transcripts and grounded theory analysis revealed common themes. Results Overall, participants perceived that buprenorphine treatment helped them to achieve their treatment goals and valued the flexibility, accessibility, and privacy of treatment. Participants identified interpersonal and structural elements of buprenorphine treatment that provided psychosocial support. Participants desired good physician-patient relationships, but also valued care delivery models that were patient-centered, created a safe place for self-disclosure, and utilized coordinated team-based care. Conclusions Participants derived psychosocial support from their prescribing physician, but were also open to collaborative or team-based models of care, as long as they were voluntary and confidential. Buprenorphine prescribing physicians without access to referral options for psychosocial counseling could focus on maintaining non-judgmental attitudes and shared decision making during patient encounters. Adding structure and psychosocial support to buprenorphine treatment through coordinated team-based care also seems to have great promise. PMID:26566712

  2. Text message content preferences to improve buprenorphine maintenance treatment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Tofighi, Babak; Grossman, Ellie; Bereket, Sewit; D Lee, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated text message content preferences to support evidence-based treatment approaches for opioid use disorders, and none in primary care office-based buprenorphine treatment settings. This study assessed the acceptability and preferences for a tailored text message intervention in support of core office-based buprenorphine treatment medical management components (e.g., treatment adherence, encouraging abstinence, 12-step group participation, motivational interviewing, and patient-provider communication as needed). There were 97 patients enrolled in a safety net office-based buprenorphine treatment program who completed a 24-item survey instrument that consisted of multiple-choice responses, 7-point Likert-type scales, binomial "Yes/No" questions, and open-ended responses. The sample was predominately male (81%), had an average age of 46 years, and was diverse (64% ethnic/racial minorities); 56% lacked stable employment. Respondents were interested in receiving text message appointment reminders (90%), information pertaining to their buprenorphine treatment (76%), supportive content (70%), and messages to reduce the risk of relapse (88%). Participants preferred to receive relapse prevention text messages during all phases of treatment: immediately after induction into buprenorphine treatment (81%), a "few months" into treatment (57%), and after discontinuing buprenorphine treatment (72%). Respondents also expressed interest in text message content enhancing self-efficacy, social support, and frequent provider communication to facilitate unobserved "home" induction with buprenorphine. Older participants were significantly less receptive to receiving text message appointment reminders; however, they were as interested in receiving supportive, informational, and relapse prevention components compared to younger respondents. Implications for integrating a text message support system in office-based buprenorphine treatment are discussed. PMID:26670868

  3. Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Ordean, Alice; Cirone, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the use of buprenorphine for opioid-addicted patients in primary care. Quality of evidence The MEDLINE database was searched for literature on buprenorphine from 1980 to 2009. Controlled trials, meta-analyses, and large observational studies were reviewed. Main message Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist that relieves opioid withdrawal symptoms and cravings for 24 hours or longer. Buprenorphine has a much lower risk of overdose than methadone and is preferred for patients at high risk of methadone toxicity, those who might need shorter-term maintenance therapy, and those with limited access to methadone treatment. The initial dose should be given only after the patient is in withdrawal. The therapeutic dose range for most patients is 8 to 16 mg daily. It should be dispensed daily by the pharmacist with gradual introduction of take-home doses. Take-home doses should be introduced more slowly for patients at higher risk of abuse and diversion (eg, injection drug users). Patients who fail buprenorphine treatment should be referred for methadone- or abstinence-based treatment. Conclusion Buprenorphine is an effective treatment of opioid addiction and can be safely prescribed by primary care physicians. PMID:21402963

  4. Emerging adult age status predicts poor buprenorphine treatment retention

    PubMed Central

    Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Weiss, Roger D.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Borodovsky, Jacob; Albanese, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (18–25 years old) are often poorly retained in substance use disorder treatment. Office-based buprenorphine often enhances treatment retention among people with opioid dependence. In this study, we examined the records of a collaborative care buprenorphine treatment program to compare the treatment retention rates of emerging adults versus older adults. Subjects were 294 adults, 71 (24%) aged 18–25, followed in treatment with buprenorphine, nurse care management, and an intensive outpatient program followed by weekly psychosocial treatment. Compared to older adults, emerging adults remained in treatment at a significantly lower rate at 3 months (56% versus 78%) and 12 months (17% versus 45%), and were significantly more likely to test positive for illicit opioids, relapse, or drop out of treatment. Further research into factors associated with buprenorphine treatment retention among emerging adults is needed to improve treatment and long-term outcomes in this group. PMID:24953168

  5. Long-term treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone in primary care: results at 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Fiellin, David A; Moore, Brent A; Sullivan, Lynn E; Becker, William C; Pantalon, Michael V; Chawarski, Marek C; Barry, Declan T; O'Connor, Patrick G; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2008-01-01

    To examine long-term outcomes with primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment, we followed 53 opioid-dependent patients who had already demonstrated six months of documented clinical stability for 2-5 years. Primary outcomes were retention, illicit drug use, dose, satisfaction, serum transaminases, and adverse events. Thirty-eight percent of enrolled subjects were retained for two years. Ninety-one percent of urine samples had no evidence of opioid use, and patient satisfaction was high. Serum transaminases remained stable from baseline. No serious adverse events related to treatment occurred. We conclude that select opioid-dependent patients exhibit moderate levels of retention in primary care office-based treatment. PMID:18393054

  6. Comparison of Buprenorphine Treatment for Opioid Dependence in Three Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hillhouse, Maureen; Donovick, Roger; Cunningham-Rathner, Jerry; Charuvastra, Charlie; Torrington, Matthew; Esagoff, Asher E.; Ling, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Although use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid dependence is expected to continue to increase, little is known about the optimal setting for providing the medical and psychosocial care required with buprenorphine pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE This study compared buprenorphine therapy delivered in three distinct treatment settings: an opioid-treatment program (OTP) offering individual counseling; a group counseling program utilizing the manualized Matrix Model (MMM) of cognitive-behavioral treatment; and a private clinic setting mirroring standard medical management for buprenorphine treatment provided specifically at a psychiatrist’s private practice (PCS). METHOD Participants were inducted on buprenorphine and provided with treatment over a 52-week study duration. All participants were scheduled for weekly treatment visits for the first 6 study weeks, and two sites reduced treatment to monthly visits for dispensing of medication and psychosocial counseling. Outcomes include opioid use, participant retention in treatment, and treatment participation. RESULTS Participants presenting for treatment at the sites differed only by race/ethnicity, and opioid use did not differ by site. Retention differed by treatment site, with the number of participants who stayed in the study until the end of 20 weeks significantly associated with treatment site. The mean number of minutes spent in each individual counseling session also differed by site. Although no difference in opioid use by treatment site was found, results document a significant association between opioid use and buprenorphine dose. DISCUSSION These results show some differences by treatment site, although the similarity and relative ease in which the sites were able to recruit participants for treatment with buprenorphine, and minor implementation problems reported suggests the feasibility of treatment with buprenorphine across various treatment settings. CONCLUSION Similar rates of continued opioid use across study sites and few qualitative reports of problems indicates that treatment with buprenorphine and associated psychosocial counseling are safe and relatively easy to implement in a variety of treatment settings. PMID:22105061

  7. Buprenorphine Treatment for Probationers and Parolees

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Sudec, Laura J.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Vocci, Frank J.; Shabazz, Hamin

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacotherapy studies involving buprenorphine have rarely been conducted with US community corrections populations. This is one of the first reports of buprenorphine treatment outcomes of adult opioid-dependent probationers and parolees. Methods This longitudinal study examined the 3-month treatment outcomes for a sample of probation and parole clients (N=64) who received community-based buprenorphine treatment. Results Approximately two-thirds of the sample (67%) were still in treatment at three months post-baseline. Furthermore, there was a significant decline in the number of self-reported heroin use days and crime days from baseline to three months post-baseline. While there was not a significant reduction in reincarcerations, there was no evidence that they had increased. Conclusions Given that buprenorphine is approved by the FDA as a safe, effective treatment for opioid use disorders, individuals on parole or probation should have the opportunity to benefit from it through community-based programs. PMID:24701967

  8. Buprenorphine Treatment for Hospitalized, Opioid-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane M.; Crooks, Denise; Herman, Debra; Anderson, Bradley; Tsui, Judith; Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Dossabhoy, Shernaz; Stein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Buprenorphine opioid agonist treatment (OAT) has established efficacy for treating opioid dependency among persons seeking addiction treatment. However, effectiveness for out-of-treatment, hospitalized patients is not known. OBJECTIVE To determine whether buprenorphine administration during medical hospitalization and linkage to office-based buprenorphine OAT after discharge increase entry into office-based OAT, increase sustained engagement in OAT, and decrease illicit opioid use at 6 months after hospitalization. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From August 1, 2009, through October 31, 2012, a total of 663 hospitalized, opioid-dependent patients in a general medical hospital were identified. Of these, 369 did not meet eligibility criteria. A total of 145 eligible patients consented to participation in the randomized clinical trial. Of these, 139 completed the baseline interview and were assigned to the detoxification (n = 67) or linkage (n = 72) group. INTERVENTIONS Five-day buprenorphine detoxification protocol or buprenorphine induction, intrahospital dose stabilization, and postdischarge transition to maintenance buprenorphine OAT affiliated with the hospital’s primary care clinic (linkage). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Entry and sustained engagement with buprenorphine OAT at 1, 3, and 6 months (medical record verified) and prior 30-day use of illicit opioids (self-report). RESULTS During follow-up, linkage participants were more likely to enter buprenorphine OAT than those in the detoxification group (52 [72.2%] vs 8 [11.9%], P < .001). At 6 months, 12 linkage participants (16.7%) and 2 detoxification participants (3.0%) were receiving buprenorphine OAT (P = .007). Compared with those in the detoxification group, participants randomized to the linkage group reported less illicit opioid use in the 30 days before the 6-month interview (incidence rate ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.73; P < .01) in an intent-to-treat analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Compared with an inpatient detoxification protocol, initiation of and linkage to buprenorphine treatment is an effective means for engaging medically hospitalized patients who are not seeking addiction treatment and reduces illicit opioid use 6 months after hospitalization. However, maintaining engagement in treatment remains a challenge. PMID:25090173

  9. Use of conventional, complementary, and alternative treatments for pain among individuals seeking primary care treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Savant, Jonathan D.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Moore, Brent A.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Fiellin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have not examined patterns of pain treatment use among patients seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence. Objectives To examine, among individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence, the use of pain treatment modalities, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment while in BNT. Methods 244 patients seeking office-based BNT for opioid dependence completed measures of demographics, pain status (i.e. “chronic pain (CP)” [pain lasting at least 3 months] vs. “some pain (SP)” [pain in the past week not meeting the duration criteria for chronic pain]), pain treatment use, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT. Results In comparison to the SP group (N = 87), the CP group (N = 88) was more likely to report past-week medical use of opioid medication (AOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.4), lifetime medical use of non-opioid prescribed medication (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.7), and lifetime use of prayer (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.5), and was less likely to report lifetime use of yoga (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) to treat pain. While the two pain groups did not differ on levels of perceived efficacy of prior lifetime pain treatments, in comparison to the SP group, the CP group was more likely to report interest in receiving pain treatment while in BNT (P < 0.001). Conclusions Individuals with pain seeking BNT for opioid dependence report a wide range of conventional, complementary, and alternative pain-related treatments and are interested (especially those with CP) in receiving pain management services along with BNT. PMID:23041680

  10. Sublingual Buprenorphine for Treatment of the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Walter K.; Gibson, Eric; Dysart, Kevin; Damle, Vidula S.; LaRusso, Jennifer L.; Greenspan, Jay S.; Moody, David E.; Kaltenbach, Karol; Ehrlich, Michelle E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In utero exposure to drugs of abuse can lead to the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), a condition that is associated with prolonged hospitalization. Buprenorphine is a partial mu opioid agonist used for treatment of adult detoxification and maintenance, but has never been administered to neonates with opioid abstinence. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and to the extent possible in this sized study, the safety of sublingual buprenorphine in the treatment of NAS. Secondary goals were to evaluate efficacy relative to standard therapy and to characterize buprenorphine pharmacokinetics when sublingually administered. Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, active control study of sublingual buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate withdrawal. Thirteen term infants were allocated to sublingual buprenorphine 13.2–39 mcg/kg/day administered in three divided doses and thirteen to standard of care oral neonatal opium solution (NOS). Dose decisions were made using a modified Finnegan scoring system. Results Sublingual buprenorphine was largely effective in controlling NAS. Greater than 98% of plasma concentrations ranged from undetectable to approximately 0.60 ng/ml, which is less than needed to control abstinence symptoms in adults. The ratio of buprenorphine to norbuprenorphine was larger than that seen in adults, suggesting a relative impairment of N-dealkylation. Three infants receiving buprenorphine and one infant receiving standard of care reached protocol-specified maximum doses and required adjuvant therapy with phenobarbital. The mean length of treatment for the NOS group was 32 compared to 22 days for the buprenorphine group. The mean length of stay for the NOS group was 38 days compared to 27 days for the buprenorphine group. Treatment with buprenorphine was well tolerated. Conclusions Buprenorphine administered via the sublingual route is feasible and apparently safe, and may represent a novel treatment for NAS. PMID:18694901

  11. Naltrexone implant treatment for buprenorphine dependence--Mauritian case series.

    PubMed

    Jhugroo, Anil; Ellayah, Darmen; Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary

    2014-08-01

    Although substitution therapy with opiate agonist treatments such as methadone and buprenorphine has resulted in a reduction of illicit drug use related harm, such treatment has also resulted in severe problems in some countries where opioid-dependent individuals now inject illicitly sold buprenorphine or buprenorphine-naloxone instead of heroin. There is no approved treatment for buprenorphine dependence. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist which has been used for the treatment of both alcohol and opioid dependencies. Although both buprenorphine and heroin resemble each other concerning their effects, buprenorphine has a higher affinity to opioid receptors than heroin. Therefore, it is not known if naltrexone can block the psychoactive effects of buprenorphine as it does for heroin. This paper presents observational case series data on the use of a sustained-release naltrexone implant for the treatment of buprenorphine dependence. To the authors' knowledge this is the first use of sustained-release naltrexone for this indication. PMID:24695742

  12. Illicit buprenorphine use, interest in and access to buprenorphine treatment among syringe exchange participants.

    PubMed

    Fox, Aaron D; Chamberlain, Adam; Sohler, Nancy L; Frost, Taeko; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    Poor access to buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) may contribute to illicit buprenorphine use. This study investigated illicit buprenorphine use and barriers to BMT among syringe exchange participants. Computer-based interviews conducted at a New York City harm reduction agency determined: prior buprenorphine use; barriers to BMT; and interest in BMT. Of 102 opioid users, 57 had used illicit buprenorphine and 32 had used prescribed buprenorphine. When illicit buprenorphine users were compared to non-users: barriers to BMT ("did not know where to get treatment") were more common (64 vs. 36%, p<0.01); mean levels of interest in BMT were greater (3.37 ± 1.29 vs. 2.80 ± 1.34, p=0.03); and more participants reported themselves likely to initiate treatment (82 vs. 50%, p<0.01). Illicit buprenorphine users were interested in BMT but did not know where to go for treatment. Addressing barriers to BMT could reduce illicit buprenorphine use. PMID:25205666

  13. Buprenorphine Treatment for Narcotic Addiction: Not Without Risks

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    While most clinicians will never prescribe buprenorphine or combined buprenorphine/naloxone, familiarity with the risks of these pharmacological approaches to the treatment of narcotic addiction remains relevant. Overall, medication-assisted treatment has clearly resulted in meaningful gains for a number of individuals who are addicted to narcotics (i.e., opiates and opioids). However, a certain level of risk is inherent with these approaches. For example, both buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone may be diverted and misused (e.g., intravenously injected, intranasally administered), particularly buprenorphine. Likewise, when illicitly injected, both can cause infectious complications as well as result in death from overdose. The risk of death with buprenorphine overdose appears to be heightened with the coadministration of either benzodiazepines or sedative/hypnotics. To conclude, as with all interventions in medicine, buprenorphine treatment for narcotic addiction has a clinically fluctuating risk/benefit equation that must be continually monitored. PMID:25973324

  14. Parenting and Concerns of Pregnant Women in Buprenorphine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Rachel A; Neumann, Anne M; King, Stella OC; Hoey, Robert F; Finnell, Deborah S; Blondell, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-dependent pregnant women are characterized by drug use during pregnancy and deficits in knowledge of newborn care and feeding, and of child development. We assessed parenting skills and concerns among pregnant women in buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid-dependence. Study Design and Methods We interviewed 32 pregnant women who received buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid dependence in a primary care setting and administered questionnaires, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory version 2 (AAPI-2) and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results AAPI-2 scores revealed medium risk of abuse for all five scales: inappropriate expectations of the child, low level of empathy, strong belief in corporal punishment, reversal of parent-child roles, and oppression of children’s power and independence. Primary concerns of participants were neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and their child’s health. Pregnant women who received buprenorphine for treatment of prescription opioid dependence showed a lack of appropriate parenting skills, but did not express concern about their ability to parent. Clinical Implications Our findings suggest need for nurses to assist prescription opioid-dependent pregnant women in acquiring additional parenting skills, to refer for educational parenting intervention, and to educate patients about NAS. PMID:25137081

  15. Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Heikman, Pertti; Häkkinen, Margareeta; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the benefits of buprenorphine-naloxone co-formulation (BNX) in opioid maintenance treatment, the naloxone component has not prevented parenteral use of BNX. Current laboratory methods are not sufficient to differentiate between therapeutic and illicit use of buprenorphine, and little is known about urine naloxone concentrations. Measurement of urine naloxone, together with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, might help to determine the naloxone source and administration route. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for this purpose. Naloxone, buprenorphine, and norbuprenorphine total concentrations were measured in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients before and during stable and unstable phases of maintenance treatment with BNX. The limit of quantification in urine was 1.0 µg/L for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Before treatment, all samples contained buprenorphine but the median naloxone concentration was 0 µg/L. During the maintenance treatment with BNX all urine samples were positive for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The naloxone concentration at a stable phase of treatment (median 60 µg/L, range 5-200 µg/L) was not different from the naloxone concentration at an unstable phase (70 µg/L, 10-1700 µg/L). Applying an upper limit of 200 µg/L to the sample, the median naloxone/buprenorphine ratio was higher in the high than in the low naloxone concentration group (0.9 vs 0.3, respectively). This study suggests that naloxone in urine can act as an indicator of compliance with BNX. Parenteral use of BNX was associated with a high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio. Negative naloxone with positive buprenorphine suggests the use/abuse of buprenorphine alone. PMID:23512803

  16. Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    the facts about BUPRENORPHINE for Treatment of Opioid Addiction U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment www. samhsa. gov ...

  17. Antidepressant Treatment Does Not Improve Buprenorphine Retention Among Opioid-Dependent Persons

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Michael D.; Herman, Debra S.; Kettavong, Malyna; Cioe, Patricia A.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Tellioglu, Tahir; Anderson, Bradley J

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to determine whether treatment of depressive symptoms with escitalopram during buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence, would improve treatment retention compared to placebo in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial. Treatment drop-out was defined as missing seven consecutive buprenorphine dosing days. Participants were 76% male, 80% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and 64% heroin users. At baseline, the mean Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) score was 28.4 (±9.7). Sixty-one percent of participants completed the 12 week buprenorphine protocol. Dropout rates were 33.3% and 44.0% among those randomized to escitalopram or placebo respectively (p=.19). Relative to baseline, mean BDI-II scores were significantly lower at all follow-up assessments, but the treatment by time interaction effect was not statistically significant (p = .18). Participants randomized to escitalopram also did not have a significantly lower likelihood of testing positive for either opiates or other drugs during follow-up. Depressive symptoms often resolved with buprenorphine treatment and the immediate initiation of escitalopram does not improve treatment retention, depression outcomes, or illicit drug use. Clinicians should determine the need for antidepressant treatment later in buprenorphine care. PMID:20598836

  18. Safety and tolerability of the switch from buprenorphine to buprenorphine/naloxone in an Italian addiction treatment centre.

    PubMed

    Stimolo, Clementina; Favero, Valentina Del; Zecchinato, Giancarlo; Buson, Roberto; Cusin, Davide; Pellachin, Patrizia; Simonetto, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Abuse and misuse of pharmacological therapies represent major challenges in the healthcare system, particularly in patients receiving long-acting opioid drugs for the treatment of heroin or opioid addiction. The partial mu-opioid receptor agonist buprenorphine is used to treat opioid dependence, but diversion and misuse may occur. The sublingual combination formulation of buprenorphine and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (buprenorphine/naxolone) is associated with a reduced abuse potential, and has been shown to have promising efficacy for the treatment of opioid dependence. This observational study assessed the safety and efficacy of sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone combination therapy in patients with opioid dependence after therapeutic switch from buprenorphine monotherapy. A total of 94 patients being treated with buprenorphine monotherapy (average dose 8 mg/day; mean duration of therapy 840 days) were switched to buprenorphine/naloxone combination therapy. Patients were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with buprenorphine/naloxone combination treatment with respect to the management of withdrawal symptoms, and urinary toxicology tests were carried out before and 14 days after switching to combination therapy. Within 3 months, 75/94 patients (80%) previously treated with buprenorphine monotherapy had switched to sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone combination treatment (average dose buprenorphine 8 mg). Among patients receiving combination treatment for >3 months, 83% were receiving medication either weekly or fortnightly, based on the results of toxicological testing. A reduction in positive urinary toxicology tests was observed in patients within two weeks after being switched to combination treatment (before switch: 28, 9 and 2 positive tests for heroin, cocaine and heroin + cocaine, respectively vs 11, 3 and 1 after switch) and a total of 64 patients of the 75 who switched to combination therapy (85%) were satisfied with the management of withdrawal symptoms during buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. Few adverse events were reported and no patients dropped out of treatment. This study shows that switching from buprenorphine monotherapy to sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone combination therapy is effective and well tolerated, and associated with good control of withdrawal symptoms in the majority of patients. In addition, combination therapy reduced illicit drug use (based on negative urinary toxicology texts) and allowed the time between clinic visits to be increased. PMID:20450243

  19. I Heard About It From a Friend: Assessing Interest in Buprenorphine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Aaron D.; Shah, Pooja A.; Sohler, Nancy L.; Lopez, Carolina M.; Starrels, Joanna L.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the United States, opioid abuse and dependence continue to be a growing problem, while treatment for opioid abuse and dependence remains fairly static. Buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence is safe and effective but underutilized. Prior research has demonstrated low awareness and use of buprenorphine among marginalized groups. This study investigates syringe exchange participants’ awareness of, exposure to, and interest in buprenorphine treatment. Methods Syringe exchange participants were recruited from a mobile unit performing outreach to nine street-side sites in New York City. Computer-based interviews were conducted to determine: (1) opioid users’ awareness of, exposure to, and interest in buprenorphine treatment; and (2) the association between awareness or exposure and interest in buprenorphine treatment. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between awareness, direct exposure (i.e. having taken buprenorphine), or indirect exposure (i.e. knowing someone who had taken buprenorphine) and interest in buprenorphine treatment. Results Of 158 opioid users, 70% were aware of, 32% had direct exposure to, and 31% had indirect exposure to buprenorphine; 12% had been prescribed buprenorphine. Of 138 opioid users who had never been prescribed buprenorphine, 57% were interested in buprenorphine treatment. In multivariate models, indirect exposure was associated with interest in buprenorphine treatment (AOR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.22 – 5.77), but awareness and direct exposure were not. Conclusions Syringe exchange participants were mostly aware of buprenorphine and interested in treatment, but few had actually been prescribed buprenorphine. Because indirect exposure to buprenorphine was associated with interest in treatment, future interventions could capitalize on indirect exposure, such as through peer mentorship, to address underutilization of buprenorphine treatment. PMID:24588297

  20. Hypogonadism in men receiving methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, R; Byrne, A; Agho, K; McMahon, C G; Tynan, P; Attia, J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the aetiology of hypogonadism in men on methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MMT, BMT). 103 men (mean age 37.6 +/- 7.9) on MMT (n = 84) or BMT (n = 19) were evaluated using hormone assays, body mass index (BMI), serological, biochemical, demographic and substance use measures. Overall 54% of men (methadone 65%; buprenorphine 28%) had total testosterone (TT) <12.0 nm; 34% (methadone 39%; buprenorphine 11%) had TT <8.0 nm. Both methadone- and buprenorphine-treated men had lower free testosterone, luteinising hormone and estradiol than age-matched reference groups. Methadone-treated men had lower TT than buprenorphine-treated men and reference groups. Prolactin did not differ between methadone, buprenorphine groups, and reference groups. Primary testicular failure was an uncommon cause of hypogonadism. Yearly percentage fall in TT by age across the patient group was 2.3%, more than twice that expected normally. There were no associations between TT and opioid dose, cannabis, alcohol and tobacco consumption, or chronic hepatitis C viraemia. On multiple regression higher TT was associated with higher alanine aminotransferase and lower TT with higher BMI. Men on MMT have high prevalence of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The extent of hormonal changes associated with buprenorphine needs to be explored further in larger studies. Men receiving long term opioid replacement treatment, especially methadone treatment, should be screened for hypogonadism. Wide interindividual differences in methadone metabolism and tolerance may in a cross-sectional study obscure a methadone dose relationship to testosterone in individuals. Future studies of hypogonadism in opioid-treated men should examine the potential benefits of dose reduction, choice of opioid medication, weight loss, and androgen replacement. PMID:17971165

  1. A Comparison of Buprenorphine + Naloxone to Buprenorphine and Methadone in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence during Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingunn O.; Fischer, Gabriele; Welle-Strand, Gabrielle K.; OGrady, Kevin E.; Debelak, Kimber; Morrone, William R.; Jones, Hendre E.

    2013-01-01

    Given that buprenorphine + naloxone is prescribed for opioid-dependent pregnant women, it is important to examine the extent to which it differs from buprenorphine alone, methadone, or methadone-assisted withdrawal on neonatal and maternal outcomes. Summary statistics on maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected from 7 previously published studies examining treatment for opioid-dependent pregnant women that represented a range of research methodologies. Outcomes from these studies were compared to the same outcomes for 10 women treated with the combined buprenorphine + naloxone product. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes for buprenorphine + naloxone compared to buprenorphine, methadone, or methadone-assisted withdrawal. Preliminary findings suggest no significant adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes related to the use of buprenorphine + naloxone for the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, further research should examine possible differences between buprenorphine + naloxone and buprenorphine alone or methadone in fetal physical development. PMID:23531704

  2. Naltrexone and buprenorphine combination in the treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Fantoma, A; Zaimovic, A

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone treatment has demonstrated some advantages for special populations of heroin addicted individuals, but patients' compliance seems to be very poor, with a low adherence and low retention rate. Kappa-opioid system overdrive seems to contribute to opioid protracted abstinence syndrome, with dysphoria and psychosomatic symptoms during naltrexone treatment. The objective of this observational study was to determine the effectiveness of a functional k antagonist in improving naltrexone treatment outcome. A partial mu agonist/kappa antagonist (buprenorphine) and a mu antagonist (naltrexone) were combined during a 12 weeks protocol, theoretically leaving k antagonism as the major medication effect. Sixty patients were submitted to outpatient rapid detoxification utilizing buprenorphine and opioid antagonists. Starting on the fifth day, 30 patients (group A) received naltrexone alone. Alternatively, 30 patients (group B) received naltrexone (50mg oral dose) plus buprenorphine (4 mg sublingual) for the 12 weeks of the observational study. The endpoints of the study were: retention in treatment, negative urinalyses, changes in psychological symptoms (Symptom Checklist-90 Revised: SCL-90) and craving scores (visual analysis scale (VAS)). Thirty-four subjects (56.67%) completed the 12 weeks study. Twenty-one patients (35.0%) had all urine samples negative for opiates and cocaine. nine subjects (15.0%) had urine samples negative for cocaine and opiates for the last 4 weeks of the study. five subjects (8.3%) continued to use cocaine during the 12 weeks of the study. No significant change in pupillary diameter after buprenorphine administration was evidenced during clinical observations from baseline across the weekly measurements. Retention rates in group A (naltrexone) and group B (naltrexone + buprenorphine) at week 12 were respectively 40% (12 patients) and 73.33% (22 patients), with a significant difference in favour of group B (p= 0.018). Patients treated with naltrexone in combination with buprenorphine (B patients) showed a significantly lower rate of positive urines for morphine (4.45%) and cocaine metabolites (9.09%) than those treated with naltrexone alone (A) (25%, morphine; 33.33% cocaine) (p< 0.05; p< 0.05). Irritability, depression, tiredness, psychosomatic symptoms and craving scores decreased significantly less in Group A patients than in group B patients. The dysfunction of opioid system with kappa receptors hyper-activation provoked by heroin exposure, probably underlying dysphoric and psychosomatic symptoms during naltrexone treatment, seems to be counteracted, at least in part, by buprenorphine. The combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone may significantly improve the outcome of opioid antagonists treatment in terms of retention, negative urinalyses, and reduced dysphoria, mood symptoms and craving. PMID:16401652

  3. Buprenorphine Prescribing Availability in a Sample of Ohio Specialty Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Molfenter, Todd; Sherbeck, Carol; Zehner, Mark; Starr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Buprenorphine, a medication for treating opioid dependence, is underutilized in specialty addiction treatment organizations. Only physicians who have obtained a buprenorphine prescribing license or “waiver” may administer this medication. A limited number of physicians are pursuing this waiver, and a concern in the substance use disorder treatment field is that the shortage of prescribers could be contributing to the low use of buprenorphine at specialty addiction treatment centers. The objective of this study is to assess Ohio specialty treatment organizations’ access to buprenorphine prescribers and the barriers they encounter when seeking new physician prescribing capacity. Methods Forty-one Ohio specialty addiction treatment organizations were invited to complete a survey of their buprenorphine practices and availability of buprenorphine prescribers during August–October 2014. Data was collected on pharmacotherapies used in the treatment of opioid dependence, arrangements treatment organizations have with prescribing physicians, buprenorphine prescribing capacity, and barriers encountered in recruiting new physician prescribers. Results Thirty-seven treatment organizations responded, for a response rate of 90.2%. Seventy-eight percent (n=29) of the sample provided buprenorphine therapy. Of those treatment organizations, 48.3% (n=14) reported insufficient prescribing capacity. Of those, 50% (n=7) indicated they had to turn patients away from buprenorphine therapy due to limited physician prescribing capacity. Conclusion The study suggests that buprenorphine use is constrained by limited physician prescribing capacity, to the degree that 24.1% of the organizations surveyed using buprenorphine therapy had to turn patients away. Potential remedies include encouraging more specialty treatment organizations to have physicians on staff, removing the Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA 2000) cap that limits physician buprenorphine caseloads at 100 patients (after year 1), and developing strategies to recruit physicians into addiction treatment practice. Additional research is needed to increase the knowledge of physician prescribing capacity as a barrier to buprenorphine use, how to overcome these barriers, and to understand the extent physician capacity shortages are affecting buprenorphine use. PMID:26380328

  4. Two Models of Integrating Buprenorphine Treatment and Medical Staff within Formerly "Drug-Free" Outpatient Programs.

    PubMed

    Monico, Laura; Schwartz, Robert P; Gryczynski, Jan; O'Grady, Kevin E; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin

    2016-01-01

    "Drug-free" outpatient programs deliver treatment to the largest number of patients of all treatment modalities in the U.S., providing a significant opportunity to expand access to medication treatments for substance use disorders. This analysis examined staff perceptions of organizational dynamics associated with the delivery of buprenorphine maintenance within three formerly "drug-free" outpatient treatment programs. Semi-structured interviews (N = 15) were conducted with counseling and medical staff, and respondents were predominantly African American (n = 11) and female (n = 12). Themes and concepts related to medical staff integration emerged through an inductive and iterative coding process using Atlas.ti qualitative analysis software. Two treatment clinics incorporated buprenorphine maintenance into their programs using a co-located model of care. Their staff generally reported greater intra-organizational discord regarding the best ways to combine medication and counseling compared to the clinic using an integrated model of care. Co-located program staff reported less communication between medical and clinical staff, which contributed to some uncertainty about proper dosing and concerns about the potential for medication diversion. Clinics that shift from "drug-free" to incorporating buprenorphine maintenance should consider which model of care they wish to adapt and how to train staff and structure staff communication. PMID:26940870

  5. Pain is not associated with worse office-based buprenorphine treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fox, Aaron D; Sohler, Nancy L; Starrels, Joanna L; Ning, Yuming; Giovanniello, Angela; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2012-01-01

    Physical pain is common among individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence. Pain may negatively impact addiction treatment. The authors prospectively studied opioid-dependent individuals initiating office-based buprenorphine treatment, comparing buprenorphine treatment outcomes (treatment retention and opioid use) among participants with and without pain (baseline pain or persistent pain). Among 82 participants, 60% reported baseline pain and 38% reported persistent pain. Overall, treatment retention was 56% and opioid use decreased from 89% to 26% over 6 months. In multivariable analyses, the authors found no association between pain and buprenorphine treatment outcomes. Opioid-dependent individuals with and without pain can achieve similar success with buprenorphine treatment. PMID:22989279

  6. Bridging waitlist delays with interim buprenorphine treatment: initial feasibility.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; C Meyer, Andrew; Hruska, Bryce; Ochalek, Taylor; Rose, Gail; Badger, Gary J; Brooklyn, John R; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Moore, Brent A; Schwartz, Robert P

    2015-12-01

    Despite the effectiveness of agonist maintenance for opioid dependence, individuals can remain on waitlists for months, during which they are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Interim dosing, consisting of daily medication without counseling, can reduce these risks. In this pilot study, we examined the initial feasibility of a novel technology-assisted interim buprenorphine treatment for waitlisted opioid-dependent adults. Following buprenorphine induction during Week 1, participants (n=10) visited the clinic at Weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to ingest their medication under staff observation, provide a urine specimen and receive their remaining doses via a computerized Med-O-Wheel Secure device. They also received daily monitoring via an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) platform, as well as random call-backs for urinalysis and medication adherence checks. The primary outcome was percent of participants negative for illicit opioids at each 2-week visit, with secondary outcomes of past-month drug use, adherence and acceptability. Participants achieved high levels of illicit opioid abstinence, with 90% abstinent at the Week 2 and 4 visits and 60% at Week 12. Significant reductions were observed in self-reported past-month illicit opioid use (p<.001), opioid withdrawal (p<.001), opioid craving (p<.001) and ASI Drug composite score (p=.008). Finally, adherence with buprenorphine administration (99%), daily IVR calls (97%) and random call-backs (82%) was high. Interim buprenorphine treatment shows promise for reducing patient and societal risks during delays to conventional treatment. A larger-scale, randomized clinical trial is underway to more rigorously examine the efficacy of this treatment approach. PMID:26256469

  7. Emergency Department–Initiated Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Gail; O’Connor, Patrick G.; Pantalon, Michael V.; Chawarski, Marek C.; Busch, Susan H.; Owens, Patricia H.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Fiellin, David A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Opioid-dependent patients often use the emergency department (ED) for medical care. OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy of 3 interventions for opioid dependence: (1) screening and referral to treatment (referral); (2) screening, brief intervention, and facilitated referral to community-based treatment services (brief intervention); and (3) screening, brief intervention, ED-initiated treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone, and referral to primary care for 10-week follow-up (buprenorphine). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial involving 329 opioid-dependent patients who were treated at an urban teaching hospital ED from April 7, 2009, through June 25, 2013. INTERVENTIONS After screening, 104 patients were randomized to the referral group, 111 to the brief intervention group, and 114 to the buprenorphine treatment group. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Enrollment in and receiving addiction treatment 30 days after randomization was the primary outcome. Self-reported days of illicit opioid use, urine testing for illicit opioids, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk, and use of addiction treatment services were the secondary outcomes. RESULTS Seventy-eight percent of patients in the buprenorphine group (89 of 114 [95% CI, 70%-85%]) vs 37% in the referral group (38 of 102 [95% CI, 28%-47%]) and 45% in the brief intervention group (50 of 111 [95% CI, 36%-54%]) were engaged in addiction treatment on the 30th day after randomization (P < .001). The buprenorphine group reduced the number of days of illicit opioid use per week from 5.4 days (95% CI, 5.1-5.7) to 0.9 days (95% CI, 0.5-1.3) vs a reduction from 5.4 days (95% CI, 5.1-5.7) to 2.3 days (95% CI, 1.7-3.0) in the referral group and from 5.6 days (95% CI, 5.3-5.9) to 2.4 days (95% CI, 1.8-3.0) in the brief intervention group (P < .001 for both time and intervention effects; P = .02 for the interaction effect). The rates of urine samples that tested negative for opioids did not differ statistically across groups, with 53.8% (95% CI, 42%-65%) in the referral group, 42.9% (95% CI, 31%-55%) in the brief intervention group, and 57.6% (95% CI, 47%-68%) in the buprenorphine group (P = .17). There were no statistically significant differences in HIV risk across groups (P = .66). Eleven percent of patients in the buprenorphine group (95% CI, 6%-19%) used inpatient addiction treatment services, whereas 37% in the referral group (95% CI, 27%-48%) and 35% in the brief intervention group (95% CI, 25%-37%) used inpatient addiction treatment services (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among opioid-dependent patients, ED-initiated buprenorphine treatment vs brief intervention and referral significantly increased engagement in addiction treatment, reduced self-reported illicit opioid use, and decreased use of inpatient addiction treatment services but did not significantly decrease the rates of urine samples that tested positive for opioids or of HIV risk. These findings require replication in other centers before widespread adoption. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00913770 PMID:25919527

  8. Association between gene variants and response to buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Somaini, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Claudio; Cortese, Elena; Maremmani, Icro; Manfredini, Matteo; Donnini, Claudia

    2014-01-30

    A variety of studies were addressed to differentiate responders and non-responders to substitution treatment among heroin dependent patients, without conclusive findings. In particular, preliminary pharmacogenetic findings have been reported to predict treatment effectiveness in mental health and substance use disorders. Aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of buprenorphine (BUP) treatment outcome with gene variants that may affect kappa-opioid receptors and dopamine system function. One hundred and seven heroin addicts (West European, Caucasians) who underwent buprenorphine maintenance treatment were genotyped and classified into two groups (A and B) on the basis of treatment outcome. Non-responders to buprenorphine (group B) have been identified taking into account early drop out, continuous use of heroin, severe behavioral or psychiatric problems, misbehavior and diversion during the 6 months treatment period. No difference was evidenced between responders and non-responders to BUP in the frequency of kappa opioid receptor (OPRK1) 36G>T SNP. The frequency of dopamine transporter (DAT) gene polymorphism (SLC6A3/DAT1), allele 10, was evidently much higher in "non-responder" than in "responder" individuals (64.9% vs. 55.93%) whereas the frequency of the category of other alleles (6, 7 and 11) was higher in responder than in non-responder individuals (11.02% vs. 2.13% respectively). On one hand, the hypothesis that possible gene-related changes in kappa-opioid receptor could consistently affect buprenorphine pharmacological action and clinical effectiveness was not confirmed in our study, at least in relation to the single nucleotide polymorphism 36G>T. On the other hand, the possibility that gene-related dopamine changes could have reduced BUP effectiveness and impaired maintenance treatment outcome was cautiously supported by our findings. DAT1 gene variants such as allele 10, previously reported in association with personality and behavioral problems, would have influenced the effects of BUP-induced dopamine release, modulated through mu and kappa opioid receptors, and probably the related reinforcing capacity of the drug. PMID:24274990

  9. Buprenorphine and HIV primary care: report of a forum for collaborative HIV research workshop.

    PubMed

    Miller, Veronica

    2006-12-15

    On 3-4 June 2004, in Washington, DC, the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research convened experts from academia, community and private practices, US government agencies, and industry to develop recommendations for increased uptake of buprenorphine integrated into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) primary care, with special emphasis on Ryan White CARE Act-funded programs. Workshop participants evaluated knowledge gaps requiring research; barriers to integration at the patient, clinic, and systems level; policy and financing issues; and program impacts. Recommendations were developed for training, including medical school and post-medical school training of clinical teams as well as training of patients; for improving programs and services, including integration of opioid dependence and HIV infection into chronic disease models, providing flexible access to core and support services, and monitoring and evaluation of programs; for changes in policy supportive of program and services goals; for financing buprenorphine treatment by use of existing models of integrated treatment and merging funding streams at the local level; and for addressing research gaps, including cost-effectiveness research. PMID:17109312

  10. Prior Experience with Non-Prescribed Buprenorphine: Role in Treatment Entry and Retention.

    PubMed

    Monico, Laura B; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P; O'Grady, Kevin E; Olsen, Yngvild K; Jaffe, Jerome H

    2015-10-01

    Buprenorphine availability continues to expand as an effective treatment for opioid dependence, but increases in availability have also been accompanied by increases in non-prescribed use of the medication. Utilizing data from a randomized clinical trial, this mixed-method study examines associations between use of non-prescribed buprenorphine and subsequent treatment entry and retention. Quantitative analyses (N = 300 African American buprenorphine patients) found that patients with prior use of non-prescribed buprenorphine had significantly higher odds of remaining in treatment through 6 months than patients who were naïve to the medication upon treatment entry. Qualitative data, collected from a subsample of participants (n = 20), identified three thematic explanations for this phenomenon: 1) perceived effectiveness of the medication; 2) cost of obtaining prescription buprenorphine compared to purchasing non-prescribed medication; and 3) convenience of obtaining the medication via daily-dosing or by prescription compared to non-prescribed buprenorphine. These findings suggest a dynamic relationship between non-prescribed buprenorphine use and treatment that indicates potential directions for future research into positive and negative consequences of buprenorphine diversion. PMID:25980599

  11. The SUMMIT trial: a field comparison of buprenorphine versus methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hayley; Maskrey, Vivienne; Swift, Louise; Rumball, Daphne; Wagle, Ajay; Holland, Richard

    2010-12-01

    This prospective patient-preference study examined the effectiveness in practice of methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance treatment and the beliefs of subjects regarding these drugs. A total of 361 opiate-dependent individuals (89% of those eligible, presenting for treatment over 2 years at a drug service in England) received rapid titration then flexible dosing with methadone or buprenorphine; 227 patients chose methadone (63%) and 134 buprenorphine (37%). Participants choosing methadone had more severe substance abuse and psychiatric and physical problems but were more likely to remain in treatment. Survival analysis indicated those prescribed methadone were over twice as likely to be retained (hazard ratio for retention was 2.08 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-2.94 for methadone vs. buprenorphine), However, those retained on buprenorphine were more likely to suppress illicit opiate use (odds ratio = 2.136, 95% CI = 1.509-3.027, p < .001) and achieve detoxification. Buprenorphine may also recruit more individuals to treatment because 28% of those choosing buprenorphine (10% of the total sample) stated they would not have accessed treatment with methadone. PMID:20817384

  12. Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy in Opioid-Addicted Health Care Professionals Returning to Clinical Practice: A Hidden Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Heather; Bryson, Ethan O.

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether it is safe for recovering health care professionals to return to clinical practice after treatment for drug addiction. One specific component of reentry that remains particularly contentious is the use of pharmacotherapeutics, specifically buprenorphine, as opioid substitution therapy for health care professionals who wish to return to clinical work. Because health care professionals are typically engaged in safety-sensitive work with considerable consequences when errors occur, abstinence-based recovery should be recommended until studies demonstrate that it is safe to allow this population to practice while undergoing opioid substitution therapy. PMID:22386182

  13. Adoption of evidence-based clinical innovations: the case of buprenorphine use by opioid treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christina M; D'Aunno, Thomas A; Pollack, Harold A; Friedmann, Peter D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines changes from 2005 to 2011 in the use of an evidence-based clinical innovation, buprenorphine use, among a nationally representative sample of opioid treatment programs and identifies characteristics associated with its adoption. We apply a model of the adoption of clinical innovations that focuses on the work needs and characteristics of staff; organizations' technical and social support for the innovation; local market dynamics and competition; and state policies governing the innovation. Results indicate that buprenorphine use increased 24% for detoxification and 47% for maintenance therapy between 2005 and 2011. Buprenorphine use was positively related to reliance on private insurance and availability of state subsidies to cover its cost and inversely related to the percentage of clients who injected opiates, county size, and local availability of methadone. The results indicate that financial incentives and market factors play important roles in opioid treatment programs' decisions to adopt evidence-based clinical innovations such as buprenorphine use. PMID:24051897

  14. Adoption of Evidence-Based Clinical Innovations: The Case of Buprenorphine Use by Opioid Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Christina M.; D’Aunno, Thomas A.; Pollack, Harold A.; Friedmann, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes from 2005 to 2011 in the use of an evidence-based clinical innovation, buprenorphine use, among a nationally representative sample of opioid treatment programs and identifies characteristics associated with its adoption. We apply a model of the adoption of clinical innovations that focuses on the work needs and characteristics of staff; organizations’ technical and social support for the innovation; local market dynamics and competition; and state policies governing the innovation. Results indicate that buprenorphine use increased 24% for detoxification and 47% for maintenance therapy between 2005 and 2011. Buprenorphine use was positively related to reliance on private insurance and availability of state subsidies to cover its cost and inversely related to the percentage of clients who injected opiates, county size, and local availability of methadone. The results indicate that financial incentives and market factors play important roles in opioid treatment programs’ decisions to adopt evidence-based clinical innovations such as buprenorphine use. PMID:24051897

  15. [Experience of using injectable formulation of buprenorphine for the detoxification treatment of heroin dependence patients].

    PubMed

    Aso, Katsuro

    2009-06-01

    Forty-four heroin dependence patients took detoxification treatment in Fukko-kai Tarumi Hospital from October 1998 to April 2008 (total of 80 admissions). Injectable formulation of buprenorphine (0.2 mg) was used intramuscularly to relieve withdrawal symptoms from October 2002. In the initial phase, small dosage of buprenorphine (0.4 mg per day) was dispensed but obvious effects were not confirmed. Therefore, the dosage was increased to 0.6 mg (3 ampoules), possibly more for 27 patients (total of 53 admissions) from October 2005. While treatment was interrupted by various reasons in 6 patients (total of 10 admissions), the rest completed detoxification. Dosage of buprenorphine given to the patients varied from 0.6 mg (3 ampoules) to 1.6 mg (8 ampoules) per day, and only 4 patients required over 1.0 mg. While duration of administration ranged from 5 days to 15 days, it was between 7 days and 10 days in over the half cases. When sufficient amount of buprenorphine was administered, severity and duration of heroin withdrawal symptoms was distinctly reduced. Since the introduction of heroin detoxification with buprenorphine, number of patients who request the treatment voluntarily increased including those who relapsed, but the length of hospital stay was shortened. One patient rejected buprenorphine injection for unknown reason and one patient left the hospital because of insufficient effect due to insufficient amount of buprenorphine dose, serious adverse effect was not observed. Detoxification treatment with buprenorphine cannot ensure sustained abstinence but can motivate heroin-using patients to receive treatment and strive for abstinence. PMID:19618840

  16. Open-label dose-finding trial of buprenorphine implants (Probuphine) for treatment of heroin dependence.

    PubMed

    White, Jason; Bell, James; Saunders, John B; Williamson, Paul; Makowska, Maria; Farquharson, Aaron; Beebe, Katherine L

    2009-07-01

    Buprenorphine, a mu-opioid receptor partial agonist, has been shown to be safe and effective for treatment of opioid dependence. A novel implantable formulation of buprenorphine (Probuphine), using a polymer matrix sustained-release technology, has been developed to offer treatment for opioid dependence while minimizing risks of patient noncompliance and illicit diversion. The goal of the current study was to conduct an initial, open-label, evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of two doses of Probuphine in subjects with opioid dependence maintained on sublingual buprenorphine. Two doses of Probuphine were evaluated in 12 heroin-dependent volunteers switched from daily sublingual buprenorphine dosing to either two or four Probuphine implants based upon their buprenorphine daily maintenance dose of 8 mg or 16 mg respectively, and were monitored for 6 months. Probuphine implants provided continuous steady state delivery of buprenorphine until their removal at 6 months. Withdrawal symptoms and craving remained low throughout the 6 months. For the 12 subjects, an average of 59% of urines were opioid-negative across the 6 month treatment period. Injection site reactions were present in half of patients, but none were serious. No safety concerns were evident. These results suggest that Probuphine implants offer significant promise for enhancing delivery of effective opioid substitution treatment while minimizing risk for abuse of medication. PMID:19403243

  17. Methadone versus buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid abuse in pregnancy: science and stigma.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Amber M

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increase in rates of opioid abuse during pregnancy. This clinical challenge has been met with debate regarding whether or not illicit and prescription opioid-dependent individuals require different treatment approaches; whether detoxification is preferable to maintenance; and the efficacy of methadone versus buprenorphine as treatment options during pregnancy. The clinical recommendations resulting from these discussions are frequently influenced by the comparative stigma attached to heroin abuse and methadone maintenance versus prescription opioid abuse and maintenance treatment with buprenorphine. While some studies have suggested that a subset of individuals who abuse prescription opioids may have different characteristics than heroin users, there is currently no evidence to suggest that buprenorphine is better suited to treatment of prescription opioid abuse than methadone. Similarly, despite its perennial popularity, there is no evidence to recommend detoxification as an efficacious approach to treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. While increased access to treatment is important, particularly in rural areas, there are multiple medical and psychosocial reasons to recommend comprehensive substance abuse treatment for pregnant women suffering from substance use disorders rather than office-based provision of maintenance medication. Both methadone and buprenorphine are important treatment options for opioid abuse during pregnancy. Methadone may still remain the preferred treatment choice for some women who require higher doses for stabilization, have a higher risk of treatment discontinuation, or who have had unsuccessful treatment attempts with buprenorphine. As treatment providers, we should advocate to expand available treatment options for pregnant women in all States. PMID:26154531

  18. Buprenorphine – an attractive opioid with underutilized potential in treatment of chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ish K; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2015-01-01

    Despite proven clinical utility, buprenorphine has not been used widely for the treatment of chronic pain. Questions about “ceiling effect” or bell-shaped curve observed for analgesia in preclinical studies and potential withdrawal issues on combining with marketed μ-agonists continue to hinder progress in expanding full potential of buprenorphine in the treatment of cancer and noncancer pain. Mounting evidence from clinical studies and conclusions drawn by a panel of experts strongly support superior safety and efficacy profile of buprenorphine vs marketed opioids. No ceiling on analgesic effect has been reported in clinical studies. The receptor pharmacology and pharmacokinetics profile of buprenorphine is complex but unique and contributes to its distinct safety and efficacy. The buprenorphine pharmacology also allows it to be combined with other μ-receptor opioids for additivity in efficacy. Transdermal delivery products of buprenorphine have been preferred choices for the management of pain but new delivery options are under investigation for the treatment of both opioid dependence and chronic pain. PMID:26672499

  19. Training HIV Physicians to Prescribe Buprenorphine for Opioid Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Lynn E.; Tetrault, Jeanette; Bangalore, Deepa; Fiellin, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Few HIV physicians are trained to provide buprenorphine treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the impact of an eight-hour course on the treatment of opioid dependence on HIV physicians' preparedness to prescribe buprenorphine. One hundred thirteen of 257 trained physicians (44%) provided HIV care. Post-course, the majority of

  20. Training HIV Physicians to Prescribe Buprenorphine for Opioid Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Lynn E.; Tetrault, Jeanette; Bangalore, Deepa; Fiellin, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Few HIV physicians are trained to provide buprenorphine treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the impact of an eight-hour course on the treatment of opioid dependence on HIV physicians' preparedness to prescribe buprenorphine. One hundred thirteen of 257 trained physicians (44%) provided HIV care. Post-course, the majority of…

  1. Changes in Quality of Life following Buprenorphine Treatment: Relationship with Treatment Retention and Illicit Opioid Use

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P.; Myers, C. Patrick; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Olsen, Yngvild K.; Jaffe, Jerome H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of substance abuse treatment outcomes that give priority to cessation of all drug use may obscure other tangible benefits of treatment that are important to patients. The aim of this study was to examine the association between changes in quality of life (QoL) and: (a) retention in treatment and (b) opioid use as measured by self-report and urine testing. Participants were 300 African American men and women starting outpatient buprenorphine treatment. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months consisting of the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life brief scale, Addiction Severity Index, and urine testing for opioids. There were statistically significant increases over time across all four QoL domains: physical, psychological, environmental, and social. Self-reported frequency of opioid use was negatively associated with psychological QoL, but opioid urine test results were not significantly associated with any QoL domains. Continued treatment enrollment was significantly associated with higher psychological QoL and environmental QoL. Patients entering buprenorphine treatment experience improvements in QoL, which are amplified for patients who remain in treatment. Point-prevalence opiate urine test results obtained at each assessment were not associated with any of the QoL domains and may not accurately reflect improvements perceived by patients receiving buprenorphine treatment. PMID:25950595

  2. Developing and Implementing a New Prison-Based Buprenorphine Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Kinlock, Timothy W.; Gordon, Michael S.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Fitzgerald, Terrence T.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that buprenorphine treatment may be a promising intervention for incarcerated individuals with heroin addiction histories. However, its implementation varies from corrections-based methadone because of unique challenges regarding dosing, administration, and regulation. Describing the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine treatment in the United States, this manuscript focuses on how these obstacles were overcome through collaboration among correctional, treatment, and research personnel. Building on the present authors' work in developing prison-based methadone treatment, and considering the lack of experience in implementing corrections-based buprenorphine programs in the United States, this manuscript may serve as a guide for interested corrections officials, treatment providers, and researchers. PMID:20473351

  3. Prospective comparative assessment of buprenorphine overdose with heroin and methadone: clinical characteristics and response to antidotal treatment.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Buisine, Anne; Jacobs, Frédéric; Résière, Dabor; Chevillard, Lucie; Vicaut, Eric; Baud, Frédéric J

    2010-06-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist with a "ceiling effect" for respiratory depression. Despite this, it has been associated with severe overdoses. Conflicting data exist regarding its response in overdose to naloxone. We compared clinical overdose characteristics of buprenorphine with heroin and methadone and assessed responses to naloxone and flumazenil. Patients admitted to two intensive care units with severe opioid overdoses were enrolled into this 4-year prospective study. Urine and blood toxicological screening were performed to identify overdoses involving predominantly buprenorphine, heroin, or methadone. Eighty-four patients with heroin (n = 26), buprenorphine (n = 39), or methadone (n = 19) overdoses were analyzed. In the buprenorphine group, sedative drug coingestions were frequent (95%), whereas in the methadone group, suicide attempts were significantly more often reported (p = .0007). Buprenorphine overdose induced an opioid syndrome not differing significantly from heroin and methadone in mental status (as measured by Glasgow Coma Score) or arterial blood gases. Mental status depression was not reversed in buprenorphine overdoses with naloxone (0.4-0.8 mg) but did improve with flumazenil (0.2-1 mg) if benzodiazepines were coingested. In conclusion, buprenorphine overdose causes an opioid syndrome clinically indistinguishable from heroin and methadone. Although mental status and respiratory depression are often unresponsive to low-dose naloxone, flumazenil may be effective in buprenorphine overdoses involving benzodiazepines. PMID:20189341

  4. Buprenorphine and methadone maintenance treatment of heroin addicts preserves immune function.

    PubMed

    Sacerdote, Paola; Franchi, Silvia; Gerra, Gilberto; Leccese, Vincenzo; Panerai, Alberto E; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    Opiate addiction influences many physiological functions including immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients submitted to methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment compared to untreated heroin addicts and healthy controls. Four groups were studied: group A included nine heroin addicted subjects, who were still injecting heroin; groups B and C were composed of 12 patients previously addicted to heroin, being treated with methadone (mean dosage 58+/-12.7 mg/day) or buprenorphine (mean dose 9.3+/-2.3mg/day) since at least 6 months; group D was composed of 15 sex and age matched healthy controls. Lymphoproliferation and peripheral mononuclear cell cultures production of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma, the Th2 cytokine IL-4, and of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha were evaluated in all the patients and controls. PHA-lymphoproliferation was lower in untreated heroin addicts than in controls, while it was normal in methadone and buprenorphine treated patients. An altered Th1/Th2 balance, characterized by reduced IL-4, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha but normal IL-2 levels, was present in untreated heroin addicted subjects, while the Th1/Th2 balance was well conserved in the methadone and buprenorphine groups. These findings suggest that the immune system abnormalities in heroin addicted patients can be restored to almost normal values by controlled treatment with methadone and buprenorphine. PMID:18294814

  5. A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial of a Distress Tolerance Treatment for Opioid Dependent Persons Initiating Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Michael D.; Herman, Debra S.; Moitra, Ethan; Hecht, Jacki; Lopez, Rosalie; Anderson, Bradley J; Brown, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine opioid agonist treatment (OAT) has established efficacy for treating opioid dependency but early relapse rates are high and are often associated with withdrawal-related or emotional distress. Methods To determine whether a novel distress tolerance (DT) intervention during buprenorphine initiation decreases opioid relapse, we conducted a preliminary randomized controlled trial with opioid-dependent outpatients. Participants received buprenorphine-naloxone induction and 3-months of maintenance buprenorphine plus seven, 50-minute manualized, individual sessions (DT vs. Health Education (HE) control) over a 28-day period, linked to clinician medication dosing visits, and beginning 2 days prior to buprenorphine induction. Primary outcomes included use of illicit opioids (positive defined as any self-reported use in the prior 28 days or detected by urine toxicology) and treatment drop out. Results Among 49 participants, the mean age was 41 years, 65.3% were male. Persons randomized to DT had lower rates of opioid use at all three monthly assessments, and at 3-months, 72% of HE participants were opioid positive compared with 62.5% of DT participants. Rates of dropout were 24% and 25% in the HE and DT arms, respectively. Conclusions This distress tolerance treatment produced a small, but not statistically significant reduction in opioid use during the first three months of treatment although no differences were found in drop-out rates between conditions. If replicated in a larger study, DT could offer clinicians a useful behavioral treatment to complement the effects of buprenorphine. Trial registered at clinicaltrials.org. Trial number NCT01556087. PMID:25510307

  6. Counseling and directly observed medication for primary care buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brent A.; Barry, Declan T.; Sullivan, Lynn E.; O’Connor, Patrick G.; Cutter, Christopher J.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Fiellin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Counseling and medication adherence can affect opioid agonist treatment outcomes. We investigated the impact of two counseling intensities and two medication dispensing methods in patients receiving buprenorphine (BUP) in primary care. Methods In a 12-week trial, patients were assigned to Physician Management (PM) with weekly BUP dispensing (n = 28) vs. PM and directly observed, thrice-weekly BUP and cognitive behavioral therapy (PM+DOT/CBT; n = 27) based on therapist availability. Fifteen minute PM visits were provided at entry, after induction and then monthly. CBT was weekly 45-minute sessions provided by trained therapists. Results Treatment groups differed on baseline characteristics of years of opioid use, history of detoxification from opioids, and opioid negative urines during induction. Analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics showed no significant differences between groups on retention or drug use based on self-report or urines. Patient satisfaction was high across conditions, indicating acceptability of CBT counseling with observed medication. The number of CBT sessions attended was significantly associated with improved outcome, and session attendance was associated with a greater abstinence the following week. Conclusions Although the current findings were non-significant, DOT plus individual CBT sessions was feasible and acceptable to patients. Additional research evaluating the independent effect of directly observed medication and CBT counseling is needed. PMID:22614936

  7. The evidence doesn't justify steps by state Medicaid programs to restrict opioid addiction treatment with buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robin E; Samnaliev, Mihail; Baxter, Jeffrey D; Leung, Gary Y

    2011-08-01

    Many state Medicaid programs restrict access to buprenorphine, a prescription medication that relieves withdrawal symptoms for people addicted to heroin or other opiates. The reason is that officials fear that the drug is costlier or less safe than other therapies such as methadone. To find out if this is true, we compared spending, the use of services related to drug-use relapses, and mortality for 33,923 Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries receiving either buprenorphine, methadone, drug-free treatment, or no treatment during the period 2003-07. Buprenorphine appears to have significantly expanded access to treatment because the drug can be prescribed by a physician and taken at home compared with methadone, which by law must be administered at an approved clinic. Buprenorphine was associated with more relapse-related services but $1,330 lower mean annual spending than methadone when used for maintenance treatment. Mortality rates were similar for buprenorphine and methadone. By contrast, mortality rates were 75 percent higher among those receiving drug-free treatment, and more than twice as high among those receiving no treatment, compared to those receiving buprenorphine. The evidence does not support rationing buprenorphine to save money or ensure safety. PMID:21821560

  8. Developing and Implementing a New Prison-Based Buprenorphine Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinlock, Timothy W.; Gordon, Michael S.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Fitzgerald, Terrence T.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that buprenorphine treatment may be a promising intervention for incarcerated individuals with heroin addiction histories. However, its implementation varies from corrections-based methadone because of unique challenges regarding dosing, administration, and regulation. Describing the first randomized clinical trial of…

  9. Buprenorphine from detox and beyond: preliminary evaluation of a pilot program to increase heroin dependent individuals' engagement in a full continuum of care.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Dennis M; Knox, Patricia C; Skytta, Jenny A F; Blayney, Jessica A; DiCenzo, Jessica

    2013-04-01

    Absence of successful transition to post-detoxification treatment leads to high rates of relapse among detoxified heroin users. The present study evaluated a pilot buprenorphine treatment program (BTP). Heroin dependent individuals were inducted onto buprenorphine/naloxone in detox, maintained while transitioning through an intensive inpatient program (IIP), and gradually tapered off medication over 5 months of outpatient (OP) treatment. Compared to programmatic indicators of treatment engagement in the year prior to BTP implementation, referrals from detox to IIP, entry into and completion of IIP and subsequent OP, and days in OP treatment increased substantially. BTP completers, compared to non-completers, viewed abstinence as more difficult and as requiring more assistance to achieve, were less likely to be current cocaine and alcohol users or to have relapsed during the course of treatment. Although preliminary and in need of replication, initial adjunctive use of buprenorphine in an abstinence-based continuum of care may improve post-detoxification treatment entry, engagement, and completion. PMID:23007109

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Buprenorphine and Naltrexone Treatments for Heroin Dependence in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Aims To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. Design We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants’ time were estimated using Malaysia’s minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars. Setting Muar, Malaysia. Participants 126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003–2005) receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence. Measurements Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores. Findings Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term. PMID:23226534

  11. Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Margaret; Brown, Nancy J.; Moon, Mary A.; Schuman, Deborah J.; Thomas, Josephine; Wright, Denise L.

    2004-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) addresses the clinical use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts…

  12. Practice Guidance for Buprenorphine for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorders: Results of an Expert Panel Process

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Carrie M.; Lindsay, Dawn; Williams, Jessica; Ayers, Amanda; Schuster, James; Cilia, Alyssa; Flaherty, Michael T.; Mandell, Todd; Gordon, Adam J.; Stein, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although numbers of physicians credentialed to prescribe buprenorphine has increased over time, many credentialed physicians may be reluctant to treat individuals with opioid use disorders due to discomfort with prescribing buprenorphine. Though prescribing physicians are required to complete a training course, many have questions about buprenorphine and treatment guidelines have not been updated to reflect clinical experience in recent years. We report on an expert panel process to update and expand buprenorphine guidelines. Methods We identified candidate guidelines through expert opinion and a review of the literature and used a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to assess the validity of the candidate guidelines. An expert panel completed two rounds of rating, with a meeting to discuss the guidelines between the first and second rating. Results Through the rating process, expert panel members rated 90 candidate guideline statements across eight domains, including candidacy for buprenorphine treatment, dosing of buprenorphine, psychosocial counseling, and treatment of co-occurring depression and anxiety. A total of 65 guideline statements (72%) were rated as valid. Expert panel members had agreement in some areas, such as the treatment of co-occurring mental health problems, but disagreement in others, including the appropriate dosing of buprenorphine given patient complexities. Conclusions Through an expert panel process, we developed an updated and expanded set of buprenorphine treatment guidelines; this additional guidance may increase credentialed physicians’ comfort with prescribing buprenorphine to patients with opioid use disorders. Future efforts should focus on appropriate dosing guidance and ensuring that guidelines can be adapted to a variety of practice settings. PMID:25844527

  13. Retention on buprenorphine treatment reduces emergency department utilization, but not hospitalization, among treatment-seeking patients with opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ryan; Zelenev, Alexei; Bruce, R Douglas; Altice, Frederick L

    2012-12-01

    Drug users are marginalized from typical primary care, often resulting in emergency department (ED) usage and hospitalization due to late-stage disease. Though data suggest methadone decreases such fragmented healthcare utilization (HCU), the impact of buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) on HCU is unknown. Chart review was conducted on opioid dependent patients seeking BMT, comparing individuals (n=59) who left BMT≤7days with those retained on BMT (n=150), for ED use and hospitalization. Using negative binomial regressions, including comparison of time before BMT induction, ED utilization and hospitalization were assessed. Overall, ED utilization was 0.93 events per person year and was significantly reduced by BMT, with increasing time (retention) on BMT. BMT had no significant effect on hospitalizations or average length of stay. PMID:22534003

  14. Retention on Buprenorphine Treatment Reduces Emergency Department Utilization, But Not Hospitalization Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ryan; Zelenev, Alexei; Bruce, R. Douglas; Altice, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Drug users are marginalized from typical primary care, often resulting in emergency department (ED) usage and hospitalization due to late-stage disease. Though data suggest methadone decreases such fragmented healthcare utilization (HCU), the impact of buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) on HCU is unknown. Chart review was conducted on opioid dependent patients seeking BMT, comparing individuals (N=59) who left BMT ≤ 3 days with those retained on BMT (N=150), for ED use and hospitalization. Using negative binomial regressions, including comparison of time before BMT induction, ED utilization and hospitalization was assessed. Overall, ED utilization was 0.93 events per person year and was significantly reduced by BMT, with increasing time (retention) on BMT. BMT had no significant effect on hospitalizations or average length of stay. PMID:22534003

  15. Buprenorphine and nor-buprenorphine levels in head hair samples from former heroin users under Suboxone® treatment.

    PubMed

    Belivanis, Stamatis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Kovatsi, Leda; Mantsi, Mary; Alegakis, Athanasios; Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Vynias, Dionisios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, buprenorphine (BUP) and its major metabolite, nor-buprenorphine (NBUP), were determined in hair samples from former heroin users following Suboxone® treatment. Hair samples from 36 subjects were analyzed. The drugs of interest were isolated from hair by solid-liquid extraction with methanol and were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an electrospray ionization interface. The analytical parameters of the method (such as linearity, limits of quantification, recovery, accuracy, and precision) were determined. The inter-quartile range of BUP levels was from 11.4 to 37.4 pg/mg (mean value 56.6 pg/mg) for the proximal hair segment, from 5.8 to 43.3 pg/mg for the middle hair segment (mean value 25.3 pg/mg), while a range from 4.3 to 33.9 pg/mg (mean value 105.2 pg/mg) for the distant to the root hair segment was determined. For NBUP the corresponding inter-quartile range was from 27.0 to 147.6 for the proximal segment (mean value 95.4 pg/mg), from 21.5 to 164.7 pg/mg for the middle segment (mean value 102.0 pg/mg) and from 20.4 to 103.6 pg/mg for the distant segment (mean value 156.8 pg/mg). The mean BUP/NBUP concentration ratio was 0.5. The daily dose of Suboxone® correlated significantly with BUP and NBUP levels in hair (p = 0.001 and p = 0.023) as well as with the BUP/NBUP ratio (p = 0.010). No significant correlation was found between the levels of BUP and NBUP and the duration of Suboxone® administration. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the determination of BUP and NBUP in hair samples collected from former heroin users under Suboxone® treatment. PMID:24817054

  16. Abuse liability of intravenous buprenorphine/naloxone and buprenorphine alone in buprenorphine-maintained intravenous heroin abusers

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Manubay, Jeanne; Amass, Leslie; Cooper, Ziva D.; Saccone, Phillip; Kleber, Herbert D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sublingual buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, yet intravenous buprenorphine misuse occurs. A buprenorphine/naloxone formulation was developed to mitigate this misuse risk. This randomized, double-blind, crossover study was conducted to assess the intravenous abuse potential of buprenorphine/naloxone compared with buprenorphine in buprenorphine-maintained injection drug users (IDUs). METHODS Intravenous heroin users (n=12) lived in the hospital for 8–9 weeks and were maintained on each of 3 different sublingual buprenorphine doses (2 mg, 8 mg, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenous placebo, naloxone, heroin, and low and high doses of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone were examined. Every participant received each test dose under the 3 buprenorphine maintenance dose conditions. RESULTS Intravenous buprenorphine/naloxone was self-administered less frequently than buprenorphine or heroin (P < 0.0005). Participants were most likely to self-administer drug intravenously when maintained on the lowest sublingual buprenorphine dose. Subjective ratings of “drug liking” and “desire to take the drug again” were lower for buprenorphine/naloxone than for buprenorphine or heroin (P = 0.0001). Participants reported that they would pay significantly less money for buprenorphine/naloxone than for buprenorphine or heroin (P < 0.05). Seven adverse events were reported; most were mild and transient. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that although the buprenorphine/naloxone combination has intravenous abuse potential, it is lower than for buprenorphine alone, particularly when participants received higher maintenance dosages and lower buprenorphine/naloxone challenge doses. Buprenorphine/naloxone may be a reasonable option for managing the risk for buprenorphine misuse during opioid dependence treatment. PMID:20403021

  17. Treatment Outcomes of African American Buprenorphine Patients by Parole and Probation Status.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Gryczynski, Jan; Kelly, Sharon M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Jaffe, Jerome H; Olsen, Yngvild K; Schwartz, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis compared outcomes of African-American adults newly-admitted to buprenorphine treatment who were on parole and probation to patients who were not under criminal justice supervision. Buprenorphine patients (N=300) were randomly assigned to receive either Intensive Outpatient Treatment (IOP) or Standard Outpatient Treatment (OP) treatment and were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. There were no differences between groups in treatment retention. Among probationers/parolees, IOP was associated with lower 3-month treatment retention compared to OP, but among participants not on probation/parole the relationship was reversed (p=.004). Both conditions showed significant declines in heroin and cocaine use, illegal activity, and in meeting DSM-IV criteria for opioid and cocaine dependence. Probationers/parolees reported lower frequency of illegal activities at 3-months compared to non-probationers/parolees (p=.007). Buprenorphine treatment should be made more widely available to individuals on parole/probation as they respond as well to treatment as patients not supervised by the criminal justice system. PMID:25364037

  18. Buprenorphine for office-based treatment of patients with opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Manlandro, James J

    2005-06-01

    The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA 2000) was established to create a new paradigm for medication-assisted treatment of opiate addiction in the United States. Before enactment of DATA 2000, the use of opioid medications to treat opioid addiction was permissible only in federally approved treatment programs, ie, methadone clinics. The only medications permitted were Schedule II drugs (eg, methadone and l-a-acetylmethadol [LAAM]), which could only be dispensed, not prescribed. Under provisions of DATA 2000, qualified physicians in a medical office and other appropriate settings outside the opioid treatment program system may prescribe or dispense (or both), Schedule III, IV, and V opioid medications for treatment of opioid addiction if such medications have been specifically approved by the the US Food and Drug Administration for that indication. Opioid addiction treatment programs were commonly known as methadone clinics. They now may also dispense buprenorphine hydrochloride and the buprenorphine hydrochloride-naloxone combination. The information in this article is extracted (with revision) from: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 40. DHS Publication No. (SMA) 04-3939. Rockville, Md: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2004. The Clinical Guidelines document is in the public domain except for material indicated as reprinted from a copyrighted source. The author served on both the Expert Panel and the Consensus Panel that produced the guidelines, available in portable document format at http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Bup%20Guidelines.pdf. PMID:16118361

  19. Buprenorphine Pharmacotherapy and Behavioral Treatment: Comparison of Outcomes among Prescription Opioid Users, Heroin Users and Combination users

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Hillhouse, Maureen; Mooney, Larissa; Ang, Alfonso; Ling, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Most research examining buprenorphine has been conducted with heroin users. Few studies have examined buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for prescription opioid users. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of behavioral treatment provided for 16 weeks on a platform of buprenorphine pharmacotherapy and medication management. We compared heroin (H, n=54), prescription opioid (PO, n=54) and combination heroin+prescription opioid (POH, n=71) users to test the hypothesis that PO users will have better treatment outcomes compared with heroin users. The PO group provided more opioid-negative urine drug screens over the combined treatment period (PO:70%, POH:40%, H:38%, p<0.001) and at the end of the combined treatment period (PO:65%, POH:31%, H:33%, p<0.001). Retention was lowest in the H group (PO:80%, POH:65%, H:57%, p=0.039). There was no significant difference in buprenorphine dose between the groups. PO users appear to have better outcomes in buprenorphine pharmacotherapy compared to those reporting any heroin use, confirming that buprenorphine pharmacotherapy is effective in PO users. PMID:25065489

  20. Buprenorphine pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment: comparison of outcomes among prescription opioid users, heroin users and combination users.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Hillhouse, Maureen; Mooney, Larissa; Ang, Alfonso; Ling, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Most research examining buprenorphine has been conducted with heroin users. Few studies have examined buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for prescription opioid users. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of behavioral treatment provided for 16weeks on a platform of buprenorphine pharmacotherapy and medication management. We compared heroin (H, n=54), prescription opioid (PO, n=54) and combination heroin+prescription opioid (POH, n=71) users to test the hypothesis that PO users will have better treatment outcomes compared with heroin users. The PO group provided more opioid-negative urine drug screens over the combined treatment period (PO:70%, POH:40%, H:38%, p<0.001) and at the end of the combined treatment period (PO:65%, POH:31%, H:33%, p<0.001). Retention was lowest in the H group (PO:80%, POH:65%, H:57%, p=0.039). There was no significant difference in buprenorphine dose between the groups. PO users appear to have better outcomes in buprenorphine pharmacotherapy compared to those reporting any heroin use, confirming that buprenorphine pharmacotherapy is effective in PO users. PMID:25065489

  1. Methadone and buprenorphine for opioid dependence during pregnancy: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Marjorie C.; Johnston, Anne M.; Crocker, Abigail M.; Heil, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal characteristics, prenatal care and newborn outcomes in a cohort of opioid-dependent pregnant women treated with methadone vs. buprenorphine. Methods Retrospective cohort study. 609 pregnant, opioid-dependent women were treated with methadone (n=248) or buprenorphine (n=361) between 2000–2012 at a single institution. Results Mothers treated with buprenorphine were more likely to start medication prior to or earlier in pregnancy, had longer gestation and larger infants. Newborns of buprenorphine- vs. methadone-maintained mothers required treatment for neonatal abstinence significantly less often and for a shorter duration. Conclusions These data suggest pregnancy outcomes following buprenorphine to treat opioid dependence during pregnancy in clinical practice are as good and often better than outcomes with methadone. These results are consistent with efficacy data from randomized clinical trials and further support the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid-dependence during pregnancy. PMID:25622120

  2. French Experience with Buprenorphine : Do Physicians Follow the Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Guillou Landreat, Morgane; Rozaire, Charles; Guillet, Jean yves; Victorri Vigneau, Caroline; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Grall Bronnec, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Opiate dependence affects about 15,479,000 people worldwide. The effectiveness of opiate substitution treatments (OST) has been widely demonstrated. Buprenorphine plays a particular role in opiate dependence care provision in France. It is widely prescribed by physicians and national opiate substitution treatment guidelines have been available since 2004. In order to study the prescribing of buprenorphine, we used a questionnaire sent by email, to a large sample of physicians. These physicians were either in practice, or belonged to an addiction treatment network or a hospital. The main objective of this work was to measure the extent to which the theoretical, clinical attitude of physicians towards prescribing buprenorphine (BHD) complied with the statutory guidelines. We showed that the physicians we interviewed rarely took into account the guidelines regarding buprenorphine prescription. The actual prescribing of Buprenorphine differed from the guidelines. Only 42% of independent Family Physicians (FPs), working outside the national health care system, had prescribed buprenorphine as a first-time prescription and 40% of FPs do not follow up patients on buprenorphine. In terms of compliance with the guidelines, 55% of FPs gave theoretical answers that only partially complied with the guidelines. The variations in compliance with the guidelines was noted according to different variables and took into particular account whether the physician were affiliated to a network or in training. PMID:26479400

  3. Patterns of non-compliant buprenorphine, levomethadone, and methadone use among opioid dependent persons in treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-compliant use of opioid substitution treatment (OST) medicines is widespread and well-documented. However, less is known about characteristics of non-compliant OST medicine use and the factors that predict it. The two main goals of this study are to compare characteristics of non-compliant levomethadone, methadone, and buprenorphine use and to explore factors that may differentially predict it among opioid dependent persons in treatment. Methods Data from 595 opioid dependent patients with non-compliant OST medicine use were analyzed. Characteristics of use between substances were compared using chi-squared tests and predictive factors were explored through multinomial logistic regressions. Results Non-compliant levomethadone and methadone use was characterized by more frequent parallel consumption of other psychoactive substances and intravenous use, whereas buprenorphine was more often procured without a prescription. Regarding predictive factors, methadone was perceived to relieve withdrawal symptoms better than buprenorphine and levomethadone was perceived as being better at modulating the effects of other substances and worst at enhancing mood. Conclusions Patterns of non-compliant use differ according to OST medicine. These patterns are considered with the reduction of non-compliant use and the improvement of treatment in mind. PMID:24885218

  4. A Pilot Study of a Distress Tolerance Treatment for Opiate Dependent Patients Initiating Buprenorphine: Rationale, Methodology, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Hecht, Jacki; Moitra, Ethan; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Buprenorphine, an opioid that is a long-acting partial opiate agonist, is an efficacious treatment for opiate dependence that is growing in popularity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that many patients will lapse within the first week of treatment, and that lapses are often associated with withdrawal-related or emotional distress. Recent research suggests that individuals’ reactions to this distress may represent an important treatment target. In the current study, we describe the development and outcomes from a preliminary pilot evaluation (N = 5) of a novel distress tolerance treatment for individuals initiating buprenorphine. This treatment incorporates exposure-based and acceptance-based treatment approaches that we have previously applied to the treatment of tobacco dependence. Results from this pilot study establish the feasibility and acceptability of this approach. We are now conducting a randomized controlled trial of this treatment that we hope will yield clinically significant findings and offer clinicians an efficacious behavioral treatment to complement the effects of buprenorphine. PMID:24973401

  5. Buprenorphine and methadone maintenance in jail and post-release: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Magura, Stephen; Lee, Joshua D; Hershberger, Jason; Joseph, Herman; Marsch, Lisa; Shropshire, Carol; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Buprenorphine has rarely been administered as an opioid agonist maintenance therapy in a correctional setting. This study introduced buprenorphine maintenance in a large urban jail, Rikers Island in New York City. Heroin-dependent men not enrolled in community methadone treatment and sentenced to 10-90 days in jail (N=116) were voluntarily randomly assigned either to buprenorphine or methadone maintenance, the latter being the standard of care for eligible inmates at Rikers. Buprenorphine and methadone maintenance completion rates in jail were equally high, but the buprenorphine group reported for their designated post-release treatment in the community significantly more often than did the methadone group (48% vs. 14%, p<.001). Consistent with this result, prior to release from Rikers, buprenorphine patients stated an intention to continue treatment after release more often than did methadone patients (93% vs. 44%, p<.001). Buprenorphine patients were also less likely than methadone patients to withdraw voluntarily from medication while in jail (3% vs. 16%, p<.05). There were no post-release differences between the buprenorphine and methadone groups in self-reported relapse to illicit opioid use, self-reported re-arrests, self-reported severity of crime or re-incarceration in jail. After initiating opioid agonist treatment in jail, continuing buprenorphine maintenance in the community appears to be more acceptable to offenders than continuing methadone maintenance. PMID:18930603

  6. Management of opioid painkiller dependence in primary care: ongoing recovery with buprenorphine/naloxone.

    PubMed

    Hard, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Opioid painkiller dependence is a growing problem and best-practice management is not well defined. We report a case of a young woman exhibiting dependence on codeine, originally prescribed for myalgic encephalopathy, after escalating use over a 10-year period. In 2012, a consultation with a new general practitioner, who had extensive experience of patients with substance abuse, revealed the underlying dependence. After building trust for 6 months, she was able to admit to medication abuse, and was referred to the community drug and alcohol team. On presentation to the team, the patient had no pain issues and the dihydrocodeine use--600 tablets/week--solely reflected her dependence. The patient successfully underwent rapid induction with buprenorphine/naloxone as opioid substitution treatment over 2 days. She is currently stable, engaged with recovery support services and psychosocial counselling, and has just returned to work. She is maintained on a therapeutic dose of buprenorphine 10 mg/naloxone 2.5 mg. PMID:25432908

  7. Initial response as a predictor of 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone treatment response in a prescription opioid dependent population

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Katherine A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Fiellin, David A.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initial medication response has been shown to predict treatment outcome across a variety of substance use disorders, but no studies have examined the predictive power of initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of prescription opioid dependence. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study to determine whether initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone predicted 12-week treatment outcome in a prescription opioid-dependent population. Method Using data from a multi-site, randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine-naloxone plus counseling for DSM-IV prescription opioid dependence (June 2006–July 2009), we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the relationship between initial medication response and 12-week treatment outcome to establish how soon the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone could be predicted. Outcomes were determined from the Substance Use Report, a self-report measure of substance use, and confirmatory urinalysis. Predictive values were calculated to determine the importance of abstinence vs. use at various time points within the first month of treatment (week 1, weeks 1–2, 1–3, or 1–4) in predicting successful vs. unsuccessful treatment outcome (based on abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) in the last 4 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (weeks 9–12). Results Outcome was best predicted by medication response after two weeks of treatment. Two weeks of initial abstinence was moderately predictive of treatment success (positive predictive value = 71%), while opioid use in both of the first two weeks was strongly predictive of unsuccessful treatment outcome (negative predictive value (NPV) = 84%), especially when successful outcome was defined as total abstinence from opioids in weeks 9–12 (NPV = 94%). Conclusion Evaluating prescription opioid-dependent patients after two weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment may help determine the likelihood of successful outcome at completion of the current treatment regimen. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00316277 PMID:25562462

  8. Buprenorphine versus methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence: self-reports, urinalysis, and addiction severity index.

    PubMed

    Strain, E C; Stitzer, M L; Liebson, I A; Bigelow, G E

    1996-02-01

    This article reports results for patients who completed the 16-week maintenance phase of a double-blind clinical trial comparing buprenorphine (N = 43; average dose = 9.0 mg/day sublingually) with methadone (N = 43; average dose = 54 mg/day orally) in the outpatient treatment of opioid dependence. In addition to pharmacotherapy, treatment during the clinical trial included individual counseling, weekly group therapy, and on-site medical services. Patients in both medication groups showed significant and substantial improvements over time in areas of psychosocial functioning, as assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, rates of urinalysis tests positive for opioids, and self-reports of opioid withdrawal symptoms, illicit opioid use, and cocaine use. Buprenorphine and methadone produced very similar outcomes on the wide array of outcome measures assessed, and improvements for both groups were large and occurred rapidly after treatment entry. A trend toward continued improvement in opioid-positive urines over time was noted for the buprenorphine but not the methadone group. These results provide further evidence of the efficacy of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid dependence and provide a characterization of the time course of effects for buprenorphine and methadone. In addition, these results demonstrate the benefits of drug abuse treatment, both for drug and alcohol use and in other areas of psychosocial functioning. PMID:8834420

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Heroin Dependents: A Comparison between Methadone and Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Anne; Danaee, Mahmoud; Loh, Huai Seng; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Ng, Chong Guan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methadone has long been regarded as an effective treatment for opioid dependence. However, many patients discontinue maintenance therapy because of its side effects, with one of the most common being sexual dysfunction. Buprenorphine is a proven alternative to methadone. This study aimed to investigate sexual dysfunction in opioid-dependent men on buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The secondary aim was to investigate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and the quality of life in these patients. Methods Two hundred thirty-eight men participated in this cross-sectional study. Four questionnaires were used, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Opiate Treatment Index, Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function 15 (Mal-IIEF-15), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between MMT and BMT and the Mal-IIEF 15 scores while controlling for all the possible confounders. Results The study population consisted of 171 patients (71.8%) on MMT and 67 (28.2%) on BMT. Patients in the MMT group who had a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the sexual desire domain (p < 0.012) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.043) domain compared with their counterparts in the BMT group. Similarly, patients in the MMT group without a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the orgasmic function domain (p = 0.008) compared with those in the BMT group without a partner. Intercourse satisfaction (p = 0.026) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.039) were significantly associated with the social relationships domain after adjusting for significantly correlated sociodemographic variables. Conclusions Sexual functioning is critical for improving the quality of life in patients in an opioid rehabilitation program. Our study showed that buprenorphine causes less sexual dysfunction than methadone. Thus, clinicians may consider the former when treating heroin dependents who have concerns about sexual function. PMID:26820154

  10. Growth In Buprenorphine Waivers For Physicians Increased Potential Access To Opioid Agonist Treatment, 2002-11.

    PubMed

    Dick, Andrew W; Pacula, Rosalie L; Gordon, Adam J; Sorbero, Mark; Burns, Rachel M; Leslie, Douglas; Stein, Bradley D

    2015-06-01

    Opioid use disorders are a significant public health problem, affecting two million people in the United States. Treatment with buprenorphine, methadone, or both is predominantly offered in methadone clinics, yet many people do not receive the treatment they need. In 2002 the Food and Drug Administration approved buprenorphine for prescription by physicians who completed a course and received a waiver from the Drug Enforcement Administration, exempting them from requirements in the Controlled Substances Act. To determine the waiver program's impact on the availability of opioid agonist treatment, we analyzed data for the period 2002-11 to identify counties with opioid treatment shortages. We found that the percentage of counties with a shortage of waivered physicians fell sharply, from 98.9 percent in 2002 to 46.8 percent in 2011. As a result, the percentage of the US population residing in what we classified as opioid treatment shortage counties declined from 48.6 percent in 2002 to 10.4 percent in 2011. These findings suggest that the increase in waivered physicians has dramatically increased potential access to opioid agonist treatment. Policy makers should focus their efforts on further increasing the number and geographical distribution of physicians, particularly in more rural counties, where prescription opioid misuse is rapidly growing. PMID:26056209

  11. Initiation of Buprenorphine During Incarceration and Retention in Treatment Upon Release

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Nickolas; McKenzie, Michelle; Friedmann, Peter D.; Green, Traci C.; McGowan, Samuel; Rich, Josiah D.

    2013-01-01

    We report here on a feasibility study of initiating buprenorphine/naloxone prior to release from incarceration and linking participants to community treatment providers upon release. Study consisted of a small number of Rhode Island (RI) prisoners (N=44) diagnosed with opioid dependence. The study design is a single arm, open-label pilot study with a 6-month follow up interview conducted in the community. However, a natural experiment arose during the study comparing pre-release initiation of buprenorphone/naloxone to initiation post-release. Time to post-release prescriber appointment (mean days) for initiation of treatment Outside Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) vs. Inside RIDOC was 8.8 and 3.9, respectively (p=.1). Median post release treatment duration (weeks) for Outside RIDOC vs. Inside RIDOC was 9 and 24, respectively (p=.007). We conclude that initiating buprenorphine/naloxone prior to release from incarceration may increase engagement and retention in community-based treatment. PMID:23541303

  12. Comparison of prescriber evaluations and patient-directed self-reports in office-based practice for buprenorphine treatment of opiate-dependent individuals in France, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Estelle; Fatséas, Mélina; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Denis, Cécile; Dubernet, Jacques; Cattan, Laurent; Auriacombe, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional evaluation study was to compare data generated through prescriber assessments, and data generated from independent direct contact with opiate-dependent patients in office-based practice to evaluate buprenorphine treatment for modality of buprenorphine absorption, benzodiazepine use, and depressive symptoms. A group of buprenorphine office-based practice prescribers was selected to participate in this study. They were asked to screen for inclusion all their patients coming for a visit from February to August 2002. Once included by their prescribing physician, patients were given a series of self-administered questionnaires to be returned directly to the research staff, independently of their prescriber. Each prescriber was given a questionnaire to complete based on their knowledge and interview of the patient. Items assessed were history of current treatment, current substance use, buprenorphine treatment related behavior (daily frequency of intake, route of administration), benzodiazepine use and existence of a major depressive episode. Prescribers and patients’ questionnaires were compared. Concordance of both assessments was assessed by kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values of prescriber collected information were compared to that of their patients’. There was an overall good correlation between both data sources on the procedures for buprenorphine use especially for intravenous use of buprenorphine. There were important variations: obtaining buprenorphine without a prescription or with a prescription made by another doctor, intravenous administration of buprenorphine, use of benzodiazepines, and depression were underestimated by prescribers. PMID:19920984

  13. Methadone vs. buprenorphine/naloxone during early opioid substitution treatment: a naturalistic comparison of cognitive performance relative to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Rapeli, Pekka; Fabritius, Carola; Alho, Hannu; Salaspuro, Mikko; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    Background Both methadone- and buprenorphine-treated opioid-dependent patients frequently show cognitive deficits in attention, working memory, and verbal memory. However, no study has compared these patient groups with each other during early opioid substitution treatment (OST). Therefore, we investigated attention, working memory, and verbal memory of opioid-dependent patients within six weeks after the introduction of OST in a naturalistic setting and compared to those of healthy controls. Methods The sample included 16 methadone-, 17 buprenorphine/naloxone-treated patients, and 17 healthy controls matched for sex and age. In both groups buprenorphine was the main opioid of abuse during the recent month. Benzodiazepine codependence, recent use, and comedication were also common in both patient groups. Analysis of variance was used to study the overall group effect in each cognitive test. Pair-wise group comparisons were made, when appropriate Results Methadone-treated patients, as a group, had significantly slower simple reaction time (RT) compared to buprenorphine/naloxone-treated patients. In Go/NoGo RT methadone patients were significantly slower than controls. Both patient groups were significantly debilitated compared to controls in working memory and verbal list learning. Only methadone patients were inferior to controls in story recall. In simple RT and delayed story recall buprenorphine/naloxone patients with current benzodiazepine medication (n = 13) were superior to methadone patients with current benzodiazepine medication (n = 13). When methadone patients were divided into two groups according to their mean dose, the patient group with a low dose (mean 40 mg, n = 8) showed significantly faster simple RT than the high dose group (mean 67 mg, n = 8). Conclusion Deficits in attention may only be present in methadone-treated early phase OST patients and may be dose-dependent. Working memory deficit is common in both patient groups. Verbal memory deficit may be more pronounced in methadone-treated patients than in buprenorphine/naloxone-treated patients. In sum, to preserve cognitive function in early OST, the use of buprenorphine/naloxone may be more preferable to methadone use of, at least if buprenorphine has been recently abused and when benzodiazepine comedication is used. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate if the better performance of buprenorphine/naloxone-treated patients is a relatively permanent effect or reflects "only" transient opioid switching effect. PMID:17565668

  14. Diversion of methadone and buprenorphine from opioid substitution treatment: a staff perspective.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Björn; Richert, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is still controversial, despite positive results. The issue of diversion to the illicit drug market is a cornerstone in the criticism typically voiced against the treatment. Little research is available concerning how professionals who work in OST view the issue of diversion. In this article, we discuss existing ideas and attitudes toward diversion of methadone and buprenorphine among OST staff in Sweden. The article is based on semi-structured interviews with 25 professionals working in eight OST-programs in southern Sweden. Diversion was seen as a deleterious phenomenon by the interviewees. Three problematic aspects were highlighted: medical risks in the form of overdose fatalities and the recruitment of new opiate/opioid users; negative consequences for the legitimacy of OST; and moral objections, since diversion means that the patients remain in a criminal environment. However, positive aspects were also highlighted. Illicit methadone or buprenorphine is perceived as safer than heroin. In this way, diversion can fulfill a positive function; for instance, if there is a shortage of access to regular treatment. Patients who share their medication with opioid-dependent friends are seen as less culpable than those who sell to anyone for money. PMID:25364995

  15. Buprenorphine Maintenance for Opioid Dependence in Public Sector Healthcare: Benefits and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Laura G.; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background Since its U.S. FDA approval in 2002, buprenorphine has been available for maintenance treatment of opiate dependence in primary care physicians’ offices. Though buprenorphine was intended to facilitate access to treatment, disparities in utilization have emerged; while buprenorphine treatment is widely used in private care setting, public healthcare integration of buprenorphine lags behind. Results Through a review of the literature, we found that U.S. disparities are partly due to a shortage of certified prescribers, concern of patient diversion, as well as economic and institutional barriers. Disparity of buprenorphine treatment dissemination is concerning since buprenorphine treatment has specific characteristics that are especially suited for low-income patient population in public sector healthcare such as flexible dosing schedules, ease of concurrently treating co-morbidities such as HIV and hepatitis C, positive patient attitudes towards treatment, and the potential of reducing addiction treatment stigma. Conclusion As the gap between buprenorphine treatment in public sector settings and private sector settings persists in the U.S., current research suggests ways to facilitate its dissemination. PMID:27088135

  16. Predictors of Abstinence: National Institute of Drug Abuse Multisite Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid-Dependent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal)-assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid-dependent youth. Method: Secondary analyses were performed of data from 152 youth (15-21 years old) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with weekly…

  17. Predictors of Abstinence: National Institute of Drug Abuse Multisite Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid-Dependent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal)-assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid-dependent youth. Method: Secondary analyses were performed of data from 152 youth (15-21 years old) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with weekly

  18. Facilitators and barriers in implementing buprenorphine in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam J; Kavanagh, Greg; Krumm, Margaret; Ramgopal, Rajeev; Paidisetty, Sanjay; Aghevli, Minu; Goodman, Francine; Trafton, Jodie; Liberto, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Opioid dependence is a chronic, relapsing disorder that deleteriously influences the health of those afflicted. Sublingual buprenorphine opioid agonist treatment (OAT) has been shown to be safe, effective, and cost-effective for the treatment of opioid dependence in nonspecialized, office-based settings, including the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We sought to examine and describe provider-, facility-, and system-level barriers and facilitators to implementing buprenorphine therapy within the VHA. From June 2006 to October 2007, we conducted semistructured telephone interviews of key personnel at a national sample of VHA facilities with high prevalence of opioid dependence and without methadone OAT programs. Sites were categorized based on the number of veterans receiving buprenorphine prescriptions: More Buprenorphine (MB, >40 prescriptions, 5 sites), Some Buprenorphine (SB, 5-40 prescriptions, 3 sites), and No Buprenorphine (NB, 0-5 prescriptions, 9 sites). Interviews were taped, transcribed, and coded; consensus of coding themes was reached; and data were evaluated using grounded theory. Sixty-two staff members were interviewed. For NB sites, perceived patient barriers included lack of need and attitudes/stigma associated with opioid dependence. Provider barriers included lack of interest, stigma toward the population, and lack of education about buprenorphine-OAT. Prominent facilitators at MB sites included having established need, provider interest, and resources/time available for buprenorphine-OAT. The presence of a champion/role-model for buprenorphine care greatly facilitated its implementation. We conclude that factors that enable or impede buprenorphine-OAT vary by facility. Strategies and policies to encourage implementation of buprenorphine should be adaptable and target needs of each facility. PMID:21480679

  19. Craving and subsequent opioid use among opioid dependent patients who initiate treatment with buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Judith I.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Strong, David R.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have directly assessed associations between craving and subsequent opioid use among treated patients. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate the relative utility of two craving questionnaires to predict opioid use among opioid dependent patients in treatment. Method Opioid dependent patients (n=147) initiating buprenorphine treatment were assessed for three months. Craving was measured using: 1) the Desires for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ) and 2) the Penn Alcohol-Craving Scale adapted for opioid craving (PCS) for this study. Multi-level logistic regression models estimated the effects of craving on the likelihood of opioid use after adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, education, opioid of choice, frequency of use, pain and depression. In these analyses craving assessed at time t was entered as a time-varying predictor of opioid use at time t+1. Results In adjusted regression models, a 1-point increase in PCS scores (on a 7-point scale) was associated with a significant increase in the odds of opioid use at the subsequent assessment (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.08; 1.49, p < .01). The odds of opioid use at the subsequent follow-up assessment increased significantly as DDQ desire and intention scores increased (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.03; 1.51, p< .05), but was not associated significantly with DDQ negative reinforcement (OR = 1.01, 95%CI 0.88; 1.17, p > .05) or DDQ control (OR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.85; 1.11, p > .05) scores. Conclusion Self-reported craving for opioids was associated with subsequent lapse to opioid use among a cohort of patients treated with buprenorphine. PMID:24521036

  20. [Analgesic management of acute pain in patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine].

    PubMed

    Zinck, Louise; Sonne, Nan M; Madsen, Sidsel Lgdsgaard; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2015-03-01

    In Denmark, approximately 7,600 patients receive maintenance therapy with methadone or buprenorphine because of opioid addiction. These patients have an increased risk of inadequate pain treatment during hospitalization, among others because of tolerance to opioids and poor communication with the staff. The present article describes four common misconceptions among health-care providers that underlie inadequate pain treatment and provides practical recommendations for the analgesic management of acute pain in patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine. PMID:25749118

  1. Genetic variation in OPRD1 and the response to treatment for opioid dependence with buprenorphine in European American females

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Crist, Richard C.; Ang, Alfonso; Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa M.; Lohoff, Falk W.; Saxon, Andrew J.; Ling, Walter; Hillhouse, Maureen P.; Bruce, R. Douglas; Woody, George; Berrettini, Wade H.

    2013-01-01

    Two commonly prescribed treatments for opioid addiction are methadone and buprenorphine. While these drugs show some efficacy in treating opioid dependence, treatment response varies among individuals. It is likely that genetic factors play a role in determining treatment outcome. This study analyses the pharmacogenetic association of 6 polymorphisms in OPRD1, the gene encoding the delta-opioid receptor, on treatment outcome in 582 opioid addicted European Americans randomized to either methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone ((Suboxone®) over the course of a 24 week open-label clinical trial. Treatment outcome was assessed as the number of missed or opioid positive urine drug screens over the 24 weeks. In the total sample, no SNPs in OPRD1 were significantly associated with treatment outcome in either treatment arm. However, sex-specific analyses revealed 2 intronic SNPs (rs581111 and rs529520) that predicted treatment outcome in females treated with buprenorphine. Females with the AA or AG genotypes at rs581111 had significantly worse outcomes than those with the GG genotype when treated with buprenorphine (p=0.03, RR=1.67, 95% C.I.[1.06-2.1]). For rs529520, females with the AA genotype had a significantly worse outcome than those with the CC genotype when (p=0.006, RR=2.15, 95%C.I.[1.3-2.29]). No significant associations were detected in males. These findings suggest that rs581111 and rs52920 may be useful when considering treatment options for female opioid addicts, however confirmation in an independent sample is warranted. PMID:24126707

  2. Genetic variation in OPRD1 and the response to treatment for opioid dependence with buprenorphine in European-American females.

    PubMed

    Clarke, T-K; Crist, R C; Ang, A; Ambrose-Lanci, L M; Lohoff, F W; Saxon, A J; Ling, W; Hillhouse, M P; Bruce, R D; Woody, G; Berrettini, W H

    2014-06-01

    Two commonly prescribed treatments for opioid addiction are methadone and buprenorphine. Although these drugs show some efficacy in treating opioid dependence, treatment response varies among individuals. It is likely that genetic factors have a role in determining treatment outcome. This study analyses the pharmacogenetic association of six polymorphisms in OPRD1, the gene encoding the delta-opioid receptor, on treatment outcome in 582 opioid addicted European Americans randomized to either methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) over the course of a 24-week open-label clinical trial. Treatment outcome was assessed as the number of missed or opioid-positive urine drug screens over the 24 weeks. In the total sample, no single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OPRD1 were significantly associated with treatment outcome in either treatment arm. However, sex-specific analyses revealed two intronic SNPs (rs581111 and rs529520) that predicted treatment outcome in females treated with buprenorphine. Females with the AA or AG genotypes at rs581111 had significantly worse outcomes than those with the GG genotype when treated with buprenorphine (P=0.03, relative risk (RR)=1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.1). For rs529520, females with the AA genotype had a significantly worse outcome than those with the CC genotype when (P=0.006, RR=2.15, 95% CI 1.3-2.29). No significant associations were detected in males. These findings suggest that rs581111 and rs52920 may be useful when considering treatment options for female opioid addicts, however, confirmation in an independent sample is warranted. PMID:24126707

  3. Correlates of Nine-Month Retention following Interim Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment in Opioid Dependence: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, A.; Widinghoff, C.; Abrahamsson, T.; Gedeon, C.

    2016-01-01

    Interim medication-only treatment has been suggested for the initiation of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in opioid-dependent subjects, but this rarely has been studied using buprenorphine instead of methadone. Following a pilot trial assessing interim buprenorphine-naloxone treatment in order to facilitate transfer into OMT, we here aimed to study retention, and potential correlates of retention, in full-scale treatment. Thirty-six patients successfully referred from a waiting list through an interim treatment phase were followed for nine months in OMT. Baseline characteristics, as well as urine analyses during the interim phase and during full-scale OMT, were studied as potential correlates of retention. The nine-month retention in OMT was 83 percent (n = 30). While interim-phase urine samples positive for benzodiazepines did not significantly predict dropout from full-scale OMT (p = 0.09), urine samples positive for benzodiazepines within full-scale OMT were significantly associated with dropout (p < 0.01), in contrast to other substances and baseline characteristics. Retention remained high through nine months in this pilot study sample of patients referred through buprenorphine-naloxone interim treatment, but use of benzodiazepines is problematic, and the present data suggest that it may be associated with treatment dropout. PMID:26904355

  4. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3–20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light–dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light–dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders. PMID:25834439

  5. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3-20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light-dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders. PMID:25834439

  6. To Be Free and Normal: Addiction, Governance, and the Therapeutics of Buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Harris, Shana

    2015-12-01

    Methadone maintenance has dominated opiate addiction treatment in the United States for decades. Since 2002, opiate addiction has also been treated in general medical settings with a substance called buprenorphine. Based on interviews and participant observation conducted in northern California, this article analyzes how discourses of freedom and normalcy in patient and provider narratives reflect and affect experiences with this treatment modality. I discuss how buprenorphine treatment, in contrast to methadone maintenance, offers patients and providers a greater sense of autonomy and flexibility in how they receive and deliver treatment. It presents them with new obligations, responsibilities, and choices around care and conduct. It simultaneously perpetuates and shapes a desire to be "free" and "normal." I argue that the therapeutics of buprenorphine govern patients and providers through this desire for freedom and normalcy. Buprenorphine is thus a technology of governmentality that extends neoliberal discourses and values and produces self-governing subjects. PMID:26102240

  7. Preference for brand-name buprenorphine is related to severity of addiction among outpatients in opioid maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Binder, Philippe; Messaadi, Nassir; Perault-Pochat, Marie-Christine; Gagey, Stéphanie; Brabant, Yann; Ingrand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As a form of opioid maintenance treatment, high-dose buprenorphine is increasingly being used in the United States. On the French market since 1996, it is the most commonly prescribed and frequently employed opioid maintenance treatment. For unknown reasons, the brand-name form is used far more often than the generic form (76-24%). The objective was to show that the patients' levels of addiction were differentiated according to the form of buprenorphine currently being used and to their previous experience of a different form. An observational study in 9 sites throughout France used self-assessment questionnaires filled out in retail pharmacies by all patients to whom their prescribed buprenorphine treatment was being delivered. The 151 canvassed pharmacies solicited 879 patients, of whom 724 completed the questionnaires. Participants were statistically similar to non-participants. The patients using the brand-name form subsequent to experience with the generic form exhibited a more elevated addiction severity index and a higher dosage than brand-name form users with no experience of a different form. Compared to generic users, their doses were higher, their was addiction more severe, and their alcohol consumption was more excessive; they were also more likely to make daily use of psychotropic substances. However, the level of misuse or illicit consumption was similar between these groups. Preferring the brand-name buprenorphine form to the generic form is associated with a higher level of severe addiction, a more frequent need for daily psychotropics, and excessive drinking; but the study was unable to show a causal link. PMID:26745033

  8. Patient Perspectives on Buprenorphine/Naloxone: A Qualitative Study of Retention During the Starting Treatment with Agonist Replacement Therapies (START) Study

    PubMed Central

    Teruya, Cheryl; Schwartz, Robert P.; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Hasson, Albert L.; Thomas, Christie; Buoncristiani, Samantha H.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Wiest, Katharina; Cohen, Allan J.; Glick, Naomi; Jacobs, Petra; McLaughlin, Paul; Ling, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the barriers and facilitators of retention among patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone at eight community-based opioid treatment programs across the United States. Participants (n=105) were recruited up to three-and-a-half years after having participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone on liver function. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 67 patients provided with buprenorphine/naloxone who had terminated early and 38 patients who had completed at least 24 weeks of the trial. Qualitative data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Barriers to buprenorphine/naloxone retention that emerged included factors associated with: (1) the design of the clinical trial, (2) negative medication or treatment experience, and (3) personal circumstances. The facilitators comprised: (1) positive experience with the medication, (2) personal determination and commitment to complete, and (3) staff encouragement and support. The themes drawn from interviews highlight the importance of considering patients’ prior experience with buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone, medication preference, personal circumstances, and motivation to abstain from illicit use or misuse of opioids, as these may influence retention. Ongoing education of patients and staff regarding buprenorphine/naloxone, especially in comparison to methadone, and support from staff and peers are essential. PMID:25364994

  9. The Impact of Prior Authorization on Buprenorphine Dose, Relapse Rates, and Cost for Massachusetts Medicaid Beneficiaries with Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robin E; Baxter, Jeffrey D; Barton, Bruce A; Aweh, Gideon; O'Connell, Elizabeth; Fisher, William H

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2008 dose-based prior authorization policy for Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries using buprenorphine + naloxone for opioid addiction treatment. Doses higher than 16 mg required progressively more frequent authorizations. Data Sources Mediciaid claims for 2007 and 2008 linked with Department of Public Health (DPH) service records. Study Design We conducted time series for all buprenorphine users and a longitudinal cohort analysis of 2,049 individuals who began buprenorphine treatment in 2007. Outcome measures included use of relapse-related services, health care expenditures per person, and buprenorphine expenditures. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We used ICD-9 codes and National Drug Codes to identify individuals with opioid dependence who filled prescriptions for buprenorphine. Medicaid and DPH data were linked with individual identifiers. Principal Findings Individuals using doses >24 mg decreased from 16.5 to 4.1 percent. Relapses increased temporarily for some users but returned to previous levels within 3 months. Buprenorphine expenditures decreased but total expenditures did not change significantly. Conclusion Prior authorization policies strategically targeted by dose level appear to successfully reduce use of higher than recommended buprenorphine doses. Savings from these policies are modest and may be accompanied by brief increases in relapse rates. Lower doses may decrease diversion of buprenorphine. PMID:25040021

  10. Provision of Ancillary Medications during Buprenorphine Detoxification Does Not improve Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hillhouse, Maureen; Domier, Catherine P.; Chim, David; Ling, Walter

    2009-01-01

    For opioid-dependent individuals, recovery efforts begin with a period of withdrawal that typically include discomfort from symptoms, possibly precipitating a return to drug use. The study described here investigated whether the provision of ancillary medications for opioid withdrawal symptoms affects treatment outcomes in 139 participants receiving buprenorphine in a 13-day detoxification trial. Outcome measures include the number of opioid-free urine samples collected and retention in treatment. Ancillary medications were provided to 70% of participants: 59% received medication for insomnia, 45% for anxiety, 40% for bone pain, 35% for nausea, and 28% for diarrhea. Findings indicate no difference in the number of opioid-free urine samples between the group receiving ancillary medication and the group who did not, although tests of specific ancillary medications indicate that those who received diarrhea medication had fewer opioid-free urines than those who did not (p = 0.004). Results also indicate that participants attended fewer days of treatment if they received anxiety, nausea, or diarrhea medication compared to no medication (all p values < .05). PMID:20390696

  11. Buprenorphine-naloxone use in pregnancy for treatment of opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Joe; Gerber-Finn, Lianne; Antone, Irwin; Guilfoyle, John; Blakelock, Brittany; Balfour-Boehm, Jazmyn; Hopman, Wilma M.; Jumah, Naana; Kelly, Len

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the maternal course and neonatal outcomes for women using buprenorphine-naloxone for opioid dependence in pregnancy. Design Retrospective cohort study comparing outcomes for the group of pregnant patients exposed to buprenorphine-naloxone with outcomes for those exposed to other narcotics and those not exposed to narcotics. Setting Northwestern Ontario obstetric program. Participants A total of 640 births in an 18-month period from July 1, 2013, to January 1, 2015. Main outcome measures Maternal outcomes included route and time of delivery, medical and surgical complications, out-of hospital deliveries, change in illicit drug use, and length of stay. Neonatal outcomes included stillbirths, incidence and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores, and incidence of congenital abnormalities. Results Thirty pregnant women used buprenorphine-naloxone for a mean (SD) of 18.8 (11.2) weeks; an additional 134 patients were exposed to other opioids; 476 pregnant women were not exposed to opioids. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were similar among the 3 groups, other than the expected clinically insignificant lower birth weights among those exposed to opioids other than buprenorphine-naloxone. Conclusion Buprenorphine-naloxone appears to be safe for use in pregnancy for opioid-dependence substitution therapy. Transferring a pregnant patient to another opioid agonist that has greater abuse potential might not be necessary.

  12. Cost Effectiveness of Injectable Extended Release Naltrexone Compared to Methadone Maintenance and Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Heide; Mandell, Kara; Johnson, Kimberly; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Vanness, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of injectable extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX) compared to methadone maintenance and buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MMT and BMT respectively) for adult males enrolled in treatment for opioid dependence in the United States from the perspective of state-level addiction treatment payers. Methods We used a Markov model with daily time cycles to estimate the incremental cost per opioid-free day in a simulated cohort of adult males ages 18–65 over a six-month period from the state health program perspective. Results XR-NTX is predicted to be more effective and more costly than methadone or buprenorphine in our target population, with an incremental cost per opioid-free day gained relative to the next-most effective treatment (MMT) of $72. The cost-effectiveness of XR-NTX relative to MMT was driven by its effectiveness in deterring opioid use while receiving treatment. Conclusions XR-NTX is a cost-effective medication for treating opioid dependence if state addiction treatment payers are willing to pay at least $72 per opioid-free day. PMID:25775099

  13. Interaction Between Buprenorphine and Atazanavir or Atazanavir/Ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Moody, David E.; Morse, Gene D.; Ma, Qing; DiFrancesco, Robin; Friedland, Gerald; Pade, Patricia; Rainey, Petrie M.

    2007-01-01

    Opioid addiction and HIV disease frequently co-occur. Adverse drug interactions have been reported between methadone and some HIV medications, but less is known about interactions between buprenorphine, an opioid partial agonist used to treat opioid dependence, and HIV therapeutics. This study examined drug interactions between buprenorphine and the protease inhibitors atazanavir and atazanavir/ritonavir. Opioid-dependent, buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained, HIV-negative volunteers (n=10 per protease inhibitor) participated in two 24-hour sessions to determine pharmacokinetics of (1) buprenorphine and (2) buprenorphine and atazanavir (400 mg daily) or atazanavir/ritonavir (300/100 mg daily) following administration for 5 days. Objective opiate withdrawal scale scores and Mini-Mental State Examination were determined prior to and following antiretroviral administration to examine pharmacodynamic effects. Pharmacokinetics of atazanavir and atazanavir/ritonavir were compared in subjects and matched, healthy controls (n=10 per protease inhibitor) to determine effects of buprenorphine. With atazanavir and atazanavir/ritonavir, respectively concentrations of buprenorphine (p<0.001, p<0.001), norbuprenorphine (p=0.026, p=0.006), buprenorphine glucuronide (p=0.002, p<0.001), and norbuprenorphine glucuronide (NS, p=0.037) increased. Buprenorphine treatment did not significantly alter atazanavir or ritonavir concentrations. Three buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained participants reported increased sedation with atazanavir/ritonavir. Atazanavir or atazanavir/ritonavir may increase buprenorphine and buprenorphine metabolite concentrations and might require a decreased buprenorphine dose. PMID:17643869

  14. Treatment Retention among Patients Randomized to Buprenorphine/Naloxone Compared to Methadone in A Multi-site Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Saxon, Andrew J.; Huang, David; Hasson, Al; Thomas, Christie; Hillhouse, Maureen; Jacobs, Petra; Teruya, Cheryl; McLaughlin, Paul; Wiest, Katharina; Cohen, Allan; Ling, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine patient and medication characteristics associated with retention and continued illicit opioid use in methadone (MET) versus buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP) treatment for opioid dependence. Design/Settings/Participants This secondary analysis included 1,267 opioid-dependent individuals participating in 9 opioid treatment programs between 2006 and 2009 and randomized to receive open-label BUP or MET for 24 weeks. Measurements The analyses included measures of patient characteristics at baseline (demographics; use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit drugs; self-rated mental and physical health), medication dose and urine drug screens during treatment, and treatment completion and days in treatment during the 24 week trial. Findings The treatment completion rate was 74% for MET vs. 46% for BUP (p<.01); the rate among MET participants increased to 80% when the maximum MET dose reached or exceeded 60mg/day. With BUP, the completion rate increased linearly with higher doses, reaching 60% with doses of 30–32mg/day. Of those remaining in treatment, positive opioid urine results were significantly lower (OR=0.63, 95%CI=0.52–0.76, p<.01) among BUP relative to MET participants during the first 9 weeks of treatment. Higher medication dose was related to lower opiate use, more so among BUP patients. A Cox proportional hazards model revealed factors associated with dropout: (1) BUP (vs. MET, HR=1.61, CI:1.20–2.15), (2) lower medication dose (<16mg for BUP, <60mg for MET; HR=3.09, CI:2.19–4.37), (3) the interaction of dose and treatment condition (those with higher BUP dose were 1.04 times more likely to drop out than those with lower MET dose, and (4) being younger, Hispanic, and using heroin or other substances during treatment. Conclusions Provision of methadone appears to be associated with better retention in treatment for opioid dependence than buprenorphine, as does use of provision of higher doses of both medications. Provision of buprenorphine is associated with lower continued use of illicit opioids. PMID:23961726

  15. Dosing considerations with transdermal formulations of fentanyl and buprenorphine for the treatment of cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Skaer, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Opioids continue to be first-line pharmacotherapy for patients suffering from cancer pain. Unfortunately, subtherapeutic dosage prescribing of pain medications remains common, and many cancer patients continue to suffer and experience diminished quality of life. A large variety of therapeutic options are available for cancer pain patients. Analgesic pharmacotherapy is based on the patients self-report of pain intensity and should be tailored to meet the requirements of each individual. Most, if not all, cancer pain patients will ultimately require modifications in their opioid pharmacotherapy. When changes in a patients medication regimen are needed, adequate pain control is best maintained through appropriate dosage conversion, scheduling immediate release medication for withdrawal prevention, and providing as needed dosing for breakthrough pain. Transdermal opioids are noninvasive, cause less constipation and sedation when compared to oral opioids, and may improve patient compliance. A relative potency of 100:1 is recommended when converting the patient from oral morphine to transdermal fentanyl. Based on the limited data available, there is significant interpatient variability with transdermal buprenorphine and equipotency recommendations from oral morphine of 75:1110:1 have been suggested. Cancer patients may require larger transdermal buprenorphine doses to control their pain and may respond better to a more aggressive 75100:1 potency ratio. This review outlines the prescribing of transdermal fentanyl and transdermal buprenorphine including how to safely and effectively convert to and use them for those with cancer pain. PMID:25170278

  16. Patients more likely to engage in treatment at 30 days when given buprenorphine in the ED, referred for follow-up.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    A new randomized trial shows patients who present to the ED with opioid dependence are much more likely to engage in treatment when they receive buprenorphine along with coordinated follow-up than when they just receive a brief intervention and a facilitated referral for treatment or just screening and referral. However, barriers to prescribing are robust, and many ED leaders are not persuaded they should be in the business of providing treatment for addiction. In the trial, at 30 days 78% of patients in the buprenorphine group (89 of 114 patients) were engaged in addiction treatment, compared with just 45% of the patients in the brief intervention group (50 of 111 patients) and 37% of patients in the referral group (38 of 102 patients). To prescribe buprenorphine for addiction disease, providers must undergo training and pass a test to obtain a DEA waiver; they are limited to treating 100 patients. While experts note there are not enough providers to prescribe buprenorphine and provide the follow-up needed to patients with addiction disease, they also acknowledge concerns about drug diversion as well as potential problems with capacity if EDs take a larger role in treating addiction. PMID:26258203

  17. Timing of buprenorphine adoption by privately funded substance abuse treatment programs: The role of institutional and resource-based inter-organizational linkages

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Sarah A.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying facilitators of more rapid buprenorphine adoption may increase access to this effective treatment for opioid dependence. Using a diffusion of innovations theoretical framework, we examine the extent to which programs’ inter-organizational institutional and resource-based linkages predict the likelihood of being an earlier, later, or non-adopter of buprenorphine. Data were derived from face-to-face interviews with administrators of 345 privately funded substance abuse treatment programs in 2007–2008. Results of multinomial logistic regression models show that inter-organizational and resource linkages were associated with timing of adoption. Programs reporting membership in provider associations were more likely to be earlier adopters of buprenorphine. Programs that relied more on resources linkages, such as the detailing activities by pharmaceutical companies and the NIDA website, were more likely to be earlier adopters of buprenorphine. These findings suggest that institutional and resource-based inter-organizational linkages may expose programs to effective treatments, thereby facilitating more rapid and sustained adoption of innovative treatment techniques. PMID:21831565

  18. Lack of Clinically Significant Drug Interactions between Nevirapine and Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Moody, David E.; Morse, Gene D.; Ma, Qing; Rainey, Petrie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether drug interactions of clinical importance occur between buprenorphine, an opioid partial agonist medication used in treatment of opioid dependence, and the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) nevirapine. Opioid-dependent, buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained, HIV-negative volunteers (n=7) participated in 24-hour sessions to determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine alone and of buprenorphine and nevirapine following administration of 200 mg nevirapine daily for 15 days. Opiate withdrawal symptoms, cognitive effects, and adverse events were determined prior to and following nevirapine administration. Modest decreases were observed for AUC for buprenorphine and its metabolites. There was a trend for more rapid clearance of both buprenorphine (p = .08) and buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (p = .08). While no single effect reached statistical significance, the joint probability that the consistent declines in all measures of exposure were due to chance was extremely low, indicating that nevirapine significantly reduces overall exposure to buprenorphine and buprenorphine metabolites. Clinically significant consequences of the interaction were not observed. Buprenorphine did not alter nevirapine pharmacokinetics. Dose adjustments of either buprenorphine or nevirapine are not likely to be necessary when these drugs are coadministered for the treatment of opiate dependence and HIV disease. PMID:20132119

  19. Lack of clinically significant drug interactions between nevirapine and buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Moody, David E; Morse, Gene D; Ma, Qing; Rainey, Petrie M

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether drug interactions of clinical importance occur between buprenorphine, an opioid partial agonist medication used in treatment of opioid dependence, and the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) nevirapine. Opioid-dependent, buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained, HIV-negative volunteers (n = 7) participated in 24-hour sessions to determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine alone and of buprenorphine and nevirapine following administration of 200 mg nevirapine daily for 15 days. Opiate withdrawal symptoms, cognitive effects, and adverse events were determined prior to and following nevirapine administration. Modest decreases were observed for AUC for buprenorphine and its metabolites. There was a trend for more rapid clearance of both buprenorphine (p = .08) and buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (p = .08). While no single effect reached statistical significance, the joint probability that the consistent declines in all measures of exposure were due to chance was extremely low, indicating that nevirapine significantly reduces overall exposure to buprenorphine and buprenorphine metabolites. Clinically significant consequences of the interaction were not observed. Buprenorphine did not alter nevirapine pharmacokinetics. Dose adjustments of either buprenorphine or nevirapine are not likely to be necessary when these drugs are coadministered for the treatment of opiate dependence and HIV disease. PMID:20132119

  20. Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone diversion, misuse, and illicit use: an international review.

    PubMed

    Yokell, Michael A; Zaller, Nickolas D; Green, Traci C; Rich, Josiah D

    2011-03-01

    The diversion, misuse, and non-medically supervised use of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone by opioid users are reviewed. Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are used globally as opioid analgesics and in the treatment of opioid dependency. Diversion of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone represents a complex medical and social issue, and has been widely documented in various geographical regions throughout the world. We first discuss the clinical properties of buprenorphine and its abuse potential. Second, we discuss its diversion and illicit use on an international level, as well as motivations for those activities. Third, we examine the medical risks and benefits of buprenorphine's non-medically supervised use and misuse. These risks and benefits include the effect of buprenorphine's use on HIV risk and the risk of its concomitant use with other medications and drugs of abuse. Finally, we discuss the implications of diversion, misuse, and non-medically supervised use (including potential measures to address issues of diversion); and potential areas for further research. PMID:21466501

  1. Buprenorphine: A Unique Drug with Complex Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Lutfy, Kabirullah; Cowan, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Buprenorphine, an opioid with mixed agonist-antagonist activity at classical opioid receptors, has been approved recently for the treatment of opioid dependency. Buprenorphine is also used as an analgesic. The buprenorphine dose-response curve is sometimes submaximal, or even bell-shaped, in nociceptive assays, depending upon the nature and intensity of the noxious stimulus. Moreover, buprenorphine, when administered with full agonists, such as morphine, antagonizes the action of these drugs. Partial agonism at the mu opioid receptor and, in some cases, antagonism at the kappa or delta opioid receptor have been considered as possible underlying mechanisms for the ceiling effect and bell-shaped dose-response curve of buprenorphine. While ceiling effects can be explained by partial agonist activity of buprenorphine, the bell-shaped dose-response curve cannot be a consequence of this property of the drug. Recently, buprenorphine has been shown to activate the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1; also known as NOP) receptor. Supraspinal activation of the ORL-1 receptor counteracts the antinociceptive and rewarding actions of morphine, raising the possibility that these actions of buprenorphine can also be altered by its ability to concomitantly activate the ORL-1 receptor. The use of molecular biological techniques has advanced our knowledge regarding the role of opioid receptors in modulation of pain and reward. In particular, generation of opioid receptor knockout mice has proven useful in this regard. Indeed, using knockout mice, we have recently shown that the antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine mediated primarily by the mu opioid receptor is attenuated by the ability of the drug to activate the ORL-1 receptor. Thus, the goal of this review is to provide evidence demonstrating that the ORL-1 receptor plays a functional role not only in the antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine but also in other actions of the drug as well. PMID:18997874

  2. Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone intoxication in children - how strong is the risk?

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Opioid maintenance therapy with methadone or buprenorphine is an established and first-line treatment for opioid dependence. Risk of diversion and toxicity of opioid prescription drugs, including buprenorphine, causes significant concerns. This is particularly the case in the United States, where the number of related emergency visits is increasing, especially in children. A systematic literature research (Medline, Pubmed) was performed to assess the risk associated with buprenorphine. The search, which was not limited to particular publication years, was performed with the key words buprenorphine AND toxicity (114 counts ) AND children (4 counts) and buprenorphine AND mortality AND children (5 counts). In addition, the author obtained information from relevant websites (NIDA, SAMSHA) and pharmacovigilance data from the manufacturer of buprenorphine. Clinical and toxicological data suggest a low risk for fatal intoxications associated with bupreorphine in adults. Data from emergency units indicate a dramatic, 20-fold increase in buprenorphine exposure in children over the past decade, mostly in those under 6. The US 'Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance' (RADARS) system indicates a lower risk of severe opioid intoxications with buprenorphine than with other opioids, with no fatal outcomes recorded. Correspondingly, data from spontaneous reports to the surveillance programme of the manufacturer of buprenorphine (13,600 buprenorphine exposures, 4879 of these in children under six) show a serious medical outcome in 34% of children under the age of six but only one fatal outcome. Although exposure to buprenorphine and other opioids remains a significant concern in children, the drug seems rather to be safe with respect to severe outcomes, in particular death. PMID:23489089

  3. A review of buprenorphine diversion and misuse: the current evidence base and experiences from around the world.

    PubMed

    Lofwall, Michelle R; Walsh, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    Outpatient opioid addiction treatment with sublingual buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has rapidly expanded in the United States and abroad, and, with this increase in medication availability, there have been increasing concerns about its diversion, misuse, and related harms. This narrative review defines the behaviors of diversion and misuse, examines how the pharmacology of buprenorphine alone and in combination with naloxone influence its abuse liability, and describes the epidemiological data on buprenorphine diversion and intravenous misuse, risk factors for its intravenous misuse, and the unintended consequences of misuse and diversion. Physician practices to prevent, screen for, and therapeutically respond to these behaviors, which are a form of medication nonadherence, are discussed, and gaps in knowledge are identified. Outpatient opioid addiction treatment with sublingual buprenorphine pharmacotherapy experiences from other countries that have varied health care systems, public policies, and access to addiction treatment are shared to make clear that diversion and misuse occur across the world in various contexts, for many different reasons, and are not limited to buprenorphine. Comparisons are made with other opioids with known abuse liability and medications with no known abuse. The objective was to facilitate understanding of diversion and misuse so that all factors influencing their expression (patient and provider characteristics and public policy) can be appreciated within a framework that also recognizes the benefits of addiction treatment. With this comprehensive perspective, further careful work can help determine how to minimize these behaviors without eroding the current benefits realized through improved addiction treatment access and expansion. PMID:25221984

  4. Failure to identify or effectively manage prescription opioid dependence acted as a gateway to heroin use-buprenorphine/naloxone treatment and recovery in a surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Stephen; Hill, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The prescribing of opioid pain medication has increased markedly in recent years, with strong opioid dispensing increasing 18-fold in Tayside, Scotland since 1995. Despite this, little data is available to quantify the problem of opioid pain medication dependence (OPD) and until recently there was little guidance on best-practice treatment. We report the case of a young mother prescribed dihydrocodeine for postoperative pain relief who became opioid dependent. When her prescription was stopped without support, she briefly used heroin to overcome her withdrawal. After re-exposure to dihydrocodeine following surgery 9 years later and treatment with methadone for dependency, she was transferred to buprenorphine/naloxone. In our clinical experience and in agreement with Department of Health and Royal College of General Practitioner guidance, buprenorphine/naloxone is the preferred opioid substitution treatment for OPD. Our patient remains within her treatment programme and has returned to work on buprenorphine 16 mg/naloxone 4 mg in conjunction with social and psychological support. PMID:25519865

  5. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for buprenorphine ingestion by children--United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-01-25

    Buprenorphine (Subutex) and buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) received Food and Drug Administration approval in 2002 for the treatment of opioid dependence. Introduction of these drugs expanded the availability of opioid-dependence treatment options to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with opioid abuse, and buprenorphine has become an increasingly prescribed component of office-based treatment. However, unsupervised ingestion of buprenorphine-containing products by children is a growing concern. PMID:23344700

  6. Two-year Experience with Buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone) for Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence Within a Private Practice Setting.

    PubMed

    Finch, James W; Kamien, Jonathan B; Amass, Leslie

    2007-06-01

    Office-based buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone) treatment in the United States has significantly improved access to safe and effective opioid-dependence therapy. Little data from physicians' experiences prescribing Suboxone in private offices have been available. This retrospective chart review describes a family practitioner's first 2 years of clinical experience prescribing Suboxone for opioid dependence to 71 patients in a private office. After directly observed rapid office dose induction, Suboxone prescriptions were given monthly after evidence of continued stability. Urine was screened regularly and patients were referred for counseling and other ancillary services. Patients averaged 32 years old, 4.3 years of opioid dependence, and were primarily white (93%) and employed (70%). Fifty-two percent used heroin primarily (most by injection), and 70% had no agonist substitution therapy history. Almost half (47%) paid for their own treatment. Compliance during dose induction was excellent. Suboxone maintenance doses averaged 10 (range, 2-24) mg per day. More than 80% of urine samples were opioid-negative after Suboxone treatment began, although urinalysis did not always include a test for oxycodone. Seventy-five percent had successful outcomes by remaining in Suboxone treatment (43%), tapering successfully (21%), transferring to methadone maintenance (7%), or inpatient treatment (4%). Fifty-eight percent reported receiving counseling. Almost all (85%) paid their fees on time. There were no safety, medication abuse, or diversion issues detected. Overall, office-based Suboxone therapy was easily implemented and the physician considered the experience excellent. Suboxone maintenance was associated with good treatment retention and significantly reduced opioid use, and it is helping to reach patients, including injection drug users, without histories of agonist substitution therapy. PMID:21768942

  7. Effects of regulation on methadone and buprenorphine provision in the wake of Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    McClure, Bridget; Mendoza, Sonia; Duncan, Laura; Rotrosen, John; Hansen, Helena

    2014-10-01

    Hurricane Sandy led to the closing of many major New York City public hospitals including their substance abuse clinics and methadone programs, and the displacement or relocation of thousands of opioid-dependent patients from treatment. The disaster provided a natural experiment that revealed the relative strengths and weaknesses of methadone treatment in comparison to physician office-based buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence, two modalities of opioid maintenance with markedly different regulatory requirements and institutional procedures. To assess these two modalities of treatment under emergency conditions, semi-structured interviews about barriers to and facilitators of continuity of care for methadone and buprenorphine patients were conducted with 50 providers of opioid maintenance treatment. Major findings included that methadone programs presented more regulatory barriers for providers, difficulty with dose verification due to impaired communication, and an over reliance on emergency room dosing leading to unsafe or suboptimal dosing. Buprenorphine treatment presented fewer regulatory barriers, but buprenorphine providers had little to no cross-coverage options compared to methadone providers, who could refer to alternate methadone programs. The findings point to the need for well-defined emergency procedures with flexibility around regulations, the need for a central registry with patient dose information, as well as stronger professional networks and cross-coverage procedures. These interventions would improve day-to-day services for opioid-maintained patients as well as services under emergency conditions. PMID:25163931

  8. Adverse effects in children after unintentional buprenorphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Geib, Ann-Jeannette; Babu, Kavita; Ewald, Michele Burns; Boyer, Edward W

    2006-10-01

    Buprenorphine in sublingual formulation was recently introduced to the American market for treatment of opioid dependence. We report a series of 5 toddlers with respiratory and mental-status depression after unintentional buprenorphine exposure. Despite buprenorphine's partial agonist activity and ceiling effect on respiratory depression, all children required hospital admission and either opioid-antagonist therapy or mechanical ventilation. Results of routine urine toxicology screening for opioids were negative in all cases. Confirmatory testing was sent for 1 child and returned with a positive result. The increasing use of buprenorphine as a home-based therapy for opioid addiction in the United States raises public health concerns for the pediatric population. PMID:17015570

  9. Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine/Naloxone Diversion, Misuse, and Illicit Use: An International Review

    PubMed Central

    Yokell, Michael A.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Green, Traci C.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2011-01-01

    The diversion, misuse, and non-medically supervised use of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone by opioid users are reviewed. Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are used globally as opioid analgesics and in the treatment of opioid dependency. Diversion of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone represents a complex medical and social issue, and has been widely documented in various geographical regions throughout the world. We first discuss the clinical properties of buprenorphine and its abuse potential. Second, we discuss its diversion and illicit use on an international level, as well as motivations for those activities. Third, we examine the medical risks and benefits of buprenorphine’s non-medically supervised use and misuse. These risks and benefits include the effect of buprenorphine’s use on HIV risk and the risk of its concomitant use with other medications and drugs of abuse. Finally, we discuss the implications of diversion, misuse, and non-medically supervised use (including potential measures to address issues of diversion); and potential areas for further research. PMID:21466501

  10. Rifampin, but not Rifabutin, May Produce Opiate Withdrawal in Buprenorphine-Maintained Patients*

    PubMed Central

    McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Moody, David E.; Prathikanti, Sudha; Friedland, Gerald; Rainey, Petrie M.

    2011-01-01

    Background This series of studies examines the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interactions between buprenorphine, an opioid partial agonist increasingly used in treatment of opioid dependence, and rifampin, a medication used as a first line treatment for tuberculosis; or rifabutin, an alternative antituberculosis medication. Methods Opioid-dependent individuals on stable doses of buprenorphine/naloxone underwent two, 24-hour blood sampling studies: 1. for buprenorphine pharmacokinetics and 2. following 15 days of rifampin 600 mg daily or rifabutin 300 mg daily for buprenorphine and rifampin or rifabutin pharmacokinetics. Results Rifampin administration produced significant reduction in plasma buprenorphine concentrations (70% reduction in mean area under the curve (AUC); p=<0·001) and onset of opiate withdrawal symptoms in 50% of participants (p=0·02). While rifabutin administration to buprenorphine-maintained subjects resulted in a significant decrease in buprenorphine plasma concentrations (35% decrease in AUC; p<0·001) no opiate withdrawal was seen. Compared with historical control data, buprenorphine had no significant effect on rifampin pharmacokinetics, but was associated with 22% lower rifabutin mean AUC (p=0·009), although rifabutin and its active metabolite concentrations remained in the therapeutic range. Conclusions Rifampin is a more potent inducer of buprenorphine metabolism than rifabutin with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic adverse consequences. Those patients requiring rifampin treatment for tuberculosis and receiving buprenorphine therapy are likely to require an increase in buprenorphine dose to prevent withdrawal symptoms. Rifabutin administration was associated with decreases in buprenorphine plasma concentrations, but no clinically significant adverse events were observed. PMID:21596492

  11. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India. PMID:19243636

  12. Abuse potential of intranasal buprenorphine versus buprenorphine/naloxone in buprenorphine-maintained heroin users.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Mogali, Shanthi; Metz, Verena; Comer, Sandra D

    2015-07-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8-9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse. PMID:25060839

  13. A Review of Buprenorphine Diversion and Misuse: The Current Evidence Base and Experiences from Around the World

    PubMed Central

    Lofwall, Michelle R.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Outpatient opioid addiction treatment with sublingual buprenorphine pharmacotherapy (OBOT) has rapidly expanded in the United States and abroad, and, with this increase in medication availability, there have been increasing concerns about its diversion, misuse and related harms. This narrative review defines the behaviors of diversion and misuse, examines how the pharmacology of buprenorphine alone and in combination with naloxone influence its abuse liability, and describes the epidemiological data on buprenorphine diversion and intravenous misuse, risk factors for its intravenous misuse and the unintended consequences of misuse and diversion. Physician practices to prevent, screen for, and therapeutically respond to these behaviors, which are a form of medication non-adherence, are discussed and gaps in knowledge are identified. OBOT experiences from other countries that have varied health care systems, public policies, and access to addiction treatment are shared in order to make clear that diversion and misuse occur across the world in various contexts, for many different reasons, and are not limited to buprenorphine. Comparisons are made with other opioids with known abuse liability as well as medications with no known abuse. The objective is to facilitate understanding of diversion and misuse so that all factors influencing their expression (patient and provider characteristics and public policy) can be appreciated within a framework that also recognizes the benefits of addiction treatment. With this comprehensive perspective, further careful work can help determine how to minimize these behaviors without eroding the current benefits realized through improved addiction treatment access and expansion. PMID:25221984

  14. Pain and Associated Substance Use among Opioid Dependent Individuals Seeking Office-Based Treatment with Buprenorphine-Naloxone: A Needs Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Savant, Jonathan D.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Moore, Brent A.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Fiellin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives A paucity of studies has examined the pain experiences of opioid dependent individuals seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT). We set out to examine, among those seeking BNT: (a) the prevalence of pain types (i.e., recent pain, chronic pain), (b) the characteristics of pain (intensity, frequency, duration, interference, location, and genesis), and (c) substance use to alleviate pain. Methods We surveyed 244 consecutive individuals seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence about physical pain and associated substance use. Results Thirty-six percent of respondents reported chronic pain (CP) (i.e., pain lasting at least 3 months) and 36% reported “some pain” (SP) (i.e., past week pain not meeting the threshold for CP). In comparison to SP respondents, those with CP were, on average, older; reported greater current pain intensity, pain frequency, typical pain duration, typical pain intensity, and typical pain interference; were more likely to report shoulder or pelvis and less likely to report stomach or arms as their most bothersome pain location; and were more likely to report accident or nerve damage and less likely to report opioid withdrawal as the genesis of their pain. Both pain subgroups reported similarly high rates of past-week substance use to alleviate pain. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The high rates of pain and self-reported substance use to manage pain suggest the importance of assessing and addressing pain in BNT patients. PMID:23617861

  15. Buprenorphine substitution treatment in France: drug users' views of the doctor-user relationship

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Anne; Lert, France; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Richard, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    The French system for drug substitution, or maintenance treatment, established in 1996, differs from the often strict conditions attached to methadone clinics in other countries. Because of the predominant role of general practitioners and the flexible prescription rules for Subutex® in France, the relationship between the physician and the drug user becomes a central element in the treatment. This article deals with the expectations that these users have of the physician, and their perception of his or her attitude towards them. In order to identify possible reasons for the absence of treatment compliance and of Subutex® misuse, it focuses on the users’ assessment of the physician’s response to the problems they report. This study, based on a diversified sample of 28 persons in treatment, showed 4 patterns of relationships between physicians and users, which differed in their focus: a) dosage, b) compliance, c) the person and d) obtaining a prescription. In all four case types, users had difficulty reporting other drug use or intravenous Subutex® injection within this relationship in which the stigma attached to drug dependence seems to reappear. Moreover, the lack of clarity about the treatment objectives and time frame limits the users’ ability to integrate the treatment into their lives and to commit themselves to it. The heterogeneity and fragility of the users’ situations are elements related to dependence that, during contact with the physician, require regular assessment of the individual’s situation and of the treatment objectives. This constant reappraisal of the situation with the physician should help to optimize the treatment and avoid the hiatus that can generate or continue “misuse.” PMID:17442473

  16. Buprenorphine for cancer pain: is it ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Prommer, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Buprenorphine (BUP) is a semisynthetic derivative of the opium alkaloid thebaine found in the poppy Papaver somniferum. Its chemical structure contains the morphine structure but differs by having a cyclopropylmethyl group. Buprenorphine is a potent µ opioid agonist. Buprenorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver and gut. The development of a transdermal BUP formulation in 2001 led to its evaluation in cancer pain. This article provides the practitioner with an update on the current role of BUP in cancer care. It highlights data suggesting effectiveness in various types of cancer pain. The article reviews pharmacology, routes of administration, adverse effects, drug interactions, and cost considerations. PMID:25163678

  17. Abuse liability of buprenorphine-naloxone tablets in untreated IV drug users.

    PubMed

    Alho, Hannu; Sinclair, David; Vuori, Erkki; Holopainen, Antti

    2007-04-17

    Buprenorphine (Subutex) is widely abused in Finland. A combination of buprenorphine plus naloxone (Suboxone) has been available since late 2004, permitting a comparison of the abuse of the two products among untreated intravenous (IV) users. A survey was distributed to attendees at a Helsinki needle exchange program over 2-weeks in April, 2005, At least 30% were returned anonymously. Survey variables included: years of prior IV opioid abuse, years of buprenorphine abuse, frequency, dosage, route of administration and reasons for use, concomitant IV abuse of other substances and amount paid on the street for both buprenorphine and buprenorphine+naloxone. Buprenorphine was the most frequently used IV drug for 73% of the respondents. More than 75% said they used IV buprenorphine to self-treat addiction or withdrawal. Most (68%) had tried the buprenorphine+naloxone combination IV, but 80% said they had a "bad" experience. Its street price was less than half that of buprenorphine alone. The buprenorphine+naloxone combination appears to be a feasible tool, along with easier access to addiction treatment, for decreasing IV abuse of buprenorphine. PMID:17055191

  18. BUPRENORPHINE DECREASES THE CCL2-MEDIATED CHEMOTACTIC RESPONSE OF MONOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Carvallo, Loreto; Lopez, Lillie; Che, Fa-Yun; Lim, Jihyeon; Eugenin, Eliseo; Williams, Dionna W.; Nieves, Edward; Calderon, Tina M.; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Fiser, Andras; Weiss, Louis; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Berman, Joan W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite successful cART, approximately 60% of HIV infected people exhibit HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). CCL2 is elevated in the CNS of infected people with HAND and mediates monocyte influx into the CNS, which is critical in neuroAIDS. Many HIV infected opiate abusers have increased neuroinflammation that may augment HAND. Buprenorphine is used to treat opiate addiction. However, there are few studies that examine its impact on HIV neuropathogenesis. We show that buprenorphine reduces the chemotactic phenotype of monocytes. Buprenorphine decreases the formation of membrane projections in response to CCL2. It also decreases CCL2-induced chemotaxis and mediates a delay in reinsertion of the CCL2 receptor, CCR2, into the cell membrane after CCL2-mediated receptor internalization, suggesting a mechanism of action of buprenorphine. Signaling pathways in CCL2-induced migration include increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and of the junctional protein JAM-A. We show that buprenorphine decreases these phosphorylations in CCL2-treated monocytes. Using DAMGO, CTAP, and Nor-BNI, we demonstrate that the effect of buprenorphine on CCL2 signaling is opioid receptor mediated. To identify additional potential mechanisms by which buprenorphine inhibits CCL2-induced monocyte migration, we performed proteomic analyses to characterize additional proteins in monocytes whose phosphorylation after CCL2 treatment was inhibited by buprenorphine. Leukosialin and S100A9, were identified and had not been shown previously be involved in monocyte migration. We propose that buprenorphine limits CCL2-mediated monocyte transmigration into the CNS, thereby reducing neuroinflammation characteristic of HAND. Our findings underscore the use of buprenorphine as a therapeutic for neuroinflammation as well as for addiction. PMID:25716997

  19. A survey of buprenorphine related deaths in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lai, Siang Hui; Yao, Yi Ju; Lo, Danny Siaw Teck

    2006-10-16

    Buprenorphine is available in Singapore as substitution treatment for opioid dependence since 2002. This study surveys buprenorphine related deaths in Singapore between September 2003 and December 2004. The aims are to establish the autopsy prevalence of buprenorphine related deaths and the demographical and toxicological profile of the cases. Toxicological screening was performed for all unnatural deaths, deaths involving known drug addicts, as well as when autopsy revealed no obvious cause of death. Twenty-one cases had buprenorphine detected in post-mortem blood and/or urine samples. Eighteen were sudden deaths. There were two fatal falls from height and one death by hanging. All subjects were male. The age range was 24-48 years. Fourteen subjects were between 30 and 39 years of age. The mean age was 35 years. The majority (62%) were Chinese. Eleven (52%) were known drug abusers. For sudden deaths, two groups were identified. Six cases died from natural causes. Blood buprenorphine levels ranged from undetected (detected in urine) to 3.2 ng/mL (mean 1.4 ng/mL). Twelve cases were attributed directly and indirectly to mixed drug poisoning. Blood buprenorphine levels ranged from undetected (detected in urine) to 17 ng/mL (mean 3.2 ng/mL). Nineteen cases showed concurrent abuse of buprenorphine and benzodiazepine, diazepam being the most frequently detected, followed by nitrazepam and midazolam. The availability of buprenorphine as substitution therapy is associated with an increase in buprenorphine related deaths. The danger of co-abuse of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines is highlighted. PMID:16879940

  20. Buprenorphine decreases the CCL2-mediated chemotactic response of monocytes.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Loreto; Lopez, Lillie; Che, Fa-Yun; Lim, Jihyeon; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Williams, Dionna W; Nieves, Edward; Calderon, Tina M; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Fiser, Andras; Weiss, Louis; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Berman, Joan W

    2015-04-01

    Despite successful combined antiretroviral therapy, ∼ 60% of HIV-infected people exhibit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). CCL2 is elevated in the CNS of infected people with HAND and mediates monocyte influx into the CNS, which is critical in neuroAIDS. Many HIV-infected opiate abusers have increased neuroinflammation that may augment HAND. Buprenorphine is used to treat opiate addiction. However, there are few studies that examine its impact on HIV neuropathogenesis. We show that buprenorphine reduces the chemotactic phenotype of monocytes. Buprenorphine decreases the formation of membrane projections in response to CCL2. It also decreases CCL2-induced chemotaxis and mediates a delay in reinsertion of the CCL2 receptor, CCR2, into the cell membrane after CCL2-mediated receptor internalization, suggesting a mechanism of action of buprenorphine. Signaling pathways in CCL2-induced migration include increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and of the junctional protein JAM-A. We show that buprenorphine decreases these phosphorylations in CCL2-treated monocytes. Using DAMGO, CTAP, and Nor-BNI, we demonstrate that the effect of buprenorphine on CCL2 signaling is opioid receptor mediated. To identify additional potential mechanisms by which buprenorphine inhibits CCL2-induced monocyte migration, we performed proteomic analyses to characterize additional proteins in monocytes whose phosphorylation after CCL2 treatment was inhibited by buprenorphine. Leukosialin and S100A9 were identified and had not been shown previously to be involved in monocyte migration. We propose that buprenorphine limits CCL2-mediated monocyte transmigration into the CNS, thereby reducing neuroinflammation characteristic of HAND. Our findings underscore the use of buprenorphine as a therapeutic for neuroinflammation as well as for addiction. PMID:25716997

  1. Intravenous misuse of buprenorphine: characteristics and extent among patients undergoing drug maintenance therapy.

    PubMed

    Moratti, Enrico; Kashanpour, Hamid; Lombardelli, Tiziana; Maisto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Sublingual buprenorphine [Subutex(R)] is used to treat opioid dependence. However, illicit intravenous (IV) injection of buprenorphine is a widespread problem. This survey investigated the IV misuse of buprenorphine among patients receiving drug replacement therapy at the Drug Addiction Centre in Udine, Italy. All patients who were receiving treatment with buprenorphine or methadone at the Drug Addiction Centre were invited to fill in a voluntary and anonymous questionnaire consisting of five questions. The questions asked if the patient had ever misused buprenorphine intravenously, when the misuse had occurred, the patient's reasons for misusing buprenorphine, the patient's perception of their experience, and the patient's perception of how widespread IV misuse of buprenorphine is. 307 patients completed the questionnaire, 93 and 214 of whom, respectively, were receiving buprenorphine and methadone. In total, 23.12% of patients admitted an IV misuse of buprenorphine, with a significantly greater prevalence among patients currently receiving buprenorphine (35.48%) than those receiving methadone (17.75%; p < 0.001). Younger patients were also more likely to have misused buprenorphine, and tended to have done so before coming to the Drug Addiction Centre. The most frequent motivation for IV misuse was treatment of heroin addiction or withdrawal symptoms (50.71%), while only 12.67% of patients reported that their motivation was to experience pleasure or euphoria. The majority of patients who had misused buprenorphine intravenously (53.52%) had a negative experience, and methadone recipients were significantly more likely to find the experience negative than buprenorphine recipients (68.42% vs 36.36%; p = 0.007). Almost half of the patients (45.93%) thought that at least 50% of patients had taken buprenorphine by IV injection. The results of our study confirm the widespread IV misuse of buprenorphine. Misuse was most common among patients currently receiving buprenorphine treatment and younger patients. For the majority of patients, the reason for IV misuse was to treat their dependence. We believe that the prevalence of buprenorphine misuse could be reduced by adopting appropriate clinical practices and treating patients with the buprenorphine/naloxone combination rather than buprenorphine alone. PMID:20450240

  2. Buprenorphine effects on morphine- and cocaine-induced subjective responses by drug-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Teoh, S K; Mello, N K; Mendelson, J H; Kuehnle, J; Gastfriend, D R; Rhoades, E; Sholar, W

    1994-02-01

    The effects of daily buprenorphine treatment (4 or 8 mg/day, sublingual) on reports of subjective effects after single intravenous doses of morphine (10 mg), cocaine (30 mg), and saline placebo were studied on an inpatient clinical research ward in 26 men concurrently dependent on opioids and cocaine (DSM-III-R). Latency to detection and certainty of a drug effect, as well as drug quality (intensity, euphoria, and dysphoria), were studied before and after 10 to 12 days of buprenorphine maintenance. Saline was accurately identified by all 26 patients during the drugfree baseline and by 25 patients during buprenorphine maintenance conditions. All patients accurately identified morphine during the drugfree period before treatment with buprenorphine, but 18 (69%) of 26 patients were unable to detect morphine during buprenorphine maintenance and 2 misidentified morphine as cocaine. Six men (23%) accurately identified morphine and reported that the intensity and quality of morphine's effects were equivalent to drugfree conditions. Cocaine levels in plasma 5 minutes after intravenous cocaine injection were equivalent before and during buprenorphine treatment and averaged 282.8 +/- 43.6 and 295.2 +/- 28.8 ng/ml during 4 and 8 mg/day of buprenorphine maintenance, respectively. All patients accurately identified cocaine before and during buprenorphine maintenance, and there were no significant changes in latency to detection and certainty of a drug effect or reports of cocaine-induced intensity or euphoria during buprenorphine treatment. The concordance between responses to morphine and cocaine during inpatient buprenorphine maintenance and drug use during the first 4 weeks of outpatient buprenorphine treatment was also examined in 16 men. The effects of buprenorphine on individual responses to an acute intravenous dose of morphine or cocaine during the inpatient study did not reliably predict the frequency of heroin or cocaine self-administration during the first 4 weeks of daily outpatient buprenorphine maintenance. PMID:8151000

  3. The implementation of buprenorphine/naloxone in college health practice.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, Peter A; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2008-01-01

    Opiate abuse and dependence have become important concerns for college healthcare providers. The passage of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 and the approval of the combination buprenorphine/naloxone for office-based treatment of opiate dependence have increased the options available for college students and their healthcare providers. The authors review the pharmacology of buprenorphine/naloxone and discuss how it can be implemented in college health practice. They also present a case report. PMID:18316282

  4. Predictors of outcome after short-term stabilization with buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Maureen; Canamar, Catherine P; Ling, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Using buprenorphine as a medication to treat opioid dependence is becoming more prevalent as illicit opiate use increases. Identifying the characteristics of opiate dependent individuals best suited to benefit from buprenorphine would improve guidelines for its administration. This study evaluates baseline and treatment participation variables for predicting positive response to short-term stabilization with buprenorphine. Data include demographic, drug use, and other variables collected from participants undergoing stabilization over a 4-week period before being tapered off buprenorphine in a short-term detoxification process. Outcome variables include opioid use and retention. Logistic regression results indicate several characteristics associated with opioid use at the end of the stabilization period. These include being older, having no criminal history, and less opiate use. Criminal activity and opioid use in the last 30 days were significantly associated with shorter treatment stays. The benefits of identifying individual characteristics that may predict treatment response are discussed. PMID:23021099

  5. Predictors of Outcome after Short-term Stabilization with Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Hillhouse, Maureen; Canamar, Catherine P.; Ling, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Using buprenorphine as a medication to treat opioid dependence is becoming more prevalent as illicit opiate use increases. Identifying the characteristics of opiate dependent individuals best suited to benefit from buprenorphine would improve guidelines for its administration. This study evaluates baseline and treatment participation variables for predicting positive response to short-term stabilization with buprenorphine. Data includes demographic, drug use, and other variables collected from participants undergoing stabilization over a 4-week period before being tapered off buprenorphine in a short-term detoxification process. Outcome variables include opioid use and retention. Logistic regression results indicate several characteristics associated with opioid use at the end of the stabilization period. These include being older, having no criminal history, and less opiate use. Criminal activity and opioid use in the last 30 days were significantly associated with shorter treatment stays. The benefits of identifying individual characteristics that may predict treatment response are discussed. PMID:23021099

  6. A woman's experience of tapering from buprenorphine during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Welle-Strand, Gabrielle Katrine; Kvamme, Odd; Andreassen, Andreas; Ravndal, Edle

    2014-01-01

    Although opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is the treatment of choice for pregnant opioid-dependent patients, some professionals argue that tapering the medication dose will reduce the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This case description is based on the patient's detailed blog, and medical records from her general practitioner and the hospital. The patient is an employed, 32-year-old drug-abstinent woman in OMT. Her taper from 24 mg of buprenorphine started at 14 weeks' gestation and is slow, with withdrawal symptoms increasing gradually. In pregnancy week 31, she is off buprenorphine but she has severe withdrawal symptoms. She chose to go back on 4 mg of buprenorphine. The patient's son was born in pregnancy week 38+3, weighs 2950 g and does not require pharmacological treatment for NAS. The fetus most probably did experience fetal stress during the patient's tapering. It was the right decision by the patient to go back on buprenorphine. PMID:25540212

  7. Transdermal buprenorphine, opioid rotation to sublingual buprenorphine, and the avoidance of precipitated withdrawal: a review of the literature and demonstration in three chronic pain patients treated with butrans.

    PubMed

    Kornfeld, Howard; Reetz, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine is an opioid, used in the United States and abroad for both analgesia and addiction, with unique opioid receptor binding properties. There are several pharmacological features of buprenorphine that make it an emerging option for the long-term treatment of chronic pain-its respiratory suppression ceiling effect, its efficacy in neuropathic pain and hyperalgesic states, and its decreased suppression of the immune and endocrine systems compared with other long-acting opioids. Previous studies have shown that high-dose sublingual buprenorphine is an effective treatment of chronic pain patients not responding to other opioids. Guidelines for the introduction of sublingual buprenorphine, termed buprenorphine induction, include an opioid-free "withdrawal" period of 12-48 hours to avoid an anticipated and accelerated opioid withdrawal, a syndrome described in this article as precipitated withdrawal. The requirement of a period of opioid abstinence before buprenorphine use may present a significant barrier to its adoption for chronic pain. We present a case series of a novel method of sublingual buprenorphine introduction without an induction period, using the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved low-dose transdermal buprenorphine (Butrans; Purdue Pharma L.P.) as a bridge medication. In these cases, buprenorphine was started in opioid-dependent chronic noncancer pain patients who had taken short-acting opioid medications within hours of the initiation of the rotation. This method avoids the painful abstinence period and did not result in precipitated withdrawal or other significant adverse effects. PMID:23846520

  8. Buprenorphine Prescribing: To Expand or Not to Expand.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Shorter, Daryl; Kosten, Thomas R

    2016-05-01

    As a result of the prescription opioid epidemic in the United States, there has been an increasing need for effective treatment interventions, both pharmacological and nonpharmacological. Buprenorphine has emerged as a critical component of the treatment of opioid use disorder, yet its adoption has not been without some concerns. This article first reviews the pharmacology, clinical use, and US legislative action related to buprenorphine, followed by a discussion of the misuse and diversion of buprenorphine in the United States as well as internationally. We then explore the impact of buprenorphine abuse as well as discussing strategies for its reduction, including changes in policy, prescription and pharmacy monitoring, and continuing medical education for guiding and improving clinical practice. PMID:27123798

  9. Psychiatric comorbidity, red flag behaviors, and associated outcomes among office-based buprenorphine patients following Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur R; Tofighi, Babak; Rotrosen, John; Lee, Joshua D; Grossman, Ellie

    2014-04-01

    In October 2012, Bellevue Hospital Center (Bellevue) in New York City was temporarily closed as a result of Hurricane Sandy, the largest hurricane in US history. Bellevue's primary care office-based buprenorphine program was temporarily closed and later relocated to an affiliate public hospital. Previous research indicates that the relationships between disaster exposure, substance use patterns, psychiatric symptoms, and mental health services utilization is complex, with often conflicting findings regarding post-event outcomes (on the individual and community level) and antecedent risk factors. In general, increased use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs is associated with both greater disaster exposure and the development or exacerbation of other psychiatric symptoms and need for treatment. To date, there is limited published information regarding post-disaster outcomes among patients enrolled in office-based buprenorphine treatment, as the treatment modality has only been relatively approved recently. Patients enrolled in the buprenorphine program at the time of the storm were surveyed for self-reported buprenorphine adherence and illicit substance and alcohol use, as well as disaster-related personal consequences and psychiatric sequelae post-storm. Baseline demographic characteristics and insurance status were available from the medical record. Analysis was descriptive (counts and proportions) and qualitative, coding open-ended responses for emergent themes. There were 132 patients enrolled in the program at the time of the storm; of those, 91 were contacted and 89 completed the survey. Almost half of respondents reported disruption of their buprenorphine supply. Unexpectedly, patients with psychiatric comorbidity were no more likely to report increased use/relapse as a result. Rather, major risk factors associated with increased use or relapse post-storm were: (1) shorter length of time in treatment, (2) exposure to storm losses such as buprenorphine supply disruption, (3) a pre-storm history of red flag behaviors (in particular, repeat opioid-positive urines), and (4) new-onset post-storm psychiatric symptoms. Our findings highlight the relative resilience of buprenorphine as an office-based treatment modality for patients encountering a disaster with associated unanticipated service disruption. In responding to future disasters, triaging patient contact and priority based on a history of red-flag behaviors, rather than a history of psychiatric comorbidity, will likely optimize resource allocation, especially among recently enrolled patients. Additionally, patients endorsing new-onset psychiatric manifestations following disasters may be an especially high-risk group for poor outcomes, warranting further study. PMID:24619775

  10. Fulminant hepatic failure after intravenous injection of sublingual buprenorphine in a patient with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    French, Janine; Mujumdar, Avik; Angus, Peter; Gow, Paul

    2015-08-01

    A 20-year-old indigenous Australian male was admitted to the intensive care unit with fulminant hepatic failure secondary to intravenous use of buprenorphine, which had been prescribed sublingually for opioid dependence. Intravenous buprenorphine-induced hepatitis is well recognized, however, life-threatening fulminant hepatic failure has not previously been reported. PMID:26331017

  11. Fulminant hepatic failure after intravenous injection of sublingual buprenorphine in a patient with hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    French, Janine; Mujumdar, Avik; Angus, Peter; Gow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 20-year-old indigenous Australian male was admitted to the intensive care unit with fulminant hepatic failure secondary to intravenous use of buprenorphine, which had been prescribed sublingually for opioid dependence. Intravenous buprenorphine-induced hepatitis is well recognized, however, life-threatening fulminant hepatic failure has not previously been reported. PMID:26331017

  12. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .... SUBOXONE is indicated for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. In a letter dated September 18, 2012... require all manufacturers of buprenorphine-containing products for the treatment of opioid dependence to... for buprenorphine HCl and naloxone HCl products for opioid dependence until the Agency...

  13. Effect of Telaprevir on the Pharmacokinetics of Buprenorphine in Volunteers on Stable Buprenorphine/Naloxone Maintenance Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xia; Trevejo, Jose; van Heeswijk, Rolf P. G.; Smith, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This was an open-label, single-sequence trial in hepatitis C virus-negative volunteers on stable, individualized, buprenorphine maintenance therapy. Telaprevir at 750 mg every 8 h was coadministered with buprenorphine/naloxone (4:1 ratio as sublingual tablets) for 7 days with food. Pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone were measured over the 24-hour dosing interval on day −1 (buprenorphine/naloxone alone, reference) and day 7 of telaprevir coadministration (test). Geometric least-squares mean ratios and associated 90% confidence intervals of treatment ratios (test/reference) were calculated using log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters. Opioid withdrawal symptoms were evaluated throughout the study (via questionnaires and pupillometry). Pharmacokinetic data were available for 14 and 13 volunteers on day −1 and day 7, respectively. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for buprenorphine was unchanged and the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) for buprenorphine, Cmax and AUC for norbuprenorphine, and Cmax naxolone were modestly decreased during coadministration with telaprevir. Geometric least-squares mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) for buprenorphine were 0.80 (0.69, 0.93) for the Cmax and 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) for the AUC from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24); for norbuprenorphine, values were 0.85 (0.66, 1.09) for Cmax and 0.91 (0.71, 1.16) for AUC0–24; for naloxone, the Cmax was 0.84 (0.62, 1.13). Coadministration of telaprevir did not increase withdrawal symptom frequency, and there were no serious adverse events reported during or after completion of telaprevir coadministration. Results suggest dose adjustment may not be necessary when telaprevir and buprenorphine/naloxone are coadministered. PMID:22564847

  14. Engagement and Substance Dependence in a Primary Care-Based Addiction Treatment Program for People Infected with HIV and People at High-Risk for HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Walley, Alexander Y; Palmisano, Joseph; Sorensen-Alawad, Amy; Chaisson, Christine; Raj, Anita; Samet, Jeffrey H; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2015-12-01

    To improve outcomes for people with substance dependence and HIV infection or at risk for HIV infection, patients were enrolled in a primary care-based addiction treatment program from 2008-2012 that included a comprehensive substance use assessment, individual and group counseling, addiction pharmacotherapy and case management. We examined whether predisposing characteristics (depression, housing status, polysubstance use) and an enabling resource (buprenorphine treatment) were associated with engagement in the program and persistent substance dependence at 6 months. At program enrollment 61% were HIV-infected, 53% reported heroin use, 46% reported alcohol use, 37% reported cocaine use, and 28% reported marijuana use in the past 30 days, 72% reported depression, 19% were homeless, and 53% had polysubstance use. Within 6-months 60% had been treated with buprenorphine. Engagement (defined as 2 visits in first 14 days and 2 additional visits in next 30 days) occurred in 64%; 49% had substance dependence at 6-months. Receipt of buprenorphine treatment was associated with engagement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 8.32 95% CI: 4.13-16.77). Self-reported depression at baseline was associated with substance dependence at 6-months (AOR 3.30 95% CI: 1.65-6.61). Neither housing status nor polysubstance use was associated with engagement or substance dependence. The FAST PATH program successfully engaged and treated patients in a primary care-based addiction treatment program. Buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, was a major driver of addiction treatment engagement. Given depression's association with adverse outcomes in this clinical population, including mental health treatment as part of integrated care holds potential to improve addiction treatment outcomes. PMID:26298399

  15. Methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone are effective in reducing illicit buprenorphine and other opioid use, and reducing HIV risk behavior – Outcomes of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Otiashvili, David; Piralishvili, Gvantsa; Sikharulidze, Zura; Kamkamidze, George; Poole, Sabrina; Woody, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Determine the extent to which buprenorphine injectors continue treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone or methadone, and the impact of these treatments on substance use and HIV risk in the Republic of Georgia. Methods Randomized controlled 12-week trial of daily-observed methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone followed by a dose taper, referral to ongoing treatment, and follow-up at week 20 at the Uranti Clinic in Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. Eighty consenting treatment-seeking individuals (40/group) aged 25 and above who met ICD-10 criteria for opioid dependence with physiologic features and reported injecting buprenorphine 10 or more times in the past 30 days. Opioid use according to urine tests and self-reports, treatment retention, and HIV risk behavior as determined by the Risk Assessment Battery. Results Mean age of participants was 33.7 (SD5.7), 4 were female, mean history of opioid injection use was 5.8 years (SD4.6), none were HIV+ at intake or at the 12-week assessment and 73.4% were HCV+. Sixty-eight participants (85%) completed the 12-week medication phase (33 from methadone and 35 from buprenorphine/naloxone group); 37 (46%) were in treatment at the 20-week follow-up (21 from methadone and 16 from the buprenorphine/naloxone group). In both study arms, treatment resulted in a marked reduction in unprescribed buprenorphine, other opioid use, and HIV injecting risk behavior with no clinically significant differences between the two treatment arms. Conclusions Daily observed methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone are effective treatments for non-medical buprenorphine and other opioid use in the Republic of Georgia and likely to be useful for preventing HIV infection. PMID:23916321

  16. Buprenorphine maintenance and mu-opioid receptor availability in the treatment of opioid use disorder: implications for clinical use and policy

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Mark K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Fiellin, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sublingual formulations of buprenorphine (BUP) and BUP/naloxone have well-established pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and are safe and effective for treating opioid use disorder. Since approvals of these formulations, their clinical use has increased. Yet, questions have arisen as to how BUP binding to mu-opioid receptors (μORs), the neurobiological target for this medication, relate to its clinical application. BUP produces dose- and time-related alterations of μOR availability but some clinicians express concern about whether doses higher than those needed to prevent opioid withdrawal symptoms are warranted, and policymakers consider limiting reimbursement for certain BUP dosing regimens. Methods We review scientific data concerning BUP-induced changes in μOR availability and their relationship to clinical efficacy. Results Withdrawal suppression appears to require ≤50% μOR availability, associated with BUP trough plasma concentrations ≥1 ng/mL; for most patients, this may require single daily BUP doses of 4-mg to defend against trough levels, or lower divided doses. Blockade of the reinforcing and subjective effects of typical doses of abused opioids require <20% μOR availability, associated with BUP trough plasma concentrations ≥3 ng/mL; for most individuals, this may require single daily BUP doses >16-mg, or lower divided doses. For individuals attempting to surmount this blockade with higher-than-usual doses of abused opioids, even larger BUP doses and <10% μOR availability would be required. Conclusion For these reasons, and given the complexities of studies on this issue and comorbid problems, we conclude that fixed, arbitrary limits on BUP doses in clinical care or limits on reimbursement for this care are unwarranted. PMID:25179217

  17. The New Kid on the Block-Incorporating Buprenorphine into a Medical Toxicology Practice.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Buprenorphine represents a safe and effective therapy for treating opioid dependence, alleviating craving and withdrawal symptoms in opioid-dependent patients. Buprenorphine has a "blocking" effect against the action of other opioids at the mu-receptor, preventing not only opioid-induced euphoria, but CNS and respiratory depressant effects as well. Buprenorphine was approved for the treatment of opioid dependence in 2002 after the passage of Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA 2000) which allowed clinicians to treat opioid-dependent patients with specifically named opioid agonist therapies in an office setting. Buprenorphine programs reduce the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C and reduce criminal behaviors associated with illicit drug use. Patients stabilized on buprenorphine have increased employment, enhanced engagement with social services, and better overall health and well-being. PMID:26574020

  18. Benzodiazepines, methadone and buprenorphine: interactions and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Lintzeris, Nicholas; Nielsen, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely used by heroin users not in treatment, and by patients in methadone and buprenorphine (BPN) treatment. This review examines the epidemiology of BZD use by opioid users, and the range of harms that are associated with BZD use in this group, including the association of BZD use with opioid-related mortality. Preclinical and clinical data regarding pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between methadone, buprenorphine, and BZDs are reviewed. An overview of treatment approaches for managing BZD use in this population is presented, including strategies for minimizing abuse and addressing BZD dependence. PMID:20132123

  19. Opioid maintenance treatment as a harm reduction tool for opioid-dependent individuals in NYC: the need to expand access to buprenorphine in marginalized populations

    PubMed Central

    Stancliff, Sharon; Joseph, Herman; Furst, Terry; Fong, Chunki; Comer, Sandra D.; Roux, Perrine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effectiveness of buprenorphine among marginalized opioid dependent individuals in terms of retention in and cycling in and out of a harm-reduction program. This pilot study enrolled 100 participants and followed them from November 2005 to July 2008. The overall proportion of patients retained in the program at the end of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months was 68%, 63%, 56%, and 42%, respectively. This pilot study demonstrated that buprenorphine could be successfully used to treat marginalized heroin users. PMID:22873189

  20. A meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability of buprenorphine for the relief of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Yeoh, Peng Nam; Aung, Kyan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesize available evidence on the analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine in treating cancer pain and related adverse effects. We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials, assessing the efficacy of buprenorphine, regardless of delivery system. The primary endpoints were patient-reported 'pain intensity' and 'pain relief'. Statistical heterogeneity among included studies was assessed with the I (2) test. The summary relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were derived, if two or more studies reported the similar outcome. Sixteen RCTs (n = 1329) with buprenorphine were included: 8 transdermal (TD), 5 sublingual (SL), 2 intramuscular injection (IM) and 1 subcutaneous infusion (SC) studies; with both SL and IM routes being assessed in one study. Only a few studies reported the same outcome in a similar way, creating difficulty for pooling of the outcome data. Many studies had a high risk of bias. In 2 studies (n = 241), the 'global impression change' was significantly different between TD buprenorphine and the combined placebo and morphine (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.59; I (2): 42%); the 'number-needed-to-treat' (NNT) was 4.9 (95% CI: 3.1-10.9). In 2 studies (n = 331), 'requirement for rescue SL buprenorphine' was comparable between TD buprenorphine and placebo (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.71-2.18; I (2) : 40%). In 2 studies (n = 141), 'incidence of nausea' was less in TD buprenorphine (RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.2-0.71, I (2): 0%, NNT: 9.3, 5.6-28.5). Due to the small number of participants in a small number of studies, the results of the present review provide insufficient evidence to position adequately the use of buprenorphine in treatment of cancer pain. Large multicenter RCTs that compare TD buprenorphine with standard analgesic treatment is needed to position TD buprenorphine in the therapeutic armamentarium of cancer pain treatment. PMID:24600544

  1. Buprenorphine Reduces Alcohol Drinking Through Activation of the Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ-NOP Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Economidou, Daina; Rimondini, Roberto; Sommer, Wolfgang; Massi, Maurizio; Heilig, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background Activation of the NOP receptor by its endogenous ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ reduces ethanol intake in genetically selected alcohol preferring Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring (msP) rats. Here we evaluated whether buprenorphine, a partial agonist at μ-opioid and NOP receptors, would reduce ethanol consumption in msP rats via activation of NOP receptors. Methods Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring rats trained to drink 10% alcohol 2 hours/day were injected with buprenorphine (.03, .3, 3.0, or 6.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]) 90 min before access to ethanol. Results Similar to prototypical μ-agonists, the two lowest doses of buprenorphine significantly increased ethanol consumption (p < .01); in contrast, the two highest doses reduced it (p < .05). Pretreatment with naltrexone (.25 mg/kg IP) prevented the increase of ethanol intake induced by .03 mg/kg of buprenorphine (p < .001) but did not affect the inhibition of ethanol drinking induced by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conversely, pretreatment with the selective NOP receptor antagonist UFP-101 (10.0 or 20.0 μg/rat) abolished the suppression of ethanol drinking by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine has dualistic effects on ethanol drinking; low doses increase alcohol intake via stimulation of classic opioid receptors, whereas higher doses reduce it via activation of NOP receptors. We suggest that NOP agonistic properties of buprenorphine might be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:16533497

  2. Comparing buprenorphine induction experience with heroin and prescription opioid users.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Hillhouse, Maureen; Mooney, Larissa; Fahey, Jacqueline; Ling, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Prescription opioid (PO)-dependent treatment presentations are becoming increasingly common; however, most research on the treatment of opioid-dependent populations has been conducted in heroin users. The aim of this secondary data analysis was to compare the buprenorphine induction experience of 167 heroin and 61 PO users. Results demonstrate that although the groups differed on some baseline characteristics, many of the key induction experience variables were comparable between the groups. Heroin users were found to have significantly higher preinduction Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) scores (p = .014) and postinduction COWS score (p = .008) compared with the PO users. No differences between groups were found for self-reported craving and withdrawal scores, mean buprenorphine dose on Day 1, or retention at the end of the first week. The findings of this study suggest that existing buprenorphine induction practices developed for heroin users appear to be equally effective with PO users. PMID:22301084

  3. The Implementation of Buprenorphine/Naloxone in College Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaria, Peter A., Jr.; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Opiate abuse and dependence have become important concerns for college healthcare providers. The passage of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 and the approval of the combination buprenorphine/naloxone for office-based treatment of opiate dependence have increased the options available for college students and their healthcare providers. The

  4. The Implementation of Buprenorphine/Naloxone in College Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaria, Peter A., Jr.; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Opiate abuse and dependence have become important concerns for college healthcare providers. The passage of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 and the approval of the combination buprenorphine/naloxone for office-based treatment of opiate dependence have increased the options available for college students and their healthcare providers. The…

  5. The relative risk of fatal poisoning by methadone or buprenorphine within the wider population of England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the population-wide overdose risk emerging from the prescription of methadone and buprenorphine for opioid substitution treatment in England and Wales. Design Retrospective administrative data study. Setting National databases for England and Wales. Participants/cases Drug-related mortality data were drawn from the Office for National Statistics, and prescription data for methadone and buprenorphine were obtained from the National Health Service for the years 2007–2012. During this 6-year period, a total of 2366 methadone-related deaths and 52 buprenorphine-related deaths were registered, corresponding to 17 333 163 methadone and 2 602 374 buprenorphine prescriptions issued. The analysis encompassed poisoning deaths among members of the wider population of England and Wales who consumed, but were not prescribed these medications, in addition to patients prescribed methadone or buprenorphine. Main outcome measures Mortality risk: substance-specific overdose rate per 1000 prescriptions issued; relative risk ratio of methadone in relation to buprenorphine. Results During the years 2007–2012, the pooled overdose death rate was 0.137/1000 prescriptions of methadone, compared to 0.022/1000 prescriptions of buprenorphine (including buprenorphine-naloxone). The analysis generated a relative risk ratio of 6.23 (95% CI 4.79 to 8.10) of methadone in relation to buprenorphine. UK Borders Agency data were taken into consideration and revealed that only negligible amounts of methadone and buprenorphine were seized on entering UK territory between 2007 and 2012, suggesting domestic diversion. Conclusions Our analysis of the relative safety of buprenorphine and methadone for opioid substitution treatment reveals that buprenorphine is six times safer than methadone with regard to overdose risk among the general population. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of prescribing methadone, and tighter regulations are needed to prevent its diversion. PMID:26024998

  6. A Combination of Buprenorphine and Naltrexone Blocks Compulsive Cocaine Intake in Rodents Without Producing Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sunmee; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid that acts at both μ and κ opioid receptors, can decrease cocaine use in individuals with opioid addiction. However, the potent agonist action of buprenorphine at μ opioid receptors raises its potential for creating opioid dependence in non–opioid-dependent cocaine abusers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone (a potent μ opioid antagonist with weaker δ and κ antagonist properties) could block compulsive cocaine self-administration without producing opioid dependence. The effects of buprenorphine and various doses of naltrexone on cocaine self-administration were assessed in rats that self-administered cocaine under conditions of either short access (noncompulsive cocaine seeking) or extended access (compulsive cocaine seeking). Buprenorphine alone reproducibly decreased cocaine self-administration. Although this buprenorphine-alone effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by naltrexone in both the short-access and the extended-access groups, the combination of the lowest dose of naltrexone with buprenorphine blocked cocaine self-administration in the extended-access group but not in the short-access group. Rats given this low dose of naltrexone with buprenorphine did not exhibit the physical opioid withdrawal syndrome seen in rats treated with buprenorphine alone, and naltrexone at this dose did not block κ agonist–induced analgesia. The results suggest that the combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone at an appropriate dosage decreases compulsive cocaine self-administration with minimal liability to produce opioid dependence and may be useful as a treatment for cocaine addiction. PMID:22875830

  7. Colocating buprenorphine with methadone maintenance and outpatient chemical dependency services.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Susan D; Kunins, Hillary V; Arnsten, Julia H; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2007-07-01

    Buprenorphine may be used to treat opioid dependence in office-based settings, but treatment models are needed to ensure access to psychosocial services needed by many patients. We describe a novel buprenorphine treatment program colocated with methadone maintenance and outpatient chemical dependency services. We conducted a retrospective chart review of the first 40 consecutive patients initiating buprenorphine treatment in this program to determine characteristics associated with treatment retention. Exclusion criteria were current alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence. Secondary drug users and patients who were psychiatrically or medically ill were included. At 6 months, 60% (n = 24) were retained, 13% (n = 5) tested positive for opiates, and 25% (n = 10) tested positive for secondary substances. Patients who were older (odds ratio [OR] per year of age = 1.1, confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.2) and those who were employed (OR = 9.8, CI = 1.8-53.1) were more likely to remain in treatment, but other variables were not associated with retention. Our experience demonstrates that buprenorphine can be successfully integrated into outpatient substance abuse treatment. PMID:17588493

  8. Considerations on the role of buprenorphine in recovery from heroin addiction from a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Nutt, David J

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom Drug Strategy emphasises recovery as a key focus in the treatment of drug dependence. A framework for recovery is defined in the Recovery-Orientated Drug Treatment report, written by an expert working group, and comprises four key phases: engagement and stabilisation, including the establishment of treatment goals; preparation for change, involving engagement in psychosocial and pharmacological interventions; active change, including detoxification and medical withdrawal; and completion, including interventions that strengthen community integration. A body of evidence supports the benefits of buprenorphine, a partial agonist at mu opioid receptors, in supporting individualised recovery based on this framework, specifically in relation to the potential for rapid stabilisation, flexibility to transition to other treatment options or achieve abstinence, effective blocking of on-top use of illicit drugs, the treatment of comorbidities through the minimisation of drug-drug interactions, and a good safety profile. In addition, the newer abuse-deterrent formulation of buprenorphine combined with the opioid antagonist naloxone is likely to strengthen recovery-orientated systems of care due to its potential to reduce misuse and diversion. Progress through the recovery journey and the ability to sustain recovery will depend on individual needs and goals and on the amount of recovery capital that individuals have developed. PMID:25389219

  9. Patient perspectives of an integrated program of medical care and substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Farrell, Caitlin; Sorensen-Alawad, Amy; Palmisano, Joseph N; Chaisson, Christine; Walley, Alexander Y

    2014-02-01

    The benefits of integrating primary care and substance use disorder treatment are well known, yet true integration is difficult. We developed and evaluated a team-based model of integrated care within the primary care setting for HIV-infected substance users and substance users at risk for contracting HIV. Qualitative data were gathered via focus groups and satisfaction surveys to assess patients' views of the program, evaluate key elements for success, and provide recommendations for other programs. Key themes related to preferences for the convenience and efficiency of integrated care; support for a team-based model of care; a feeling that the program requirements offered needed structure; the importance of counseling and education; and how provision of concrete services improved overall well-being and quality of life. For patients who received buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid dependence, this was viewed as a major benefit. Our results support other studies that theorize integrated care could be of significant value for hard-to-reach populations and indicate that having a clinical team dedicated to providing substance use disorder treatment, HIV risk reduction, and case management services integrated into primary care clinics has the potential to greatly enhance the ability to serve a challenging population with unmet treatment needs. PMID:24428768

  10. Patient Perspectives of an Integrated Program of Medical Care and Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Caitlin; Sorensen-Alawad, Amy; Palmisano, Joseph N.; Chaisson, Christine; Walley, Alexander Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The benefits of integrating primary care and substance use disorder treatment are well known, yet true integration is difficult. We developed and evaluated a team-based model of integrated care within the primary care setting for HIV-infected substance users and substance users at risk for contracting HIV. Qualitative data were gathered via focus groups and satisfaction surveys to assess patients' views of the program, evaluate key elements for success, and provide recommendations for other programs. Key themes related to preferences for the convenience and efficiency of integrated care; support for a team-based model of care; a feeling that the program requirements offered needed structure; the importance of counseling and education; and how provision of concrete services improved overall well-being and quality of life. For patients who received buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid dependence, this was viewed as a major benefit. Our results support other studies that theorize integrated care could be of significant value for hard-to-reach populations and indicate that having a clinical team dedicated to providing substance use disorder treatment, HIV risk reduction, and case management services integrated into primary care clinics has the potential to greatly enhance the ability to serve a challenging population with unmet treatment needs. PMID:24428768

  11. Opioid Abstinence Reinforcement Delays Heroin Lapse during Buprenorphine Dose Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…

  12. Diversion of methadone and buprenorphine from opioid substitution treatment: patients who regularly sell or share their medication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Björn; Richert, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Diversion-the practice of patients selling or sharing their medication-is a much debated problem of opioid substitution treatment. Regular diversion by patients was studied at 11 opioid substitution treatment programs in the south of Sweden. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was investigated whether those patients differ from other patients, their motives for and means of diversion, and who the recipients are. Regular diverters are a small, yet heterogeneous group. Continued illicit drug use, however, stands out as a common risk factor. Pecuniary need and a desire to help friends are other important motives. The client base mainly consists of people from the regular diverters' own drug milieus. PMID:25496247

  13. Can the chronic administration of the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential?

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas JH; Bailey, John; Bowirrat, Abdulla; Femino, John; Chen, Amanda LC; Simpatico, Thomas; Morse, Siobhan; Giordano, John; Damle, Uma; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Eric R.; Fornari, Frank; Downs, B.William; Rector, Cynthia; Barh, Debmayla; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Opiate addiction is associated with many adverse health and social harms, fatal overdose, infectious disease transmission, elevated health care costs, public disorder, and crime. Although community-based addiction treatment programs continue to reduce the harms of opiate addiction with narcotic substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance, there remains a need to find a substance that not only blocks opiate-type receptors (mu, delta, etc.) but also provides agonistic activity; hence the impetus arose for the development of a combination of narcotic antagonism and mu receptor agonist therapy. After three decades of extensive research the federal Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA) opened a window of opportunity for patients with addiction disorders by providing increased access to options for treatment. DATA allows physicians who complete a brief specialty-training course to become certified to prescribe buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone (Subutex, Suboxone) for treatment of patients with opioid dependence. Clinical studies indicate buprenorphine maintenance is as effective as methadone maintenance in retaining patients in substance abuse treatment and in reducing illicit opioid use. With that stated, we must consider the long-term benefits or potential toxicity attributed to Subutex or Suboxone. We describe a mechanism whereby chronic blockade of opiate receptors, in spite of only partial opiate agonist action, may ultimately block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential. While the direct comparison is not as yet available, toxicity to buprenorphine can be found in the scientific literature. In considering our cautionary note in this commentary, we are cognizant that to date this is what we have available, and until such a time when the real magic bullet is discovered, we will have to endure. However, more than anything else this commentary should at least encourage the development of thoughtful new strategies to target the specific brain regions responsible for relapse prevention. PMID:21948099

  14. Alcohol Screening among Opioid Agonist Patients in a Primary Care Clinic and an Opioid Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Jan; Muench, John; Wiest, Katharina; Croff, Raina; Rieckman, Traci; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health and economic outcomes, especially among people in opioid agonist treatment. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) are effective in reducing alcohol use; however, issues involved in SBIRT implementation among opioid agonist patients are unknown. To assess identification and treatment of alcohol use disorders, we reviewed clinical records of opioid agonist patients screened for an alcohol use disorder in a primary care clinic (n = 208) and in an opioid treatment program (n = 204) over a two-year period. In the primary care clinic, 193 (93%) buprenorphine patients completed an annual alcohol screening and six (3%) had elevated AUDIT scores. In the opioid treatment program, an alcohol abuse or dependence diagnosis was recorded for 54 (27%) methadone patients. Practitioner focus groups were completed in the primary care (n = 4 physicians) and the opioid treatment program (n = 11 counselors) to assess experience with and attitudes towards screening opioid agonist patients for alcohol use disorders. Focus groups suggested that organizational, structural, provider, patient, and community variables hindered or fostered alcohol screening. Alcohol screening is feasible among opioid agonist patients. Effective implementation, however, requires physician training and systematic changes in workflow. PMID:25715074

  15. [Transdermal buprenorphine: a current overview of pharmacological and clinical data].

    PubMed

    Faymonville, M E; Libbrecht, D

    2008-11-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of chronic pain progresses; the complexity of the problem justifies our need for new molecules and new ways of administration that will help to further optimise and better individualize our pharmacologic therapies. Whereas acute pain can be considered an alarm signal, chronic pain constitutes, per se, a syndrome that requires a meticulous selection of the analgesic drug(s). Since pain is permanent, the continuous administration of the analgesic is recommended rather than an on demand administration. Transdermic modes of administration are of value for the treatment of chronic pain because they allow a progressive delivery of the active compound together with the maintenance of stable plasma levels of the drug. Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid that is available in the sublingual, injectable, or transdermic forms. The matrix patch of buprenorphine represents a major asset for the treatment of chronic pain, whether it be cancerous in origin, or not. Its efficacy and safety have been clearly demonstrated in randomised double blind trials as well as in post-marketing surveillance observations. Buprenorphine, administered as a transdermal therapeutic system, induces a dose-related pain relief, whatever the nature of the pain and the age of the patient. Buprenorphine also exerts an analgesic action on neuropathic pain. It differs from other opioids by its affinity as a partial agonist on mu and kappa receptors, and as a complete agonist of ORL-1 receptors. Therefore, transdermal buprenorphine will be useful to all physicians having to control severe pain by powerful opioids. PMID:19112993

  16. The history of the development of buprenorphine as an addiction therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nancy D; Lovell, Anne M

    2012-02-01

    This paper traces the early 21st century success of the agonist-antagonist buprenorphine and the combination drug buprenorphine with naloxone within the broader quest to develop addiction therapeutics that began in the 1920s as the search for a nonaddictive analgesic. Drawing on archival research, document analysis, and interviews with contemporary actors, this paper situates the social organization of laboratory-based and clinical research within the domestic and international confluence of several issues, including research ethics, drug regulation, public attitudes, tensions around definitions of drug addiction, and the evolving roles of the pharmaceutical industry. The fervor that drove the champions of buprenorphine must be understood in relation to (1) the material work of research and pharmaceutical manufacturing; (2) the symbolic role of buprenorphine as a solution to numerous problems with addiction treatment evident by the mid-1970s; the destigmatization and individualization of addicts as patients; and (3) the complex configurations of public and private partnerships. PMID:22256949

  17. Buprenorphine therapy for opioid addiction in rural Washington: The experience of the early adopters

    PubMed Central

    Quest, Tyler L.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Roll, John; Saxon, Andrew J.; Rosenblatt, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of buprenorphine as office-based treatment for opioid dependence was designed to expand treatment capacity, but virtually there are no data about use of this medication in rural areas. Methods The survey of the first cohort of physicians in rural Washington State who obtained buprenorphine waivers (2002-2010) to determine the volume of treated patients, physician appraisal of the efficacy of this treatment, and perceived barriers to treatment was conducted. Twenty-four (73 percent) of the 33 rural buprenorphine-certified physicians practicing in the state were interviewed in 2010. Results Twenty physicians (83 percent) were actively prescribing buprenorphine/naloxone for treatment of addiction. Those currently prescribing averaged 23 active patients and had treated 125 patients since certification. All respondents reported that buprenorphine was efficacious in the treatment of addiction and 95 percent recommended that other rural colleagues adopt buprenorphine treatment. The following four major barriers were cited: 1) lack of adequate financial support from Medicaid, the largest source of third-party coverage for these patients; 2) unavailability of local mental health and behavioral addiction treatment services; 3) difficulty in finding consultants to assist in managing complex patients; and 4) shortages of other rural physicians providing this service. Conclusions Buprenorphine is viewed as a highly effective treatment of opioid addiction by early adopters in rural Washington State, but relatively few rural physicians currently provide this service. Inadequate insurance coverage, a shortage of effective links with consultants and colleagues, and the lack of mental health services are persistent barriers to the use of this modality in rural Washington State. PMID:22479882

  18. Discontinuation of buprenorphine maintenance therapy: perspectives and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bentzley, Brandon S; Barth, Kelly S; Back, Sudie E; Book, Sarah W

    2015-05-01

    Buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) is increasingly the preferred opioid maintenance agent due to its reduced toxicity and availability in an office-based setting in the United States. Although BMT has been shown to be highly efficacious, it is often discontinued soon after initiation. No current systematic review has yet investigated providers' or patients' reasons for BMT discontinuation or the outcomes that follow. Hence, provider and patient perspectives associated with BMT discontinuation after a period of stable buprenorphine maintenance and the resultant outcomes were systematically reviewed with specific emphasis on pre-buprenorphine-taper parameters predictive of relapse following BMT discontinuation. Few identified studies address provider or patient perspectives associated with buprenorphine discontinuation. Within the studies reviewed providers with residency training in BMT were more likely to favor long term BMT instead of detoxification, and providers were likely to consider BMT discontinuation in the face of medication misuse. Patients often desired to remain on BMT because of fear of relapse to illicit opioid use if they were to discontinue BMT. The majority of patients who discontinued BMT did so involuntarily, often due to failure to follow strict program requirements, and 1 month following discontinuation, rates of relapse to illicit opioid use exceeded 50% in every study reviewed. Only lower buprenorphine maintenance dose, which may be a marker for attenuated addiction severity, predicted better outcomes across studies. Relaxed BMT program requirements and frequent counsel on the high probability of relapse if BMT is discontinued may improve retention in treatment and prevent the relapse to illicit opioid use that is likely to follow BMT discontinuation. PMID:25601365

  19. Buprenorphine is protective against the depressive effects of norbuprenorphine on ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Megarbane, Bruno . E-mail: bruno-megarbane@wanadoo.fr; Marie, Nicolas; Pirnay, Stephane; Borron, Stephen W.; Gueye, Papa N.; Risede, Patricia; Monier, Claire; Noble, Florence; Baud, Frederic J.

    2006-05-01

    High dose buprenorphine is used as substitution treatment in heroin addiction. However, deaths have been reported in addicts using buprenorphine. The role of norbuprenorphine, an N-dealkyl metabolite of buprenorphine, was hypothesized to explain these fatal cases. We determined the median intravenous lethal dose (LD{sub 5}) of norbuprenorphine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of a single intravenous dose of 3 or 9 mg/kg norbuprenorphine alone on arterial blood gases were studied. Finally, the effect of pre- and post-administrations of buprenorphine on norbuprenorphine-induced changes on arterial blood gases were analyzed. Norbuprenorphine's LD{sub 5} was 10 mg kg{sup -1}. Norbuprenorphine 3 mg kg{sup -1} produces the rapid onset of sustained respiratory depression, as demonstrated at 20 min by a maximal significant increase in PaCO{sub 2} (8.4 {+-} 0.9 versus 5.7 {+-} 0.1 kPa), decrease in arterial pH (7.25 {+-} 0.06 versus 7.44 {+-} 0.01), and hypoxia (8.3 {+-} 0.6 versus 11.1 {+-} 0.2 kPa). Buprenorphine not only protected against the effects of 3 mg kg{sup -1} norbuprenorphine in a dose-dependent manner but also reversed the effects when given afterward. Binding experiments suggest a role for mu- and to a lesser extent for delta-opioid receptors in buprenorphine protective effect against norbuprenorphine-induced respiratory depression. In conclusion, our data clearly show that norbuprenorphine alone causes important deleterious effects on ventilation in rats. However, buprenorphine protective effect calls into question the role for norbuprenorphine in respiratory toxicity associated with buprenorphine use.

  20. [High-dose buprenorphine for outpatient palliative pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Gastmeier, K; Freye, E

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 78-year-old patient with cancer-related pain and additionally mixed-pain syndrome is presented. Pain therapy with buprenorphine TTS 210 microg/h every 3 days was sufficient in the beginning, later the therapy was changed because of increasing problems of tape fixing during fever periods under chemotherapy to a continuous infusion of buprenorphine intravenously via an external medication pump. During the course of therapy it became necessary to increase the dose to 99.9 mg/day buprenorphine. Under this medication a sufficient pain reduction (median NRS 2-3) over a period of 135 days could be achieved. At the same time the patient was vigilant and cooperative without signs of intoxication until the end of life at home in the presence of his family.If no signs of intoxication occur under extreme opioid therapy and a sufficient pain therapy can be achieved, a rotation to another opioid is not necessary. However, outpatient palliative care requires a frequent adaptation to the individually varying opioid demand of the patient and time-consuming nursing care. PMID:19066981

  1. Using buprenorphine to facilitate entry into residential therapeutic community rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Eric D; Horton, Terry; Reinke, Katherine; Amass, Leslie; Nunes, Edward V

    2007-03-01

    For opioid-dependent patients, the need for detoxification has been a barrier to entry into long-term residential treatment. This report describes a retrospective observational cohort study with the first 38 opioid-dependent patients entering First Step, a 14-day buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone) detoxification regimen integrated into a long-term residential therapeutic community (TC) program. Eighty-nine percent (34 of 38) of First Step patients completed a 14-day buprenorphine taper protocol, 50% (19 of 38) completed an initial 3- to 4-week stay, and 39% (15 of 38) completed at least 3 months of residential treatment at the TC. Retention did not differ significantly in a demographically matched concurrently admitted control group without impending opioid withdrawal, in which 65% (24 of 37) completed an initial 3- to 4-week stay (p = .20) and 57% (21 of 37) completed at least 3 months of treatment (p = .14). Withdrawal symptoms were mild, and there were no instances of precipitated withdrawal. The findings suggest the potential for buprenorphine to serve as a bridge, improving the viability of long-term residential treatment for managing opioid dependence. PMID:17306725

  2. BUPRENORPHINE-NALXONE THERAPY IN PAIN MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kelly Yan; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Buprenorphine-naloxone (bup/nal in 4:1 ratio; Suboxone®, Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Incorporation, Richmond, VA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for outpatient office-based addiction treatment. In the past few years, bup/nal has been increasingly prescribed off-label for chronic pain management. The current data suggests that bup/nal may provide pain relief in chronic pain patients with opioid dependence or addiction. However, the unique pharmacological profile of bup/nal confers it to be a weak analgesic that is unlikely to provide adequate pain relief for patients without opioid dependence or addiction. Possible mechanisms of pain relief by bup/nal therapy in opioid-dependent chronic pain patients may include reversal of opioid-induced hyperalgesia as well as improvement in opioid tolerance and addiction. Additional studies are needed to assess the implication of bup/nal therapy in clinical anesthesia and perioperative pain management. PMID:24509068

  3. Abuse and diversion of buprenorphine sublingual tablets and film.

    PubMed

    Lavonas, Eric J; Severtson, S Geoffrey; Martinez, Erin M; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Green, Jody L; Murrelle, Lenn E; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Rosenblum, Andrew; Surratt, Hilary L; Dart, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    Buprenorphine abuse is common worldwide. Rates of abuse and diversion of three sublingual buprenorphine formulations (single ingredient tablets; naloxone combination tablets and film) were compared. Data were obtained from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Poison Center, Drug Diversion, Opioid Treatment (OTP), Survey of Key Informants' Patients (SKIP), and College Survey Programs through December 2012. To control for drug availability, event ratios (rates) were calculated quarterly, based on the number of patients filling prescriptions for each formulation ("unique recipients of a dispensed drug," URDD) and averaged and compared using negative binomial regression. Abuse rates in the OTP, SKIP, and College Survey Programs were greatest for single ingredient tablets, and abuse rates in the Poison Center Program and illicit diversion rates were greatest for the combination tablets. Combination film rates were significantly less than rates for either tablet formulation in all programs. No geographic pattern could be discerned. PMID:24680219

  4. Buprenorphine and methadone for opioid addiction during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mozurkewich, Ellen L; Rayburn, William F

    2014-06-01

    Buprenorphine and methadone are opioid-receptor agonists used as opioid substitution therapy during pregnancy to limit exposure of the fetus to cycles of opioid withdrawal and reduce the risk of infectious comorbidities of illicit opioid use. As part of a comprehensive care plan, such therapy may result in improved access to prenatal care, reduced illicit drug use, reduced exposure to infections associated with intravenous drug use, and improved maternal nutrition and infant birth weight. This article describes differences in patient selection between the two drugs, their relative safety during pregnancy, and changes in daily doses as a guide for prescribing clinicians. PMID:24845488

  5. Low-dose naloxone provides an abuse-deterrent effect to buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Lynn R; Smith, Michael D; Unal, Cemal; Finn, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In developmental research, plasma buprenorphine concentrations comparable to a 2 mg buprenorphine–naloxone (BN) sublingual tablet have been achieved with a 0.75 mg dose of BN buccal film, a small, bioerodible polymer film for application to mucosal membranes. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-period crossover study in opioid-dependent subjects with chronic pain receiving >100 mg oral morphine equivalents daily who experienced withdrawal following a naloxone challenge dose. The objective of the study was to determine if intravenous (IV) naloxone doses of 0.1 and 0.2 mg would produce a withdrawal response when coadministered with a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. Fifteen subjects receiving 90–1,260 mg oral morphine equivalents per day enrolled and completed the study. Precipitated withdrawal occurred in 13% (2/15) of placebo-treated subjects and 47% (7/15) of buprenorphine-treated subjects. When combined with the 0.75 mg dose of buprenorphine, a 0.1 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence of precipitated withdrawal to 60%, and a 0.2 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence to 73%. By 15 minutes postdose, the mean change in Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score from predose was 3.0 for placebo, 6.9 for buprenorphine, 9.8 for BN 0.1 mg, and 12.4 for BN 0.2 mg. The mean COWS score with each active treatment was significantly greater than placebo (P<0.001), and the mean COWS score for each of the naloxone-containing treatments was significantly greater than for buprenorphine alone (P<0.001). Naloxone doses as low as 0.1 mg added an abuse-deterrent effect to a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. PMID:26604818

  6. Effect of buprenorphine on total intravenous anesthetic requirements during spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Khelemsky, Yury; Schauer, Jacob; Loo, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial mu receptor agonist and kappa/delta antagonist commonly used for the treatment of opioid dependence or as an analgesic. It has a long plasma half-life and a high binding affinity for opioid receptors. This affinity is so high, that the effects are not easily antagonized by competitive antagonists, such as naloxone. The high affinity also prevents binding of other opioids, at commonly used clinical doses, to receptor sites - preventing their analgesic and likely minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) reducing benefits. This case report contrasts the anesthetic requirements of a patient undergoing emergency cervical spine surgery while taking buprenorphine with anesthetic requirements of the same patient undergoing a similar procedure after weaning of buprenorphine. Use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring prevented use of paralytics and inhalational anesthetics during both cases, therefore total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was maintained with propofol and remifentanil infusions. During the initial surgery, intraoperative patient movement could not be controlled with very high doses of propofol and remifentanil. The patient stopped moving in response to surgical stimulation only after the addition of a ketamine. Buprenorphine-naloxone was discontinued postoperatively. Five days later the patient underwent a similar cervical spine surgery. She had drastically reduced anesthetic requirements during this case, suggesting buprenorphine's profound effect on anesthetic dosing. This case report elegantly illustrates that discontinuation of buprenorphine is likely warranted for patients who present for major spine surgery, which necessitates the avoidance of volatile anesthetic and paralytic agents. The addition of ketamine may be necessary in patients maintained on buprenorphine in order to ensure a motionless surgical field. PMID:25794231

  7. Opioid Addiction and Pregnancy: Perinatal Exposure to Buprenorphine Affects Myelination in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    SANCHEZ, EMILSE S.; BIGBEE, JOHN W.; FOBBS, WAMBURA; ROBINSON, SUSAN E.; SATO-BIGBEE, CARMEN

    2008-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a μ-opioid receptor partial agonist and κ-opioid receptor antagonist currently on trials for the management of pregnant opioid-dependent addicts. However, little is known about the effects of buprenorphine on brain development. Oligodendrocytes express opioid receptors in a developmentally regulated manner and thus, it is logical to hypothesize that perinatal exposure to buprenorphine could affect myelination. To investigate this possibility, pregnant rats were implanted with minipumps to deliver buprenorphine at 0.3 or 1 mg/kg/day. Analysis of their pups at different postnatal ages indicated that exposure to 0.3 mg/kg/day buprenorphine caused an accelerated and significant increase in the brain expression of all myelin basic protein (MBP) splicing isoforms. In contrast, treatment with the higher dose caused a developmental delay in MBP expression. Examination of corpus callosum at 26-days of age indicated that both buprenorphine doses cause a significant increase in the caliber of the myelinated axons. Surprisingly, these axons have a disproportionately thinner myelin sheath, suggesting alterations at the level of axon-glial interactions. Analysis of myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) expression and glycosylation indicated that this molecule may play a crucial role in mediating these effects. Co-immunoprecipitation studies also suggested a mechanism involving a MAG-dependent activation of the Src-family tyrosine kinase Fyn. These results support the idea that opioid signaling plays an important role in regulating myelination in vivo and stress the need for further studies investigating potential effects of perinatal buprenorphine exposure on brain development. PMID:18381654

  8. A double blind, within subject comparison of spontaneous opioid withdrawal from buprenorphine versus morphine.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, D Andrew; Smith, Michael T; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Campbell, Claudia M; Strain, Eric C

    2014-02-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical μ-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days. They then underwent an 18-day period of spontaneous withdrawal, during which four double-blind i.m. placebo injections were administered daily. Stabilization and spontaneous withdrawal were assessed for the second opioid using the same time course. Opioid withdrawal measures were collected eight times daily. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those of buprenorphine withdrawal as measured by mean peak ratings of Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), all subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sick and pain (0-100) Visual Analog Scales, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pupil dilation. Peak ratings on COWS and SOWS occurred on day 2 of morphine withdrawal and were significantly greater than on day 2 of buprenorphine withdrawal. Subjective reports of morphine withdrawal resolved on average by day 7. There was minimal evidence of buprenorphine withdrawal on any measure. In conclusion, spontaneous withdrawal from high-dose buprenorphine appears subjectively and objectively milder compared with that of morphine for at least 18 days after drug cessation. PMID:24227768

  9. Clinical efficacy of buprenorphine to minimize distress in MRL/lpr mice

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Julie; Olgun, Selen; Radjavi, Ali; Kaur, Taranjit; Reilly, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    MRL/MpJ-Faslpr (MRL/lpr) mice are an accepted animal model to study human systemic lupus erythematosus. We tested if a commonly used analgesic (buprenorphine hydrochloride) would reduce pain and distress in these mice without impacting the progression of autoimmune disease. Female MRL/lpr mice were randomly separated into four groups. Experimental groups received cyclophosphamide (25 mg/kg i.p. weekly), buprenorphine (0.09 mg/kg/mouse/day via drinking water), or cyclophosphamide + buprenorphine from 11 - 21 weeks of age. Controls received no treatments. Mice were monitored daily by a licensed veterinarian (blinded observer) and assigned a score weekly on parameters associated with pain and distress as well as progression of disease. Proteinuria was measured weekly, and serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels were determined at 11, 15, and 18 weeks of age. At 21 weeks of age, the animals were euthanized and the kidneys and spleens were removed for evaluation. Regardless of the parameter observed, buprenorphine did not significantly decrease distress when compared to the controls. Buprenorphine did not alter the progression of autoimmune disease, based on characteristics of splenic architecture and splenocyte cell profiles, development of lymphadenopathy, or kidney histology as compared to controls. This study indicates that buprenorphine at this dose and route of administration was ineffective in reducing distress associated with disease progression in the MRL/lpr strain. More studies are needed to determine if, at a different dose or route, buprenorphine would be useful as adjunctive therapy in reducing distress in MRL/lpr mice. PMID:17490635

  10. [Changes in high-dose buprenorphine maintenance therapy at the Fleury-Merogis (France) prison since 1996].

    PubMed

    Durand, E

    2001-11-01

    Since the law of January 1994, the ministry of Health is responsible for inmate health in France. This law created medical wards inside French prisons by conventions between hospitals and prisons. Since July 1995, Fleury-Merogis state-prison is linked to the Sud-Francilien Hospital. During the last few years, more and more IV drug users have been incarcerated and the number of infectious diseases has increased (AIDS, hepatitis C and B). Risk behavior is rather frequent and it has become a major concern of public authorities to fight this evolution. Prisons are part of structures having to take care of IV drug users. A few months after the authorization of buprenorphine in France (March 1996), the ministry of Health decided to give access to this treatment for incarcerated IV drug users. The aim of this study is to present the evolution of maintenance medication by high dose buprenorphine in a big state-prison and to explain the difficulties we have to face. The aim of this study was also to present how this treatment can contribute to reducing infectious risks. Surveying prescription is under the control of the Pharmacy since 1995. We have studied since 1996 the number of prescriptions, segregating initialized inside the prison and prescriptions continued. We have also studied and evaluated the number of psychotropic drugs for each prescription since 1996 in "two test buildings". Evolution of self mutilations and reducing infectious risks support measures have also been studied. PMID:11965093

  11. Day Care Research: What Is the Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, Judith

    The purposes of this paper are to consider how the prototypical research design of day care studies may unjustifiably emphasize day care as the effective factor or "treatment" in children's development, and to describe processes by which the family or some interaction between the family and day care may also affect preschoolers' development. The…

  12. Buprenorphine Sublingual and Buccal (opioid dependence)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dependence (addiction to opioid drugs, including heroin and narcotic painkillers). Buprenorphine is in a class of medications ... and ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra, in Technivie); opiate (narcotic) medications for pain control; phenothiazines (medications used for ...

  13. [Breast feeding during methadon- and buprenorphin therapy].

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2011-12-01

    The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine. PMID:21969026

  14. Buprenorphine metabolites, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide, are biologically active

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah M.; Holtzman, Michael; Kim, Thomas; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The long-lasting high affinity opioid buprenorphine has complex pharmacology including ceiling effects with respect to analgesia and respiratory depression. Plasma concentrations of the major buprenorphine metabolites norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide approximate or exceed those of the parent drug. Buprenorphine glucuronide metabolites pharmacology is undefined. This investigation determined binding and pharmacological activity of the two glucuronide metabolites, and in comparison with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Methods Competitive inhibition of radioligand binding to human mu, kappa, delta opioid and nociceptin receptors was used to determine glucuronide binding affinities for these receptors. Common opiate effects were assessed in vivo in Swiss Webster mice. Antinociception was assessed using a tail-flick assay, respiratory effects were measured using unrestrained whole-body plethysmography, and sedation was assessed by inhibition of locomotion measured by open-field testing. Results Buprenorphine-3-glucuronide had high affinity for human mu (Ki = 4.9±2.7 pM), delta (Ki = 270±0.4 nM), and nociceptin (Ki = 36±0.3 μM) but not kappa receptors. Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide had affinity for human kappa (Ki = 300±0.5 nM) and nociceptin (Ki= 18±0.2 μM) but not mu or delta receptors. At the dose tested, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide had a small antinociceptive effect. Neither glucuronide had significant effects on respiratory rate, but norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide decreased tidal volume. Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide also caused sedation. Conclusions Both glucuronide metabolites of buprenorphine are biologically active at doses relevant to metabolite exposures which occur after buprenorphine. Activity of the glucuronides may contribute to the overall pharmacology of buprenorphine. PMID:22037640

  15. Tramadol versus buprenorphine for the management of acute heroin withdrawal: a retrospective matched cohort controlled study.

    PubMed

    Threlkeld, Melinda; Parran, Theodore V; Adelman, Christopher A; Grey, Scott F; Yu, Jaehak

    2006-01-01

    Many medications have been used over the past thirty years for the treatment of opioid withdrawal, including propoxyphene, methadone, clonidine, parenteral buprenorphine, and, more recently, sublingual buprenorphine. Each has been found to have clinical strengths and limitations. Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic with opiate activity primarily due to the binding of a metabolite to the micro receptor. Despite this micro receptor activity, tramadol appears to have low abuse potential and is a non-scheduled analgesic. The pharmacologic profile of tramadol makes it a candidate for opiate withdrawal treatment. A chart review was undertaken to retrospectively compare treatment outcomes of heroin-dependent patients when detoxified with parenteral buprenorphine (1996-1997) versus tramadol (1999-2000). Inclusion criteria for this study were heroin as drug of choice, current opioid physical dependence (ie, withdrawal symptoms), no current abuse of oral opioid analgesics, and no alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Patient cases that met inclusion criteria were group-matched between buprenorphine and tramadol on the basis of age, sex, and amount of heroin used (bags/day). Charts were audited for patient demographics, daily heroin use at admission, withdrawal symptoms, and discharge status. In total, 129 patient charts were reviewed, and 115 met all inclusion criteria and were group-matched (45 patients in the buprenorphine group, seventy in the tramadol group). There were no differences in demographics between the two groups of patients. Fifty-six percent of the buprenorphine group and 71% of the tramadol group completed detoxification; tramadol-treated patients had significantly higher average withdrawal symptoms when compared to the buprenorphine group and a greater reduction in withdrawal symptoms over time. Finally, the number of side effects was small and did not differ between the groups. The results of this study are consistent with previous pilot reports that indicated few clinical differences between parenteral buprenorphine and oral tramadol protocols when used in the management of acute heroin withdrawal. As a consequence, tramadol shows some promise as an opioid withdrawal management medication. PMID:16595358

  16. Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among young drug users is not a widespread problem in Sweden. Harm-reduction measures should target drug users with more severe problems, among whom illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common and pose a medical risk. Illicit use of other prescription drugs, which are less controlled and more widely used by young people, is an important issue for further research. PMID:24139199

  17. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose buprenorphine following single administration of sublingual tablet formulations in opioid naïve healthy male volunteers under a naltrexone block.

    PubMed

    McAleer, Sarah D; Mills, Richard J; Polack, Torsten; Hussain, Tanweer; Rolan, Paul E; Gibbs, Alan D; Mullins, Frank G P; Hussein, Ziad

    2003-10-24

    Sublingual buprenorphine formulations have been developed as treatments for opioid dependence. In three studies, opioid naïve healthy male subjects received Subutex tablets (buprenorphine 2 and 8 mg [N=27] or 12 and 16 mg [N=27]) or Suboxone (two formulations) tablets (buprenorphine 8 mg/naloxone 2 mg [N=36]) sublingually, under a naltrexone block for assessment of buprenorphine pharmacokinetics and tablet disintegration times. Plasma buprenorphine was quantified up to 72 h post-dose using a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay. Mean Cmax values ranged from 1.6 to 6.4 ng/ml and tmax from 0.5 to 3 h. Concentrations declined bi-exponentially and fluctuations after a meal suggested enterohepatic recirculation of buprenorphine. The terminal half-life was approximately 26 h (range 9-69). Cmax and AUC appeared to increase in proportion to Subutex dose over 8-16 mg. The Suboxone formulations were bioequivalent. The least squares mean (90% CI) treatment ratio for Cmax was 1.00 (0.92-1.10) and AUC was 1.00 (0.95-1.06). Median times of disintegration were similar for all doses and formulations (range 6-12 min). Sublingual buprenorphine, up to 40 times the 400 microg analgesic dose, was well tolerated in these opioid naïve subjects, as administration of naltrexone 50-150 mg was sufficient to attenuate anticipated adverse effects in this population of subjects. PMID:14563545

  18. Comparison of methadone and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification (LEEDS trial): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nat MJ; Sheard, Laura; Adams, Clive E; Rushforth, Bruno J; Harrison, Wendy; Bound, Nicole; Hart, Roger; Tompkins, Charlotte NE

    2011-01-01

    Background Many opiate users require prescribed medication to help them achieve abstinence, commonly taking the form of a detoxification regime. In UK prisons, drug users are nearly universally treated for their opiate use by primary care clinicians, and once released access GP services where 40% of practices now treat drug users. There is a paucity of evidence evaluating methadone and buprenorphine (the two most commonly prescribed agents in the UK) for opiate detoxification. Aim To evaluate whether buprenorphine or methadone help to achieve drug abstinence at completion of a reducing regimen for heroin users presenting to UK prison health care for detoxification. Design Open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial in three prison primary healthcare departments in the north of England. Method Prisoners (n = 306) using illicit opiates were recruited and given daily sublingual buprenorphine or oral methadone, in the context of routine care, over a standard reduced regimen of not more than 20 days. The primary outcome measure was abstinence from illicit opiates at 8 days post detoxification, as indicated by urine test (self-report/clinical notes where urine sample was not feasible). Secondary outcomes were also recorded. Results Abstinence was ascertained for 73.7% at 8 days post detoxification (urine sample = 52.6%, self report = 15.2%, clinical notes = 5.9%). There was no statistically significant difference in the odds of achieving abstinence between methadone and buprenorphine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81 to 3.51; P = 0.163). Abstinence was associated solely with whether or not the participant was still in prison at that time (15.22 times the odds; 95% CI = 4.19 to 55.28). The strongest association for lasting abstinence was abstinence at an earlier time point. Conclusion There is equal clinical effectiveness between methadone and buprenorphine in achieving abstinence from opiates at 8 days post detoxification within prison. PMID:22137413

  19. Managing Opioid Use Disorder During and After Acute Hospitalization: A Case-Based Review Clarifying Methadone Regulation for Acute Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Noska, Amanda; Mohan, Aron; Wakeman, Sarah; Rich, Josiah; Boutwell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Treatment with an opioid agonist such as methadone or buprenorphine is the standard of care for opioid use disorder. Persons with opioid use disorder are frequently hospitalized, and may be undertreated due to provider misinformation regarding the legality of prescribing methadone for inpatients. Using a case-based review, this article aims to describe effective management of active opioid withdrawal and ongoing opioid use disorder using methadone or buprenorphine among acutely ill, hospitalized patients. Methods We reviewed pertinent medical and legal literature and consulted with national legal experts regarding methadone for opioid withdrawal and opioid maintenance therapy in hospitalized, general medical and surgical patients, and describe a real-life example of successful implementation of inpatient methadone for these purposes. Results Patients with opioid use disorders can be effectively and legally initiated on methadone maintenance therapy or buprenorphine during an inpatient hospitalization by clinical providers and successfully transitioned to an outpatient methadone maintenance or buprenorphine clinic after discharge for ongoing treatment. Conclusions Inpatient methadone or buprenorphine prescribing is safe and evidence-based, and can be used to effectively treat opioid withdrawal and also serves as a bridge to outpatient treatment of opioid use disorders. PMID:26258153

  20. The Reinforcing and Subjective Effects of Intravenous and Intranasal Buprenorphine in Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Madera, Gabriela; Comer, Sandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Abuse of buprenorphine (BUP) by the intravenous (IV) route has been documented in several studies, and reports of intranasal (IN) abuse are increasing. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of BUP when it is administered intranasally and intravenously. The present secondary analysis used data from two separate studies to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of IV and IN buprenorphine. One study evaluated IV buprenorphine (N=13) and the other evaluated IN buprenorphine (N=12). Participants were maintained on 2 mg sublingual (SL) BUP and tested with each intranasal or intravenous buprenorphine test dose (0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, and 16 mg). During morning laboratory sessions, participants received money (US $20) and sample doses of IN or IV BUP, and then completed subjective effects questionnaires. Later that day, they completed a self-administration task to receive 10% portions of the drug and/or money they previously sampled. In general, positive subjective ratings for both IV and IN BUP were significantly greater than placebo, with IV BUP having a greater effect than IN BUP. All active BUP doses (IV and IN) maintained significantly higher progressive ratio breakpoint values than placebo, but breakpoint values for IV BUP were greater than for IN BUP. Buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, valued for its ability to reduce the positive subjective effects of other opioids. Nevertheless, the present data demonstrate that in participants maintained on a low dose of SL BUP, the medication itself has abuse liability when used intravenously or intranasally. PMID:24793093

  1. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of transdermal buprenorphine and fentanyl in experimental human pain models.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Trine; Upton, Richard N; Foster, David J R; Christrup, Lona L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Drewes, Asbjrn M

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling can be used to characterize the relationship between dose regimen of opioids, plasma concentration and effect of opioids, which in turn can lead to more rational treatment regimens of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration-effect relationship for transdermal buprenorphine and fentanyl in experimentally induced pain. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were randomized to receive transdermal patches with fentanyl (25 ?g/hr, 72 hr), buprenorphine (20 ?g/hr, 144 hr) or placebo. The experimental pain tests were pressure at the tibial bone, cutaneous thermal stimulation, cold pressor test (conditioning stimulus (3 0.3C cold water), nerve growth factor-induced muscle soreness and intradermal capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia. Experiments were carried out at baseline, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hr after application of patches. Time-course of placebo was described first and was afterwards added to the description of the time-courses of buprenorphine and fentanyl. This was either described by zero (no drug effect), linear or E(max) model concentration-effect relationships. Time-dependent changes in pain measures in the placebo arm were described by linear or quadratic functions. The time-course of fentanyl and buprenorphine plasma concentrations was complex but could be represented by cubic spline interpolation in the models. Buprenorphine significantly attenuated bone-associated pain, heat pain, nerve growth factor-induced soreness and cold pressor pain. Fentanyl significantly attenuated cold pressor pain for the administered dose regimens. Although the PK/PD relationship for both drugs could be described with similar models, tissue-differentiated analgesic effects between buprenorphine and fentanyl was shown. PMID:21138531

  2. Care and Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... cardiologist. In other cases, surgery or a cardiac catheterization may be needed to reduce the effects of ... Failure Heart Rhythm Problems Pulmonary Hypertension Interventional Cardiac Catheterizations In this care and treatment section, you can ...

  3. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  4. Comparison of side effects between buprenorphine and meloxicam used postoperatively in Dutch belted rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Coreen S; Metcalf-Pate, Kelly A; Barat, Christopher E; Cook, Judith A; Scorpio, Diana G

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges facing veterinarians and investigators who use rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a surgical model in biomedical research is choosing an appropriate and efficacious postoperative analgesic without systemic complications and side effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal side effects associated with the postoperative use of buprenorphine in Dutch Belted rabbits. We also evaluated the analgesic meloxicam as an alternative to opioid administration during the postoperative period. Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups during the postoperative period after routine ovariohysterectomy: buprenorphine (n = 10), meloxicam (n = 10), and incisional infiltration with bupivicaine (no treatment control; n = 10). Feed intake, fecal production, weight loss, urine output, and other physiologic parameters were monitored and behavior and pain assessments were performed for 7 d after surgery and compared with baseline values collected before surgery. All rabbits showed decreased pellet consumption, fecal production, and weight on day 1 after surgery. This effect was severe in some rabbits that received bupivicaine; therefore treatment of this entire group with metoclopramide, fluids, and hay was instituted to reverse gut stasis. No significant difference in feed consumption and fecal production was present between the buprenorphine- and meloxicam-treated groups. On the basis of these results, meloxicam appears to be a suitable alternative or adjunct to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus. PMID:19476717

  5. Comparison of Side Effects between Buprenorphine and Meloxicam Used Postoperatively in Dutch Belted Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Coreen S; Metcalf-Pate, Kelly A; Barat, Christopher E; Cook, Judith A; Scorpio, Diana G

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges facing veterinarians and investigators who use rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a surgical model in biomedical research is choosing an appropriate and efficacious postoperative analgesic without systemic complications and side effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal side effects associated with the postoperative use of buprenorphine in Dutch Belted rabbits. We also evaluated the analgesic meloxicam as an alternative to opioid administration during the postoperative period. Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups during the postoperative period after routine ovariohysterectomy: buprenorphine (n = 10), meloxicam (n = 10), and incisional infiltration with bupivicaine (no treatment control; n = 10). Feed intake, fecal production, weight loss, urine output, and other physiologic parameters were monitored and behavior and pain assessments were performed for 7 d after surgery and compared with baseline values collected before surgery. All rabbits showed decreased pellet consumption, fecal production, and weight on day 1 after surgery. This effect was severe in some rabbits that received bupivicaine; therefore treatment of this entire group with metoclopramide, fluids, and hay was instituted to reverse gut stasis. No significant difference in feed consumption and fecal production was present between the buprenorphine- and meloxicam-treated groups. On the basis of these results, meloxicam appears to be a suitable alternative or adjunct to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus. PMID:19476717

  6. Messages about methadone and buprenorphine in reality television: a content analysis of celebrity rehab with Dr. Drew.

    PubMed

    Roose, Robert; Fuentes, Liza; Cheema, Mandeep

    2012-08-01

    Medication-assisted treatment for opioid dependence is safe and effective, yet negative perceptions about methadone and buprenorphine may discourage patients from entering treatment. One source of information that may influence viewers' perceptions is television. We performed a content analysis of a popular reality television program on addiction treatment. Although many patients had histories of opioid use, there were no positive messages about methadone or buprenorphine. The two main messages were that they (1) are primarily drugs of abuse, and (2) not acceptable treatment options. These messages reinforce negative stereotypes and may perpetuate stigma. There were multiple missed opportunities to provide evidence-based information. PMID:22587811

  7. Coordinating care and treatment for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cheng Har; Samiei, Massoud; Cazap, Eduardo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Camacho, Rolando; Weller, David; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Goh, Cynthia; Black, Fraser; Kaur, Ranjit; Fitch, Margaret; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Survival following a diagnosis of cancer is contingent upon an interplay of factors, some non-modifiable (e.g., age, sex, genetics) and some modifiable (e.g., volitional choices) but the majority determined by circumstance (personal, social, health system context and capacity, and health policy). Accordingly, mortality and survival rates vary considerably as a function of geography, opportunity, wealth and development. Quality of life is impacted similarly, such that aspects of care related to coordination and integration of care across primary, community and specialist environments; symptom control, palliative and end-of-life care for those who will die of cancer; and survivorship challenges for those who will survive cancer, differs greatly across low, middle and high-income resource settings. Session 3 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on cancer care and treatment through three plenary presentations and five interactive workshop discussions: 1) establishing, implementing, operating and sustaining the capacity for quality cancer care; 2) the role of primary, community, and specialist care in cancer care and treatment; 3) the economics of affordable and sustainable cancer care; 4) issues around symptom control, support, and palliative/end-of-life care; and 5) issues around survivorship. A number of recommendations were proposed relating to capacity-building (standards and guidelines, protocols, new technologies and training and deployment) for safe, appropriate evidence-informed care; mapping and analysis of variations in primary, community and specialist care across countries with identification of models for effective, integrated clinical practice; the importance of considering the introduction, or expansion, of evidence-supported clinical practices from the perspectives of health economic impact, the value for health resources expended, and sustainability; capacity-building for palliative, end-of-life care and symptom control and integration of these services into national cancer control plans; the need for public education to reduce the fear and stigma associated with cancer so that patients are better able to make informed decisions regarding follow-up care and treatment; and the need to recognize the challenges and needs of survivors, their increasing number, the necessity to integrate survivorship into cancer control plans and the economic and societal value of functional survival after cancer. Discussions highlighted that coordinated care and treatment for cancer patients is both a ' systems'challenge and solution, requiring the consideration of patient and family circumstances, societal values and priorities, the functioning of the health system (access, capacity, resources, etc.) and the importance assigned to health and illness management within public policy. PMID:22631594

  8. Tobacco use disorder treatment in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kunyk, Diane; Els, Charl; Papadakis, Sophia; Selby, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test a team-based, site-specific, multicomponent clinical system pathway designed for enhancing tobacco use disorder treatment by primary care physicians. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Sixty primary care sites in Alberta. Participants A convenience sample of 198 primary care physicians from the population of 2857. Main outcome measures Data collection occurred between September 2010 and February 2012 on 3 distinct measures. Twenty-four weeks after the intervention, audits of the primary care practices assessed the adoption and sustainability of 10 tobacco clinical system pathway components, a survey measured changes in physicians’ treatment intentions, and patient chart reviews examined changes in physicians’ consistency with the treatment algorithm. Results The completion rate by physicians was 89.4%. An intention-to-treat approach was undertaken for statistical analysis. Intervention uptake was demonstrated by positive changes at 4 weeks in how many of the 10 clinical system measures were performed (mean [SD] = 4.22 [1.60] vs 8.57 [1.46]; P < .001). Physicians demonstrated significant favourable changes in 9 of the 12 measures of treatment intention (P < .05). The 18 282 chart reviews documented significant increases in 6 of the 8 algorithm components. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the provision of a tobacco clinical system pathway that incorporates other members of the health care team and builds on existing office infrastructures will support positive and sustainable changes in tobacco use disorder treatment by physicians in primary care. This study reaffirms the substantive and important role of supporting how treatment is delivered in physicians’ practices. PMID:25022640

  9. Antipsychotic Treatment Among Youth in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yesel; Rubin, David M.; Riddle, Mark A.; Noll, Elizabeth; Rothbard, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite national concerns over high rates of antipsychotic medication use among youth in foster care, concomitant antipsychotic use has not been examined. In this study, concomitant antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youth in foster care was compared with disabled or low-income Medicaid-enrolled youth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sample included 16 969 youths younger than 20 years who were continuously enrolled in a Mid-Atlantic state Medicaid program and had ≥1 claim with a psychiatric diagnosis and ≥1 antipsychotic claim in 2003. Antipsychotic treatment was characterized by days of any use and concomitant use with ≥2 overlapping antipsychotics for >30 days. Medicaid program categories were foster care, disabled (Supplemental Security Income), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Multicategory involvement for youths in foster care was classified as foster care/Supplemental Security Income, foster care/TANF, and foster care/adoption. We used multivariate analyses, adjusting for demographics, psychiatric comorbidities, and other psychotropic use, to assess associations between Medicaid program category and concomitant antipsychotic use. RESULTS: Average antipsychotic use ranged from 222 ± 110 days in foster care to only 135 ± 101 days in TANF (P < .001). Concomitant use for ≥180 days was 19% in foster care only and 24% in foster care/adoption compared with <15% in the other categories. Conduct disorder and antidepressant or mood-stabilizer use was associated with a higher likelihood of concomitant antipsychotic use (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Additional study is needed to assess the clinical rationale, safety, and outcomes of concomitant antipsychotic use and to inform statewide policies for monitoring and oversight of antipsychotic use among youths in the foster care system. PMID:22106072

  10. Management of opioid addiction with buprenorphine: French history and current management.

    PubMed

    Poloméni, Pierre; Schwan, Raymund

    2014-01-01

    The way in which opioid addiction is managed in France is unique, as it is based on the prescription of buprenorphine by general practitioners and is dispensed by retail pharmacies. This policy has had a direct, positive impact on the number of deaths caused by heroin overdose, which was reduced by four-fifths between 1994 and 2002. In addition, certain associated comorbidities, such as infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, have also been reduced; the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in intravenous drug users fell from 25% in the mid-1990s to 6% in 2010. Since the implementation of this French model of opioid management, major scientific progress has been made, leading to a better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of addiction and of the management modalities required for its treatment. However, despite notable advances in scientific knowledge and in the implementation of devices, opioid addiction remains a major public health care issue in France, with 275,000-360,000 "problem drug users" being reported in 2011. The situation is still particularly worrying due to psychoactive substance use and misuse of opioid substitution treatments. Since 2003, there has been a persistent increase in the number of deaths and comorbidities related to opioid addiction, principally hepatitis C virus infection, which affects up to 40% of intravenous drug users. In France, the direct involvement of general practitioners in the management of opioid addiction is indisputable. Nevertheless, management could be optimized through better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disease, better knowledge of the pharmacology of opioid substitution treatments, and clear definition of short-, medium- and long-term treatment objectives. Data related to the management of opioid addiction by general practitioners in France have been published in 2005. Since then, the context has changed, other drugs were launched on the market such as generics of buprenorphine, methadone capsule, and Suboxone. Thus, an update seems necessary. This paper provides a description of opioid addiction management objectives and treatment modalities for general practitioners, based on currently available knowledge. PMID:24623988

  11. Prenatal buprenorphine exposure decreases neurogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hung, Chih-Jen; Shen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Wen-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Su-Lan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-02-10

    Perinatal opioid exposure has a negative effect on neurogenesis and produces neurological consequences. However, its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist, is an alternative medication for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of decreased neurogenesis and depression-like consequences following prenatal exposure to buprenorphine and sheds light on mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days and a cultured neurosphere model. Results of forced swimming test and tail suspension test showed that pups at postnatal day 21 had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by reduction of neuronal composition, biochemical parameters of neural stem/progenitor cells, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B phosphorylation, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Results of parallel cell studies further demonstrated a negative impact of buprenorphine on cultured neurospheres, including proliferation, differentiation, BDNF expression and signaling, and PKA activity. Taken together, our results suggest that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine might result in depression-like phenotypes associated with impaired BDNF action and decreased neurogenesis in the developing brain of weanlings. PMID:24321744

  12. Treatment goals in psoriasis routine care.

    PubMed

    Radtke, M A; Reich, K; Spehr, C; Augustin, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The treatment goal algorithm for psoriasis, first originated in 2007, has ever since been adopted into treatment guidelines. It remained unclear how many patients have experienced the use of treatment goals in routine care and how these are perceived. The aim of the pilot study was to get first insight in the use and impact of therapeutic goals in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis in routine care. This study is a multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional health care study in n = 213 dermatology centers across Germany. A standardized physician and patient questionnaire was used, including demographics, disease and treatment characteristics. To evaluate patient treatment perception and satisfaction, a questionnaire (PsoSat) addressing 8 specific items was designed. Consistency and validity of the questionnaire were controlled by factor analyses and reliability tests. In total n = 1,883 patients were included for analysis (54.2% male). Mean age was 52 years, mean disease duration 19 years. In total 45.5% (n = 856) stated an improvement of psoriatic symptoms in the last 4 weeks. In patients including treatment goals, the course of psoriasis in the last 4 weeks was rated significantly better and predicted significantly higher patient satisfaction. Patients reporting periodic outcomes measurement of psoriasis treatment, also had significantly better course of disease, higher satisfaction and a lower psoriasis severity. A majority of patients experienced the use of treatment goals in practice. The association of using treatment goals with clinical outcomes and treatment satisfaction was markedly positive. These findings indicate that the use of treatment goals and outcome measurements in fact improve psoriasis management. PMID:25549606

  13. Follow-up Care After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association of Cancer Online Resources, a cancer information system that offers access to electronic mailing lists and websites, provides a list of ... received (for example, type and dates of all surgeries; names and doses of all ... and other health professionals involved in treatment and follow-up care ...

  14. Children of Cocaine: Treatment and Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    Information concerning the treatment and care of children addicted to cocaine is provided. Contents: (1) describe the drug; (2) put cocaine use in its historical and demographic perspectives; (3) report findings of a study documenting the incidence of maternal substance abuse in Pinellas County, Florida; (4) point out false perceptions,…

  15. Intravenous buprenorphine self-administration by detoxified heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Comer, Sandra D; Collins, Eric D; Fischman, Marian W

    2002-04-01

    Several sources indicate that intravenously administered buprenorphine may have significant abuse liability in humans. The present study evaluated the reinforcing effects of intravenously administered buprenorphine (0, 2, and 8 mg) in detoxified heroin-dependent participants during a 7.5-week inpatient study. Participants (n = 6) were detoxified from heroin over a 1.5-week period immediately after admission. Testing subsequently occurred in three 2-week blocks. During the first week of each 2-week block, the reinforcing effects of buprenorphine were evaluated. Participants first received a dose of buprenorphine and $20 and then were given either the opportunity to self-administer the dose or $20 during choice sessions. During the second week of each 2-week block, the direct effects of heroin were measured to evaluate potential long-lasting antagonist effects of buprenorphine. Progressive ratio break-point values were significantly higher after 2 and 8 mg of buprenorphine compared with placebo. Correspondingly, several positive subjective ratings increased after administration of active buprenorphine relative to placebo. Although there were few differences in peak effects produced by 2 versus 8 mg of buprenorphine, the higher buprenorphine dose generally produced longer-lasting effects. Heroin also produced dose-related increases in several subjective effects. Peak ratings produced by heroin were generally higher than peak ratings produced by buprenorphine. There was little evidence of residual antagonism produced by buprenorphine. These results demonstrate that buprenorphine served as a reinforcer under these conditions, and that it may have abuse liability in nonopioid-dependent individuals who abuse heroin. PMID:11907183

  16. Quantitation of Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, Buprenorphine Glucuronide, Norbuprenorphine Glucuronide, and Naloxone in Urine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Buprenorphine is an opioid drug that has been used to treat opioid dependence on an outpatient basis, and is also prescribed for managing moderate to severe pain. Some formulations of buprenorphine also contain naloxone to discourage misuse. The major metabolite of buprenorphine is norbuprenorphine. Both compounds are pharmacologically active and both are extensively metabolized to their glucuronide conjugates, which are also active metabolites. Direct quantitation of the glucuronide conjugates in conjunction with free buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone in urine can distinguish compliance with prescribed therapy from specimen adulteration intended to mimic compliance with prescribed buprenorphine. This chapter quantitates buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, their glucuronide conjugates and naloxone directly in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Urine is pretreated with formic acid and undergoes solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. PMID:26660175

  17. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of intranasal crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, L.S.; Nuzzo, P.A.; Lofwall, M.R.; Moody, D.E.; Walsh, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Sublingual buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are efficacious opioid dependence pharmacotherapies, but there are reports of their diversion and misuse by the intranasal route. The study objectives were to characterize and compare their intranasal pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting An in-patient research unit at the University of Kentucky. Participants Healthy adults (n=10) abusing, but not physically dependent on, intranasal opioids. Measurements Six sessions (72 hours apart) tested five intranasal doses [0/0, crushed buprenorphine (2, 8 mg), crushed buprenorphine/naloxone (2/0.5, 8/2 mg)] and one intravenous dose (0.8 mg buprenorphine/0.2 mg naloxone for bioavailability assessment). Plasma samples, physiological, subject- and observer-rated measures were collected before and for up to 72 hours after drug administration. Findings Both formulations produced time- and dose-dependent increases on subjective and physiological mu-opioid agonist effects (e.g. ‘liking’, miosis). Subjects reported higher subjective ratings and street values for 8 mg compared to 8/2 mg, but these differences were not statistically significant. No significant formulation differences in peak plasma buprenorphine concentration or time-course were observed. Buprenorphine bioavailability was 38–44% and Tmax was 35–40 minutes after all intranasal doses. Naloxone bioavailability was 24% and 30% following 2/0.5 and 8/2 mg, respectively. Conclusions It is difficult to determine if observed differences in abuse potential between intranasal buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are clinically relevant at the doses tested. Greater bioavailability and faster onset of pharmacodynamic effects compared to sublingual administration suggests a motivation for intranasal misuse in non-dependent opioid abusers. However, significant naloxone absorption from intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone administration may deter the likelihood of intranasal misuse of buprenorphine/naloxone, but not buprenorphine, in opioid-dependent individuals. PMID:21395892

  18. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS) Prisons Project Study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing methadone and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Sheard, Laura; Wright, Nat MJ; Adams, Clive E; Bound, Nicole; Rushforth, Bruno; Hart, Roger; Tompkins, Charlotte NE

    2009-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom (UK), there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin and many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are currently buprenorphine and methadone, both are recommended by national clinical guidelines. However, these agents have never been compared for opiate detoxification in the prison estate and there is a general paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address this paucity by evaluating the most routinely used interventions amongst drug users within UK prisons. Methods/Design This study uses randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and methadone for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within three UK prisons. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome will be abstinence status eight days after detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes will be recorded during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post-detoxification. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58823759 PMID:19602218

  19. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS) prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Sheard, Laura; Adams, Clive E; Wright, Nat MJ; El-Sayeh, Hany; Dalton, Richard; Tompkins, Charlotte NE

    2007-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom (UK), there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS) Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded. PMID:17210080

  20. Buprenorphine/naloxone therapy for opioid refractory neuropathic pain following traumatic amputation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Licina, Lauren; Hamsher, Carlyle; Lautenschager, Karl; Dhanjal, Sandeep; Williams, Necia; Spevak, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Phantom limb pain is a common consequence of limb amputation and is prevalent among the service members sustaining traumatic battlefield limb injuries during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Current treatment to relieve phantom limb pain consists of physical, behavioral, and medical modalities including opioids and adjunct medications. Treatment failure resulting in persistent pain and disability may result. This case series describes four previously healthy service members who developed phantom limb pain following traumatic amputation successfully treated with buprenorphine/naloxone after failing traditional treatment. This is the first reported case series of patients expressing improved pain control with decreased frequency of phantom limb pain with the use of buprenorphine/naloxone instead of traditional opioid agonists. PMID:23820366

  1. New Pain Management Options for the Surgical Patient on Methadone and Buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sudipta; Arulkumar, Sailesh; Cornett, Elyse M; Gayle, Julie A; Flower, Ronda R; Fox, Charles J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative management of patients receiving opioid addiction therapy presents a unique challenge for the anesthesiologist. The goal of pain management in this patient population is to effectively manage postoperative pain, to improve patient satisfaction and outcomes, and to reduce the cost of health care. Multimodal analgesics, including nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, intravenous acetaminophen, gabapentanoid agents, and low-dose ketamine infusions, have been used to improve postoperative pain and to reduce postoperative opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid management therapy with methadone and buprenorphine require special considerations. Recommendations and options for treating postoperative pain in patients on methadone and buprenorphine are outlined below. Other postoperative pain management options include patient-controlled analgesia, intravenous, and transdermal, in addition to neuraxial and regional anesthesia techniques. Special patient populations include the parturient on long-term opioid therapy. Recommendations for use of opioids in these patients during labor and delivery and in the postpartum period are discussed. PMID:26879874

  2. A non-rewarding, non-aversive buprenorphine/naltrexone combination attenuates drug-primed reinstatement to cocaine and morphine in rats in a conditioned place preference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cordery, Sarah F; Taverner, Alistair; Ridzwan, Irna E; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Husbands, Stephen M; Bailey, Christopher P

    2014-07-01

    Concurrent use of cocaine and heroin is a major public health issue with no effective relapse prevention treatment currently available. To this purpose, a combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone, a mixed very-low efficacy mu-opioid receptor agonist/kappa-opioid receptor antagonist/nociceptin receptor agonist, was investigated. The tail-withdrawal and the conditioned place preference (CPP) assays in adult Sprague Dawley rats were used to show that naltrexone dose-dependently blocked the mu-opioid receptor agonism of buprenorphine. Furthermore, in the CPP assay, a combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 3.0 mg/kg naltrexone was aversive. A combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone was neither rewarding nor aversive, but still possessed mu-opioid receptor antagonist properties. In the CPP extinction and reinstatement method, a combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone completely blocked drug-primed reinstatement in cocaine-conditioned rats (conditioned with 3 mg/kg cocaine, drug prime was 3 mg/kg cocaine) and attenuated drug-primed reinstatement in morphine-conditioned rats (conditioned with 5 mg/kg morphine, drug prime was 1.25 mg/kg morphine). These data add to the growing evidence that a buprenorphine/naltrexone combination may be protective against relapse in a polydrug abuse situation. PMID:23240906

  3. Oral buprenorphine and aspirin analgesia in rats undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, P; Howden, B O

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish effective postoperative analgesia for Dark Agouti rats undergoing liver transplantation with minimal additional stress due to handling and no adverse effect on transplant outcome. Oral administration of buprenorphine (0.5 mg/kg/dose) or aspirin (100 mg/kg/dose) in raspberry-flavoured gelatine were compared to controls receiving no treatment or plain gelatine. The drugs were presented five times: immediately on recovery from anaesthesia and at 12 h intervals thereafter. All rats underwent right nephrectomy and replacement of their liver by an arterialized liver isograft preserved optimally for 24 h. All groups had reversible hepatic damage, lost weight and demonstrated severely reduced dark cycle activity after surgery. Neither treatment appeared to ameliorate the loss of body weight that probably reflected hepatic insufficiency during the first week as well as pain and surgical stress. In the second week, when liver function was 'normal', rats began to regain weight at the pre-transplant rate. Aspirin treatment significantly increased activity during the first and second dark cycles after surgery, whereas buprenorphine significantly increased activity during the second dark cycle only. Neither drug had any apparent adverse effects on the rats or on graft function. Postoperative oral administration of aspirin should be incorporated into future programmes of liver transplantation in rodents. More effective treatment in the immediate postoperative period may require oral administration of analgesia prior to surgery or a single subcutaneous injection of an analgesic agent on completion of surgery in addition to postoperative oral administration of aspirin. PMID:11943077

  4. Comparison of Buprenorphine and Butorphanol Analgesia in the Eastern Red-Spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The experimental use of amphibian models in biomedical research increases yearly, but there is a paucity of reports concerning analgesic use in many of these species. In this study, buprenorphine given by intracoelomic injection and butorphanol added to the tank water were compared for analgesic effect in the eastern red-spotted newt after bilateral forelimb amputations. Newts undergoing anesthesia but not surgery and newts having surgery but not given analgesia postoperatively were used as control groups. Animals were tested for food consumption, spontaneous movement, response to tapping on the tank, response to being touched, and body posture. Both buprenorphine by intracoelomic injection and butorphanol in tank water significantly promoted resumption of normal behavior after bilateral surgical amputation of the forelimbs. The difference between analgesic treatment and no analgesic treatment was maintained until 72 h after surgery. PMID:19383214

  5. Chemical profile of counterfeit buprenorphine vials seized in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Faryadi, Mansoor; Akhgari, Maryam; Bahmanabadi, Leila

    2007-10-25

    Buprenorphine, commonly known by the trademark Temgesic, is one of the most popular drugs of abuse among the opioid-addicted young individuals in Iran. Temgesic, Bungesic, etc. are the most popular and important illicit opioid drugs in Tehran's illicit drugs black market, and are now among the most widely abused by opioid addicts. Because of this, counterfeiting of this drug has increased in Tehran. In this study, the qualitative analysis of counterfeit buprenorphine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrates the presence of diacetylmorphine, acetylcodeine and pheniramine, as well as the absence of buprenorphine. In conclusion, due to the absence of quality control and difficulties in differentiating counterfeit buprenorphine from genuine products, the use of counterfeit buprenorphine leads the opioid abusers to health risks. PMID:17646070

  6. Cocaine Use Reduction with Buprenorphine (CURB): Rationale, design, and methodology☆

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Larissa J.; Nielsen, Suzanne; Saxon, Andrew; Hillhouse, Maureen; Thomas, Christie; Hasson, Albert; Stablein, Don; McCormack, Jennifer; Lindblad, Robert; Ling, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective medications to treat cocaine dependence have not been identified. Recent pharmacotherapy trials demonstrate the potential efficacy of buprenorphine (BUP) (alone or with naltrexone) for reducing cocaine use. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) launched the Cocaine Use Reduction with Buprenorphine (CURB) investigation to examine the safety and efficacy of sublingual BUP (as Suboxone®) in the presence of extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX, as Vivitrol®) for the treatment of cocaine dependence. This paper describes the design and rationale for this study. Methods This multi-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled study will randomize 300 participants across 11 sites. Participants must meet the DSM-IV criteria for cocaine dependence and past or current opioid dependence or abuse. Participants are inducted onto XR-NTX after self-reporting at least 7 days of abstinence from opioids and tolerating a naloxone challenge followed by oral naltrexone and are then randomly assigned to one of three medication conditions (4 mg BUP, 16 mg BUP, or placebo) for 8 weeks. Participants receive a second injection of XR-NTX 4 weeks after the initial injection, and follow-up visits are scheduled at 1 and 3 months post-treatment. Participants receive weekly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recruitment commenced in September, 2011. Enrollment, active medication, and follow-up phases are ongoing, and recruitment is exceeding targeted enrollment rates. Conclusions This research using 2 medications will demonstrate whether BUP, administered in the presence of XR-NTX, reduces cocaine use in adults with cocaine dependence and opioid use disorders and will demonstrate if XR-NTX prevents development of physiologic dependence on BUP. PMID:23159524

  7. Do methadone and buprenorphine have the same impact on psychopathological symptoms of heroin addicts?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The idea that the impact of opioid agonist treatment is influenced by the psychopathological profile of heroin addicts has not yet been investigated, and is based on the concept of a specific therapeutic action displayed by opioid agents on psychopathological symptoms. In the present report we compared the effects of buprenorphine and methadone on the psychopathological symptoms of 213 patients (106 on buprenorphine and 107 on methadone) in a follow-up study lasting 12 months. Methods Drug addiction history was collected by means of the Drug Addiction History Rating Scale (DAH-RS) and psychopathological features were collected by means of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), using a special five-factor solution. Toxicological urinalyses were carried out for each patient during the treatment period. Results No statistically significant differences were detected in psychopathological symptoms, including 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatization', and 'panic-anxiety'. Methadone proved to be more effective on patients characterized by 'sensitivity-psychoticism', whereas buprenorphine was more effective on patients displaying a 'violence-suicide' symptomatology. Conclusions Heroin-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidities may benefit from opioid agonist treatment not only because it targets their addictive problem, but also, precisely due to this, because it is effective against their mental disorder too. PMID:21569624

  8. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  9. Comparison of Intravenous Morphine with Sublingual Buprenorphine in Management of Postoperative Pain after Closed Reduction Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Ghasem; Khorsand, Mahmood; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Jarahi, Lida; Zirak, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain is a common side effect following surgery that can significantly reduce surgical quality and patient’s satisfaction. Treatment options are morphine and buprenorphine. We aimed to compare the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous morphine with sublingual buprenorphine in postoperative pain control following closed reduction surgery. Methods: This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients referred for closed reduction orthopedic surgery. They were older than 18 years and in classes I and II of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) with an operation time of 30-90 minutes. Patients were divided into two groups of buprenorphine (4.5µg/kg sublingually) and morphine (0.2mg/kg intravenously). Baseline characteristics, vital signs, pain score, level of sedation and pharmacological side effects were recorded in the recovery room (at 0 and 30 minutes), and in the ward (at 3, 6 and 12 hours). SPSS version 19 software was used for data analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05. Results: Ninety patients were studied, 60 males and 30 females with a mean age of 37.7±16.2 years. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. Pain score in the morphine group was significantly higher than the buprenorphine group with an average score of 2.5 (P<0.001). Postoperative mean heart rate in the buprenorphine group was four beats lower than the morphine group (P<0.001). Also, in the buprenorphine 48.6% and in the morphine group 86.7% of cases were conscious in recovery (P=0.001) with a higher rate of pruritus in the latter group (P=0.001). Conclusion: Sublingual buprenorphine administration before anesthesia induction in closed reduction surgery can lead to better postoperative pain control in comparison to intravenous morphine. Due to simple usage and longer postoperative sedation, sublingual buprenorphine is recommended as a suitable drug in closed reduction surgery. PMID:26550594

  10. Assessment of Drug-Drug Interactions between Daclatasvir and Methadone or Buprenorphine-Naloxone

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R.; Luo, W.-L.; Wastall, P.; Kandoussi, H.; DeMicco, M.; Bruce, R. D.; Hwang, C.; Bertz, R.; Bifano, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among people who inject drugs, including those managed with maintenance opioids. Pharmacokinetic interactions between opioids and emerging oral HCV antivirals merit evaluation. Daclatasvir is a potent pangenotypic inhibitor of the HCV NS5A replication complex recently approved for HCV treatment in Europe and Japan in combination with other antivirals. The effect of steady-state daclatasvir (60 mg daily) on stable plasma exposure to oral opioids was assessed in non-HCV-infected subjects receiving methadone (40 to 120 mg; n = 14) or buprenorphine plus naloxone (8 to 24 mg plus 2 to 6 mg; n = 11). No relevant interaction was inferred if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) of opioid area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUCτ) or maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) with versus without daclatasvir was within literature-derived ranges of 0.7 to 1.43 (R- and S-methadone) or 0.5 to 2.0 (buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine). Dose-normalized AUCτ for R-methadone (GMR, 1.08; 90% CI, 0.94 to 1.24), S-methadone (1.13; 0.99 to 1.30), and buprenorphine (GMR, 1.37; 90% CI, 1.24 to 1.52) were within the no-effect range. The norbuprenorphine AUCτ was slightly elevated in the primary analysis (GMR, 1.62; 90% CI, 1.30 to 2.02) but within the no-effect range in a supplementary analysis of all evaluable subjects. Dose-normalized Cmax for both methadone enantiomers, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, were within the no-effect range. Standardized assessments of opioid pharmacodynamics were unchanged throughout daclatasvir administration with methadone or buprenorphine. Daclatasvir pharmacokinetics were similar to historical data. Coadministration of daclatasvir and opioids was generally well tolerated. In conclusion, these data suggest that daclatasvir can be administered with buprenorphine or methadone without dose adjustments. PMID:26124175

  11. Methadone and buprenorphine prescribing and referral practices in US prison systems: results from a nationwide survey.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nunn A; Zaller N; Dickman S; Trimbur C; Nijhawan A; Rich JD

    2009-11-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 50% of incarcerated individuals have a history of substance use, and over 200,000 individuals with heroin addiction pass through American correctional facilities annually. Opiate replacement therapy (ORT) with methadone or buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opiate dependence and can reduce drug-related disease and recidivism for inmates. Provision of ORT is nevertheless a frequently neglected intervention in the correctional setting.OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We surveyed the 50 state; Washington, District of Columbia (DC); and Federal Department of Corrections' medical directors or their equivalents about their facilities' ORT prescribing policies and referral programs for inmates leaving prison.RESULTS: We received responses from 51 of 52 prison systems nationwide. Twenty-eight prison systems (55%) offer methadone to inmates in some situations. Methadone use varies widely across states: over 50% of correctional facilities that offer methadone do so exclusively for pregnant women or for chronic pain management. Seven states' prison systems (14%) offer buprenorphine to some inmates. The most common reason cited for not offering ORT was that facilities "prefer drug-free detoxification over providing methadone or buprenorphine." Twenty-three states' prison systems (45%) provide referrals for some inmates to methadone maintenance programs after release, which increased from 8% in 2003; 15 states' prison systems (29%) provide some referrals to community buprenorphine providers.CONCLUSION: Despite demonstrated social, medical, and economic benefits of providing ORT to inmates during incarceration and linkage to ORT upon release, many prison systems nationwide still do not offer pharmacological treatment for opiate addiction or referrals for ORT upon release.

  12. The analgesic effect of buprenorphine, etorphine and pethidine in the pig: a randomized double blind cross-over study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Hermansen K; Pedersen LE; Olesen HO

    1986-07-01

    In order to find a suitable analgesic for the treatment of postoperative pain in pigs the analgesic effect of buprenorphine, etorphine and pethidine has been compared in 8 domestic pigs. For assessment of the analgesic action on thermal (hot plate) and two mechanical (cannulation of ear vein, needle prick) noxious stimuli have been employed. In a pilot experiment on 2 pigs in which methadone was included the maximal effective doses were estimated for each drug. Methadone was found unsuitable because of unacceptable side effects (respiratory dysfunction, hyperactivity) at effective dose levels. Next buprenorphine 120 micrograms/kg, etorphine 3 micrograms/kg and pethidine 20 mg/kg all given intramuscularly were compared in a randomized blind trial with a balanced cross-over design on 6 pigs. Etorphine proved to have the highest and pethidine the lowest maximal analgesic effect which was especially evident in the needle-prick test. Buprenorphine proved to have the longest duration of action in all three analgesic tests, in the hot plate test lasting between 7 and 24 hrs. Etorphine had a duration of 3 to 5 hrs whereas the effect of pethidine was short, only lasting about 2 hrs. Etorphine provides a complete analgesia but has a small safety margin for which reason it should be used with caution in the pig. The experimental results indicate that buprenorphine should be the first drug of choice in the treatment of pain after surgical intervention due to its long duration of action and lack of side effects.

  13. Safety and clinical effectiveness of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    DiVincenti, Louis; Meirelles, Luiz A D; Westcott, Robin A

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine, compared with effects of regular buprenorphine, for postoperative analgesia in rabbits. DESIGN Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS 24 purpose-bred adult male New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES Rabbits received titanium implants in each tibia as part of another study. Immediately prior to surgery, each rabbit received regular buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h for 3 days) or 1 dose of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (0.12 mg/kg [0.055 mg/lb], SC) followed by an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SC, q 12 h for 3 days) after surgery. For 7 days after surgery, rabbits were evaluated for signs of pain by means of rabbit grimace and activity scoring and for adverse effects. RESULTS No significant differences were identified between treatment groups in grimace and activity scores at any point. No major adverse effects were detected for either drug. However, 3 rabbits that received regular buprenorphine had pain scores suggestive of moderate to severe pain by the time dose admininistration was due (ie, within the 12-hour administration interval). No clinically important differences were detected in intraoperative anesthetic or postoperative recovery variables. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Sustained-release buprenorphine administered SC at 0.12 mg/kg was at least as effective as regular buprenorphine in providing analgesia for rabbits following orthopedic surgery without any major adverse effects. This sustained-release formulation represents an important alternative for rabbit analgesia with potential to improve rabbit welfare over existing analgesic standards. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:795-801). PMID:27003021

  14. Simultaneous quantification of buprenorphine, naloxone and phase I and II metabolites in plasma and breastmilk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swortwood, Madeleine J; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Barnes, Allan J; Jansson, Lauren M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-05-13

    Opioid abuse during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth restriction, placental abruption, preterm labor, fetal death, and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. Current guidelines for medication-assisted opioid addiction treatment during pregnancy are methadone or buprenorphine monotherapy. Buprenorphine/naloxone combination therapy (Suboxone(®)) has not been thoroughly evaluated during pregnancy and insufficient naloxone safety data exist. While methadone- and buprenorphine-treated mothers are encouraged to breastfeed, no studies to date investigated naloxone concentrations during breastfeeding following Suboxone administration. For this reason, we developed and fully validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of buprenorphine, buprenorphine-glucuronide, norbuprenorphine, norbuprenorphine-glucuronide, naloxone, naloxone-glucuronide and naloxone-N-oxide in 100μL human plasma and breastmilk in a single injection following protein precipitation and solid-phase extraction. Lowest limits of quantification were 0.1-2μg/L with 20-100μg/L upper limits of linearity. Bias and imprecision were <±16%. Matrix effects ranged from -57.9 to 11.2 and -84.6 to 29.3% in plasma and breastmilk, respectively. All analytes were stable (within ±20% change from baseline) under all tested conditions (24h room temperature, 72h at 4°C, 3 freeze/thaw cycles at -20°C, and in the autosampler for 72h at 4°C). For proof of concept, buprenorphine and its metabolites were successfully quantified in authentic positive maternal and infant plasma and paired breastmilk specimens. This comprehensive, highly sensitive and specific method detects multiple buprenorphine markers in a small specimen volume. PMID:27083254

  15. Voltammetric study and determination of buprenorphine in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Garca-Fernndez, M A; Fernndez-Abedul, M T; Costa-Garca, A

    1999-12-01

    The oxidation of buprenorphine on a carbon paste electrode has been studied using voltammetric techniques under both semi-infinite linear diffusion and hydrodynamic conditions. By applying a simple electrode pretreatment a good reproducibility of the current signal is obtained (R.S.D. = 0.85%, n = 6 for a 1.0 x 10(-5) M buprenorphine concentration). The limit of detection was found to be 2.0 x 10(-7) M. The voltammetric method developed for the determination of buprenorphine in pharmaceutical preparations was examined for its applicability to liquid and solid preparations. PMID:10701946

  16. Oligodendrocyte Responses to Buprenorphine Uncover Novel and Opposing Roles of μ-Opioid- and Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Receptors in Cell Development: Implications for Drug Addiction Treatment During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Eschenroeder, Andrew C.; Vestal-Laborde, Allison A.; Sanchez, Emilse S.; Robinson, Susan E.; Sato-Bigbee, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    While the classical function of myelin is the facilitation of saltatory conduction, this membrane and the oligodendrocytes, the cells that make myelin in the central nervous system (CNS), are now recognized as important regulators of plasticity and remodeling in the developing brain. As such, oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination are among the most vulnerable processes along CNS development. We have shown previously that rat brain myelination is significantly altered by buprenorphine, an opioid analogue currently used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. Perinatal exposure to low levels of this drug induced accelerated and increased expression of myelin basic proteins (MBPs), cellular and myelin components that are markers of mature oligodendrocytes. In contrast, supra-therapeutic drug doses delayed MBP brain expression and resulted in a decreased number of myelinated axons. We have now found that this biphasic-dose response to buprenorphine can be attributed to the participation of both the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP receptor) in the oligodendrocytes. This is particularly intriguing because the NOP receptor/nociceptin system has been primarily linked to behavior and pain regulation, but a role in CNS development or myelination has not been described before. Our findings suggest that balance between signaling mediated by (a) MOR activation and (b) a novel, yet unidentified pathway that includes the NOP receptor, plays a crucial role in the timing of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin synthesis. Moreover, exposure to opioids could disrupt the normal interplay between these two systems altering the developmental pattern of brain myelination. PMID:22002899

  17. The Effects of Maternally Administered Methadone, Buprenorphine and Naltrexone on Offspring: Review of Human and Animal Data

    PubMed Central

    Farid, W.O; Dunlop, S.A; Tait, R.J; Hulse, G.K

    2008-01-01

    Most women using heroin are of reproductive age with major risks for their infants. We review clinical and experimental data on fetal, neonatal and postnatal complications associated with methadone, the current “gold standard”, and compare these with more recent, but limited, data on developmental effects of buprenorphine, and naltrexone. Methadone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist and is commonly recommended for treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, it has undesired outcomes including neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Animal studies also indicate detrimental effects on growth, behaviour, neuroanatomy and biochemistry, and increased perinatal mortality. Buprenorphine is a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist and a κ-opioid receptor antagonist. Clinical observations suggest that buprenorphine during pregnancy is similar to methadone on developmental measures but is potentially superior in reducing the incidence and prognosis of NAS. However, small animal studies demonstrate that low doses of buprenorphine during pregnancy and lactation lead to changes in offspring behaviour, neuroanatomy and biochemistry. Naltrexone is a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Although data are limited, humans treated with oral or sustained-release implantable naltrexone suggest outcomes potentially superior to those with methadone or buprenorphine. However, animal studies using oral or injectable naltrexone have shown developmental changes following exposure during pregnancy and lactation, raising concerns about its use in humans. Animal studies using chronic exposure, equivalent to clinical depot formulations, are required to evaluate safety. While each treatment is likely to have maternal advantages and disadvantages, studies are urgently required to determine which is optimal for offspring in the short and long term. PMID:19305793

  18. Managing Health Care After Cancer Treatment: A Wellness Plan

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Jennifer; Langdon, Maura; Jones, Janice M.; Haggstrom, David; Naik, Aanand D.

    2015-01-01

    Many patients and health care providers lack awareness of both the existence of, and treatments for, lingering distress and disability after treatment. A cancer survivorship wellness plan can help ensure that any referral needs for psychosocial and other restorative care after cancer treatment are identified. PMID:25983534

  19. [Symptomatic treatment and palliative care of ALS].

    PubMed

    Kwieci?ski, H

    2001-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease, affecting upper and lower motor neurons, which eventually progresses to respiratory deterioration and death in most of the patients. Only one drug, riluzole, has been approved for the treatment of ALS. The drug has a benefit, prolonging life by 3-6 months, but the disease progresses inexorably, with no better quality of life. The fundamental role of medicine is sometimes to cure, but always to bring comfort. In current situation, ALS patients need adequate palliative care more than anything else. Prognosis and treatment options should be discussed with the patient and the relatives, but full information about the prognosis may deprive the patient of hope. However, disclosure of the prognosis is necessary to obtain informed consent for management decisions such as tracheostomy and artificial ventilation. Nasal positive-pressure ventilation (BiPAP) is an alternative to tracheostomy, at least for some patients without advanced bulbar impairment. Nutritional status in patients who cannot swallow can be efficiently improved by a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. (PEG). PMID:11732280

  20. Clinician Beliefs and Attitudes about Buprenorphine/Naloxone Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Connery, Hilary; Griffin, Margaret L.; Wyatt, Steve A.; Wartenberg, Alan A.; Borodovsky, Jacob; Renner, John A.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Concern about diversion of buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) in the U.S. may affect prescribing patterns and policy decisions. This study examines addiction treatment clinician beliefs and attitudes regarding B/N diversion. Methods Participants (n=369) completed a 34-item survey in 2010 during two national symposia on opioid dependence. We conducted multivariable regression, examining the relationship of perceived danger from B/N diversion with clinician characteristics and their beliefs about B/N treatment and diversion. We compared causal beliefs about diversion among clinicians with and without B/N treatment experience. Results Forty percent of clinicians believed that B/N diversion is a dangerous problem. The belief that B/N diversion increases accidental overdoses in the community was strongly associated with perceived danger from B/N diversion. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Attitudes and beliefs, not education level, were associated with clinician’s perceived danger from B/N diversion. Clinicians with greater B/N patient experience were more likely to believe treatment access barriers are the major cause of B/N diversion. PMID:24131165

  1. Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care: The Model of Care Thirty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trunzo, Annette C.; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Strickler, Amy; Doncaster, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, trends in children's mental health have moved care from residential and office-based treatment to community-based interventions. The Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care (PRTFC) program was developed in 1981 in response to these trends. Currently, Pressley Ridge provides PR-TFC treatment in 15 programs in six states and the…

  2. Improving Care for the Treatment of Alcohol and Drug Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Gustafson, David; Capoccia, Victor A.; Cotter, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) teaches alcohol and drug treatment programs to apply process improvement strategies and make organizational changes that improve quality of care. Participating programs reduce days to admission, increase retention in care and spread the application of process improvement within their treatment centers. More generally, NIATx provides a framework for addressing the Institute of Medicine’s six dimensions of quality care (i.e., safe, effective, patient-centered, efficient, timely and equitable) in treatments for alcohol, drug and mental health disorders. NIATx and its extensions illustrate how the behavioral health field can respond to the demand for higher quality treatment services. PMID:18259871

  3. Quality of Care and Service Expansion for HIV Care and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carolyn Bolton; Ciaraldi, Erica

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen exceptional development of antiretroviral treatment programs throughout the world. Over 14 million persons are accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) treatment as of early 2015, and life expectancy has risen markedly in the most-affected populations. However, large patient numbers threaten to overwhelm already over-burdened health care systems and retention in care remains suboptimal. Developing innovative strategies to alleviate these burdens and retain patients in care remains a challenge. Furthermore, despite this expansion, large populations of HIV-infected persons remain undiagnosed and are unwilling or unable to access care and treatment programs. Marginalized and high-risk populations are particularly in danger of remaining outside of care and are also disproportionately affected by HIV. To reverse the trend and "fast track" our way out of the epidemic, ambitious treatment targets are required, and a concerted effort has to be made to engage these populations into care, initiate ART, and attain viral suppression. PMID:25855339

  4. 38 CFR 21.240 - Medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medical treatment, care... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Medical and Related Services § 21.240 Medical treatment, care and services....

  5. 38 CFR 21.6240 - Medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical treatment, care... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6240 Medical treatment, care and...

  6. 38 CFR 21.240 - Medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical treatment, care... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Medical and Related Services § 21.240 Medical treatment, care and services....

  7. 38 CFR 21.6240 - Medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medical treatment, care... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6240 Medical treatment, care and...

  8. A Comparison of Cigarette Smoking Profiles in Opioid-Dependent Pregnant Patients Receiving Methadone or Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking and agonist treatment in opioid-dependent pregnant patients. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which cigarette smoking profiles differentially changed during the course of pregnancy in opioid-dependent patients receiving either double-blind methadone or buprenorphine. Patients were participants in the international, randomized controlled Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study. Methods: A sample of opioid-maintained pregnant patients (18–41 years old) with available smoking data who completed a multisite, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of methadone (n = 67) and buprenorphine (n = 57) between 2005 and 2008. Participants were compared on smoking variables based on opioid agonist treatment condition. Results: Overall, 95% of the sample reported cigarette smoking at treatment entry. Participants in the two medication conditions were similar on pretreatment characteristics including smoking rates and daily cigarette amounts. Over the course of the pregnancy, no meaningful changes in cigarette smoking were observed for either medication condition. The fitted difference in change in adjusted cigarettes per day between the two conditions was small and nonsignificant (β = −0.08, SE = 0.05, p = .132). Conclusions: Results support high rates of smoking with little change during pregnancy among opioid-dependent patients, regardless of the type of agonist medication received. These findings are consistent with evidence that suggests nicotine effects, and interactions may be similar for buprenorphine compared with methadone. The outcomes further highlight that aggressive efforts are needed to reduce/eliminate smoking in opioid-dependent pregnant women. PMID:23288871

  9. Effects of HCV Seropositive Status on Buprenorphine Pharmacokinetics in Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Carmen L.; Rainey, Petrie M.; Moody, David E.; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on buprenorphine pharmacokinetics in opioid-dependent, buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained adults. Methods A retrospective analysis of buprenorphine pharmacokinetics in HCV seropositive and seronegative buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained individuals (N = 49) was undertaken. Results Relative to HCV seronegative subjects, HCV seropositive subjects had higher buprenorphine exposure, as demonstrated by elevated buprenorphine AUC and Cmax values (p = .03 and .02, respectively) and corresponding elevations in the metabolites, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide AUC values (p = .03) and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide AUC and C24 values (p = .05 and .03, respectively). Discussion and Conclusions HCV infection was associated with higher plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and buprenorphine metabolites. Scientific Significance and Future Directions Findings suggest the potential for opioid toxicity among HCV-infected patients treated with buprenorphine/naloxone, and possible hepatotoxic effects related to increased buprenorphine exposure. HCV-infected patients receiving buprenorphine may need lower doses to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations. PMID:24313239

  10. [Dementia--causes, diagnosis, treatment, and care].

    PubMed

    Morimatsu, M

    1997-02-01

    The prevalence of dementia in the elderly (65 years old and over) was estimated at 6.3% (men 5.8%, women 6.7%) in Japan in 1985. Epidemiological studies done in several prefectures in 1989 and later showed a tendency for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to outnumber those with vascular dementia (VD); the VD/AD ratio was less than 1.0 in over half of the surveys. A pathologic study (Kosaka 1996) of 79 patients with dementia revealed that AD was more common than VD, although clinical diagnoses were the reverse, which indicated that VD is still overdiagnosed in Japan. Diffuse Lewy body disease was observed in 15% of those patients without correct clinical diagnosis. Many biological markers for AD have been reported. We used 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain and found that the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to creatine in AD patients was significantly smaller than that in age-matched controls without dementia. Based on genetic studies, AD is classified into five types. These are related to chromosomes 14 (presenilin-1), 21 (beta APP gene), 1 (presenilin-2), 19 (epsilon 4 alleles), and other. The causes of most sporadic cases remain unclear. Tacrine is the only drug authorized in the U.S.A. for treatment of AD, but it is not used in Japan because of its side effects. Many other drugs to treat dementia are now in nationwide clinical trials although only four are in phase III. Therefore, rehabilitation therapy is mandatory and details of that therapy should be individualized. A new system of public insurance for nursing care may be implemented by the government. PMID:9125881

  11. HIV Testing Practices Among Buprenorphine-Prescribing Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, E. Jennifer; Dinh, An; Moore, Brent A.; Schottenfeld, Richard; Fiellin, David A.; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for annual HIV testing of at-risk populations, including those with substance use disorders, there are no data on the HIV testing practices of buprenorphine-prescribing physicians. Objective To describe HIV testing practices among buprenorphine-prescribing physicians. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians enrolled in a national system to support buprenorphine prescribing between July and August 2008. The electronic survey included questions on demographics; clinical training and experience; clinical practice; patient characteristics; and physician screening practices, including HIV testing. Results Only 46% of 382 respondent physicians conducted HIV testing. On univariate analysis, physicians who conducted HIV testing were more likely to report addiction specialty training (33% vs. 19%, p=.001), practicing in addiction settings (28% vs. 16%, p=.006), and having treated more than 50 patients with buprenorphine (50% vs. 31%, p<.0001) compared to those who did not. Compared to physicians who did not conduct HIV testing, physicians who conducted HIV testing had a lower proportion of buprenorphine patients who were White (75% vs. 82%, p=.01) or dependent upon prescription opioids (57% vs. 70%, p<.0001). In multivariate analysis, physicians who conducted HIV testing were more likely to have treated more than 50 patients with buprenorphine (OR 1.777, 95%CI 1.011 – 3.124) and had fewer patients dependent upon prescription opioids (OR 0.986 95% CI 0.975 – 0.998) than physicians who did not. Conclusion Interventions to increase HIV testing among physicians prescribing buprenorphine are needed. PMID:22367499

  12. Epidural analgesia with morphine or buprenorphine in ponies with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced carpal synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Gabrielle C.; Carregaro, Adriano B.; Gehrcke, Martielo I.; De La Crte, Flvio D.; Lara, Valria M.; Pozzobon, Ricardo; Brass, Karin E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the analgesia effects of the epidural administration of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) of morphine or 5 ?g/kg BW of buprenorphine in ponies with radiocarpal joint synovitis. Six ponies were submitted to 3 epidural treatments: the control group (C) received 0.15 mL/kg BW of a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution; group M was administered 0.1 mg/kg BW of morphine; and group B was administered 5 ?g/kg BW of buprenorphine, both diluted in 0.9% NaCl to a total volume of 0.15 mL/kg BW administered epidurally at 10 s/mL. The synovitis model was induced by injecting 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the left or right radiocarpal joint. An epidural catheter was later introduced in the lumbosacral space and advanced up to the thoracolumbar level. The treatment started 6 h after synovitis induction. Lameness, maximum angle of carpal flexion, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, and intestinal motility were evaluated before LPS injection (baseline), 6 h after LPS injection (time 0), and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after treatments. Although the model of synovitis produced clear clinical signs of inflammation, the lameness scores in group C were different from the baseline for only up to 12 h. Both morphine and buprenorphine showed a reduction in the degree of lameness starting at 0.5 and 6 h, respectively. Reduced intestinal motility was observed at 0.5 h in group M and at 0.5 to 1 h in group B. Epidural morphine was a more effective analgesic that lasted for more than 12 h and without side effects. It was concluded that morphine would be a valuable analgesic option to alleviate joint pain in the thoracic limbs in ponies. PMID:21731186

  13. Self-administration of intravenous buprenorphine and the buprenorphine/naloxone combination by recently detoxified heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Comer, Sandra D; Collins, Eric D

    2002-11-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial mu-opioid agonist and kappa-opioid antagonist currently under development as a maintenance medication for heroin dependence. Because of concerns about illicit diversion of buprenorphine, a combination tablet containing buprenorphine and naloxone has been developed. The present study evaluated the reinforcing effects of intravenously administered placebo, buprenorphine alone (BUP; 2 and 8 mg), and the buprenorphine/naloxone combination (BUP/NX; 2 mg of buprenorphine plus 0.5 mg of naloxone, and 8 mg of buprenorphine plus 2 mg of naloxone) in recently detoxified heroin abusers during a 6-week inpatient study. Participants (n = 6) were detoxified from heroin over approximately 1 week immediately after admission. During the next 5 weeks, the reinforcing effects of placebo, BUP, and BUP/NX were evaluated. Participants first received a dose of drug and $20 and then were given the opportunity to self-administer either the dose or $20 during choice sessions. Progressive ratio break point values were significantly higher after active drug, compared with placebo, but they did not significantly differ as a function of dose or drug. In contrast, positive subjective ratings were higher after administration of BUP compared with BUP/NX, and these ratings increased in a dose-dependent manner. BUP and the combination had few effects on performance. Relative to placebo, both BUP and BUP/NX decreased pupil diameter, but there were no significant differences in pupil diameter as a function of drug or dose. These results demonstrate that both BUP and BUP/NX served as reinforcers under these conditions and that they may have similar abuse liability in recently detoxified individuals who abuse heroin. PMID:12388653

  14. Protein Innovations Advance Drug Treatments, Skin Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Dan Carter carefully layered the sheets of tracing paper on the light box. On each sheet were renderings of the atomic components of an essential human protein, one whose structure had long been a mystery. With each layer Carter laid down, a never-before-seen image became clearer. Carter joined NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in 1985 and began exploring processes of protein crystal growth in space. By bouncing intense X-rays off the crystals, researchers can determine the electron densities around the thousands of atoms forming the protein molecules, unveiling their atomic structures. Cultivating crystals of sufficient quality on Earth was problematic; the microgravity conditions of space were far more accommodating. At the time, only a few hundred protein structures had been mapped, and the methods were time consuming and tedious. Carter hoped his work would help reveal the structure of human serum albumin, a major protein in the human circulatory system responsible for ferrying numerous small molecules in the blood. More was at stake than scientific curiosity. Albumin has a high affinity for most of the world s pharmaceuticals, Carter explains, and its interaction with drugs can change their safety and efficacy. When a medication enters the bloodstream a cancer chemotherapy drug, for example a majority of it can bind with albumin, leaving only a small percentage active for treatment. How a drug interacts with albumin can influence considerations like the necessary effective dosage, playing a significant role in the design and application of therapeutic measures. In spite of numerous difficulties, including having no access to microgravity following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, the image Carter had hoped to see was finally clarifying. In 1988, his lab had acquired specialized X-ray and detection equipment a tipping point. Carter and his colleagues began to piece together albumin s portrait, the formation of its electron densities coalescing on the sheets of tracing paper he arranged on the light box. While space-grown crystals were ultimately not involved in the achievement, a year later, Carter says, we were on the cover of Science magazine, having determined the atomic structure of albumin.

  15. Depression Treatment Preferences in Older Primary Care Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gum, Amber M.; Arean, Patricia A.; Hunkeler, Enid; Tang, Lingqi; Katon, Wayne; Hitchcock, Polly; Steffens, David C.; Dickens, Jeanne; Unutzer, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: For depressed older primary care patients, this study aimed to examine (a) characteristics associated with depression treatment preferences; (b) predictors of receiving preferred treatment; and (c) whether receiving preferred treatment predicted satisfaction and depression outcomes. Design and Methods: Data are from 1,602 depressed older…

  16. 'Diversion’ of methadone or buprenorphine: 'harm’ versus 'helping’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 'Non-compliant’ individuals in opioid maintenance treatment, OMT, are often met with tight control regimes to reduce the risk of 'diversion’, which may lead to harm or death among persons outside of OMT. This article explores reported practices of, and motivations for, diversion of methadone and buprenorphine, in a group of imprisoned individuals in OMT. Findings 28 in-depths interviews were conducted among 12 OMT-enrolled, imprisoned individuals, most of whom were remand prisoners. All had experienced tight control regimes prior to imprisonment due to varying degrees of 'non-compliance’ and illicit drug use during treatment. Their acquired norm of sharing with others in a drug using community was maintained when entering OMT. Giving one’s prescription opioids to an individual in withdrawal was indeed seen as an act of helping, something that takes on particular significance for couples in which only one partner is included in OMT and the other is using illicit heroin. Individuals enrolled in OMT might thus be trapped between practicing norms of helping and sharing and adhering to treatment regulations. ’Diversion’, as this term is conventionally used, is not typically understood as practices of giving and helping, but may nevertheless be perceived as such by those who undertake them. Conclusions As we see it, the need to sustain oneself as a decent person in one’s own eyes and those of others through practices such as sharing and helping should be recognized. Treatment providers should consider including couples in which both individuals are motivated for starting OMT. PMID:24131626

  17. Buprenorphine versus morphine for patient-controlled analgesia after cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Dingus, D J; Sherman, J C; Rogers, D A; DiPiro, J T; May, R; Bowden, T A

    1993-07-01

    Buprenorphine is an opioid agonist-antagonist that has emerged as an option for postoperative analgesia. We compared the postoperative hospital course of patients undergoing open cholecystectomy who received buprenorphine hydrochloride with those who received morphine sulfate. Patients in both groups administered the analgesic using a patient-controlled analgesia infusion device. Comparison of the two groups demonstrated no difference with respect to clinical indicators of intestinal motility, visual analog pain scores and hospitalization period. Postoperative nausea occurred more frequently in the buprenorphine group, but the difference was not significant. We concluded that the patient-controlled analgesia device is a valuable tool for comparing different analgesics. Both analgesics tested provide adequate analgesia with a similar postoperative course. PMID:8322143

  18. Buprenorphine - the unique opioid adjuvant in regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kosel, Juliusz; Bobik, Piotr; Tomczyk, Michał

    2016-03-01

    Regional anesthesia techniques are commonly used for many surgical procedures alone or as an addition to general anesthesia, because they offer many advantages over general anesthesia. Unfortunately these techniques are partially limited by the time of action of local anesthetics. One of the methods of overcoming this limitation is adding to the local anesthetic solution additional drug - so called adjuvant. Among many adjuvants to local anesthetic drugs tested so far one seems to be particularly interesting - buprenorphine. The aim of this paper is to present pharmacological background for using buprenorphine for regional anesthesia and to review clinical trials of using buprenorphine for all regional anesthesia techniques: spinal and epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerves blocks, local anesthesia and intravenous regional anesthesia. PMID:26758991

  19. Buprenorphine Response as a Function of Neurogenetic Polymorphic Antecedents: Can Dopamine Genes Affect Clinical Outcomes in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)?

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Jacobs, William; McLaughlin, Thomas; Gold, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    There is a plethora of research indicating the successful treatment of opioid dependence with either buprenorphine alone or in combination with naloxone (Suboxone®). However, we encourage caution in long-term maintenance with these drugs, albeit, lack of any other FDA approved opioid maintenance compound to date. Our concern has been supported by severe withdrawal (even with tapering of the dosage of for example Suboxone® which is 40 times more potent than morphine) from low dose of buprenorphine (alone or with naloxone). In addition our findings of a long-term flat affect in chronic Suboxone® patients amongst other unwanted side effects including diversion and suicide attempts provides impetus to reconsider long-term utilization. However, it seems prudent to embrace genetic testing to reveal reward circuitry gene polymorphisms especially those related to dopaminergic pathways as well as opioid receptor(s) as a way of improving treatment outcomes. Understanding the interaction of reward circuitry involvement in buprenorphine effects and respective genotypes provide a novel framework to augment a patient's clinical experience and benefits during opioid replacement therapy. PMID:25664200

  20. Effects of Buprenorphine, Meloxicam, and Flunixin Meglumine as Postoperative Analgesia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, Jacquelyn T; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Greg S; Goulding, David R; Clark, James A; King-Herbert, Angela P; Blankenship-Paris, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    C57BL/6NCrl male mice (n = 60; age, 6 to 7 wk) underwent partial hepatectomy or no surgery and were given 1 of 3 analgesics pre- and postoperatively. Food and water consumption, body weight, running wheel activity, locomotor activity, and serum corticosterone concentrations were measured before and after surgery. Mice that were surgically manipulated weighed significantly less on days 1 through 3 after surgery than did mice not manipulated surgically. On the day of surgery, the surgery groups consumed significantly less feed (–1.5 ± 0.35 g) than did nonsurgery groups. There were no differences in water consumption on any day between surgery and nonsurgery groups or among the 3 analgesic groups. For running wheel activity, significant decreases in the surgery groups were seen at day 1 after surgery compared with baseline. Surgery groups that received buprenorphine and meloxicam returned to baseline activity levels on day 2 after surgery. Open-field testing revealed no significant differences in locomotor activity in any groups; however, posttreatment locomotor activity in the buprenorphine nonsurgery group was increased compared with baseline, and posttreatment locomotor activity in the flunixin meglumine surgery group was decreased compared with baseline. Serum corticosterone concentrations were within normal limits regardless of treatment in all groups. Comparison of the overall results indicated that meloxicam and buprenorphine, at the dose given, appear to be suitable postoperative analgesics for partial hepatectomy in mice. Flunixin meglumine at the given dosage (2.5 mg/kg) may not provide adequate analgesia for partial hepatectomy. PMID:21439211

  1. Depression and diabetes: treatment and health-care delivery.

    PubMed

    Petrak, Frank; Baumeister, Harald; Skinner, Timothy C; Brown, Alex; Holt, Richard I G

    2015-06-01

    Despite research efforts in the past 20 years, scientific evidence about screening and treatment for depression in diabetes remains incomplete and is mostly focused on North American and European health-care systems. Validated instruments to detect depression in diabetes, although widely available, only become effective and thus recommended if subsequent treatment pathways are accessible, which is often not the case. Because of the well known adverse effects of the interaction between depression and diabetes, treatment goals should focus on the remission or improvement of depression as well as improvement in glycaemic control as a marker for subsequent diabetes outcome. Scientific evidence evaluating treatment for depression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes shows that depression can be treated with moderate success by various psychological and pharmacological interventions, which are often implemented through collaborative care and stepped-care approaches. The evidence for improved glycaemic control in the treatment of depression by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or psychological approaches is conflicting; only some analyses show small to moderate improvements in glycaemic control. More research is needed to evaluate treatment of different depression subtypes in people with diabetes, the cost-effectiveness of treatments, the use of health-care resources, the need to account for cultural differences and different health-care systems, and new treatment and prevention approaches. PMID:25995125

  2. [Integration of nutritional care into cancer treatment: need for improvement].

    PubMed

    Joly, Caroline; Jacqueline-Ravel, Nathalie; Pugliesi-Rinaldi, Angela; Bigler-Perrotin, Lucienne; Chikhi, Marinette; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Dulguerov, Pavel; Miralbell, Raymond; Picard-Kossovsky, Michel; Seium, Yodit; Thériault, Michel; Pichard, Claude

    2011-11-16

    Progresses in cancer treatment transformed cancer into a chronic disease associated with growing nutritional problems. Poor nutritional status of cancer patients worsens morbidity, mortality, overall cost of care and decreases patients' quality of life, oncologic treatments tolerance and efficacy. These adverse effects lead to treatment modifications or interruptions, reducing the chances to control or cure cancer. Implementation of an interdisciplinary and longitudinal integration of nutritional care and nutritional information into cancer treatment (The OncoNut Program) could prevent or treat poor nutritional status and its adversely side effects. PMID:22400355

  3. Opioids and the management of chronic severe pain in the elderly: consensus statement of an International Expert Panel with focus on the six clinically most often used World Health Organization Step III opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone).

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph; Böger, Rainer H; Budd, Keith; Dahan, Albert; Erdine, Serdar; Hans, Guy; Kress, Hans-Georg; Langford, Richard; Likar, Rudolf; Raffa, Robert B; Sacerdote, Paola

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY OF CONSENSUS: 1. The use of opioids in cancer pain: The criteria for selecting analgesics for pain treatment in the elderly include, but are not limited to, overall efficacy, overall side-effect profile, onset of action, drug interactions, abuse potential, and practical issues, such as cost and availability of the drug, as well as the severity and type of pain (nociceptive, acute/chronic, etc.). At any given time, the order of choice in the decision-making process can change. This consensus is based on evidence-based literature (extended data are not included and chronic, extended-release opioids are not covered). There are various driving factors relating to prescribing medication, including availability of the compound and cost, which may, at times, be the main driving factor. The transdermal formulation of buprenorphine is available in most European countries, particularly those with high opioid usage, with the exception of France; however, the availability of the sublingual formulation of buprenorphine in Europe is limited, as it is marketed in only a few countries, including Germany and Belgium. The opioid patch is experimental at present in U.S.A. and the sublingual formulation has dispensing restrictions, therefore, its use is limited. It is evident that the population pyramid is upturned. Globally, there is going to be an older population that needs to be cared for in the future. This older population has expectations in life, in that a retiree is no longer an individual who decreases their lifestyle activities. The "baby-boomers" in their 60s and 70s are "baby zoomers"; they want to have a functional active lifestyle. They are willing to make trade-offs regarding treatment choices and understand that they may experience pain, providing that can have increased quality of life and functionality. Therefore, comorbidities--including cancer and noncancer pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and postherpetic neuralgia--and patient functional status need to be taken carefully into account when addressing pain in the elderly. World Health Organization step III opioids are the mainstay of pain treatment for cancer patients and morphine has been the most commonly used for decades. In general, high level evidence data (Ib or IIb) exist, although many studies have included only few patients. Based on these studies, all opioids are considered effective in cancer pain management (although parts of cancer pain are not or only partially opioid sensitive), but no well-designed specific studies in the elderly cancer patient are available. Of the 2 opioids that are available in transdermal formulation--fentanyl and buprenorphine--fentanyl is the most investigated, but based on the published data both seem to be effective, with low toxicity and good tolerability profiles, especially at low doses. 2. The use of opioids in noncancer-related pain: Evidence is growing that opioids are efficacious in noncancer pain (treatment data mostly level Ib or IIb), but need individual dose titration and consideration of the respective tolerability profiles. Again no specific studies in the elderly have been performed, but it can be concluded that opioids have shown efficacy in noncancer pain, which is often due to diseases typical for an elderly population. When it is not clear which drugs and which regimes are superior in terms of maintaining analgesic efficacy, the appropriate drug should be chosen based on safety and tolerability considerations. Evidence-based medicine, which has been incorporated into best clinical practice guidelines, should serve as a foundation for the decision-making processes in patient care; however, in practice, the art of medicine is realized when we individualize care to the patient. This strikes a balance between the evidence-based medicine and anecdotal experience. Factual recommendations and expert opinion both have a value when applying guidelines in clinical practice. 3. The use of opioids in neuropathic pain: The role of opioids in neuropathic pain has been under debate in the past but is nowadays more and more accepted; however, higher opioid doses are often needed for neuropathic pain than for nociceptive pain. Most of the treatment data are level II or III, and suggest that incorporation of opioids earlier on might be beneficial. Buprenorphine shows a distinct benefit in improving neuropathic pain symptoms, which is considered a result of its specific pharmacological profile. 4. The use of opioids in elderly patients with impaired hepatic and renal function: Functional impairment of excretory organs is common in the elderly, especially with respect to renal function. For all opioids except buprenorphine, half-life of the active drug and metabolites is increased in the elderly and in patients with renal dysfunction. It is, therefore, recommended that--except for buprenorphine--doses be reduced, a longer time interval be used between doses, and creatinine clearance be monitored. Thus, buprenorphine appears to be the top-line choice for opioid treatment in the elderly. 5. Opioids and respiratory depression: Respiratory depression is a significant threat for opioid-treated patients with underlying pulmonary condition or receiving concomitant central nervous system (CNS) drugs associated with hypoventilation. Not all opioids show equal effects on respiratory depression: buprenorphine is the only opioid demonstrating a ceiling for respiratory depression when used without other CNS depressants. The different features of opioids regarding respiratory effects should be considered when treating patients at risk for respiratory problems, therefore careful dosing must be maintained. 6. Opioids and immunosuppression: Age is related to a gradual decline in the immune system: immunosenescence, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and decreased efficacy of immunotherapy, such as vaccination. The clinical relevance of the immunosuppressant effects of opioids in the elderly is not fully understood, and pain itself may also cause immunosuppression. Providing adequate analgesia can be achieved without significant adverse events, opioids with minimal immunosuppressive characteristics should be used in the elderly. The immunosuppressive effects of most opioids are poorly described and this is one of the problems in assessing true effect of the opioid spectrum, but there is some indication that higher doses of opioids correlate with increased immunosuppressant effects. Taking into consideration all the very limited available evidence from preclinical and clinical work, buprenorphine can be recommended, while morphine and fentanyl cannot. 7. Safety and tolerability profile of opioids: The adverse event profile varies greatly between opioids. As the consequences of adverse events in the elderly can be serious, agents should be used that have a good tolerability profile (especially regarding CNS and gastrointestinal effects) and that are as safe as possible in overdose especially regarding effects on respiration. Slow dose titration helps to reduce the incidence of typical initial adverse events such as nausea and vomiting. Sustained release preparations, including transdermal formulations, increase patient compliance. PMID:18503626

  4. Primary care diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment of depression in adults.

    PubMed

    Lesseig, D Z

    1996-10-01

    Depression is a common clinical problem seen in primary care. Despite a high prevalence of depression in patients of all ages, it is underdiagnosed and undertreated by primary care and other nonpsychiatric health care providers-the practitioners most likely to see the patient initially, greater than 50% of the time. Differentiating depression and physical illness is difficult and often comorbidity confounds the problem. Diagnostic criteria for depression are presented along with tips for assessment of suicide risk. Laboratory screening should be done as part of the diagnostic process to document certain changes in physiological parameters related to depression. The choice of treatment for depression includes psychotherapy, medication, ECT, or combined treatment with medication and psychotherapy. The result of managed care is that primary providers are more often responsible for medication management of depression than they were in the past. An overview of antidepressant pharmacotherapeutics for primary care is presented. PMID:8895193

  5. Comparing Outcomes for Youth in Treatment Foster Care and Family-style Group Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bethany R.; Thompson, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Group care programs are often criticized for producing poor outcomes, especially in light of community-based alternatives like treatment foster care that have a stronger evidence base. In this study, data from Girls and Boys Town were used to compare outcomes of youth in treatment foster care (n=112) and group care (n=716) using propensity score matching, a method that can minimize selection bias in nonrandomized designs. Eighteen background covariates were used to develop propensity scores for the likelihood of receiving treatment foster care rather than group care. Several matching methods generated balanced samples on which the outcomes were compared. Results found that group care youth were more likely to be favorably discharged, more likely to return home, and less likely to experience subsequent placement in the first six months after discharge. Legal involvement and residing in a home-like environment at follow-up did not differ. Positive outcomes for group care youth suggest that family-style group care programs may promote effectiveness. PMID:19122763

  6. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  7. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have

  8. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    PubMed

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings. PMID:24725603

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of multiple sublingual buprenorphine tablets in dose-escalation trials.

    PubMed

    Ciraulo, Domenic A; Hitzemann, Robert J; Somoza, Eugene; Knapp, Clifford M; Rotrosen, John; Sarid-Segal, Ofra; Ciraulo, Ann Marie; Greenblatt, David J; Chiang, C Nora

    2006-02-01

    In this investigation, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties were determined of multiple doses of sublingual tablets containing either buprenorphine alone or buprenorphine and naloxone. Subjects were experienced opiate users who received escalating doses (4-24 mg) of buprenorphine either alone or in combination with naloxone. Peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) increased for both buprenorphine and naloxone with escalating doses. Significant differences were found across the range of doses administered for dose-adjusted Cmax for both tablet formulations and for the dose-adjusted AUCs for the buprenorphine-naloxone tablets. For both formulations, the maximal buprenorphine-induced decreases in respiratory rate and pupil diameter did not vary significantly across doses. Several of the subjective effects of buprenorphine did not increase as the dose of buprenorphine administered was increased. These findings are consistent with the ceiling effect associated with the partial agonist actions of buprenorphine. They also indicate a lack of dose proportionality for buprenorphine sublingual tablets, at least during the times at which levels of this agent are highest. PMID:16432270

  10. Adolescent substance abuse treatment: Organizational change and quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine; Henderson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues impacted treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement initiatives. PMID:23750096

  11. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  12. The readiness of addiction treatment agencies for health care reform

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) aims to provide affordable health insurance and expanded health care coverage for some 32 million Americans. The PPACA makes provisions for using technology, evidence-based treatments, and integrated, patient-centered care to modernize the delivery of health care services. These changes are designed to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-savings within the health care system. To gauge the addiction treatment field’s readiness for health reform, the authors developed a Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) survey for addiction treatment agencies. Addiction treatment administrators and providers from around the United States completed the survey located on the http://www.niatx.net website. Respondents self-assessed their agencies based on 13 conditions pertinent to health reform readiness, and received a confidential score and instant feedback. On a scale of “Needs to Begin,” “Early Stages,” “On the Way,” and “Advanced,” the mean scores for respondents (n = 276) ranked in the Early Stages of health reform preparation for 11 of 13 conditions. Of greater concern was that organizations with budgets of < $5 million (n = 193) were less likely than those with budgets > $5 million to have information technology (patient records, patient health technology, and administrative information technology), evidence-based treatments, quality management systems, a continuum of care, or a board of directors informed about PPACA. The findings of the HRRI indicate that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, have much to do to prepare for a future environment that has greater expectations for information technology use, a credentialed workforce, accountability for patient care, and an integrated continuum of care. PMID:22551101

  13. Office-Based Buprenorphine Versus Clinic-Based Methadone: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    King, Jordan B; Sainski-Nguyen, Amy M; Bellows, Brandon K

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this analysis was to compare the cost-effectiveness of clinic-based methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and office-based buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) from the perspective of third-party payers in the United States. The authors used a Markov cost-effectiveness model. A hypothetical cohort of 1000 adult, opioid-dependent patients was modeled over a 1-year time horizon. Patients were allowed to transition between the health states of in opioid dependence treatment and either abusing or not abusing opioids, or to have dropped out of treatment. Probabilities were derived from randomized clinical trials comparing methadone and buprenorphine. Costs included drug and administration, clinic visits, and therapy sessions. Effectiveness outcomes examined were (1) retention in the treatment program and (2) opioid abuse-free weeks. For retention in treatment at 1 year, MMT was more costly ($4,613 vs. $4,155) and more effective (20.3% vs. 15.9%) than BMT, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $10,437 per additional patient retained in treatment. MMT was also more effective than BMT in terms of opioid abuse-free weeks (9.2 vs. 9.1 weeks), resulting in an ICER of $8,515 per opioid abuse-free week gained. One-way sensitivity analyses found costs per week of MMT to have the largest impact on the retention-in-treatment outcome, whereas the probability of dropping out with MMT had the greatest impact on opioid abuse-free weeks. The authors conclude that MMT is cost-effective compared with BMT for the treatment of patients with opioid dependence. However, the treatment of substance abuse is complex, and decision makers should also consider individual patient characteristics when making coverage decisions. PMID:27007583

  14. Blockade of IL-18 signaling diminished neuropathic pain and enhanced the efficacy of morphine and buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Dominika; Piotrowska, Anna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka; ?lusarczyk, Joanna; Makuch, Wioletta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the low efficacy of antinociceptive drugs for the treatment of neuropathic pain is a major therapeutic problem. Here, we show the potential role of interleukin (IL)-18 signaling in this phenomenon. IL-18 is an important molecule that performs various crucial functions, including the alteration of nociceptive transmission in response to neuropathic pain. We have studied the changes in the mRNA and protein levels (qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively) of IL-18, IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP) and the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) over time in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Our study demonstrated that the spinal levels of IL-18BP were slightly downregulated at days 7 and 14 in the rats subjected to CCI. In contrast, the IL-18 and IL-18R mRNA expression and protein levels were elevated in the ipsilateral spinal cord on days 2, 7 and 14. Moreover, in rats exposed to a single intrathecal administration of IL-18BP (50 and 100ng) 7 or 14days following CCI, symptoms of neuropathic pain were attenuated, and the analgesia pursuant to morphine and buprenorphine (0.5 and 2.5?g) was enhanced. In summary, the restoration of the analgesic activity of morphine and buprenorphine via the blockade of IL-18 signaling suggests that increased IL-18 pathway may account for the decreased analgesic efficacy of opioids for neuropathic pain. PMID:26763728

  15. Uses of diverted methadone and buprenorphine by opioid-addicted individuals in Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kelly, Sharon M.; Brown, Barry S.; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Peterson, James A.; Ruhf, Adrienne; Agar, Michael H.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the uses of diverted methadone and buprenorphine among opiate-addicted individuals recruited from new admissions to methadone programs and from out-of-treatment individuals recruited from the streets. Self-report data regarding diversion were obtained from surveys and semi-structured qualitative interviews. Approximately 16% (n=84) of the total sample (N=515) reported using diverted (street) methadone 2–3 times per week for six months or more, and for an average of 7.8 days (SD=10.3) within the past month. The group reporting lifetime use of diverted methadone as compared to the group that did not report such use was less likely to use heroin and cocaine in the 30 days prior to admission (ps < .01) and had lower ASI Drug Composite scores (p < .05). Participants in our qualitative sub-sample (n=22) indicated that street methadone was more widely used than street buprenorphine and that both drugs were largely used as self-medication for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms. Participants reported using low dosages and no injection of either medication was reported. PMID:19874152

  16. Development of an enhanced formulation for delivering sustained release of buprenorphine hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Koocheki, S.; Madaeni, S.S.; Niroomandi, P.

    2011-01-01

    To control the minimum effective dose, and reduce the number and quantity of administered potent drugs are unique features of advanced drug delivery in situ forming gel formulation. The efficacy, consistency, and increasing the application of existing injection therapies can be enhanced through optimization of controlled released systems by using FDA approved biodegradable PLGA (poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. The purpose of this study was to develop different in situ forming implant (ISFI) formulations of buprenorphine hydrochloride for post treatment of drug addicts, acute and chronic pains. The drug releases from different ISFIs membranes with and without Tween 80 were compared over a period of time. Kinetic equation followed the Korsmeyer–Peppas model, as the plots showed high linearity. The influence of this additive on polymer properties was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the membranes structure was studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data revealed that Tween 80 modified the drug release pattern using diffusion mechanism and decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg) significantly. The degree of crystallinity was decreased after phase inversion which helps the dissolution of drug from membrane. The porosity of modified membranes was in accordance with release profiles. These findings suggest four different in situ forming implant formulations which can release various dose of the buprenorphine hydrochloride in a prolonged time. Also this surfactant can be an attractive additive for modifying the release rate of drugs from PLGA-based membrane drug delivery systems. PMID:23960766

  17. Uses of diverted methadone and buprenorphine by opioid-addicted individuals in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Gwin Mitchell, Shannon; Kelly, Sharon M; Brown, Barry S; Schacht Reisinger, Heather; Peterson, James A; Ruhf, Adrienne; Agar, Michael H; O'Grady, Kevin E; Schwartz, Robert P

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the uses of diverted methadone and buprenorphine among opiate-addicted individuals recruited from new admissions to methadone programs and from out-of-treatment individuals recruited from the streets. Self-report data regarding diversion were obtained from surveys and semi-structured qualitative interviews. Approximately 16% (n = 84) of the total sample (N = 515) reported using diverted (street) methadone two-three times per week for six months or more, and for an average of 7.8 days (SD = 10.3) within the past month. The group reporting lifetime use of diverted methadone as compared to the group that did not report such use was less likely to use heroin and cocaine in the 30 days prior to admission (ps <.01) and had lower ASI Drug Composite scores (p <.05). Participants in our qualitative sub-sample (n = 22) indicated that street methadone was more widely used than street buprenorphine and that both drugs were largely used as self-medication for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms. Participants reported using low dosages and no injection of either medication was reported. PMID:19874152

  18. Relationship Between Buprenorphine Dosing and Triglyceride Lowering and Creatinine Kinase Elevation in Felines: Possible Human Implications.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-03-01

    Recently published feline data suggest that high doses of buprenorphine can elevate creatinine kinase (CK) and profoundly influence triglyceride levels in an inverted dose versus effect relationship. This intriguing observation in felines, hitherto not documented for buprenorphine, should be considered in human situations for any trends of translatability. The report evaluates the observed effects in domestic cats and what is known about buprenorphine in human subjects. Based on the objective assessment, the following are deduced: (a) although elevated CK levels is a nonissue in humans, one needs to pay attention especially when buprenorphine is used at the high end of therapeutic dose range in the presence of drugs that can impair the hepatic metabolism of buprenorphine; and (b) the potential for triglyceride lowering can be easily confirmed in human trials, and since it may occur at the relevant therapeutic doses of buprenorphine, it may be beneficial in such patients who may have added cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26861654

  19. Effect of Steady-State Faldaprevir on the Pharmacokinetics of Steady-State Methadone and Buprenorphine-Naloxone in Subjects Receiving Stable Addiction Management Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J.; Riesenberg, Robert R.; Vince, Bradley D.; Webster, Lynn R.; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk

    2014-01-01

    The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24,ss), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (Cmax,ss), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C24,ss) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01637922.) PMID:25385094

  20. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustavsen, Kate A.; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K.; Petritz, Olivia A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and bioavailability was good after IM administration to American kestrels. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 9 hours after both IM and IV administration. These results, in combination with those of a pharmacodynamic study, suggested that the analgesic effects of buprenorphine could last at least 6 to 9 hours in this species. Further investigations of the duration of analgesic effects, multiple-dose protocols, and potential adverse effects of buprenorphine are warranted in American kestrels and other raptors.

  1. Interactions between Buprenorphine and Antiretrovirals: Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI) Didanosine, Lamivudine, and Tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jennifer; Rainey, Petrie M.; Moody, David E.; Morse, Gene D.; Ma, Qing; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.

    2013-01-01

    To improve outcomes among injection drug users with HIV and/or chronic hepatitis B, it is important to identify drug interactions between antiretroviral and opiate therapies. We report the results of a study designed to examine the interaction between buprenorphine and the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) didanosine (ddI), lamivudine (3TC), and tenofovir (TDF). Opioid-dependent, buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained, HIV-negative volunteers (n = 27) participated in two 24-hour sessions to determine (1) pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine alone and (2) pharmacokinetics of both buprenorphine and either ddI, 3TC, or TDF. Among buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained study participants, no significant changes in buprenorphine pharmacokinetics were observed following ddI, 3TC, or TDF administration. Buprenorphine had no significant effect on NRTI concentrations. Concomitant use of buprenorphine with ddI, 3TC, or TDF results in neither a significant pharmacokinetic nor pharmacodynamic interaction. PMID:20132118

  2. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Danzi, Matt C.; Motti, Dario; Avison, Donna L.; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model. PMID:26981104

  3. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Matt C; Motti, Dario; Avison, Donna L; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model. PMID:26981104

  4. Differences in Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis by Ambulatory Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the US and timely, correct treatment can reduce CT transmission and sequelae. Emergency departments (ED) are an important location for diagnosing STIs. This study compared recommended treatment of CT in EDs to treatment in physician offices. Five years of data (2006-2010) were analyzed from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NHAMCS), including the Outpatient survey (NHAMCS-OPD) and Emergency Department survey (NHAMCS-ED). All visits with a CT diagnosis and those with a diagnosis of unspecified venereal disease were selected for analysis. Differences in receipt of recommended treatments were compared between visits to physician offices and emergency departments using Chi square tests and logistic regression models. During the 5 year period, approximately 3.2 million ambulatory care visits had diagnosed CT or an unspecified venereal disease. A greater proportion of visits to EDs received the recommended treatment for CT compared to visits to physician offices (66.1 vs. 44.9 %, p < .01). When controlling for patients' age, sex and race/ethnicity, those presenting to the ED with CT were more likely to receive the recommended antibiotic treatment than patients presenting to a physician's office (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.04-4.48). This effect was attenuated when further controlling for patients' expected source of payment. These analyses demonstrate differences in the treatment of CT by ambulatory care setting as well as opportunities for increasing use of recommended treatments for diagnosed cases of this important STI. PMID:25940936

  5. Predictors of outcome for short-term medically supervised opioid withdrawal during a randomized, multicenter trial of buprenorphine-naloxone and clonidine in the NIDA clinical trials network drug and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Ziedonis, Douglas M; Amass, Leslie; Steinberg, Marc; Woody, George; Krejci, Jonathan; Annon, Jeffrey J; Cohen, Allan J; Waite-O'Brien, Nancy; Stine, Susan M; McCarty, Dennis; Reid, Malcolm S; Brown, Lawrence S; Maslansky, Robert; Winhusen, Theresa; Babcock, Dean; Brigham, Greg; Muir, Joan; Orr, Deborah; Buchan, Betty J; Horton, Terry; Ling, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Few studies in community settings have evaluated predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment success for medically supervised opioid withdrawal treatment. This report presents new findings about these factors from a study of 344 opioid-dependent men and women prospectively randomized to either buprenorphine-naloxone or clonidine in an open-label 13-day medically supervised withdrawal study. Subjects were either inpatient or outpatient in community treatment settings; however not randomized by treatment setting. Medication type (buprenorphine-naloxone versus clonidine) was the single best predictor of treatment retention and treatment success, regardless of treatment setting. Compared to the outpatient setting, the inpatient setting was associated with higher abstinence rates but similar retention rates when adjusting for medication type. Early opioid withdrawal severity mediated the relationship between medication type and treatment outcome with buprenorphine-naloxone being superior to clonidine at relieving early withdrawal symptoms. Inpatient subjects on clonidine with lower withdrawal scores at baseline did better than those with higher withdrawal scores; inpatient subjects receiving buprenorphine-naloxone did better with higher withdrawal scores at baseline than those with lower withdrawal scores. No relationship was found between treatment outcome and age, gender, race, education, employment, marital status, legal problems, baseline depression, or length/severity of drug use. Tobacco use was associated with worse opioid treatment outcomes. Severe baseline anxiety symptoms doubled treatment success. Medication type (buprenorphine-naloxone) was the most important predictor of positive outcome; however the paper also considers other clinical and policy implications of other results, including that inpatient setting predicted better outcomes and moderated medication outcomes. PMID:18805656

  6. Assessing need for medication-assisted treatment for opiate-dependent prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Albizu-García, Carmen E; Caraballo, José Noel; Caraballo-Correa, Glorimar; Hernández-Viver, Adriana; Román-Badenas, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with a history of heroin dependence are overrepresented in American correctional facilities and 75% of inmates with a drug use disorder do not receive treatment during incarceration or after release. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with opiate agonists, such as methadone or buprenorphine, constitutes standard of care; to guide planning for an expansion of drug treatment services in correctional facilities, a needs assessment was conducted at the Department of Correction and Rehabilitation (DCR) of Puerto Rico (PR). The authors report on the research process, the findings that informed their recommendations for the DCR to expand MAT for eligible inmates, and lessons learned. PMID:22263714

  7. Adjustment of Natural Children in Treatment Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosciak, Karen Victoria

    The negative effects of treatment foster care on the natural children in the foster homes in this study was apparent to foster parents and program staff. The program, William Roper Hull Child and Family Services, was losing some foster families due to the negative impact that the natural children in the foster homes were experiencing. A strategy…

  8. Prior Trauma Exposure for Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Shannon; Burns, Barbara J.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has focused on rates of trauma exposure for youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Available research has utilized record review for assessing exposure, which presents limitations for the range of trauma types examined, as records are predominantly focused on abuse and neglect. The current study examines exposure rates and…

  9. Assessing Conformity to Standards for Treatment Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Burns, Barbara J.; Dubs, Melanie S.; Thompson, Shealy

    2002-01-01

    This study examined conformity to the Program Standards for Treatment Foster Care among 42 statewide programs. Findings suggest fair to good overall conformity, with considerable variation among programs. A discussion of methodological and substantive considerations for future research and evaluation using this approach is included. (Contains…

  10. Developing Self-Care Practices in a Trauma Treatment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patricia J.; Simmelink-McCleary, Jennifer; Im, Hyojin; Becher, Emily; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of self-care practices of social work students who were part of a larger study of students' experiences in a graduate course on the treatment of trauma. Consensual qualitative research methods were used to analyze 17 participant journals submitted at 4 times during the course. Findings indicated that…

  11. Opioid substitution treatment in New Zealand: a 40 year perspective.

    PubMed

    Deering, Daryle; Sellman, J Douglas; Adamson, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We provide an overview of the history and philosophy of the treatment for opioid dependence, which has been dominated by methadone substitution treatment for the past 40 years in New Zealand. Although changes in approach have occurred over this time, influenced by various sociopolitical events and changing ideologies, opioid substitution treatment has still "not come of age". It remains undermined by stigma and risk concerns associated with methadone and has struggled to be accessible and attractive to illicit opioid drug users, comprehensive and integrated into mainstream health care. However, the introduction in 2012 of Pharmac-subsidised buprenorphine combined with naloxone (Suboxone) in the context of an emerging trend towards a broader recovery and well-being orientation could signal a new era in treatment. The availability of buprenorphine-naloxone may also facilitate a further shift in treatment from primarily siloed specialist addiction services to integrated primary care services. This shift will help reduce stigma, promote patient self-management and community integration and align opioid substitution treatment with treatment for other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and asthma. PMID:24997702

  12. Palliative care and pain treatment in the global health agenda.

    PubMed

    De Lima, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The Global Atlas of Palliative Care at the End of Life, published by the Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance (WPCA) jointly with the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that every year >20 million patients need palliative care (PC) at the end of life. Six percent of these are children. According to the Atlas, in 2011, approximately 3 million patients received PC and only 1 in 10 people in need is currently receiving it. Although most PC is provided in high-income countries (HIC), almost 80% of the global need is in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Only 20 countries have PC well integrated into their health-care systems. In regards to opioids, >5 billion people (83% of the world's population) live in countries with low to nonexistent access, 250 million (4%) have moderate access, and only 460 million (7%) have adequate access. In order for PC and pain treatment strategies to be effective, they must be incorporated by governments into all levels of their health care systems. In 1990, the WHO pioneered a public health strategy to integrate PC into existing health care systems which includes four components: (1) appropriate policies, (2) adequate availability of medications, (3) education of health care workers and the public, and (4) implementation of PC services at all levels throughout the society. This topical review describes the current status of the field, and presents several initiatives by United Nations (UN) organizations and the civil society to improve access to PC and to pain treatment for patients in need. PMID:25789428

  13. A model for chronic care of obesity through dietary treatment.

    PubMed

    Nonas, C A

    1998-10-01

    Obesity is rapidly increasing to epidemic proportions. At the same time, obesity is not well accepted as a disease among health professionals or insurance companies. The primary care physician is often forced to ignore the obesity and treat the associated risks, and the dietitian is often compelled to treat the disease for only short periods and for little reimbursement. Therefore, to treat obesity more effectively both clinically and economically, it is necessary to create a health care team. This can be done by joining the dietitian and the primary care physician, even if each health professional sees patients at a different site. Through mutual referrals and more consistent coordination of care, the team can provide cost-effective management of obesity while providing improved clinical monitoring of the patient. Both members of the team need to understand the pathophysiology of obesity and when to refer to each other. The dietitian will see the patient more regularly throughout all stages of the obesity treatment, referring to the physician when appropriate (eg, for evaluation of medications, new laboratory tests, and electrocardiography). The physician will see the patient in the acute stage (i.e., weight change stage) of the obesity treatment for any clinical changes, but will schedule less frequent visits during the chronic stage (i.e., weight maintenance). The strength of the team, therefore, lies in its members' ability to communicate with each other, monitor the clinical changes concomitant with fluctuating weight, and offer treatment and support as intensively as the disease warrants. PMID:9787731

  14. Treatment Foster Care in a System of Care: Sequences and Correlates of Residential Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Burns, Barbara J.; Richards, Jesse T.

    2003-01-01

    We examined Treatment Foster Care (TFC) in residential trajectories for youth with psychiatric disorders and aggressive behavior. We analyzed residential placements of a statewide sample of youth during the 12 months preceding and following admission to TFC. Prior to TFC, the majority of youth were residing in more restrictive settings (group

  15. [Home treatment--a treatment model of integrated care in Hamburg].

    PubMed

    Schöttle, Daniel; Ruppelt, Friederike; Karow, Anne; Lambert, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Treatment models like "Crisis Resolution and Hometreatment (CRHT)" or "Assertive Community Treatment" (ACT), were found to be effective, enhancing the qualitative level of treatment for patients with severe mental disorders. In Germany, these are implemented only sporadically until today, often as part of a cross-sectoral Integrated Care (IC) treatment system. We will present the implementation of an "Assertive Community Treatment" embedded into an IC-treatment model in Hamburg and discuss the 3-year-outcomes. The IC-treatment model has been designed for severe mentally ill patients with psychotic disorders. Since May 2007 the model is financed by different health insurances as a managed-care "capitation-model" and its effectiveness gets continuously evaluated. The model proved to be effective in earlier studies were compared with standard care low rates of service disengagement were found as well as significantly improved psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, quality of life, satisfaction with care and adherence, while being cost effective. The rates of involuntary admissions declined to 10% in comparison to the years before. In 2011 the model was specified to the indication "first-episode adolescents and young adults in the age of 12-29" in a government-funded study "Integrated Care in Early Psychosis, ICEP Study". In this study an interdisciplinary team of child, adolescent and adult psychiatrists was implemented and since 2012 it is financed by the involved health insurances throughout an expansion of the §140 SGB V agreement. PMID:25485599

  16. Barriers to Initiating Depression Treatment in Primary Care Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nutting, Paul A; Rost, Kathryn; Dickinson, Miriam; Werner, James J; Dickinson, Perry; Smith, Jeffrey L; Gallovic, Beth

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to examine the reasons primary care physicians and nurses offered for their inability to initiate guideline-concordant acute-phase care for patients with current major depression. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING Two hundred thirty-nine patients with 5 or more symptoms of depression seeing 12 physicians in 6 primary care practices were randomized to the intervention arm of a trial of the effectiveness of depression treatment. Sixty-six (27.6%) patients identified as failing to meet criteria for guideline-concordant treatment 8 weeks following the index visit were the focus of this analysis. METHODS The research team interviewed the 12 physicians and 6 nurse care managers to explore the major reasons depressed patients fail to receive guideline-concordant acute-phase care. This information was used to develop a checklist of barriers to depression care. The 12 physicians then completed the checklist for each of the 64 patients for whom he or she was the primary care provider. Physicians chose which barriers they felt applied to each patient and weighted the importance of the barrier by assigning a total of 100 points for each patient. Cluster analysis of barrier scores identified naturally occurring groups of patients with common barrier profiles. RESULTS The cluster analysis produced a 5-cluster solution with profiles characterized by patient resistance (19 patients, 30.6%), patient noncompliance with visits (15 patients, 24.2%), physician judgment overruled the guideline (12 patients, 19.3%), patient psychosocial burden (8 patients, 12.9%), and health care system problems (8 patients, 12.9%). The physicians assigned 4,707 (75.9%) of the 6,200 weighting points to patient-centered barriers. Physician-centered barriers accounted for 927 (15.0%) and system barriers accounted for 566 (9.1%) of weighting points. Twenty-eight percent of the patients not initiating guideline-concordant acute-stage care went on to receive additional care and met criteria for remission at 6 months, with no statistical difference across the 5 patient clusters. CONCLUSIONS Current interventions fail to address barriers to initiating guideline-concordant acute-stage care faced by more than a quarter of depressed primary care patients. Physicians feel that barriers arise most frequently from factors centered with the patients, their psychosocial circumstances, and their attitudes and beliefs about depression and its care. Physicians less frequently make judgments that overrule the guidelines, but do so when patients have complex illness patterns. Further descriptive and experimental studies are needed to confirm and further examine barriers to depression care. Because few untreated patients improve without acute-stage care, additional work is also needed to develop new intervention components that address these barriers. PMID:11841525

  17. Improving Depression Treatment for Women: Integrating a Collaborative Care Depression Intervention into OB-GYN Care

    PubMed Central

    LaRocco-Cockburn, Anna; Reed, Susan D.; Melville, Jennifer; Croicu, Carmen; Russo, Joan; Inspektor, Michal; Edmondson, Eddie; Katon, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Background Women have higher rates of depression and often experience depression symptoms during critical reproductive periods, including adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. Collaborative care intervention models for mood disorders in patients receiving care in an OB-GYN clinic setting have not been evaluated. Study design and methodology for a randomized, controlled trial of collaborative care depression management versus usual care in OB-GYN clinics and the details of the adapted collaborative care intervention and model implementation are described in this paper. Methods Women over age 18 years with clinically significant symptoms of depression, as measured by a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥10 and a clinical diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia, were randomized to the study intervention or to usual care and were followed for 18 months. The primary outcome assessed was change over time in the SCL-20 depression scale between baseline and 12 months. Baseline Results 205 women were randomized: 57% white, 20% African American, 9% Asian or Pacific Islander, 7% Hispanic, and 6% Native American. Mean age was 39 years. 4.6% were pregnant and 7.5% were within 12 months postpartum. The majority were single, (52%), and 95% had at least the equivalent of a high school diploma. Almost all patients met DSM IV criteria for major depression (99%) and approximately 33% met criteria for dysthymia. Conclusions An OB-GYN collaborative care team including a social worker, psychiatrist and OB-GYN physician who met weekly and used an electronic tracking system for patients were essential elements of the proposed depression care treatment model described here. Further study of models that improve quality of depression care that are adapted to the unique OB-GYN setting are needed. PMID:23939510

  18. False-positive buprenorphine by CEDIA in patients prescribed amisulpride or sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Birch, M A; Couchman, L; Pietromartire, S; Karna, T; Paton, C; McAllister, R; Marsh, A; Flanagan, R J

    2013-05-01

    Buprenorphine is a potent partial opioid agonist that is analyzed in urine to (i) monitor adherence to maintenance or detoxification therapy and (ii) detect illicit use. Buprenorphine analysis is commonly conducted on urine by immunoassay, but is subject to cross-reactivity from other drugs/drug metabolites, including morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine. This study reports false-positive buprenorphine analysis [Thermo Fisher Scientific cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA)] in patients who denied unauthorized buprenorphine use prior to sampling, but who had been prescribed amisulpride. In two cases, confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was negative (<0.5 g/L) for buprenorphine and metabolites and positive for amisulpride. Although the cross-reactivity of amisulpride and sulpiride in the CEDIA buprenorphine assay is low (estimated at 0.003 and 0.002%, respectively), it remains a significant consideration given the likely high concentrations of these compounds in urine relative to the low cutoff of the buprenorphine assay. Neither amisulpride nor sulpiride was listed as potential sources of interference on the CEDIA data sheet when this work was performed. These findings highlight the importance of confirming immunoassay-positive buprenorphine results using a more selective analytical technique. PMID:23471956

  19. False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing. PMID:23244551

  20. Evaluation of a Combined Online and in Person Training in the Use of Buprenorphine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Erik W.; Levin, Frances R.; Kleber, Herbert D.; Fiellin, David A.; Sullivan, Lynn E.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate buprenorphine training methodology, we surveyed physicians who had completed a combined online and in person buprenorphine curriculum. Of 53/70 (76%) survey respondents, 57% were psychiatrists and 40% generalists. On a scale of 1 (very poor) to 7 (superlative), the overall training rated a mean of 5.8. The online course (5.0) rated…

  1. Early and periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment and managed care.

    PubMed

    Rosenbach, M L; Gavin, N I

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the performance of Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs) in providing Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) services to children under age 21. States face considerable challenges in integrating EPSDT into managed care. For example, MCOs rarely offer all services required under federal law. Also, MCOs often are unable to meet state reporting requirements. On the other hand, MCOs offer children a medical home, often for the first time, that may encourage timely preventive care. The literature generally shows no differences in the performance of MCOs relative to traditional FFS providers in the EPSDT participation rate. Future needs include improving the specificity of contract language, more precisely defining the EPSDT benefit package, evaluating the adequacy of EPSDT payments, monitoring the capacity of MCO provider networks, establishing the effectiveness of outreach and enabling services, developing standardized MCO reporting requirements, documenting program outcomes, and assessing benchmarks for accountability. PMID:9611631

  2. Withdrawal from Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Maintenance with a Natural Dopaminergic Agonist: A Cautionary Note

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Femino, John; Waite, Roger L; Benya, Lisa; Giordano, John; Borsten, Joan; Downs, William B; Braverman, Eric R; Loehmann, Raquel; Dushaj, Kristina; Han, David; Simpatico, Thomas; Hauser, Mary; Barh, Debmalya; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background While numerous studies support the efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the stabilization and maintenance of opioid dependence, clinically significant opioid withdrawal symptoms occur upon tapering and cessation of dosage. Methods We present a case study of a 35 year old Caucasian female (Krissie) who was prescribed increasing dosages of prescription opioids after carpel tunnel surgery secondary to chronic pain from reflex sympathetic dystrophy and fibromyalgia. Over the next 5 years, daily dosage requirements increased to over 80 mg of Methadone and 300 ug/hr Fentanyl transdermal patches, along with combinations of 12–14 1600 mcg Actig lollipop and oral 100 mg Morphine and 30 mg oxycodone 1–2 tabs q4-6hr PRN for breakthrough pain. Total monthly prescription costs including supplemental benzodiazepines, hypnotics and stimulants exceeded $50,000. The patient was subsequently transferred to Suboxone® in 2008, and the dosage was gradually tapered until her admission for inpatient detoxification with KB220Z a natural dopaminergic agonist. We carefully documented her withdrawal symptoms when she precipitously stopped taking buprenorphine/naloxone and during follow-up while taking KB220Z daily. We also genotyped the patient using a reward gene panel including (9 genes 18 alleles): DRD 2,3,4; MOA-A; COMT; DAT1; 5HTTLLR; OPRM1; and GABRA3. Findings At 432 days post Suboxone® withdrawal the patient is being maintained on KB220Z, has been urine tested and is opioid free. Genotyping data revealed a moderate genetic risk for addiction showing a hypodopaminergic trait. This preliminary case data suggest that the daily use of KB220Z could provide a cost effective alternative substitution adjunctive modality for Suboxone®. We encourage double-blind randomized –placebo controlled studies to test the proposition that KB220Z may act as a putative natural opioid substitution maintenance adjunct. PMID:24273683

  3. A Question About the Safety of Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Benzodiazepine Drugs.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury death in the United States, and most deaths are related to prescription drugs. A substantial proportion of these deaths involve opioid or benzodiazepine drugs, and many overdoses include a combination of both drug classes. Buprenorphine/naloxone has an unusual pharmacology that distinguishes it from other opioid drugs. Animal and human studies have found that buprenorphine is associated with a ceiling to its cardio-respiratory depressant effect at higher doses, such that it may have a wider safety margin compared to other opioid drugs. Compared to buprenorphine alone, buprenorphine/naloxone is associated with less cardiorespiratory depression. Drug safety data from the National Poison Data System, Drug Abuse Warning Network, and other sources suggest that the safety of buprenorphine/naloxone is favorable compared to the morbidity and mortality associated with other opioid drugs and other classes of psychotropic drugs. PMID:26653090

  4. Schedules of controlled substances: rescheduling of buprenorphine from schedule V to schedule III. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    This final rule is issued by the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to reschedule buprenorphine from a Schedule V narcotic to a Schedule III narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This action is based on a rescheduling recommendation by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and a DEA review indicating that buprenorphine meets the criteria of a Schedule III narcotic. The DEA published a proposed rule to reschedule buprenorphine on March 21, 2002 (67 FR 13114). The comment period was extended for an additional 30 days until May 22, 2002 (67 FR 20072). The DEA received ten comments but no requests for hearings. This final action will impose the regulatory controls and criminal sanctions of a Schedule III narcotic on those persons who handle buprenorphine or products containing buprenorphine PMID:12369590

  5. Outcomes of Hepatitis C Treatment by Primary Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sanjeev; Thornton, Karla; Murata, Glen; Deming, Paulina; Kalishman, Summers; Dion, Denise; Parish, Brooke; Burke, Thomas; Pak, Wesley; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Kistin, Martin; Brown, John; Jenkusky, Steven; Komaromy, Miriam; Qualls, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Background The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) model was developed to improve access to care for complex health problems such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for underserved populations. Using videoconferencing technology, ECHO trains primary care providers to treat complex diseases. Methods A prospective cohort study compared treatment of HCV at the University of New Mexico (UNM) HCV clinic to treatment by primary care clinicians at 21 ECHO sites in rural areas and prisons in New Mexico. A total of 407 treatment naive patients with chronic HCV were enrolled. The primary end point was a sustained viral response (SVR). Results The rate of SVR was 57.5% (84/146) for patients treated at UNM and 58.2% (152 /261) at ECHO sites (P=0.89); difference between SVR rates 0.7% (95% CI -9.2%, 10.7%). In genotype 1 infection the SVR rate was 45.8% (38 /83) at UNM and 49.7% (73 /147) at ECHO sites (P=0.57). Serious adverse events occurred in 13.7% of the UNM HCV clinic cohort and 6.9% of the ECHO cohort. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ECHO model is an effective way to treat HCV in underserved communities. Implementation of this model would allow other states and nations to treat more patients with HCV. PMID:21631316

  6. [Inpatient care in the treatment of alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Balester Mouret, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Inpatient treatment has long been considered the reference in the treatment of alcoholism. It may indeed have many conceptual advantages, but practically it is a method of treatment with high costs and long waiting period. Moreover, reviews of studies evaluating effectiveness of treatment settings for alcohol dependence suggest that no significant differences exist between inpatient and outpatient programs. Therefore, it seems useful to determine indications of inpatient detoxification programs. As we may see, the choice of inpatient detox should be primarily guided by the contra-indications of outpatient detox. However, it also depends very much on patients' preference, essential to success, since they are the lead actors. Some other situations require urgent residential care, regardless of readiness to change or type of alcohol disorder underlying. PMID:22288351

  7. [Treatment of constipation in the palliative care phase].

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jan Willem B; Peters, Frans T M; Reyners, Anna K L

    2010-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem with a considerable negative impact on quality of life in patients who receive palliative care. Over 35% of patients with heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cancer have constipation. In the palliative phase constipation often has multiple causes. Treatment of constipation consists of both medical treatment with laxatives and non-medical treatment. A specific recommendation for the use of laxatives cannot be made because of the lack of comparative trials. The choice of what laxative to use can only be made on the basis of clinical experience, mechanism of action, personal preference of the patient and costs. Prophylactic use of laxatives is indicated to prevent constipation when initiating constipation inducing medication such as opioids. In treatment-resistant constipation prucalopride, colchicine or misoprostol may be effective. Opioid-antagonists such as naloxone and methylnaltrexone are effective in patients with persistent opioid-induced constipation despite the use of laxatives. PMID:21176258

  8. Treatment-Resistant Depression in Primary Care Across Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Grima, Etienne; Tan, Mary; Rotzinger, Susan; Lin, Peter; McIntyre, Roger S; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) represents a considerable global health concern. The goal of the InSight study was to investigate the prevalence of TRD and to evaluate its clinical characterization and management, compared with nonresistant depression, in primary care centres. Methods: Physicians completed a case report on a consecutive series of patients with major depressive disorder (n = 1212), which captured patient demographics and comorbidity, as well as current and past medication. Results: Using failure to respond to at least 2 antidepressants (ADs) from different classes as the definition of TRD, the overall prevalence was 21.7%. There were no differences in prevalence between men and women or among ethnicities. Patients with TRD had longer episode duration, were more likely to receive polypharmacy (for example, psychotropic, lipid-lowering, and antiinflammatory agents), and reported more AD related side effects. Higher rates of disability and comorbidity (axes I to III) were associated with treatment resistance. Obesity and being overweight were also associated with treatment resistance. While the selection and sequencing of pharmacotherapy by family physicians in this sample was in line with recommendations from evidence-based treatment guidelines, the wait time to make a change in treatment was 6 to 8 weeks in both groups, which exceeds guideline recommendations. Conclusions: These real-world data demonstrate the high prevalence of TRD in primary care settings, and underscore the substantial burden of illness associated with TRD. PMID:25007419

  9. Long-term administration of high doses of transdermal buprenorphine in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Leppert, Wojciech; Kowalski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine is often administered by the transdermal route (transdermal buprenorphine [TB]) in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain. However, high doses of TB of 140 µg/h are rarely used. Patients and methods Three cancer patients with severe neuropathic Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores of 8–10 who were successfully treated with high doses of TB up to 140 µg/h along with other opioids and adjuvant analgesics. Results TB was administered for a long period of follow-up (9 months to 4 years, including 34–261 days of treatment with the dose of 140 µg/h), which allowed achievement of satisfactory analgesia (NRS 3–5) and good treatment tolerance. In all three patients, TB dose was gradually titrated from 35 to 140 µg/h, and all patients used morphine at least for some time for breakthrough and background pain management along with adjuvant analgesics. Two patients continued the treatment with TB until the end of life, and one patient is still receiving the treatment. Conclusion TB at doses of up to 140 µg/h in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain seems to be effective and safe in combination with other opioids and with adjuvant analgesics, and may significantly improve patients’ quality of life. Clinical studies may explore higher than maximal 140 µg/h TB doses recommended by a manufacturer, and also in combination with other opioids and adjuvant analgesics. PMID:26675083

  10. Consumers' Valuation of Primary Care-Based Treatment Options for Mental and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Andrew J; Barry, Colleen L; Fiellin, David A; Busch, Susan H

    2015-08-01

    Most individuals with substance use disorders and with mental disorders do not receive treatment. If treatment options were more attractive, treatment rates might increase. The advantages of novel approaches, including primary care-based treatment and collaborative care in a primary care setting, have been documented. However, less is known about consumers' valuation of these options. The authors assessed monetary valuation of these treatment types compared with usual care in a specialty treatment setting. Contingent valuation methods were used in a Web-based randomized vignette experiment that involved 2,146 individuals who screened positive for a drug or alcohol use disorder or a mental disorder. Participants valued a primary care-based treatment visit over usual care in a specialty treatment setting by $9.00 and a collaborative care visit over usual care in a specialty treatment setting by $5.85. PMID:25930049

  11. Umbilical cord monitoring of in utero drug exposure to buprenorphine and correlation with maternal dose and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Jones, Hendreé E; Johnson, Rolley E; Choo, Robin; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2010-10-01

    Buprenorphine is under investigation in the U.S. as pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. Buprenorphine and metabolites were quantified in umbilical cord specimens from women receiving daily buprenorphine doses. Correlations between maternal buprenorphine dose, buprenorphine and metabolite umbilical cord concentrations, and neonatal outcomes were investigated, as well as the ability to identify heroin and cocaine relapse during pregnancy. Umbilical cord concentrations were compared to those of matched umbilical cord plasma and meconium. Buprenorphine metabolites were detected in all cords, but buprenorphine itself was absent. Concentration ranges were 1.2-5.1 ng/g norbuprenorphine, 1.7-4.2 ng/g buprenorphine-glucuronide, and 8.3-23 ng/g norbuprenorphine-glucuronide. Cord concentrations were similar to those in plasma, and lower (16-210-fold), although statistically correlated, than those in meconium. Significant positive correlations were observed for buprenorphine-glucuronide concentrations in umbilical cord and mean maternal BUP daily dose throughout pregnancy and third trimester, but buprenorphine biomarker concentrations did not predict neonatal outcomes. Opiate concentrations were lower (200-fold) in umbilical cord than in meconium, and when cocaine was present in meconium, it was not identified in cord. Umbilical cord can serve as an alternative matrix for identifying prenatal drug-exposure, but is much less sensitive than meconium. Buprenorphine provided a controlled drug administration model for evaluating drug disposition in the maternal-fetal dyad. PMID:21819795

  12. Pharmacokinetic interactions between buprenorphine/naloxone and tipranavir/ritonavir in HIV-negative subjects chronically receiving buprenorphine/naloxone.

    PubMed

    Bruce, R Douglas; Altice, Frederick L; Moody, David E; Lin, Shen-Nan; Fang, Wenfang B; Sabo, John P; Wruck, Jan M; Piliero, Peter J; Conner, Carolyn; Andrews, Laurie; Friedland, Gerald H

    2009-12-01

    HIV-infected patients with opioid dependence often require opioid replacement therapy. Pharmacokinetic interactions between HIV therapy and opioid dependence treatment medications can occur. HIV-seronegative subjects stabilized on at least 3 weeks of buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) therapy sequentially underwent baseline and steady-state pharmacokinetic evaluation of open-label, twice daily tipranavir 500 mg co-administered with ritonavir 200 mg (TPV/r). Twelve subjects were enrolled and 10 completed the study. Prior to starting TPV/r, the geometric mean BUP AUC(0-24h) and C(max) were 43.9 ng h/mL and 5.61 ng/mL, respectively. After achieving steady-state with TPV/r (> or = 7 days), these values were similar at 43.7 ng h/mL and 4.84 ng/mL, respectively. Similar analyses for norBUP, the primary metabolite of BUP, demonstrated a reduction in geometric mean for AUC(0-24h) [68.7-14.7 ng h/mL; ratio=0.21 (90% CI 0.19-0.25)] and C(max) [4.75-0.94 ng/mL; ratio=0.20 (90% CI 0.17-0.23)]. The last measurable NLX concentration (C(last)) in the concentration-time profile, never measured in previous BUP/NLX interaction studies with antiretroviral medications, was decreased by 20%. Despite these pharmacokinetic effects on BUP metabolites and NLX, no clinical opioid withdrawal symptoms were noted. TPV steady-state AUC(0-12h) and C(max) decreased 19% and 25%, respectively, and C(min) was relatively unchanged when compared to historical control subjects receiving TPV/r alone. No dosage modification of BUP/NLX is required when co-administered with TPV/r. Though mechanistically unclear, it is likely that decreased plasma RTV levels while on BUP/NLX contributed substantially to the decrease in TPV levels. BUP/NLX and TPV/r should therefore be used cautiously to avoid decreased efficacy of TPV in patients taking these agents concomitantly. PMID:19726139

  13. The cost of HIV treatment and care. A global review.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J; Miners, A H; Tolley, K

    2001-01-01

    This review of published studies on the costs of HIV treatment and care describes some of the recent developments that have influenced these costs in industrialised and industrialising countries, especially within the context of changing drug treatments. Some of the different approaches to estimating the economic impact of HIV infection are briefly presented. The methods used to review the literature are described, particularly the criteria of a scoring system that was specifically developed to systematically screen some of the studies identified. The mean review score for studies dealing with direct hospital costs increased significantly (p = 0.003) over the 3 periods analysed (before 1987, 1987 to 1995, and 1996 and beyond), indicating that the overall 'quality' of studies increased over time. All cost estimates, other than those from non-industrialised regions, were converted to 1996 US dollars using country-specific total health expenditure inflaters and country-specific Gross Domestic Product Purchasing Power Parity converters. A summary of hospital cost estimates over time and by region demonstrated that the costs of treating asymptomatic individuals and people with symptomatic non-AIDS increased over the period, but that the costs of treating individuals with AIDS appears to have stabilised since the late 1980s. As fewer studies could be identified on the costs of community and informal care, indirect productivity costs and population cost estimates, and costs of care for children with HIV infection, all of these studies were reviewed without the use of the scoring system. Finally, the discussion explores the evidence on the global costs of HIV in non-industrialised economies and the affordability of HIV treatment and care. Some suggestions for the direction of future HIV costing studies are also presented. A need remains for good quality cost data. Adequate research effort should be directed to improving the scope and quality of information on costs of HIV service provision around the world. PMID:11252543

  14. Treatment Matching in the Posthospital Care of Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ivan W.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Ryan, Christine E.; Solomon, David A.; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the efficacy of 1) matching patients to treatments and 2) adding additional family therapy or cognitive therapy in a group of recently discharged patients with major depression. Method Patients with major depression were recruited during a psychiatric hospitalization. After discharge, they were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions that were either “matched” or “mismatched” to their pattern of cognitive distortion and family impairment. The four treatment conditions were 1) pharmacotherapy alone; 2) combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive therapy; 3) combined pharmacotherapy and family therapy; and 4) combined pharmacotherapy, cognitive therapy, and family therapy. Randomly assigned treatment continued for 24 weeks on an outpatient basis. Results Among patients with at least moderate depressive symptoms at hospital discharge, low rates of remission (16%) and improvement (29%) were obtained. Matched treatment led to a significantly greater proportion of patients who improved and greater reductions over time in interviewer-rated depressive symptoms than mismatched treatment. However, matched treatment did not produce greater change in self-reported depression or interviewer-rated suicidal ideation. Treatment that included a family therapy component also led to a greater proportion of patients who improved and to significant reductions in interviewer-rated depression and suicidal ideation than treatment without family therapy. Conclusions These results suggest that 1) current treatments are not very efficacious in the aftercare of hospitalized depressed patients, 2) treatment matching moderately improves outcome for patients who are symptomatic at hospital discharge, and 3) inclusion of family therapy improves the outcome of posthospital care for depressed patients. PMID:16263854

  15. Can health care organizations improve health behavior and treatment adherence?

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G

    2014-04-01

    Many Americans are failing to engage in both the behaviors that prevent and those that effectively manage chronic health conditions, including pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and cancer. Expectations that health care providers are responsible for changing patients' health behaviors often do not stand up against the realities of clinical care that include large patient loads, limited time, increasing co-pays, and restricted access. Organizations and systems that might share a stake in changing health behavior include employers, insurance payers, health care delivery systems, and public sector programs. However, although the costs of unhealthy behaviors are evident, financial resources to address the problem are not readily available. For most health care organizations, the return on investment for developing behavior change programs appears highest when addressing treatment adherence and disease self-management, and lowest when promoting healthy lifestyles. Organizational strategies to improve adherence are identified in 4 categories: patient access, provider training and support, incentives, and information technology. Strategies in all 4 categories are currently under investigation in ongoing studies and have the potential to improve self-management of many chronic health conditions. PMID:24152056

  16. Effects of Multimodal Analgesia with Low-Dose Buprenorphine and Meloxicam on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites after Surgery in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Goldschlager, Gregg B; Gillespie, Virginia L; Palme, Rupert; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of rabbits as companion animals and models for biomedical research, rabbits have not been extensively studied to identify an efficacious postsurgical analgesic that does not cause systemic complications. The synergy of NSAID and systemic opioids is well-documented, and their combined use reduces the amount of either drug required for adequate analgesia. We measured fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in rabbits after a minimally invasive vascular cut-down procedure. Rabbits received buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), buprenorphine–meloxicam (0.01 mg/kg–0.1 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), or a single dose of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.5 mL) infused locally at the incision site. By day 3 after surgery, buprenorphine, meloxicam, and bupivacaine groups showed elevated FCM levels, which continued to rise until day 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by day 28. In the buprenorphine–meloxicam group, FCM was relatively unchanged until day 3, when treatment was discontinued, and then began to rise. Rabbits in the buprenorphine–meloxicam group gained more weight over the 28-d study than did those in the other 3 treatment groups. This study shows that in rabbits low-dose buprenorphine administered with meloxicam effectively mitigates the FCM response that develops after surgery without the adverse effects associated with higher doses. PMID:24041213

  17. Budgetary impact analysis of buprenorphine-naloxone combination (Suboxone®) in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Opioid addiction is a worldwide problem. Agonist opioid treatment (AOT) is the most widespread and frequent pharmacotherapeutic approach. Methadone has been the most widely used AOT, but buprenorphine, a partial μ-opiod agonist and a κ-opiod antagonist, is fast gaining acceptance. The objective was to assess the budgetary impact in Spain of the introduction of buprenorphine-naloxone (B/N) combination. Methods A budgetary impact model was developed to estimate healthcare costs of the addition of B/N combination to the therapeutic arsenal for treating opioid dependent patients, during a 3-year period under the National Health System perspective. Inputs for the model were obtained from the specialized scientific literature. Detailed information concerning resource consumption (drug cost, logistics, dispensing, medical, psychiatry and pharmacy supervision, counselling and laboratory test) was obtained from a local expert panel. Costs are expressed in euros (€, 2010). Results The number of patients estimated to be prescribed B/N combination was 2,334; 2,993 and 3,589 in the first, second and third year respectively. Total budget is €85,766,129; €79,855,471 and €79,137,502 in the first, second and third year for the scenario without B/N combination. With B/N combination the total budget would be €86,589,210; €80,398,259 and €79,708,964 in the first, second and third year of the analyses. Incremental cost/patient comparing the addition of the B/N combination to the scenario only with methadone is €10.58; €6.98 and €7.34 in the first, second and third year respectively. Conclusion Addition of B/N combination would imply a maximum incremental yearly cost of €10.58 per patient compared to scenario only with methadone and would provide additional benefits. PMID:22828157

  18. Clinical effects of buprenorphine on open field behaviour and gait symmetry in healthy and lame weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ellen; van Nes, Arie; Back, Willem; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-12-01

    Lameness in pigs decreases animal welfare and economic profit for the farmer. An important reason for impaired welfare in lame animals is pain due to lameness. No direct measurement of pain is possible in animals, and methods to indirectly detect and quantify the amount of pain an animal is experiencing are urgently needed. In this study, two methods to assess pain associated with lameness in pigs were evaluated to determine if they were sensitive enough to detect a lameness reduction as an effect of an experimental analgesic medication. Asymmetry associated with lameness was objectively quantified using pressure mat kinetic parameters: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Locomotor activity was assessed in an open field test. A dose of 0.04 mg/kg buprenorphine, a strong analgesic, was used to treat 10 lame pigs, while eight other lame pigs, treated with physiological saline solution, served as controls. Buprenorphine decreased lameness-associated asymmetry for pressure mat LR (P = 0.002), VI (P = 0.003) and PVP (P = 0.001) and increased activity of the lame pigs in the open field (P = 0.023), while saline-treated animals did not show any changes in asymmetry and became less active in the open field (P <0.001). It was concluded that measurement of gait asymmetry by pressure mat analysis and locomotor activity in an open field test are both sensitive enough to detect the analgesic effects of buprenorphine when used to treat moderate to severe clinical pain in a relatively small group of affected pigs. The methods used in this study may also provide promising additional tools for future research into early pain recognition and lameness treatment in pigs. PMID:26521014

  19. Opioid withdrawal, craving, and use during and after outpatient buprenorphine stabilization and taper: A discrete survival and growth mixture model

    PubMed Central

    Stotts, Angela L.; Green, Charles; Potter, Jennifer S.; Marino, Elise N.; Walker, Robrina; Weiss, Roger D.; Trivedi, Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    Most patients relapse to opioids within one month of opioid agonist detoxification, making the antecedents and parallel processes of first use critical for investigation. Craving and withdrawal are often studied in relationship to opioid outcomes, and a novel analytic strategy applied to these two phenomena may indicate targeted intervention strategies. Specifically, this secondary data analysis of the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study used a discrete-time mixture analysis with time-to-first opioid use (survival) simultaneously predicted by craving and withdrawal growth trajectories. This analysis characterized heterogeneity among prescription opioid-dependent individuals (N=653) into latent classes (i.e., latent class analysis [LCA]) during and after buprenorphine/naloxone stabilization and taper. A 4-latent class solution was selected for overall model fit and clinical parsimony. In order of shortest to longest time-to-first use, the 4 classes were characterized as 1) high craving and withdrawal 2) intermediate craving and withdrawal 3) high initial craving with low craving and withdrawal trajectories and 4) a low initial craving with low craving and withdrawal trajectories. Odds ratio calculations showed statistically significant differences in time-to-first use across classes. Generally, participants with lower baseline levels and greater decreases in craving and withdrawal during stabilization combined with slower craving and withdrawal rebound during buprenorphine taper remained opioid-free longer. This exploratory work expanded on the importance of monitoring craving and withdrawal during buprenorphine induction, stabilization, and taper. Future research may allow individually tailored and timely interventions to be developed to extend time-to-first opioid use. PMID:25282598

  20. Integrated care for pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon; Graves, Lisa; Abrahams, Ronald; Boyajian, Talar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics of a national cohort of pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and to provide treatment outcome data for integrated care programs. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Three different integrated care programs in geographically distinct cities: the Toronto Centre for Substance Use in Pregnancy in Toronto, Ont; the Herzl Family Practice Centre in Montreal, Que; and the Sheway clinic in Vancouver, BC. Participants Pregnant women meeting criteria for opioid dependence and attending an integrated care program between 1997 and 2009. Women were excluded if they were on MMT only for chronic pain. Main outcome measures Patient demographic characteristics, concurrent medical and psychiatric disorders, and substance use outcome data. Results A total of 102 opioid-dependent pregnancies were included. The mean age was 29.7 years and 64% of women were white. Women in Montreal were more likely to have partners and had fewer children. Differences in living and housing situations among the sites tended to resolve by the time of delivery. Almost half of this cohort tested positive for hepatitis C. Women had a high prevalence of depression and anxiety across all sites. Half of this cohort was on MMT before conception and for the other half, MMT was initiated at a mean gestational age of 20.7 weeks, resulting in a mean dose of 82.4 mg at delivery. At the first visit, polysubstance use was common. Prescription opioid use was more frequent in Toronto and heroin use was more prevalent in Vancouver and Montreal. For the entire population, significant reductions were found by the time of delivery for illicit (P < .001) and prescription opioids (P = .001), cocaine (P < .001), marijuana (P = .009), and alcohol use (P < .001). Conclusion Despite geographic differences, all 3 integrated care programs have been associated with significant decreases in substance use in pregnant opioid-dependent women. PMID:24130301

  1. Availability of buprenorphine on the Internet for purchase without a prescription

    PubMed Central

    Bachhuber, Marcus A.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of illicit buprenorphine is increasingly recognized, but it is unknown if the Internet currently represents an accessible source. Methods A series of Internet searches were conducted. Twenty searches were performed on two different search engines. The first 100 results of each search were classified into categories based on content. All Internet pharmacies were searched for buprenorphine preparations and if available, sites were examined to determine if a prescription was required for purchase, for the cost of buprenorphine, the geographical origin of the pharmacy, and evidence of validation by an online pharmacy verification service. Results Of the 2,000 links examined, 1422 were unique. Six percent of links were to illicit commercial sites, 2% were to legitimate commercial sites, and 2% were to illicit portal sites, which contained links to many illicit commercial sites. Twenty pharmacies offering buprenorphine for purchase without a prescription were identified. The monthly cost of a typical starting dose of 2 mg buprenorphine daily ranged between $232 and $1,163 USD. No pharmacies were listed by online pharmacy verification services. Conclusion Twenty online pharmacies advertising buprenorphine formulations for sale without a prescription were identified. Prices varied widely between illicit pharmacies but were uniformly more expensive than legitimate pharmacies. Illicitly obtained buprenorphine formulations appear to be relatively inaccessible and at high cost on the Internet. PMID:23201172

  2. Crushed and Injected Buprenorphine Tablets: Characteristics of Princeps and Generic Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bouquié, Régis; Wainstein, Laura; Pilet, Paul; Mussini, Jean-Marie; Deslandes, Guillaume; Clouet, Johann; Dailly, Eric; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Self-injection of high-dose buprenorphine is responsible for well-described complications. In 2011, we have been alerted by unusual but serious cutaneous complication among injection buprenorphine users. A prospective data collection identified 30 cases of necrotic cutaneous lesions after injection of filtered buprenorphine solution, among which 25 cases occurred following injection of buprenorphine generics. The main goal of our study was to put forward particularities that could explain the cutaneous complications, by qualitatively and quantitatively confronting particles present in Subutex and generics solutions. We used the same protocol that injected-buprenorphine users: generic or subutex tablets were crushed in sterile water and filtered through 2 filters commonly used (cotton-pad and sterifilt). Solutions were analyzed by laser granulometry, flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy. We have highlighted the wide variation of the quantity and the size of the particles present in solution between the two drugs after cotton-pad filtration. The proportion of particles <10 µm is systematically higher in the generic solutions than with Subutex. All of the insoluble particles found in generic solutions contain silica, whereas non- organic element was to be identified in the insoluble particles of Subutex. One skin biopsy obtained from one patient who developed a necrotic lesion after intravenous injection of filtrated solution of buprenorphine generic, shows non-organic elements. Identification of particles in situ enables us to confirm the presence of silica in the biopsy. Actually the monitoring of patient receiving generic of buprenorphine must be strengthened. PMID:25474108

  3. Comparison of intravenous buprenorphine and methadone self-administration by recently detoxified heroin-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Comer, Sandra D; Sullivan, Maria A; Walker, Ellen A

    2005-12-01

    Although buprenorphine is used worldwide as a safe and effective maintenance medication for opioid dependence, some countries have reported a growing incidence of abuse of this medication. Buprenorphine is considered to have lower abuse potential because of its partial agonist profile, but no studies have directly compared the reinforcing effects of buprenorphine with those of full mu opioid agonists in humans. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled inpatient study compared the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenously administered buprenorphine (0.5, 2, and 8 mg) and methadone (5, 10, and 20 mg). Participants (n = 6) were detoxified from heroin during the first 1 to 2 weeks after admission. During subsequent weeks, participants received a sample drug dose and $20 on Monday, and they could self-administer either the sampled dose or $20 during one choice session per day on Thursday and Friday. Participants responded under a modified progressive ratio schedule during each choice session. All active doses maintained higher progressive ratio break points (largest completed ratio) than placebo. There were no significant differences in break point values between buprenorphine and methadone or among the different doses of drug. However, several subjective ratings, including "good drug effect", "high", and "liking" dose-dependently increased after administration of buprenorphine and methadone. The peak ratings for these effects did not significantly differ for the two drugs. These results demonstrate that under these experimental conditions, buprenorphine and methadone were equally effective in producing reinforcing and subjective effects. PMID:16144974

  4. Safety studies of post-surgical buprenorphine therapy for mice.

    PubMed

    Traul, Karl A; Romero, Jennell B; Brayton, Cory; DeTolla, Louis; Forbes-McBean, Nadine; Halquist, Matthew S; Karnes, H Thomas; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Tomlinson, Michael J; Tyler, Betty M; Ye, Xiaobu; Zadnik, Patricia; Guarnieri, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The use of appropriate analgesia in laboratory mice may be suboptimal because of concerns about adverse events (AE). Target Animal Safety trials were conducted to determine the safety of an extended-release suspension of buprenorphine. Drug or control suspensions were injected subcutaneously in surgically-treated BALB/c mice anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine to mimic post-operative conditions in which the compound might commonly be administered. Single and repeat five-fold (5×) excesses of the 3.25 mg/kg intended dose were used to provoke potential AE. Trials included prospective measurements of weight changes, blood chemistry, hematology, and histopathology. Clinical and histopathology findings were similar in drug-treated and control mice in a four-day trial using a single 16.25 mg/kg, 5× overdose of the drug. In a 12-day trial, which used a total buprenorphine dose of 48.75 mg/kg, clinical and histopathology values were also similar in control and drug-treated female mice. In the male arm of the repeat-overdose trial, two of eight mice died on the morning of day 12, three days following the third 16.25 mg/kg overdose administration. Histopathology did not reveal a cause of death. In a 14-month trial using a single 3.25 mg/kg dose of the drug, no significant findings identified potential AE. These findings indicate a high tolerance to an extended-release buprenorphine suspension administered post-operatively in mice with appropriate husbandry. PMID:25305141

  5. Effects of Buprenorphine and Estrous Cycle in a Murine Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Lucy H; Hwang, Haejin; Wolfe, A Marissa; Hauptman, Joseph; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of opioids on the immunopathology of sepsis models in mice has been controversial. In previous work, we showed that mortality and various inflammatory parameters did not differ between female mice given saline or buprenorphine after cecal ligation and puncture. To investigate further, we hypothesized that buprenorphine would not affect outcomes of sepsis at any stage of estrous. Female mice were allocated into 4 groups (n = 20 per group) according to stage of estrous. Mice then underwent cecal ligation and puncture and received either buprenorphine or saline. In 3-wk survival studies, overall survival did not differ between buprenorphine- and saline-treated mice. When mice were stratified according to stage of estrous, survival did not vary among saline-treated groups but was lower in buprenorphine-treated mice in metestrus compared with proestrus. To investigate inflammation as a potential mechanism for survival, we measured cell counts and cytokine levels in the peripheral blood and peritoneal lavage fluid at 12 and 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture. At 24 h, buprenorphine-treated mice in proestrus had more circulating neutrophils and monocytes than did saline-treated mice in proestrus and more circulating WBC than did mice in any other stage with or without buprenorphine. Our current results suggest that the effects of buprenorphine on a 50% survival model of sepsis in BALB/c female mice are minimal overall but that the stage of estrous has various effects in this model. Investigators should consider the effects of buprenorphine and estrous cycle when using female mice in sepsis research. PMID:25296014

  6. Behavioral and neurochemical interactions between cocaine and buprenorphine: implications for the pharmacotherapy of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Brown, E E; Finlay, J M; Wong, J T; Damsma, G; Fibiger, H C

    1991-01-01

    Intravenous self-administration studies in nonhuman primates suggest that the opioid receptor agonist-antagonist buprenorphine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of cocaine abuse. In the present studies, behavioral and neurochemical interactions between cocaine and buprenorphine were examined using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure and in vivo microdialysis. Cocaine-induced CPP was linearly related to the dose administered (0-5.0 mg/kg). Buprenorphine (0-0.9 mg/kg) also elicited CPP in a dose-related manner; an inverted U-shaped function was obtained. Subthreshold doses of cocaine (1.5 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg), themselves incapable of eliciting CPP, produced a significant CPP when given together. Moderate doses of cocaine (5.0 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (0.075 mg/kg), which were individually capable of eliciting CPP, produced a significantly larger CPP when given in combination. In the in vivo microdialysis studies, a low dose of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg) produced a progressive increase in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, reaching approximately 200% of basal levels after 5 hr. Cocaine (5.0 mg/kg) rapidly increased extracellular dopamine concentrations (180% of basal values within 20 min), which returned to baseline in 2 to 3 hr. This effect of cocaine was significantly potentiated by coadministering buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg); under this condition the peak increase in extracellular dopamine reached 260% of baseline values. These neurochemical findings are consistent with the CPP results and indicate that buprenorphine can interact with cocaine in a synergistic manner. In contrast to previous speculations, these results suggest that buprenorphine may enhance rather than attenuate the rewarding properties of cocaine. PMID:1988653

  7. HIV Care and Treatment Beliefs among Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tymejczyk, Olga; Hoffman, Susie; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Lahuerta, Maria; Remien, Robert H; Elul, Batya; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Melaku, Zenebe; Nash, Denis

    2016-05-01

    To better understand patient beliefs, which may influence adherence to HIV care and treatment, we examined three dimensions of beliefs among Ethiopian adults (n = 1177) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Beliefs about benefits of ART/HIV clinical care were largely accurate, but few patients believed in the ability of ART to prevent sexual transmission and many thought Holy Water could cure HIV. Factors associated with lower odds of accurate beliefs included advanced HIV, lack of formal education, and Muslim religion (benefits of ART/clinical care); secondary or university education and more clinic visits (ART to prevent sexual transmission); and pregnancy and Orthodox Christian religion (Holy Water). Assessment of patient beliefs may help providers identify areas needing reinforcement. In this setting, counselors also need to stress the benefits of ART as prevention and that Holy Water should not be used to the exclusion of HIV care and ART. PMID:26346333

  8. [Betadine in the care of friction blisters. Treatment protocol in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez de la Guerra, José Manuel; González Campo, Myrian

    2013-06-01

    First prize in the VII edition of the award winning work Betadine for nursing 2012. The dermatitis caused by repeated friction or trauma to the skin are very common in the population, mainly in athletes. The action of shear forces on the skin makes intradermal blisters very painful; being foot the areas more prone to its occurrence and local infection, one of the most common complications during its evolution. The proposed treatment protocol, presents a new technique of cost-effective cure for these injuries from the nursing consultation in Primary Health Care. Currently, there are many techniques in the treatment of these skin changes, but none has established itself as the "gold standard" in its approach. This technique of treatment accelerates regeneration of the injured area, reduces pain, prevents infection and epithelialization time is estimated between four and five days. PMID:23909219

  9. Buprenorphine During Pregnancy Reduces Neonate Distress

    MedlinePlus

    ... page was last updated July 2012 Categories Basic Science Bulletin Board Director's Perspective Epidemiology Narrative of Discovery NIDA @ Work Prevention Treatment Tags Drug Topics ABCD Addiction Science ...

  10. BU08073 a buprenorphine analogue with partial agonist activity at μ-receptors in vitro but long-lasting opioid antagonist activity in vivo in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khroyan, T V; Wu, J; Polgar, W E; Cami-Kobeci, G; Fotaki, N; Husbands, S M; Toll, L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Buprenorphine is a potent analgesic with high affinity at μ, δ and κ and moderate affinity at nociceptin opioid (NOP) receptors. Nevertheless, NOP receptor activation modulates the in vivo activity of buprenorphine. Structure activity studies were conducted to design buprenorphine analogues with high affinity at each of these receptors and to characterize them in in vitro and in vivo assays. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Compounds were tested for binding affinity and functional activity using [35S]GTPγS binding at each receptor and a whole-cell fluorescent assay at μ receptors. BU08073 was evaluated for antinociceptive agonist and antagonist activity and for its effects on anxiety in mice. KEY RESULTS BU08073 bound with high affinity to all opioid receptors. It had virtually no efficacy at δ, κ and NOP receptors, whereas at μ receptors, BU08073 has similar efficacy as buprenorphine in both functional assays. Alone, BU08073 has anxiogenic activity and produces very little antinociception. However, BU08073 blocks morphine and U50,488-mediated antinociception. This blockade was not evident at 1 h post-treatment, but is present at 6 h and remains for up to 3–6 days. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These studies provide structural requirements for synthesis of ‘universal’ opioid ligands. BU08073 had high affinity for all the opioid receptors, with moderate efficacy at μ receptors and reduced efficacy at NOP receptors, a profile suggesting potential analgesic activity. However, in vivo, BU08073 had long-lasting antagonist activity, indicating that its pharmacokinetics determined both the time course of its effects and what receptor-mediated effects were observed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24903063

  11. Dexamethasone hepatic induction in rats subsequently treated with high dose buprenorphine does not lead to respiratory depression

    SciTech Connect

    Hreiche, Raymond; Megarbane, Bruno . E-mail: bruno-megarbane@wanadoo.fr; Pirnay, Stephane; Borron, Stephen W.; Monier, Claire; Risede, Patricia; Milan, Nathalie; Descatoire, Veronique; Pessayre, Dominique; Baud, Frederic J.

    2006-12-15

    In humans, asphyxic deaths and severe poisonings have been attributed to high-dosage buprenorphine, a maintenance therapy for heroin addiction. However, in rats, intravenous buprenorphine at doses up to 90 mg kg{sup -1} was not associated with significant effects on arterial blood gases. In contrast, norbuprenorphine, the buprenorphine major cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-derived metabolite, is a potent respiratory depressant. Thus, our aim was to study the consequences of CYP3A induction on buprenorphine-associated effects on resting ventilation in rats. We investigated the effects on ventilation of 30 mg kg{sup -1} buprenorphine alone or following cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A induction with dexamethasone, using whole body plethysmography (N = 24) and arterial blood gases (N = 12). Randomized animals in 4 groups received sequential intraperitoneal dosing with: (dexamethasone [days 1-3] + buprenorphine [day 4]), (dexamethasone solvent [days 1-3] + buprenorphine [day 4]), (dexamethasone [days 1-3] + buprenorphine solvent [day 4]), or (dexamethasone solvent [days 1-3] + buprenorphine solvent [day 4]). Buprenorphine alone caused a significant rapid and sustained increase in the inspiratory time (P < 0.001), without significant effects on the respiratory frequency, the tidal volume, the minute volume, or arterial blood gases. In dexamethasone-pretreated rats, there was no significant alteration in the respiratory parameters, despite CYP3A induction and significant increase of the ratio of plasma norbuprenorphine-to-buprenorphine concentrations. In conclusion, dexamethasone did not modify the effects of 30 mg kg{sup -1} buprenorphine on rat ventilation. Our results suggest a limited role of drug-mediated CYP3A induction in the occurrence of buprenorphine-attributed respiratory depression in addicts.

  12. Women and opioid dependence treatment: office-based versus opioid treatment program-based care?

    PubMed

    Jones, Emlyn S; Fiellin, David A

    2007-06-01

    Women are under-represented in opioid dependency treatment, yet national statistics indicate that, as the non-medical use of prescription pain relievers rises, more women will require this treatment. Important considerations for the treatment of opioid-dependency in women include high rates of psychiatric illness, concerns regarding substance abuse and treatment in pregnancy, high rates of history of trauma, relationship dynamics that put women at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and social factors such as lower economic status and responsibilities as care givers. Traditional approaches to opioid-dependency treatment, such as methadone maintenance programs (MMPs), have not consistently addressed these needs and do not provide flexible care and anonymity. Recent data suggest that, in comparison to MMPs, a greater percentage of women are entering office-based treatment. Yet it is unclear whether physicians' offices will be equipped to adequately handle women's treatment needs. Nonetheless office-based treatment may provide a solution for women concerned about anonymity, stigma, and the requirement of daily visits to a MMP. PMID:19266708

  13. Addiction treatment centers' progress in preparing for health care reform

    PubMed Central

    Molfenter, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is expected to significantly alter addiction treatment service delivery. Researchers designed the Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) for addiction treatment organizations to assess their readiness for the PPACA. Four-hundred twenty-seven organizations completed the HRRI throughout a three-year period, using a four-point scale to rank their readiness on 13 conditions. HRRI results completed during two different time periods (between 10/1/2010–6/30/2011 and 9/1/2011–9/30/2012) were analyzed and compared. Most respondents self-assessed as being in the early stages of preparation for 9 of the 13 conditions. Survey results showed that organizations with annual budgets <$5 million (n = 295) were less likely to be prepared for the PPACA than organizations with annual budgets >$5 million (n = 132). The HRRI results suggest that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, is not preparing adequately for health care reform; organizations that are making preparations are making only modest gains. PMID:24074851

  14. Truth Telling and Treatment Strategies in End-of-Life Care in Physician-Led Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsien-Liang; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Yao, Chien-An; Hu, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Providing patient-centered care from preventive medicine to end-of-life care in order to improve care quality and reduce medical cost is important for accountable care. Physicians in the accountable care organizations (ACOs) are suitable for participating in supportive end-of-life care especially when facing issues in truth telling and treatment strategy. This study aimed to investigate patients’ attitudes toward truth telling and treatment preferences in end-of-life care and compare patients’ attitudes with their ACOs physicians’ perceptions. This nationwide study applied snowball sampling to survey physicians in physician-led ACOs and their contracted patients by questionnaire from August 2010 to July 2011 in Taiwan. The main outcome measures were beliefs about palliative care, attitudes toward truth telling, and treatment preferences. The data of 314 patients (effective response rate = 88.7%) and 177 physicians (88.5%) were analyzed. Regarding truth telling about disease prognosis, 94.3% of patients preferred to be fully informed, whereas only 80% of their physicians had that perception (P < 0.001). Significant differences were also found in attitudes toward truth telling even when encountering terminal disease status (98.1% vs 85.3%). Regarding treatment preferences in terminal illness, nearly 90% of patients preferred supportive care, but only 15.8% of physicians reported that their patients had this preference (P < 0.001). Significant discrepancies exist between patients’ preferences and physicians’ perceptions toward truth telling and treatment strategies in end-of-life care. It is important to enhance physician–patient communication about end-of-life care preferences in order to achieve the goal of ACOs. Continuing education on communication about end-of-life care during physicians’ professional development would be helpful in the reform strategies of establishing accountable care around the world. PMID:25906093

  15. Outpatient treatment costs and their potential impact on cancer care.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Cancer creates a tremendous financial burden. Cancer-related costs are categorized into direct, indirect, and psychosocial costs. Although there have been many reports on medical care costs, which are direct, those on other costs are extremely scarce. We estimated travel time and costs required for cancer patients to receive outpatient treatment. We studied 521 cancer patients receiving anti-cancer treatment between February 2009 and December 2012 at the Outpatient Chemotherapy Center of Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center. Address data were extracted from Data Warehouse electronic medical records, and travel distance and time required for outpatient treatment were calculated via MapInfo and ACT Distance Calculator Package. Transportation costs were estimated on the basis of ¥274 (=$3.00) per kilometer. The study design was approved by an ethics review board of Teikyo University (12-851). Average round-trip travel distance, time, and cost for all patients were 26.7 km, 72.5 min, and ¥7,303 ($79.99), respectively. Cancer patients incurred a travel cost of ¥4000-¥9000 ($40.00 to $100.00) for each outpatient treatment. With population aging, seniors living alone and senior households are increasing, and outpatient visits are becoming a common burden. PMID:25060622

  16. Randomised trial of monitoring, feedback, and management of care by telephone to improve treatment of depression in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory E; VonKorff, Michael; Rutter, Carolyn; Wagner, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of two programmes to improve the treatment of acute depression in primary care. Design Randomised trial. Setting Primary care clinics in Seattle. Patients 613 patients starting antidepressant treatment. Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to continued usual care or one of two interventions: feedback only and feedback plus care management. Feedback only comprised feedback and algorithm based recommendations to doctors on the basis of data from computerised records of pharmacy and visits. Feedback plus care management included systematic follow up by telephone, sophisticated treatment recommendations, and practice support by a care manager. Main outcome measures Blinded interviews by telephone 3 and 6 months after the initial prescription included a 20 item depression scale from the Hopkins symptom checklist and the structured clinical interview for the current DSM-IV depression module. Visits, antidepressant prescriptions, and overall use of health care were assessed from computerised records. Results Compared with usual care, feedback only had no significant effect on treatment received or patient outcomes. Patients receiving feedback plus care management had a higher probability of both receiving at least moderate doses of antidepressants (odds ratio 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 3.22) and a 50% improvement in depression scores on the symptom checklist (2.22, 1.31 to 3.75), lower mean depression scores on the symptom checklist at follow up, and a lower probability of major depression at follow up (0.46, 0.24 to 0.86). The incremental cost of feedback plus care management was about $80 (£50) per patient. Conclusions Monitoring and feedback to doctors yielded no significant benefits for patients in primary care starting antidepressant treatment. A programme of systematic follow up and care management by telephone, however, significantly improved outcomes at modest cost. PMID:10688563

  17. Effects of buprenorphine on balance of oxidant/antioxidant system in the different ages of male rat liver.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Afshari, Reza; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Karimnezhad, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    Our knowledge about a link between buprenorphine and hepatotoxicity is controversial. This study evaluated the effects of buprenorphine on the liver of young, adult, and aged rats. For this reason, young, adult, and aged rats received intraperitoneally 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg buprenorphine for 30 days. The present results revealed that the normal aging was associated with a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in the liver lipid peroxidation, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the aged rats. This study also demonstrated that buprenorphine led to a significant increase in the serum activities of ALT, AST, and LDH as well as liver lipid peroxidation content with a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of buprenorphine-treated aged rat versus the aged matched control animals. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that buprenorphine deteriorated oxidative damage in the aged livers. PMID:25683329

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Antinociceptive Activity of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Walkowiak, Krista J; Graham, Melanie L

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a potent analgesic commonly administered to alleviate pain in sheep used in research. Sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) is an alternative to conventional buprenorphine hydrochloride (which must be injected repeatedly). To compare SRB with a typical conventional buprenorphine regimen (0.03 mg/kg every 8 h for 72 h), we used a simple 1:1 conversion to calculate a total SRB dose of 0.27 mg/kg per injection. The pharmacokinetics and thermal nociceptive effects of SRB were analyzed in 4 healthy adult sheep after a single intramuscular injection plus a washout period then a single subcutaneous injection. For both routes in all 4 sheep, plasma buprenorphine concentrations exceeded 0.1 ng/mL, considered the minimal threshold for therapeutic benefit, after 12 h and maintained a steady state for at least 72 h Likewise, for both routes in all sheep, thermal thresholds increased significantly between baseline and 12 h; lack of response persisted for at least 72 h. The average maximal plasma buprenorphine concentrations and bioavailability were similar for both routes. No clinical adverse effects occurred. Using a dose equivalent to the total course of conventional buprenorphine, this pilot study suggests that SRB is a well-tolerated, effective, and long-acting analgesic that can be administered as a single intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. SRB confers steady plasma concentrations and continuous analgesia in thermal nociception for at least 72 h. When compared with conventional buprenorphine, SRB has considerable advantages in improving wellbeing by minimizing handling-associated stress of repeated injection and limiting the likelihood of end-of-dose breakthrough pain. PMID:26632786

  19. Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal in Subjects Maintained on 100 mg of Daily Methadone*

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, James; Walsh, Sharon L.; Bigelow, George E.; Strain, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Acute doses of buprenorphine can precipitate withdrawal in opioid dependent persons. The likelihood of this withdrawal increases as a function of the level of physical dependence. Objectives To test the acute effects of sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in volunteers with a higher level of physical dependence. The goal was to identify a dose that would precipitate withdrawal (Phase 1), then determine if withdrawal could be attenuated by splitting this dose (Phase 2). Methods Residential laboratory study; subjects (N=16) maintained on 100 mg per day of methadone. Phase 1: Randomized, double blind, triple dummy, within subject study. Conditions were sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (4/1, 8/2, 16/4, 32/8 mg), intramuscular naloxone (0.2 mg), oral methadone (100 mg), or placebo. Medication conditions were randomized, but buprenorphine/naloxone doses were ascending within the randomization. Phase 2: Conditions were methadone, placebo, naloxone, 100% of the buprenorphine/naloxone dose that precipitated withdrawal in Phase 1 (full dose), and 50% of this dose administered twice in a session (split dose). Analyses covaried by trough methadone serum levels. Results Six subjects did not complete the study. Of the ten who completed, three tolerated up to 32/8 mg of buprenorphine/naloxone without evidence of precipitated withdrawal. For the seven completing both phases, split doses generally produced less precipitated withdrawal compared to full doses. Conclusions There is considerable between subject variability in sensitivity to buprenorphine's antagonist effects. Low, repeated doses of buprenorphine/naloxone (e.g., 2/0.5 mg) may be an effective mechanism for safely dosing this medication in persons with higher levels of physical dependence. PMID:17517480

  20. Use of Psychotropic Medications among Youth in Treatment Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Sharon L; Southerland, Dannia G; Burns, Barbara J; Wagner, H Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M Z

    2014-05-01

    We describe the use of psychotropic medications among youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Data from 240 youth were coded to examine rates of medication use, including polypharmacy and an indicator of "questionable polypharmacy." Fifty-nine percent of youth in TFC had taken a psychotropic medication within the past two months. Of the youth taking psychotropics, 61% took two or more and 22% met criteria for questionable polypharmacy. The majority of youth taking psychotropics also received psychosocial mental health services and were more likely to receive such services than youth not taking medication. Use of psychotropic medication use was not significantly related to demographic factors, maltreatment history, or custody. However, youth with more severe symptoms were more likely to be on medications and to be on multiple medications. Youth with "questionable polypharmacy" were less likely than other youth on multiple medications to have a recent visit to a psychiatrist. PMID:24904200

  1. Conservative Care in Successful Treatment of Abamectin Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Jamali, Seyed Reza; Heidari Gorji, Ali Morad

    2014-01-01

    Human intoxication with abamectin is an uncommon but potentially fatal cause of pesticide poisoning. In this study a 42-year-old man was intoxicated with 3600 mg abamectin orally. On admission patient was fully alert with the smell of the poison from the mouth. Vital signs were normal and conjunctiva was hyperemic. Conservative cares such as gastric lavage was performed and charcoal was administered. After 2.5 hours, the patient gradually developed altered mental status as drowsiness, hypotension, tachycardia and dermal erythema. He was treated with H1 and H2 blockers and vasoactive agents and after 2 days was discharged in good condition. In comparison with organophosphates, abamectin intoxication has less risk in humans. However, consumption of large amounts in human can be fatal. Altered mental status could be considered as the first sign of abamectin intoxication. Normal level of consciousness is the best indicator of improvement of the condition. Conservative treatment is recommended. PMID:25948975

  2. Conservative care in successful treatment of abamectin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Jamali, Seyed Reza; Heidari Gorji, Ali Morad

    2014-01-01

    Human intoxication with abamectin is an uncommon but potentially fatal cause of pesticide poisoning. In this study a 42-year-old man was intoxicated with 3600 mg abamectin orally. On admission patient was fully alert with the smell of the poison from the mouth. Vital signs were normal and conjunctiva was hyperemic. Conservative cares such as gastric lavage was performed and charcoal was administered. After 2.5 hours, the patient gradually developed altered mental status as drowsiness, hypotension, tachycardia and dermal erythema. He was treated with H1 and H2 blockers and vasoactive agents and after 2 days was discharged in good condition. In comparison with organophosphates, abamectin intoxication has less risk in humans. However, consumption of large amounts in human can be fatal. Altered mental status could be considered as the first sign of abamectin intoxication. Normal level of consciousness is the best indicator of improvement of the condition. Conservative treatment is recommended. PMID:25948975

  3. Use of Psychotropic Medications among Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Sharon L.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Burns, Barbara J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the use of psychotropic medications among youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Data from 240 youth were coded to examine rates of medication use, including polypharmacy and an indicator of “questionable polypharmacy.” Fifty-nine percent of youth in TFC had taken a psychotropic medication within the past two months. Of the youth taking psychotropics, 61% took two or more and 22% met criteria for questionable polypharmacy. The majority of youth taking psychotropics also received psychosocial mental health services and were more likely to receive such services than youth not taking medication. Use of psychotropic medication use was not significantly related to demographic factors, maltreatment history, or custody. However, youth with more severe symptoms were more likely to be on medications and to be on multiple medications. Youth with “questionable polypharmacy” were less likely than other youth on multiple medications to have a recent visit to a psychiatrist. PMID:24904200

  4. Nanocarriers and nanoparticles for skin care and dermatological treatments

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Bansal, Radhika; Gupta, Sunita; Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Abhinav

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology (nano: One billionth) is a novel arena with promising applications in the field of medicine, especially pharmaceuticals for safe and targeted drug delivery. The skin is a phenomenal tool for investigation of nanocarriers for drug delivery for topical and dermatological application. The physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as rigidity, hydrophobicity, size and charge are crucial to the skin permeation mechanism. Many nanocarriers such as polymeric, inorganic and lipid nanoparticles and nanoemulsions have been developed and some like carbon nanotubes and fullerenes still need further exploration for future use in skin care and dermatological treatments. Risks of nanopollution and cytotoxicity also need to be kept in mind while exploring various nanoparticles for medical use. PMID:24350003

  5. Antinociceptive actions of morphine and buprenorphine given intrathecally in the conscious rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, R. M.; Olley, J. E.; Tyers, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    1 The antinociceptive effects of morphine and buprenorphine given intrathecally and subcutaneously have been compared in the conscious rat. 2 In the paw pressure test, when given subcutaneously buprenorphine 0.001-0.1 mg/kg s.c., was approximately 100 times more potent than morphine 0.1-3 mg/kg s.c., but in the hot plate test, buprenorphine 0.03-3.0 mg/kg s.c., produced a bell-shaped dose-response curve of low maximum effect and was about equipotent with morphine 0.03-3 mg/kg s.c. 3 When given intrathecally buprenorphine 10 micrograms and morphine, 10-60 micrograms, were approximately equipotent in both paw pressure and hot plate tests. Furthermore, morphine produced these effects at 1/25th of the minimum effective parenteral dose while the dose of buprenorphine exceeded the parenteral dose. 4 It is concluded that the predominant site of the analgesic action of buprenorphine is supraspinal. The significance of these findings in relation to the role of spinal opiate receptors is discussed. PMID:6687818

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics of intravenous fentanyl and buprenorphine in healthy Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    KuKanich, Butch; Allen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of two highly protein bound, lipophilic opioid drugs. Fentanyl (10 μg/kg) and buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to six healthy Greyhound dogs (3 males and 3 females). The doses were based on clinically administered doses for dogs. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and noncompartmental pharmacokinetics were estimated with computer software. The volume of distribution (area) was larger for fentanyl (7.42 L/kg) compared to buprenorphine (3.54 L/kg). The plasma clearance of fentanyl (38.6 mL/min/kg) was faster than buprenorphine (10.3 mL/min/kg). The terminal half-life of fentanyl (2.22 h) was shorter than buprenorphine (3.96 h). Despite similar physicochemical properties including: octanol:water partition coefficient and pKa the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and buprenorphine were not similar. Both fentanyl (84%) and buprenorphine (95-98%) are considered highly protein bound, but the differences in protein binding may contribute to the lack of similarity of pharmacokinetics in healthy dogs. PMID:24684621

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics of intravenous fentanyl and buprenorphine in healthy greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    KuKanich, B; Allen, P

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of two highly protein-bound, lipophilic opioid drugs. Fentanyl (10 μg/kg) and buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to six healthy greyhound dogs (three males and three females). The doses were based on clinically administered doses for dogs. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetics were estimated with computer software. The volume of distribution (area) was larger for fentanyl (7.42 L/kg) compared to buprenorphine (3.54 L/kg). The plasma clearance of fentanyl (38.6 mL·min/kg) was faster than buprenorphine (10.3 mL·min/kg). The terminal half-life of fentanyl (2.22 h) was shorter than buprenorphine (3.96 h). Despite similar physicochemical properties including octanol-water partition coefficient and pKa, the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and buprenorphine were not similar. Both fentanyl (84%) and buprenorphine (95-98%) are considered highly protein bound, but the differences in protein binding may contribute to the lack of similarity of pharmacokinetics in healthy dogs. PMID:24684621

  8. The Effectiveness of an Experimental Treatment when Compared to Care as Usual Depends on the Type of Care as Usual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Matthys, Walter; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Lochman, John E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    In psychotherapy, effectiveness of an experimental treatment often is compared to care as usual. However, little if any attention has been paid to the heterogeneity of care as usual. The authors examined the effectiveness of manualized behavior therapy on school-aged disruptive behavior disordered (DBD) children in everyday clinical practice. A…

  9. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

  10. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.

  11. Predictors of treatment satisfaction among older adults with anxiety in a primary care psychology program

    PubMed Central

    Hundt, Natalie E.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Porter, Bennett; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are treated in integrated primary care mental health programs. The current study examined predictors of satisfaction with treatment in patients from a randomized clinical trial of late-life generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in primary care. Higher treatment satisfaction was associated with receiving CBT rather than enhanced usual care. Treatment credibility, treatment expectancies, social support, and improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms predicted higher treatment satisfaction in the total sample. In the CBT group, only credibility and adherence with treatment predicted satisfaction. This suggests that older patients receiving CBT who believe more strongly in the treatment rationale and follow the therapist’s recommendations more closely are likely to report satisfaction at the end of treatment. In addition, this study found that adherence mediated the relationship between treatment credibility and treatment satisfaction. In other words, patients’ perceptions that the treatment made sense for them led to greater treatment adherence which then increased their satisfaction with treatment. PMID:23434724

  12. Buprenorphine medication versus voucher contingencies in promoting abstinence from opioids and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mohit P; Landes, Reid D; Gatchalian, Kirstin M; Jackson, Lisa C; Buchhalter, August R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Marsch, Lisa A; Bickel, Warren K

    2009-08-01

    During a 12-week intervention, opioid dependent participants (N = 120) maintained on thrice-a-week (M, W, F) buprenorphine plus therapist and computer-based counseling were randomized to receive: (a) medication contingencies (MC = thrice weekly dosing schedule vs. daily attendance and single-day 50% dose reduction imposed upon submission of an opioid and/or cocaine positive urine sample); (b) voucher contingency (VC = escalating schedule for opioid and/or cocaine negative samples with reset for drug-positive samples); or (c) standard care (SC), with no programmed consequences for urinalysis results. VC resulted in better 12-week retention (85%) compared to MC (58%; p = 0.009), but neither differed from SC (76% retained). After adjusting for baseline differences in employment, and compared to SC, the MC group achieved 1.5 more continuous weeks of combined opioid/cocaine abstinence (p = 0.030), while the VC group had 2 more total weeks of abstinence (p = 0.048). Drug use results suggest that both the interventions were efficacious, with effects primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results. Findings should be interpreted in light of the greater attrition associated with medication-based contingencies versus the greater monetary costs of voucher-based contingencies. PMID:19653788

  13. Pharmacokinetics of morphine and its surrogates. X: Analyses and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E R; Chandran, V R

    1990-01-01

    Specific and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC assays of buprenorphine and its metabolite in biological fluids were developed with sensitivities of 2-6 ng ml-1 using fluorimetric detection. Pharmacokinetics were monitored on acute bolus administration of buprenorphine in 6 dogs within the 0.7-2.6 mg kg-1 dose range. Toxicity was circumvented when terminal plasma concentrations were increased by infusing 3.7-4.8 mg kg-1 doses of buprenorphine over 3 h in six studies in 6 dogs. The terminal rate constants of the IV infusion studies from the triexponential fits of plasma concentration-time data averaged 41.6 +/- 7.5 h with an averaged total body clearance of 191 +/- 19 ml min-1. This terminal rate constant was in contrast to the less than 100 min half-life of the second exponential fitting of the less lipophilic morphine, naloxone, and naltrexone. The apparent volumes of distribution of buprenorphine, referenced to the total plasma concentration, were 33 +/- 61 (Vc, central compartment volume) and 663 +/- 891 (Vd, total body volume), indicative of a highly bound, sequestered or lipophilic drug. Unchanged buprenorphine was insignificantly renally (less than 0.2 per cent of the dose) and biliary (less than 0.6 per cent) excreted. The major route of buprenorphine disposition was by hepatic conjugation to glucuronide which was eliminated into the bile (about 92 per cent) with only small amounts appearing in urine (less than 1 per cent as metabolite). Minor metabolites excreted in the bile accounted for about 3 per cent of the administered dose. Direct IV administration of the metabolite, buprenorphine glucuronide, gave a terminal half-life of 6 h and more than 90 per cent of the systemically circulating metabolite was excreted in bile; only 10 per cent in urine. The oral bioavailability, estimated from the areas under the buprenorphine plasma concentration-time curve following IV and oral administration of buprenorphine in the dogs, was 3-6 per cent. There were no apparent correlations of the buprenorphine time course with cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, ECG, and blood pressure. Miotic effect was significant. Respiratory depression was observed during the first 4 h after IV bolus injection, but not during the infusion studies. PMID:2340348

  14. Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

    2011-12-01

    A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 μg/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 μg/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of < 95% was recorded at least once during anesthesia in all cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. PMID:21885310

  15. Changes in managed care activity in outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations, 1995-2000.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Lemak, Christy Harris; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2003-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from 1995 and 2000, this study examines trends in managed care penetration and activity among outpatient drug treatment organizations in the United States. Further, it investigates how managed care activity varies across different types of treatment providers and for public and private managed care programs. Overall, managed care activity has increased, with a greater proportion of units having managed care arrangements and a larger percentage of clients covered by managed care. In general, public managed care activity has increased and private managed care activity has decreased. Treatment providers report that they have fewer managed care arrangements, which may reflect consolidation in the managed behavioral care sector. Finally, growth in managed care among outpatient substance abuse treatment units affiliated with hospitals and mental health centers may signal a preference for providers that can effectively link substance abuse treatment with medical and social service provision, or, alternatively, that linkages with such organizations may provide the size necessary to assume the risks associated with managed care contracts. PMID:14593661

  16. Illicit Use of Buprenorphine in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is growing evidence about illicit use of buprenorphine in the U.S. The study aims to: 1) identify prevalence and predictors of illicit buprenorphine use in a community sample of 396 young adult (18-23 years old) non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids; 2) describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviors linked to illicit buprenorphine use as reported by a qualitative sub-sample (n=51). METHODS Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Qualitative interview participants were selected from the larger sample. The sample (n=396) was 54% male and 50% white; 7.8% reported lifetime illicit use of buprenorphine. RESULTS Logistic regression analysis results indicate that white ethnicity, intranasal inhalation of pharmaceutical opioids, symptoms of opioid dependence, and a greater number of pharmaceutical opioids used in lifetime were statistically significant predictors of illicit buprenorphine use. Qualitative interviews revealed that buprenorphine was more commonly used by more experienced users who were introduced to it by their “junkie friends.” Those who used buprenorphine to self-medicate withdrawal referred to it as a “miracle pill.” When used to get high, reported experiences ranged from “the best high ever” to “puking for days.” Participants reported using buprenorphine/naloxone orally or by intranasal inhalation. Injection of buprenorphine without naloxone was also reported. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that illicit buprenorphine use is gaining ground primarily among whites and those who are more advanced in their drug use careers. Continued monitoring is needed to better understand evolving patterns and trends of illicit buprenorphine use. PMID:22036303

  17. Patterns of free (unconjugated) buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their glucuronides in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Davis, Rebecka; Carlisle, Heidi; Clark, Chantry; Marin, Stephanie J; Moody, David E

    2012-03-01

    Patterns of buprenorphine and metabolites were examined in 1946 positive urine samples analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for free (unconjugated) buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (quantitative, 2 to 1000 ng/mL) and buprenorphine-glucuronide (B3G) and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (N3G) (semi-quantitative, 5 to 1000 ng/mL). Two distribution patterns predominated with 49.1% positive for norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G and 41.6% positive for buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G. Buprenorphine, positive in 45.5% of samples, was mostly < 5 ng/mL (median 6.1 ng/mL), but 9.8% were > 1000 ng/mL. Norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G had semi-Gaussian distributions with medians of 64.7, 108, and 432 ng/mL, respectively. With buprenorphine < 100 ng/mL (767 samples) or ≥ 100 ng/mL (19 quantifiable samples), the respective median metabolic ratios (free norbuprenorphine/free buprenorphine) were 25.0 and 0.15. In 12 retested "> 1000 ng/mL" buprenorphine samples, free buprenorphine was 4160 to 39,400 ng/mL and free naloxone 2140 to 9560 ng/mL. In 87 subsequent samples with buprenorphine < 20 ng/mL, naloxone concentrations were < 50 ng/mL. Concentrations of buprenorphine > 100 ng/mL (particularly with low metabolite concentrations) are suspect of urine adulteration with medication (4% in the database) that can be checked in most cases by concurrent analysis for naloxone. PMID:22337776

  18. Long term outcomes of pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence: does methadone still lead the pack?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria Teresa; Bascaran, Maria Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to update and summarize the scientific knowledge on the long term outcomes of the different pharmacological treatment options for opioid dependence currently available and to provide a critical discussion on the different treatment options based on these results. We performed a literature search using the PubMed databases and the reference lists of the identified articles. Data from research show that the three pharmacological options reviewed are effective treatments for opioid dependence with positive long term outcomes. However, each one has its specific target population and setting. While methadone and buprenorphine are first line options, heroin-assisted treatment is a second line option for those patients refractory to treatment with methadone with concomitant severe physical, mental, social and/or functional problems. Buprenorphine seems to be the best option for use in primary care offices. The field of opioid dependence treatment is poised to undergo a process of reinforcement and transformation. Further efforts from researchers, clinicians and authorities should be made to turn new pharmacological options into clinical reality and to overcome the structural and functional obstacles that maintenance programmes face in combatting opioid dependence. PMID:23145768

  19. [Intensive care - palliative care. Contradiction or supplement? Considerations on ethical issues and principles in the treatment of dying patients].

    PubMed

    Mller-Busch, H C

    2001-12-01

    Over the last five decades the progress in intensive care has extended the limitations of controlling the process of dying and given doctors more influence in determining the time of death. More recently, palliative care has emerged as a new approach in response to the ethical dilemmas of modern medicine, which accepts that dying is a natural process that should not be hastened or delayed through medical interventions. While in Germany in 1999 more than 50 000 people have died in intensive care units, only a small number of 8000 patients have died in palliative care. In comparison to the highly-developed intensive care sector, palliative care is a much neglected area. The public debate following the legalisation of euthanasia in the Netherlands has highlighted concerns in Germany that intensive care has the potential of inappropriately prolonging life and raised expectations about the alternative therapies offered by palliative care. Doctors in intensive care and in palliative care face similar ethical dilemmas, though with a different weighting: the dilemma between professional judgement and patient autonomy, between traditional medical roles and patient self-determination and the dilemma of extending the span of life at the expense of quality of life. The approach of palliative care with its strong focus on alleviating the suffering of the terminally ill, has influenced the ethical debate of dying in intensive care. Although intensive care and palliative care have different aims and priorities, there are common problems of decision-making which could benefit from a shared orientation and interdisciplinary debate. Both the interpretation of a dying parent's will as well as withdrawing or withholding treatment in patients who are unable to decide for themselves should not merely be guided by the debate on active and passive euthanasia, but rather take into account the appropriateness or inappropriateness of medical actions in the specific situation. PMID:11743668

  20. Treatment of Youth Depression in Primary Care Under Usual Practice Conditions: Observational Findings from Youth Partners in Care

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kenneth B.; Tang, Lingqi; Carlson, Gabrielle A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The effectiveness of treatments for youth depression in primary care, under usual practice conditions, is largely unstudied. This study aims at estimating the effect of appropriate treatment, defined as treatment that approximates guideline standards, on clinical outcomes for depressed primary care youth patients by using observational analyses from a randomized trial. Methods Participants were 344 youths aged 1321 enrolled in the Youth Partners in Care trial. Youths screening positive for depression from six primary care practices in five different health care organizations were randomly assigned to either (1) usual care enhanced by provider education on depression evaluation and management, or (2) a quality improvement (QI) intervention designed to improve access to antidepressant medications and/or cognitive behavior therapy for depression; usual practice conditions otherwise applied. Observational analysis was conducted on the effects of appropriate treatment (antidepressant medication use by algorithms or 6 or more psychotherapy visits) on severe depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression score ?24) at 6 months. Selection into treatment is accounted for by using instrumental variables analysis, with randomized QI intervention status as the instrument. Results At 6 months, youths receiving appropriate treatment, compared with others, were significantly less likely to have severe depression (10.9% vs. 45.2%, p<0.0001). Similar findings were observed among youths with depressive disorders and sub-syndromal depressive symptoms, and among Latino and other youths. Conclusions Among depressed primary care youths, care that approximates guideline standards but retains leniency substantially reduces the likelihood of severe depression at 6 months. Such findings apply to youths with or without depressive disorder, and among Latino youth. PMID:22251025

  1. Impact of Advanced Health Care Directives on Treatment Decisions by Physicians in Patients with Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Connelly, Bo; Abott, Emily; Janjua, Tariq; Kim, Stanley H.; Miley, Jefferson T.; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Uzun, Guven; Watanabe, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Background The implementation of advance health care directives, prepared by almost half of the adult population in United States remains relatively under studied. We determined the impact of advance health care directives on treatment decisions by multiple physicians in stroke patients. Methods A de-identified summary of clinical and radiological records of 28 patients with stroke was given to six stroke physicians who were not involved in the care of the patients. Each physician independently rated 28 treatment decisions per patient in the presence or absence of advance health care directives 1 month apart to allow memory washout. The percentage agreement to treat/intervene per patient and proportion of treatment withheld as a group were estimated for each of the 28 treatment decision items. We also determined the interobserver reliability between the two raters (attorneys) in interpretation of 6 items characterizing the adequacy of documentation within the 28 advance health care directives. Results The percentage agreement among physician raters for treatment decisions in 28 stroke patients was highest for treatment of hyperpyrexia (100%, 100%) and lowest for intensive care unit monitoring duration based on family-physician considerations outside of accepted criteria within institution (68%, 69%) in presence and absence of advance care health directives. The physician rater agreement in choosing yes was highest for routine complexity treatment decisions and lowest for moderate complexity treatment decisions. The choice of withholding treatment in routine complexity, moderate complexity, or high complexity treatment decisions was remarkably similar among raters in presence or absence of advance care health directives. The only treatment decision that showed an impact of advance care health directives was intensive care unit monitoring withheld in 32% of treatment decisions in presence of directives (compared with 8% in the absence of directives). Intravenous medication and defibrillation for cardiac arrest was withheld in 29% (compared with 19%) of the treatment decisions in the presence of advance health care directives. The two attorney raters found the description of acceptable outcome inadequate in 14 and 21 of 28 advance health care directives reviewed, respectively. The overall mean kappa for agreement regarding adequacy of documentation was modest (43%) for does the advance health care directive specify which treatments the patient would choose, or refuse to receive if they were diagnosed with an acute, terminal condition? and lowest (3%) for description of acceptable outcome. Conclusions We did not find any prominent differences in most routine complexity, moderate complexity, or high complexity treatment decisions in patient management in the presence of advance health care directives. Presence of advance health care directives also did not reduce the prominent variance among physicians in treatment decisions. PMID:23552508

  2. A pharmaceutical industry perspective on the economics of treatments for alcohol and opioid use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gastfriend, David R

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol and/or drug use disorders often fail to receive care, or evidence-based care, yet the literature shows health economic benefits. Comparative effectiveness research is emerging that examines approved approaches in terms of real, total healthcare cost/utilization. Comprehensive retrospective insurance claims analyses are few but tend to be nationally distributed and large. The emerging pattern is that, while treatment in general is cost effective, specific therapeutics can yield different health economic outcomes. Cost/utilization data consistently show greater savings with pharmacotherapies (despite their costs) versus psychosocial treatment alone. All FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies (oral naltrexone, extended-release naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and methadone) are intended for use in conjunction with psychosocial management, not as stand-alone therapeutics; hence, pharmacotherapy costs must offer benefits in addition to abstinence alone or psychological therapy. Patient persistence is problematic, and (despite its cost) extended-release pharmacotherapy may be associated with lower or no greater total healthcare cost, mostly due to reduced hospitalization. The reviewed studies use rigorous case-mix adjustment to balance treatment cohorts but lack the randomization that clinical trials use to protect against confounding. Unlike trials, however, these studies can offer generalizability to diverse populations, providers, and payment models—and are of particular salience to payers. PMID:25236185

  3. A pharmaceutical industry perspective on the economics of treatments for alcohol and opioid use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gastfriend, David R

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with alcohol and/or drug use disorders often fail to receive care, or evidence-based care, yet the literature shows health economic benefits. Comparative effectiveness research is emerging that examines approved approaches in terms of real, total healthcare cost/utilization. Comprehensive retrospective insurance claims analyses are few but tend to be nationally distributed and large. The emerging pattern is that, while treatment in general is cost effective, specific therapeutics can yield different health economic outcomes. Cost/utilization data consistently show greater savings with pharmacotherapies (despite their costs) versus psychosocial treatment alone. All FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies (oral naltrexone, extended-release naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and methadone) are intended for use in conjunction with psychosocial management, not as stand-alone therapeutics; hence, pharmacotherapy costs must offer benefits in addition to abstinence alone or psychological therapy. Patient persistence is problematic, and (despite its cost) extended-release pharmacotherapy may be associated with lower or no greater total healthcare cost, mostly due to reduced hospitalization. The reviewed studies use rigorous case-mix adjustment to balance treatment cohorts but lack the randomization that clinical trials use to protect against confounding. Unlike trials, however, these studies can offer generalizability to diverse populations, providers, and payment models--and are of particular salience to payers. PMID:25236185

  4. Opioid partial agonist buprenorphine dampens responses to psychosocial stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bershad, Anya K.; Jaffe, Jerome H.; Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that opioid drugs have stress-dampening effects. In animal models, opioid analgesics attenuate responses to isolation distress, and in humans, opioids reduce stress related to anticipation of physical pain. The stress-reducing effects of opioid drugs may contribute to their abuse potential. Despite this evidence in laboratory animals, the effects of opioids on responses to psychosocial stress have not been determined in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a μ-opioid partial agonist used to treat opioid dependence and pain, on subjective and physiological responses to a stressful public speaking task in healthy adults. We hypothesized that buprenorphine would reduce subjective and physiological stress responses. Healthy adult volunteers (N = 48) were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine, or 0.4mg sublingual buprenorphine in a two-session study with a stressful speaking task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and a non-stressful control task. During the sessions, the participants reported on their mood states, provided subjective appraisals of the task, and measures of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure at regular intervals. Stress produced its expected effects, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and subjective ratings of anxiety and negative mood. In line with our hypothesis, both doses of buprenorphine significantly dampened salivary cortisol responses to stress. On self-report ratings, buprenorphine reduced how threatening participants found the tasks. These results suggest that enhanced opioid signaling dampens responses to social stress in humans, as it does in laboratory animals. This stress-dampening effect of buprenorphine may contribute to the non-medical use of opioid drugs. PMID:25544740

  5. Opioid partial agonist buprenorphine dampens responses to psychosocial stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Jaffe, Jerome H; Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-02-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates that opioid drugs have stress-dampening effects. In animal models, opioid analgesics attenuate responses to isolation distress, and in humans, opioids reduce stress related to anticipation of physical pain. The stress-reducing effects of opioid drugs may contribute to their abuse potential. Despite this evidence in laboratory animals, the effects of opioids on responses to psychosocial stress have not been determined in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a μ-opioid partial agonist used to treat opioid dependence and pain, on subjective and physiological responses to a stressful public speaking task in healthy adults. We hypothesized that buprenorphine would reduce subjective and physiological stress responses. Healthy adult volunteers (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine, or 0.4mg sublingual buprenorphine in a two-session study with a stressful speaking task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and a non-stressful control task. During the sessions, the participants reported on their mood states, provided subjective appraisals of the task, and measures of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure at regular intervals. Stress produced its expected effects, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and subjective ratings of anxiety and negative mood. In line with our hypothesis, both doses of buprenorphine significantly dampened salivary cortisol responses to stress. On self-report ratings, buprenorphine reduced how threatening participants found the tasks. These results suggest that enhanced opioid signaling dampens responses to social stress in humans, as it does in laboratory animals. This stress-dampening effect of buprenorphine may contribute to the non-medical use of opioid drugs. PMID:25544740

  6. Preconception care and treatment with assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Grainger, David A; Frazier, Linda M; Rowland, Courtney A

    2006-09-01

    Couples with fertility problems seeking treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization should receive preconception counseling on all factors that are provided when counseling patients without fertility problems. Additional counseling should address success rates and possible risks from ART therapies. Success rates from ART are improving, with the highest live birth rates averaging about 40% per cycle among women less than 35 years old. A woman's age lowers the chance of achieving a live birth, as do smoking, obesity, and infertility diagnoses such as hydrosalpinx, uterine leiomyoma, or male factor infertility. Singletons conceived with ART may have lower birth weights. Animal studies suggest that genetic imprinting disorders may be induced by certain embryo culture conditions. The major risk from ovarian stimulation is multiple gestation. About one-third of live-birth deliveries from ART have more than one infant, and twins represent 85% of these multiple-birth children. There are more complications in multiple gestation pregnancies, infants are more likely to be born preterm and with other health problems, and families caring for multiples experience more stress. Transferring fewer embryos per cycle reduces the multiple birth rate from ART, but the patient may have to pay for additional cycles of ART because of a lower likelihood of pregnancy. PMID:16802186

  7. 45 CFR 156.245 - Treatment of direct primary care medical homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment of direct primary care medical homes... direct primary care medical homes. A QHP issuer may provide coverage through a direct primary care medical home that meets criteria established by HHS, so long as the QHP meets all requirements that...

  8. 45 CFR 156.245 - Treatment of direct primary care medical homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment of direct primary care medical homes... direct primary care medical homes. A QHP issuer may provide coverage through a direct primary care medical home that meets criteria established by HHS, so long as the QHP meets all requirements that...

  9. 45 CFR 156.245 - Treatment of direct primary care medical homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment of direct primary care medical homes. 156.245 Section 156.245 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Qualified Health...

  10. Suicides in Users of Mental Health Care Services: Treatment Characteristics and Hindsight Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Annemiek; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Robben, Paul B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to describe the patient and treatment characteristics of a sample of 505 suicides by mental health care patients, and to determine how clinicians view the care provided and what they learned. The results indicate that the quality of mental health care for suicidal patients could be improved by focusing on communication among…

  11. Suicides in Users of Mental Health Care Services: Treatment Characteristics and Hindsight Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Annemiek; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Robben, Paul B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to describe the patient and treatment characteristics of a sample of 505 suicides by mental health care patients, and to determine how clinicians view the care provided and what they learned. The results indicate that the quality of mental health care for suicidal patients could be improved by focusing on communication among

  12. Pilot Study of Behavioral Treatment in Dementia Care Units.(practice Concepts)(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Kemp-Havican, Julie; MacNeill, Susan E.; Johnson, Amanda Schafer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on the development and use of behavioral treatment as a well-being intervention for individuals with dementia residing at special care units in a nursing home. Design and Methods: The project took place upon the construction and opening of two new homelike units for dementia care in a rural community-care center.…

  13. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  14. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17

  15. Economic Evaluation of Continuing Care Interventions in the Treatment of Substance Abuse: Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.; McKay, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The chronic and relapsing nature of substance abuse points to the need for continuing care after a primary phase of treatment. This article reviews the economic studies of continuing care, discusses research gaps, highlights some of the challenges of conducting rigorous economic evaluations of continuing care, and offers research guidelines and…

  16. Confidentiality protections versus collaborative care in the treatment of substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners in federally-assisted substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs are faced with increasingly complex decisions when addressing patient confidentiality issues. Recent policy changes, intended to make treatment more available and accessible, are having an impact on delivery of SUD treatment in the United States. The addition of electronic health records provides opportunity for more rapid and comprehensive communication between patients’ primary and SUD care providers while promoting a collaborative care environment. This shift toward collaborative care is complicated by the special protections that SUD documentation receives in SUD treatment programs, which vary depending on what care is provided and the setting where the patient is treated. This article explores the special protections for substance abuse documentation, discrepancies in treatment documentation, ways to deal with these issues in clinical practice, and the need for more knowledge about how to harmonize treatment in the SUD and primary care systems. PMID:23972141

  17. The Interface of Primary and Oncology Specialty Care: From Diagnosis Through Primary Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review the challenges and opportunities related to developing effective, collaborative relationships between primary care and oncology providers during the initial cancer treatment period. This point in the cancer care continuum is complex and often represents the first major transition in care between primary care providers and oncology specialists. Patients often receive care from multiple providers in a number of different settings and are faced with making treatment decisions in a short, concentrated period of time. Patients consistently report having significant informational and emotional needs that are often unmet during this period. Using the published literature, we have identified a number of challenges during this part of the treatment continuum that may limit providers ability to deliver effective care, including provider care discontinuities, information exchange problems, and gaps in provider role clarity that may be especially problematic within the context of managing comorbid health conditions. The limited published literature specific to this step in the cancer care trajectory supports the importance of ongoing primary carespecialist collaboration during this phase in the care continuum for both medical and psychosocial care. How to best achieve effective collaboration between providers requires further research in information exchange and tools to support it, evaluation of shared care models specific to the cancer context, and studies of the potential role of multidisciplinary case conferencing that include the primary care provider. PMID:20386050

  18. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    IJff, Marjoliek A; Huijbregts, Klaas ML; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Rutten, Frans F; Unützer, Jürgen; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2007-01-01

    Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months) are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a depressive disorder, the collaborative care model, will be evaluated for effectiveness in the primary care setting. If effective across the Atlantic and across different health care systems, it is also likely to be an effective strategy to implement in the treatment of major depressive disorder in the Netherlands. PMID:17331237

  19. Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Methadone Effects on Laboratory Indices of Liver Health: a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saxon, Andrew J.; Ling, Walter; Hillhouse, Maureen; Thomas, Christie; Hasson, Albert; Ang, Alfonso; Doraimani, Geetha; Tasissa, Gudaye; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Leimberger, Jeff; Bruce, R. Douglas; McCarthy, John; Wiest, Katharina; McLaughlin, Paul; Bilangi, Richard; Cohen, Allan; Woody, George; Jacobs, Petra

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP) and methadone (MET) are efficacious treatments for opioid dependence, although concerns about a link between BUP and drug-induced hepatitis have been raised. This study compares the effects of BUP and MET on liver health in opioid-dependent participants. METHODS This was a randomized controlled trial of 1269 opioid-dependent participants seeking treatment at 8 federally licensed opioid treatment programs and followed for up to 32 weeks between May 2006 and August 2010; 731 participants met “evaluable” criteria defined as completing 24 weeks of medication and providing at least 4 blood samples for transaminase testing. Participants were randomly assigned to receive BUP or MET for 24 weeks. Shift table analysis determined how many evaluable participants moved between categories of low and elevated transaminase levels. Predictors of moving from low to high transaminase levels were identified. RESULTS Changes in transaminase levels did not differ by medication condition. Baseline infection with hepatitis C or B was the only significant predictor of moving from low to elevated transaminase levels; 9 BUP and 15 MET participants showed extreme liver test elevations and were more likely than those without extreme elevations to have seroconverted to both hepatitis B and C during the study, or to use illicit drugs during the first 8 weeks of treatment. MET participants were retained longer in treatment than BUP participants. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated no evidence of liver damage during the initial 6 months of treatment in either condition. Physicians can prescribe either medication without major concern for liver injury. PMID:22921476

  20. Urinary buprenorphine concentrations in patients treated with suboxone as determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and CEDIA immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hull, Mindy J; Bierer, Michael F; Griggs, David A; Long, William H; Nixon, Andrea L; Flood, James G

    2008-09-01

    We report on the utility of urine total buprenorphine, total norbuprenorphine, and creatinine concentrations in patients treated with Suboxone (a formulation containing buprenorphine and naloxone), used increasingly for the maintenance or detoxification of patients dependent on opiates such as heroin or oxycodone. Patients received 8-24 mg/day buprenorphine. Two-hundred sixteen urine samples from 70 patients were analyzed for both total buprenorphine and total norbuprenorphine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Buprenorphine concentrations in all 176 samples judged to be unadulterated averaged 164 ng/mL, with a standard deviation (SD) of 198 ng/mL. Nine samples (4.2%) had metabolite-parent drug ratios < 0.02, and 33 (15.3%) had no detectable buprenorphine. The metabolite/parent drug ratio in 166 samples had a range of 0.07-23.0 (mean = 4.52; SD = 3.97). Fifteen of 96 available urine samples (16.7%) had creatinine less than 20 mg/dL. We also found sample adulteration in 7 (7.3%) available samples. Using a 5 ng/mL urine buprenorphine cutoff, the sensitivity and specificity of the Microgenics homogeneous enzyme immunoassay versus LC-MS-MS were 100% and 87.5%, respectively. The 5 ng/mL cutoff Microgenics CEDIA buprenorphine assay results agreed analytically with LC-MS-MS in 97.9% of samples. PMID:18713521

  1. [Guidelines for treatment of pneumonia in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Emmi, V

    2005-01-01

    Patients affected by pneumonia can be admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) independently by the setting where the infection has been acquired (community, hospital, long-term care facilities); even more frequently pneumonia can develop in patients already hospitalized in ICU especially in those requiring mechanical ventilation for different reasons. Within the severe community acquired pneumonia requiring admission in ICU, the most frequently responsible micro-organisms are mainly represented by Streptococcus pneumoniae, but also by Legionella and Haemophilus. Pseudomonas aeruginona, anyway, cannot be excluded. The most recent Canadian and American guidelines for treatment of the above mentioned infections suggest the use of a combination therapy with beta-lactams (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam) and a new generation macrolide or respiratory fluoroquinolone. In case of allergy to beta-lactams, the association fluoroquinolone-clindamycin should be preferred. Whenever a Pseudomonas etiology is suspected because of the presence of risk factors such as COPD, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, previous and/or frequent therapies with antibiotics and/or steroids, the same guidelines suggest the use of an anti-pseudomonas beta-lactam (such as piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems, cefepime) associated with an anti-pseudomonas fluoroquinolone (high doses ciprofloxacin). An anti-pseudomonas beta-lactam plus an aminoglycoside or aminoglicosyde plus fluoroquinolone can be an alternative. Early onset Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) and early onset Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) in patients without risk factors for multi-resistant etiological agents are generally sustained by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, methicillin-susceptible Staphylocccus aureus e Gram negative enteric rods. These infections can be treated with one of the following antibiotics: ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin or ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) or ampicillin/sulbactam or ertapenem. Late onset VAP and HAP in patients with risk factors for multi-resistant, by contrast, should be treated with a combination therapy: in case of defined or suspected P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESbL+), Acinetobacter sp etiology, it is required the use of an anti-pseudomonas cephalosporin or an anti-pseudomonas carbapenem or b-lactam + beta-lactamase inhibitor associated with an anti-pseudomonas fluoroquinolone or an aminoglicoside. The possible presence of MRSA or Legionella pneumophila suggests the use of anti-Gram positive antibiotics such as glycopeptides or linezolid. These quidelines confirm the role of ciprofloxacin combined with beta-lactams whenever P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESbL+), Acinetobacter sp. etiology is suspected. PMID:16801748

  2. Treatment for Substance Use Disorder: Opportunities and Challenges under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Betty; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disease with consequences that remain problematic years after discontinuation of use. Despite this, treatment models focus on acute interventions and are carved out from the main health care system. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) brings the opportunity to change the way substance use disorder (SUD) is treated in the United States. The treatment of SUD must adapt to a chronic care model offered in an integrated care system that screens for at-risk patients and includes services needed to prevent relapses. The partnering of the health care system with substance abuse treatment programs could dramatically expand the benefits of prevention and treatment of SUD. Expanding roles of health information technology and nonphysician workforces, such as social workers, are essential to the success of a chronic care model. PMID:23731411

  3. Medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorder: review of the evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Connery, Hilary Smith

    2015-01-01

    Medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorder with physiological dependence at least doubles rates of opioid-abstinence outcomes in randomized, controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatment of opioid use disorder with medication versus with placebo or no medication. This article reviews the current evidence for medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorder and also presents clinical practice imperatives for preventing opioid overdose and the transmission of infectious disease. The evidence strongly supports the use of agonist therapies to reduce opioid use and to retain patients in treatment, with methadone maintenance remaining the gold standard of care. Combined buprenorphine/naloxone, however, also demonstrates significant efficacy and favorable safety and tolerability in multiple populations, including youth and prescription opioid-dependent individuals, as does buprenorphine monotherapy in pregnant women. The evidence for antagonist therapies is weak. Oral naltrexone demonstrates poor adherence and increased mortality rates, although the early evidence looks more favorable for extended-release naltrexone, which has the advantages that it is not subject to misuse or diversion and that it does not present a risk of overdose on its own. Two perspectives-individualized treatment and population management-are presented for selecting among the three available Food and Drug Administration-approved maintenance therapies for opioid use disorder. The currently unmet challenges in treating opioid use disorder are discussed, as are the directions for future research. PMID:25747920

  4. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  5. The Unique Supportive Care Needs of a Mother With Acute Myeloid Leukemia During Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Tara; Walton, AnnMarie Lee; Bryant, Ashley Leak

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive cancer of the blood that is linked with poor survival. The disease requires immediate intensive chemotherapy treatment that leaves patients hospitalized for at least one month and often longer, depending on their supportive care needs. Mothers undergoing treatment for AML may benefit from having attention paid to their supportive care needs during that time. PMID:25689644

  6. 38 CFR 21.242 - Resources for provision of treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resources for provision... provision of treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for Chapter 31 participants which may be authorized...

  7. 38 CFR 21.242 - Resources for provision of treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resources for provision... provision of treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for Chapter 31 participants which may be authorized...

  8. 38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resources for provision... Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for program participants...

  9. 38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resources for provision... Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for program participants...

  10. 38 CFR 21.242 - Resources for provision of treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resources for provision... provision of treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for Chapter 31 participants which may be authorized...

  11. 38 CFR 21.242 - Resources for provision of treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resources for provision... provision of treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for Chapter 31 participants which may be authorized...

  12. 38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resources for provision... Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for program participants...

  13. 38 CFR 21.242 - Resources for provision of treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resources for provision... provision of treatment, care and services. (a) General. VA medical centers are the primary resources for the provision of medical treatment, care and services for Chapter 31 participants which may be authorized...

  14. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility...

  15. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility...

  16. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility...

  17. Benzodiazepines increase the reward effects of buprenorphine in a conditioned place preference test in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin-Lin; Freret, Thomas; Lange, Mathilde; Bourgine, Joanna; Coquerel, Antoine; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique

    2014-12-01

    Buprenorphine (BPN) is widely used as a substitution treatment for opioid addiction. Some cases of abuse and misuse, especially associated with various benzodiazepines (BZDs), have been described, and a previous study has shown that BZDs increase the sedative effect of BPN and decrease its anxiogenic properties. To investigate the reward effect that may lead to the abusive combination of BPN and BZD, we studied the influence of different doses of three BZDs extensively used with BPN by drug addicts on conditioned place preference behavior in mice. BPN (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously into male mice alone or in combination with a BZD administered intraperitoneally: dipotassium clorazepate (CRZ; 1, 4, 16 mg/kg), diazepam (DAZ; 0.5, 1, 5 mg/kg), or bromazepam (BMZ; 0.5, 1, 3 mg/kg). Amphetamine (8 mg/kg) was used as a reference drug. Reward effects of BPN alone or in combination were measured in a conditioned place preference paradigm using an unbiased procedure. Our results showed that groups treated with BPN associated with different doses of diazepam and clorazepate, but not bromazepam, spent significantly more time in the drug-paired compartment compared to the group treated with BPN alone. Our study shows that joint consumption of diazepam and clorazepate, but not bromazepam, can increase the reward properties of BPN alone in mice. These results could help to explain the use of this type of drug combination in the drug addict population. PMID:24617653

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Collaborative Care for the Treatment of Depressive Disorders in Primary Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grochtdreis, Thomas; Brettschneider, Christian; Wegener, Annemarie; Watzke, Birgit; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Härter, Martin; König, Hans-Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background For the treatment of depressive disorders, the framework of collaborative care has been recommended, which showed improved outcomes in the primary care sector. Yet, an earlier literature review did not find sufficient evidence to draw robust conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care. Purpose To systematically review studies on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care, compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care. Methods A systematic literature search in major databases was conducted. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) list. To ensure comparability across studies, cost data were inflated to the year 2012 using country-specific gross domestic product inflation rates, and were adjusted to international dollars using purchasing power parities (PPP). Results In total, 19 cost-effectiveness analyses were reviewed. The included studies had sample sizes between n = 65 to n = 1,801, and time horizons between six to 24 months. Between 42% and 89% of the CHEC quality criteria were fulfilled, and in only one study no risk of bias was identified. A societal perspective was used by five studies. Incremental costs per depression-free day ranged from dominance to US$PPP 64.89, and incremental costs per QALY from dominance to US$PPP 874,562. Conclusion Despite our review improved the comparability of study results, cost-effectiveness of collaborative care compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care is ambiguous depending on willingness to pay. A still considerable uncertainty, due to inconsistent methodological quality and results among included studies, suggests further cost-effectiveness analyses using QALYs as effect measures and a time horizon of at least 1 year. PMID:25993034

  19. UHPLC-MS/MS quantification of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, and glucuronide conjugates in umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amy Redmond; Carmical, Jennifer; Shah, Darshan; Pryor, Jason; Brown, Stacy

    2015-10-01

    Opioid use during pregnancy can result in the newborn being physically dependent on the substance, thus experiencing drug withdrawal, termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Buprenorphine and methadone are two drugs used to treat opioid withdrawal and are approved for use in pregnancy. Quantification of these compounds in umbilical cord plasma would help assess in utero exposure of neonates in cases of buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. An LC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction sample preparation was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and glucuronide metabolites in umbilical cord plasma. The average accuracy (percentage error) and precision (relative standard deviation) were <15% for each validated concentration. Our data establishes a 2 week maximum freezer storage window in order to achieve the most accurate cord plasma concentrations of these analytes. Additionally, we found that the umbilical cord tissue analysis was less sensitive compared with analysis with umbilical cord blood plasma, indicating that this may be a more appropriate matrix for determination of buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of cord blood from women with known buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. PMID:25808363

  20. Reduced fear-recognition sensitivity following acute buprenorphine administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ipser, Jonathan C; Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Phillips, Nicole; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2013-01-01

    In rodents, the endogenous opioid system has been implicated in emotion regulation, and in the reduction of fear in particular. In humans, while there is evidence that the opioid antagonist naloxone acutely enhances the acquisition of conditioned fear, there are no corresponding data on the effect of opioid agonists in moderating responses to fear. We investigated whether a single 0.2mg administration of the mu-opioid agonist buprenorphine would decrease fear sensitivity with an emotion-recognition paradigm. Healthy human subjects participated in a randomized placebo-controlled within-subject design, in which they performed a dynamic emotion recognition task 120min after administration of buprenorphine and placebo. In the recognition task, basic emotional expressions were morphed between their full expression and neutral in 2% steps, and presented as dynamic video-clips with final frames of different emotional intensity for each trial, which allows for a fine-grained measurement of emotion sensitivity. Additionally, visual analog scales were used to investigate acute effects of buprenorphine on mood. Compared to placebo, buprenorphine resulted in a significant reduction in the sensitivity for recognizing fearful facial expressions exclusively. Our data demonstrate, for the first time in humans, that acute up-regulation of the opioid system reduces fear recognition sensitivity. Moreover, the absence of an effect of buprenorphine on mood provides evidence of a direct influence of opioids upon the core fear system in the human brain. PMID:22651957

  1. Postoperative pain relief with epidural buprenorphine versus epidural butorphanol in laparoscopic hysterectomies: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Dona Elsa; Ganapathi, P.; Anish Sharma, N. G.; Shankaranarayana, P.; Aiyappa, D. S.; Nazim, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of postoperative analgesia with epidural buprenorphine and butorphanol tartrate. Methods: Sixty patients who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic hysterectomies were randomly enrolled in the study. At the end of the surgery, in study Group A 1 ml (0.3 mg) of buprenorphine and in Group B 1 ml (1 mg) of butorphanol tartrate both diluted to 10 ml with normal saline was injected through the epidural catheter. Visual analog pain scales (VAPSs) were assessed every hour till the 6th h, then 2nd hourly till the 12th h. To assess sedation, Ramsay sedation score was used. The total duration of postoperative analgesia was taken as the period from the time of giving epidural drug until the patients first complain of pain and the VAPS is more than 6. Patients were observed for any side effects such as respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, pruritus, and headache. Results: Buprenorphine had a longer duration of analgesia when compared to butorphanol tartrate (586.17 ± 73.64 vs. 342.53 ± 47.42 [P < 0.001]). Nausea, vomiting (13% vs. 10%), and headache (20% vs. 13%) were more in buprenorphine group; however, sedation score and pruritus (3% vs. 6%) were found to be more with butorphanol. Conclusion: Epidural buprenorphine significantly reduced pain and increased the quality of analgesia with a longer duration of action and was a better alternative to butorphanol for postoperative pain relief. PMID:26957696

  2. Opioid receptor imaging and displacement studies with [6-O-[11C] methyl]buprenorphine in baboon brain.

    PubMed

    Galynker, I; Schlyer, D J; Dewey, S L; Fowler, J S; Logan, J; Gatley, S J; MacGregor, R R; Ferrieri, R A; Holland, M J; Brodie, J; Simon, E; Wolf, A P

    1996-04-01

    Buprenorphine (BPN) is a mixed opiate agonist-antagonist used as an analgesic and in the treatment of opiate addiction. We have used [6-O-[11C]methyl]buprenorphine ([11C]BPN) to measure the regional distribution in baboon brain, the test-retest stability of repeated studies in the same animal, the displacement of the labeled drug by naloxone in vivo, and the tissue distribution in mice. The regional distribution of radioactivity in baboon brain determined with PET was striatum > thalamus > cingulate gyrus > frontal cortex > parietal cortex > occipital cortex > cerebellum. This distribution corresponded to opiate receptor density and to previously published data (37). The tracer uptake in adult female baboons showed no significant variation in serial scans in the same baboon with no intervention in the same scanning session. HPLC analysis of baboon plasma showed the presence of labeled metabolites with 92% +/- 2.2% and 43% +/- 14.4% of the intact tracer remaining at 5 and 30 min, respectively. Naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist, administered 30-40 min after tracer injection at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg i.v., reduced [11C]BPN binding in thalamus, striatum, cingulate gyrus, and frontal cortex to values 0.25 to 0.60 of that with no intervention. There were minimal (< 15%) effects on cerebellum. Naloxone treatment significantly reduced the slope of the Patlak plot in receptor-containing regions. These results demonstrate that [11C]BPN can be displaced by naloxone in vivo, and they affirm the feasibility of using this tracer and displacement methodology for short-term kinetics studies with PET. Mouse tissue distribution data were used to estimate the radiation dosimetry to humans. The critical organ was the small intestine, with a radiation dose estimate to humans of 117 nrad/mCi. PMID:8782244

  3. The effectiveness of a long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution compared to buprenorphine for the control of postoperative pain in dogs in a randomized, multicentered clinical study.

    PubMed

    Linton, D D; Wilson, M G; Newbound, G C; Freise, K J; Clark, T P

    2012-08-01

    A prospective, double-blinded, positive-controlled, multicenter, noninferiority clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution (TFS) for the control of postoperative pain. Four hundred forty-five client-owned dogs of various breeds were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of TFS (2.6 mg/kg [∼50 μL/kg]) (N = 223) applied 2-4 h prior to surgery or buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) (N = 222) administered intramuscularly 2-4 h prior to surgery and every 6 h through 90 h. There were 159 (35.7%) males and 286 (64.3%) females ranging from 0.5 to 16 years of age and 3 to 98.5 kg enrolled. Pain was scored using the modified Glasgow Composite Pain Scale with an a priori dropout criteria of ≥ 8 (20 maximum score). The one-sided upper 95% confidence interval of the mean difference between fentanyl and buprenorphine treatment failures was 5.6%, which was not greater than the a priori selected margin difference of 15%. Adverse events attributed to either treatment were minimal in impact and were approximately equal between groups. Sustained plasma fentanyl concentrations provided by a single pre-emptive dose of TFS are safe and effective and are noninferior to repeated injections of buprenorphine in controlling postoperative pain over 4 days. This long-acting fentanyl formulation provides veterinarians with a novel, registered option for the control of postoperative pain in dogs that improves dosing compliance and potentially mitigates the disadvantages of oral, parenteral, and patch delivered opioids. PMID:22731776

  4. Clinical Efficacy of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine with Meloxicam for Postoperative Analgesia in Beagle Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Wilsey, Amanda S; Jenkins, Gary J; Medina, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and plasma buprenorphine concentrations of sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and buprenorphine after subcutaneous administration in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, randomized, blinded design, 20 healthy adult female Beagle dogs underwent routine ovariohysterectomy and received multimodal analgesia consisting of meloxicam and one of two buprenorphine formulations. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either SRB (0.2 mg/kg SC, once) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d). Blinded observers assessed all dogs by using sedation scores, pain scores, temperature, HR, RR, and general wellbeing. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine SC if the postoperative pain score exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Tukey–Kramer multiple comparison. Age, body weight, anesthetic duration, surgical duration, sevoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between groups. Dogs in both formulation groups had comparable postoperative sedation and pain scores. One dog from each formulation group had breakthrough pain requiring rescue analgesia. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations remained above a hypothesized therapeutic concentration of 0.6 ng/mL for 136.0 ± 11.3 and 10.67 ± 0.84 h for SRB and buprenorphine, respectively. Based on the results of this study, multimodal analgesic regimens consisting of meloxicam and either buprenorphine or SRB are equally efficacious in managing pain associated with an ovariohysterectomy and show comparable side effects. PMID:25255072

  5. Use of an Acetyl Derivative to Improve GC-MS Determination of Norbuprenorphine in the Presence of High Concentrations of Buprenorphine in Urine.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Joel R; Hobbs, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    Certain patients being treated with Suboxone™ or Subutex™ can exhibit very high buprenorphine and low norbuprenorphine concentrations in urine. Very high buprenorphine can interfere with buprenorphine-D4 used as an internal standard, causing errors in norbuprenorphine determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We used a modified method of Wu et al. to introduce norbuprenorphine-D3 as a separate internal standard for norbuprenorphine. This allowed us to accurately measure norbuprenorphine in neat urine specimens when buprenorphine is present in extremely high concentrations. Laboratories measuring buprenorphine and metabolite by GC-MS may face this problem if their clientele includes patients being treated with other medications that interfere with the cytochrome p450 CYP 3A4-mediated conversion of buprenorphine to norbuprenorphine. PMID:26811236

  6. Effects of Indomethacin and Buprenorphine Analgesia on the Postoperative Recovery of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blaha, Michael D; Leon, Lisa R

    2008-01-01

    Buprenorphine (Bup) is the most commonly used analgesic in mice, yet few objective assessments address its superiority for postsurgical recovery. In mice, IP implantation of a radiotelemetry device induces decreases in body weight (BW), food and water intake (FI, WI), core temperature (Tc), and activity levels that persist approximately 14 d in the absence of analgesia. To compare the efficacy of Bup with that of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug indomethacin (Indo) for postsurgical recovery, male C57BL/6J mice were treated on the day of radiotelemetry implantation with Bup (0.3 mg/kg SC) or Indo (1 mg/kg SC) followed by treatment with Indo (1 mg/kg PO) on the next day (Bup–Indo versus Indo–Indo). Responses were compared between treatments in mice implanted with a radiotelemetry device and those that did not undergo surgery. Changes in BW, FI, WI, Tc, and activity were examined throughout 14 d of recovery. Indo–Indo was more efficacious in inhibiting postsurgical BW, FI, and WI reductions, compared with Bup–Indo. Bup also reduced BW and FI in the absence of surgery, indicating a nonspecific effect of this drug on these variables. Indo–Indo treatment was associated with higher activity levels during lights-on–to–lights-off transition periods compared with that observed with Bup–Indo. According to 5 objective measures of surgical recovery, our data suggest that Indo–Indo treatment is more efficacious than is Bup–Indo for postsurgical recovery of radiotelemetry-implanted mice. PMID:18702446

  7. Effects of Buprenorphine on Behavioral Tests for Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Drugs in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Falcon, Edgardo; Maier, Kaitlyn; Robinson, Shivon A.; Hill-Smith, Tiffany E.; Lucki, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Buprenorphine (BPN) has been shown to rapidly improve mood in treatment-resistant depressed patients in small clinical studies. However, BPN’s effects in preclinical tests for mood and antidepressant efficacy are largely unexplored. Objective The current study examined the effects of BPN in the forced swim test (FST) and novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test as measures of antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in C57BL/6J mice. Microdialysis was used to measure whether BPN engaged KORs in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) at a behaviorally active dose (0.25 mg/kg). Methods BPN was tested in the FST at both 30 min and 24 h post administration. Also measured in the FST at 24 h post administration were the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), the MOR agonist morphine and the reference antidepressant desipramine. The anxiolytic effects of BPN were examined in the NIH test 24 h after treatment. The effects of acute injection of BPN and the KOR agonist U50,488 were measured on extracellular DA levels in the NAcSh. Results BPN produced significant reductions in FST immobility without changing locomotor activity and reduced approach latencies in the novel environment of the NIH test when tested 24 h after treatment. Repeated daily BPN injections for 6 d did not produce tolerance to these behavioral effects. nor-BNI produced a similar antidepressant-like response in the FST 24 h postinjection but morphine and desipramine were ineffective. BPN (0.25 mg/kg) did not alter DA levels when given alone but prevented the KOR agonist U50,488 from reducing DA levels. Conclusions Acute and subchronic treatment with BPN produced antidepressant and anxiolytic-like responses in mice at doses that engage KORs. These studies support the clinical evidence that BPN may be a novel rapid-acting antidepressant medication and provides rodent models for investigating associated neurochemical mechanisms. PMID:25178815

  8. Public managed care and service access in outpatient substance abuse treatment units.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-01

    The continued growth of public managed behavioral health care has raised concerns about possible effects on services provided. This study uses a national sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment units surveyed in 2005 to examine associations between public managed care and service access, measured as both the types of services provided and the amount of treatment received by clients. The percentage of clients funded through public managed care versus other types of public funding was positively associated with treatment units' odds of providing some types of resource-intensive services and with the odds of providing transportation to clients, but was negatively associated with the average number of individual therapy sessions clients received over the course of treatment. In general, public managed care does not appear to restrict access to outpatient substance abuse treatment, although states should monitor these contracts to ensure clients receive adequate courses of individual treatment. PMID:21184286

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of older adults with depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Unützer, Jürgen

    2002-08-01

    This article provides an overview of current challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of depressed older adults in primary care and considers suggestions for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to improve care for this population. Despite the enormous toll of depression on individuals and society and the availability of effective treatments, depressed older adults remain largely untreated or undertreated. They rarely see mental health professionals, but have relatively frequent contact with primary care providers. In primary care, the chronic and recurrent nature of depression and a number of patient, provider, and policy-related barriers interfere with effective depression treatment. Recent research suggests that improving care for individuals with late life depression will require education and engagement of older adults and their primary care providers as active partners in caring for depression. It will also require additional human resources and systematic models of care dedicated to proactively managing depression as a chronic illness. Finally, it will require training of mental health professionals to effectively collaborate with their colleagues in primary care in treating depressed older adults. Further improvement in depression care would likely result from the implementation of true parity for mental health treatments for older adults. PMID:12182933

  10. [Nursing care systematization for outpatient treatment care of patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Corso, Nair Assunta Antônia; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Dalmeida, Patrícia Chagas Rocha; Albuquerque, Maria Girlene de Freitas

    2013-06-01

    An experience report of nurses in the implementation of care systematization in ambulatory care in an interdisciplinary care center for patients with multiple sclerosis of a public hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. This implementation is based on the NANDA International, Inc., Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcomes Classifications. One of the results concerns systemized nursing care, which has enabled the identification and understanding of the responses of MS patients to potential and current health problems. Systematization entails expanding knowledge through a practice based on approach and encourage further research scientific evidence, in addition to promoting the role of the nurse in acomprehensive approachand encourage further research. PMID:24601156

  11. The treatment of type II diabetes in Texas. Current issues for managed care and employers.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A

    1997-03-01

    In 1995, a forum was held in Dallas, Texas, to discuss the current state of treatment for type II diabetes and the issues facing managed care organizations (MCOs) and employers. Attendees included representatives from the American Diabetes Association (ADA), diabetologists, medical directors from leading MCOs in the area, benefits managers and employee representatives from large corporations in the region, diabetes educators, and a range of health care personnel directly involved in the care and treatment of patients with type II diabetes. The objectives of the forum were to discuss the state of diabetes treatment from the perspectives of MCOs and employers, to create a better understanding of the issues in treating diabetic patients, and to reach a consensus on the standards of care and the treatment guidelines for managed care patients with diabetes. Several needs were agreed on and identified by the attendees, including the need to develop minimum standards of care for the management of diabetes care, to improve patient and physician education programs and the communication between MCOs and employers, to acquire more sophisticated outcomes data, to pursue aggressive treatment of hyperglycemia, to increase emphasis on managing care to achieve long-term cost savings, and to stress greater patient responsibility for their own care. PMID:9051403

  12. Use of Pharmacotherapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders and Opioid Dependence in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F.; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

  13. Use of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H Westley

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

  14. Race and Beliefs about Mental Health Treatment Among Anxious Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Justin; Sullivan, Greer; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.; Craske, Michelle G.; Golinelli, Daniella; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Sherbourne, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Large racial disparities in the utilization of mental health care persist. Differences in treatment preferences could partially explain the differences in care between minority and non-minority populations. We compared beliefs about mental illness and treatment preferences among adult African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and whites, with diagnosed anxiety disorders. Measures of beliefs about mental illness and treatment were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and from our previous work. There were no significant differences between African-Americans’ and whites’ beliefs. Hispanics’ and Native Americans’ beliefs were most distinctive, but the differences were small in magnitude. Across race/ethnicity, the associations between beliefs and service use were generally weak and statistically insignificant. Differences in illness beliefs and treatment preferences do not fully explain the large, persistent racial disparities in mental health care. Other crucial barriers to quality care exist in our health care system and our society as a whole. PMID:23407203

  15. What Works in Group Care? – A Structured Review of Treatment Models for Group Homes and Residential Care

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a structured review of treatment models that are relevant to group care and residential treatment settings for children involved with the child welfare system. Initiated and guided by The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, five treatment models – Positive Peer Culture, Teaching Family Model, Sanctuary Model, Stop-Gap Model, and Re-ED – were reviewed for effectiveness. In this paper, each model s treatment features are described and relevant outcome studies reviewed in terms of their effectiveness as well as relevance for child welfare practice. Findings indicate that four of the models are either supported or promising in terms of evidence for effectiveness. Implications for group care practice and research are discussed. PMID:22468014

  16. Development of sensitization to methamphetamine in offspring prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone and buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang

    2014-07-01

    Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is lack of information on the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring showed a marked change in the cross-tolerance to morphine compared with other groups. In the current study, this animal model was used to study effects of methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization in the offspring at their adulthood. The results showed no differences in either basal or acute METH-induced locomotor activity in any of the groups of animals tested. When male offspring received METH injections of 2 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 5 days, behavioral sensitization was induced, as determined by motor activity. Furthermore, the distance and rate of development (slope) of locomotor activity and conditioned place preference induced by METH were significantly increased in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed animals compared with those in other groups. The dopamine D1 R in the nucleus accumbens of the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring had lower mRNA expression; but no significant changes in the μ-, κ-opioid, nociceptin, D2 R and D3 R receptors were noted. Furthermore, significant alterations were observed in the basal level of cAMP and the D1 R agonist enhanced adenylyl cyclase activity in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed group. Overall, the study demonstrates that D1 R and its downregulated cAMP signals are involved in enhancing METH-induced behavioral sensitization in prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. The study reveals that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused long-term effects on offspring and affected the dopaminergic system-related reward mechanism. PMID:23551991

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Sustained-Release and Transdermal Buprenorphine in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Allison J; Garcia, Kelly D; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Jenkins, Gary J; Nunamaker, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The opioid buprenorphine has been shown to provide adequate postoperative analgesia in both companion and laboratory animals. However, its use is still hindered by the need for multiple parenteral injections to achieve continuous analgesia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pharmacokinetic analysis of 2 new long-acting formulations of buprenorphine—an injectable sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and a transdermal buprenorphine (TDB) patch—in healthy Göttingen minipigs by using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of 0.18 mg/kg SC SRB and 30 μg/h TDB achieved AUC0-Tlast of 221.6 ± 26.8 and 25.2 ± 3.9 ng × h/mL, respectively, compared with 9.7 ± 1.4 ng*h/mL for 0.02 mg/kg IV buprenorphine. By using a hypothesized therapeutic plasma buprenorphine concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL, therapeutic concentrations were achieved at the first study time point (5 to 30 min) and lasted an average of 8.0 ± 1.3 h for intravenous buprenorphine and 264.0 ± 32.2 h for SRB. TDB achieved therapeutic concentrations in 12 to 24 h after patch application, which lasted until the patch was removed at 72 h. The results of this study suggest that SRB and TDB are long-acting alternatives for pain management, and their use could decrease animal handling and stress, thereby simplifying pain management and improving welfare in laboratory swine. PMID:25650977

  18. Post-operative Analgesia in Opioid Dependent Patients: Comparison of Intravenous Morphine and Sublingual Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Shaabanali; Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Sadeghi-Sedeh, Bahman; Behzadi, Reza; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute and chronic pain is prevalent in patients with opioid dependence. Lack of knowledge concerning the complex relationship between pain, opioid use, and withdrawal syndrome can account for the barriers encountered for pain management. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sublingual (SL) buprenorphine for post-operative analgesia, compared with intravenous (IV) morphine. Methods A total of 68 patients, aged 20-60 years were randomly selected from whom had been underwent laparotomy due to acute abdomen in a University Teaching Hospital in Arak, Iran, and were also opioid (opium or heroin) abuser according to their history. After end of the surgery and patients’ arousal, the patients were evaluated for abdominal pain and withdrawal syndrome by visual analog scale (VAS) and clinical opioid withdrawal score (COWS), respectively 1, 6, and 24 h after the surgery. They received either morphine 5 mg IV or buprenorphine 2 mg SL, 1 h after end of the surgery, and then every 6 h for 24 h. Findings VAS was 4.47 ± 0.73 and 2.67 ± 0.53 at h 6 and 24 in buprenorphine group, respectively. The corresponding score was 5.88 ± 0.69 and 4.59 ± 0.74 in morphine group. At the same time, patients in buprenorphine experienced less severe withdrawal syndrome. Conclusion The present study confirmed the efficacy of SL buprenorphine as a non-invasive, but effective method for management of post-operative pain in opioid dependent patients. Result of this study showed that physicians can rely on SL buprenorphine for post-operative analgesia. PMID:26322212

  19. Care transitions between hospitals are associated with treatment delay for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J.; Handorf, Elizabeth; Corcoran, Anthony T.; Wong, Yu-Ning; Mehrazin, Reza; Bekelman, Justin E.; Canter, Daniel; Kutikov, Alexander; Chen, David Y.T.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Smaldone, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothesizing that changing hospitals between diagnosis and definitive therapy (care transition) may delay timely treatment, our objective was to identify the association between care transitions and treatment delay ≥3 months in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Methods Using the National Cancer Database, all patients with stage ≥II urothelial carcinoma treated from 2003–2010 were identified. A care transition was defined as a change in hospital from diagnosis to definitive course of treatment (diagnosis to RC or start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Logistic regression models were used to test the association between care transition and treatment delay. Results Of 22,251 patients, 14.2% experienced a treatment delay of ≥3 months, and this proportion increased over time (13.5% [2003–2006] versus 14.8% [2007–2010], p=0.01). 19.4% of patients undergoing a care transition experienced a delay to definitive treatment compared to 10.7% of patients diagnosed and treated at the same hospital (p<0.001). The proportion of patients experiencing a care transition increased over the study period (37.4% [2003–2006] versus 42.3% [2007–2010], p<0.001). Following adjustment, patients were more likely to experience a treatment delay when undergoing a care transition (OR 2.0 [CI 1.8–2.2]). Conclusions Patients with MIBC who underwent a care transition were more likely to experience a treatment delay of ≥3 months. Strategies to expedite care transitions at the time of hospital referral may be a means to improve quality of care. PMID:24835054

  20. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05) there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses. PMID:26257480

  1. Extended release naltrexone injection is performed in the majority of opioid dependent patients receiving outpatient induction: a very low dose naltrexone and buprenorphine open label trial

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, Paolo; Wu, Li-Tzy; Peindl, Kathleen S.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Woody, George E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The approval of extended release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol®) has introduced a new option for treating opioid addiction, but studies are needed to identify its place within the spectrum of available therapies. The absence of physiological opioid dependence is a necessary and challenging first step for starting XR-NTX. Outpatient detoxification gives poor results and inpatient detoxification is either unavailable or too brief for the physiological effects of opioids to resolve. Here we present findings from an open label study that tested whether the transition from opioid addiction to XR-NTX can be safely and effectively performed in an outpatient setting using very low dose naltrexone and buprenorphine. METHODS Twenty treatment seeking opioid addicted individuals were given increasing doses of naltrexone starting at 0.25 mg with decreasing doses of buprenorphine starting at 4 mg during a 7-day outpatient XR-NTX induction procedure. Withdrawal discomfort, craving, drug use, and adverse events were assessed daily until the XR-NTX injection, then weekly over the next month. RESULTS Fourteen of the 20 participants received XR-NTX and 13 completed weekly assessments. Withdrawal, craving, and opioid or other drug use were significantly lower during induction and after XR-NTX administration compared with baseline, and no serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS Outpatient transition to XR-NTX combining upward titration of very low dose naltrexone with downward titration of low dose buprenorphine was safe, well tolerated, and completed by most participants. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to see if this approach is useful for naltrexone induction. PMID:24602363

  2. HIV Risk Reduction With Buprenorphine-Naloxone or Methadone: Findings From A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woody, George; Bruce, Douglas; Korthuis, P. Todd; Chhatre, Sumedha; Hillhouse, Maureen; Jacobs, Petra; Sorensen, James; Saxon, Andrew J.; Metzger, David; Ling, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compare HIV injecting and sex risk in patients being treated with methadone (MET) or buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP). Methods Secondary analysis from a study of liver enzyme changes in patients randomized to MET or BUP who completed 24-weeks of treatment and had 4 or more blood draws. The initial 1:1 randomization was changed to 2:1 (BUP: MET) after 18 months due to higher dropout in BUP. The Risk Behavior Survey (RBS) measured past 30-day HIV risk at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Results Among 529 patients randomized to MET, 391 (74%) were completers; among 740 randomized to BUP, 340 (46%) were completers; 700 completed the RBS. There were significant reductions in injecting risk (p< 0.0008) with no differences between groups in mean number of times reported injecting heroin, speedball, other opiates, and number of injections; or percent who shared needles, did not clean shared needles with bleach, shared cookers, or engaged in front/back loading of syringes. The percent having multiple sex partners decreased equally in both groups (p<0.03). For males on BUP the sex risk composite increased; for males on MET, the sex risk decreased resulting in significant group differences over time (p<0.03). For females, there was a significant reduction in sex risk (p<0.02) with no group differences. Conclusions Among MET and BUP patients that remained in treatment, HIV injecting risk was equally and markedly reduced, however MET retained more patients. Sex risk was equally and significantly reduced among females in both treatment conditions, but increased for males on BUP, and decreased for males on MET. PMID:24751432

  3. Enhancement of tolerance development to morphine in rats prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Abuse of addictive substances is a serious problem that has a significant impact on areas such as health, the economy, and public safety. Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is a lack of information on effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. In this study, an animal model was established to study effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on offspring. Methods Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were sub-grouped to receive (1) vehicle, (2) 2-4 mg/kg morphine (1 mg/kg increment per week), (3) 7 mg/kg methadone, and (4) 3 mg/kg buprenorphine, subcutaneously, once or twice a day from E3 to E20. The experiments were conducted on animals 8-12 weeks old and with body weight between 250 and 350 g. Results Results showed that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused higher mortality than other tested substance groups. Although we observed a significantly lower increase in body weight in all of the opioid-administered dams, the birth weight of the offspring was not altered in all treated groups. Moreover, no obvious behavioral abnormality or body-weight difference was noted during the growing period (8-12 weeks) in all offspring. When the male offspring received morphine injection twice a day for 4 days, the prenatally opioid-exposed rats more quickly developed a tolerance to morphine (as shown by the tail-flick tests), most notably the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. However, the tolerance development to methadone or buprenorphine was not different in offspring exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine, respectively, when compared with that of the vehicle controlled group. Similar results were also obtained in the female animals. Conclusions Animals prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone, or buprenorphine developed tolerance to morphine faster than their controlled mates. In our animal model, prenatal exposure to buprenorphine also resulted in higher mortality and much less sensitivity to morphine-induced antinociception than prenatal exposure to morphine or methadone. This indicates that buprenorphine in higher doses may not be an ideal maintenance drug for treating pregnant women. This study provides a reference in selecting doses for clinical usage in treating pregnant heroin addicts. PMID:20529288

  4. Assessing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Treatment across Episodes of Mental Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Carson, Nicholas; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Vesper, Andrew; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate disparities in mental health care episodes, aligning our analyses with decisions to start or drop treatment, and choices made during treatment. Study DesignWe analyzed whites, blacks, and Latinos with probable mental illness from Panels 9–13 of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, assessing disparities at the beginning, middle, and end of episodes of care (initiation, adequate care, having an episode with only psychotropic drug fills, intensity of care, the mixture of primary care provider (PCP) and specialist visits, use of acute psychiatric care, and termination). FindingsCompared with whites, blacks and Latinos had less initiation and adequacy of care. Black and Latino episodes were shorter and had fewer psychotropic drug fills. Black episodes had a greater proportion of specialist visits and Latino episodes had a greater proportion of PCP visits. Blacks were more likely to have an episode with acute psychiatric care. ConclusionsDisparities in adequate care were driven by initiation disparities, reinforcing the need for policies that improve access. Many episodes were characterized only by psychotropic drug fills, suggesting inadequate medication guidance. Blacks’ higher rate of specialist use contradicts previous studies and deserves future investigation. Blacks’ greater acute mental health care use raises concerns over monitoring of their treatment. PMID:23855750

  5. TRICARE; coverage of care related to non-covered initial surgery or treatment. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-31

    This final rule revises the limitations on certain TRICARE basic program benefits. More specifically, it allows coverage for otherwise covered services and supplies required in the treatment of complications (unfortunate sequelae), as well as medically necessary and appropriate follow-on care, resulting from a non-covered incident of treatment provided pursuant to a properly granted Supplemental Health Care Program waiver. This final rule amends two provisions of the TRICARE regulations which limits coverage for the treatment of complications resulting from a non-covered incident of treatment, and which expressly excludes from coverage in the Basic Program services and supplies related to a non-covered condition or treatment. PMID:25562894

  6. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Panic Disorder versus Treatment as Usual in a Managed Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addis, Michael E.; Hatgis, Christina; Krasnow, Aaron D.; Jacob, Karen; Bourne, Leslie; Mansfield, Abigail

    2004-01-01

    Eighty clients enrolled in a managed care health plan who identified panic disorder as their primary presenting problem were randomly assigned to treatment by a therapist recently trained in a manual-based empirically supported psychotherapy (M. G. Craske, E. Meadows, & D. H. Barlow, 1994) or a therapist conducting treatment as usual (TAU).…

  7. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Panic Disorder versus Treatment as Usual in a Managed Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addis, Michael E.; Hatgis, Christina; Krasnow, Aaron D.; Jacob, Karen; Bourne, Leslie; Mansfield, Abigail

    2004-01-01

    Eighty clients enrolled in a managed care health plan who identified panic disorder as their primary presenting problem were randomly assigned to treatment by a therapist recently trained in a manual-based empirically supported psychotherapy (M. G. Craske, E. Meadows, & D. H. Barlow, 1994) or a therapist conducting treatment as usual (TAU).

  8. Increasing Potential Access to Opioid Agonist Treatment in U.S. Treatment Shortage Areas

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Andrew W.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Gordon, Adam J.; Sorbero, Mark; Burns, Rachel M.; Leslie, Douglas L.; Stein, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid use disorders are a significant public health problem, affecting over 2 million individuals in the US. Although opioid agonist treatment, predominantly offered in licensed methadone clinics, is both effective and cost-effective, many individuals do not receive it. Buprenorphine, approved in 2002 for prescription by waivered physicians, could improve opioid agonist treatment access for individuals unable or unwilling to receive methadone. We examine the extent to which the geographic distribution of waivered physicians has enhanced potential opioid agonist treatment access, particularly in non-metropolitan areas with fewer methadone clinics. We found that while the approximately 90% of counties classified as methadone clinic shortage areas remained constant, buprenorphine shortage areas fell from 99% of counties in 2002 to 51% in 2011, lowering the US population percentage residing in opioid treatment shortage counties to approximately 10%. The increase in buprenorphine-waivered physicians has dramatically increased potential access to opioid agonist treatment, especially in non-metropolitan counties. PMID:26056209

  9. Patient Perspectives on Tobacco Use Treatment in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Maihan; Ripley-Moffitt, Carol; Gupta, Sachin K.; O’Meara, Christine; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions increase quit rates, yet most smokers do not use them. Every primary care visit offers the potential to discuss such options, but communication can be tricky for patients and provider alike. We explored smokers’ personal interactions with health care providers to better understand what it is like to be a smoker in an increasingly smoke-free era and the resources needed to support quit attempts and to better define important patient-centered outcomes. Methods Three 90-minute focus groups, involving 33 patients from 3 primary care clinics, were conducted. Participants were current or recent (having quit within 6 months) smokers. Topics included tobacco use, quit attempts, and interactions with providers, followed by more pointed questions exploring actions patients want from providers and outcome measures that would be meaningful to patients. Results Four themes were identified through inductive coding techniques: 1) the experience of being a tobacco user (inconvenience, shame, isolation, risks, and benefits), 2) the medical encounter (expectations of providers, trust and respect, and positive, targeted messaging), 3) high-value actions (consistent dialogue, the addiction model, point-of-care nicotine patches, educational materials, carbon monoxide monitoring, and infrastructure), and 4) patient-centered outcomes. Conclusion Engaged patient-centered smoking cessation counseling requires seeking the patient voice early in the process. Participants desired honest, consistent, and pro-active discussions and actions. Participants also suggested creative patient-centered outcome measures to consider in future research. PMID:25654219

  10. Antidepressant-like effects of buprenorphine in rats are strain dependent.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; van Nest, Duncan S; Lucki, Irwin

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder and the limited efficacy of conventional drug treatments provide significant impetus to develop novel and more rapidly acting antidepressants for individuals with treatment resistant forms of depression. The primary goal of these studies was to ascertain whether buprenorphine (BPN), a medically available drug with mixed effects at opioid receptors, was effective in behavioral tests using the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a rodent model of exaggerated depressive and anxiety behaviors that demonstrates resistance to certain antidepressants. As WKY rats are maintained by different sources, we assessed the behavioral effects of BPN using the modified rat forced swim test (FST) and the emergence test in WKY rat colonies obtained from different vendors. BPN dose-dependently reduced immobility and increased swimming behavior in the FST and reduced emergence latencies in two WKY lines (Charles River (WKY/NCrl) and Harlan laboratories (WKY/NHsd)) that also showed high baseline immobility in the FST. WKY rats from Taconic (WKY/NTac) did not show high baseline immobility in the FST or anxiety as had been previously reported, suggesting a drift in the phenotype of rats from this supplier. Furthermore, BPN did not reduce immobility in the FST or reduce latencies in the emergence test in WKY rats from Taconic. BPN also failed to produce antidepressant-like effects in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. These results indicate a striking strain-selectivity for the effects of BPN, producing antidepressant and anxiolytic-like responses in WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd lines but not in the normosensitive control Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains. PMID:25453747

  11. Residential Treatment of Substance Abusing Adolescents: Trends in the Post-Managed Care Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Ellis, Rodney A.; Cooper, Lyle

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores historical and recent trends in the delivery of residential adolescent substance abuse treatment, looking specifically at the impact of managed care on the service delivery system. Three historical eras are conceptualized by the authors: (1) an era prior to managed care in which services were provided on a fee for service basis…

  12. Treatment Foster Care for Improving Outcomes in Children and Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, William; Macdonald, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of treatment foster care (TFC) on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes, delinquency, placement stability, and discharge status for children and adolescents who, for reasons of severe medical, social, psychological and behavioural problems, were placed in out-of-home care in restrictive settings or at risk of…

  13. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction: the process of care model.

    PubMed

    Padma-Nathan, H; Forrest, C

    2000-06-01

    The new era of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicine ushered in by the availability of an effective and safe oral medication paves the way toward managing ED in a primary care setting. The Process of Care Model for the Evaluation and Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction was developed to advance new guidelines for the diagnosis and management of ED. This paper discusses these guidelines. PMID:10885001

  15. Gagging and Associations with Dental Care-Related Fear, Fear of Pain, and Beliefs about Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Cameron L.; Shulman, Grant P.; Crout, Richard J.; McNeil, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gagging is a behavioral response that interferes with oral health care and has been suggested to relate to dental care-related fear. Little is known, however, about the epidemiology of gagging during dental treatment. Methods To explore this phenomenon, 478 participants were recruited from the waiting area of an oral diagnosis clinic. Participants completed the Dental Fear Survey, the Short Form-Fear of Pain Questionnaire, Dental Beliefs Scale, and a demographics questionnaire that included items about problems with gagging. Results Over half of the participants reported gagging on at least one occasion during dental visits, with 7.5% almost always, or always gagging. With higher frequency of problems with gagging, patients were more likely to have greater levels of dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and more negative beliefs of dental professionals and dental treatment. Further, participants who gagged more readily had greater dental care-related fear than other gaggers. Conclusion Gagging in the dental clinic is a prevalent problem, and dental care-related fear and fear of pain are associated with more frequent gagging. Clinical Implications Given the prevalence of patients reporting problem gagging, it may be helpful for providers to assess for this barrier to treatment. By targeting dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and negative beliefs about dental care in patients who often gag in the clinic, gagging may be reduced in frequency or intensity, potentially making treatment more comfortable for patients and easier for dental care providers. PMID:24789238

  16. Electronic health records: essential tools in integrating substance abuse treatment with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Betty; Wu, Li-Tzy; Clark, H Westley

    2012-01-01

    While substance use problems are considered to be common in medical settings, they are not systematically assessed and diagnosed for treatment management. Research data suggest that the majority of individuals with a substance use disorder either do not use treatment or delay treatment-seeking for over a decade. The separation of substance abuse services from mainstream medical care and a lack of preventive services for substance abuse in primary care can contribute to under-detection of substance use problems. When fully enacted in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 will address these barriers by supporting preventive services for substance abuse (screening, counseling) and integration of substance abuse care with primary care. One key factor that can help to achieve this goal is to incorporate the standardized screeners or common data elements for substance use and related disorders into the electronic health records (EHR) system in the health care setting. Incentives for care providers to adopt an EHR system for meaningful use are part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 2009. This commentary focuses on recent evidence about routine screening and intervention for alcohol/drug use and related disorders in primary care. Federal efforts in developing common data elements for use as screeners for substance use and related disorders are described. A pressing need for empirical data on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for drug-related disorders to inform SBIRT and related EHR efforts is highlighted. PMID:24474861

  17. Oral health status, dental treatment needs, and barriers to dental care of elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gaszynska, Ewelina; Szatko, Franciszek; Godala, Malgorzata; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine oral health status, dental treatment needs, and to identify barriers that prevent easy access to dental care by elderly care home residents in Lodz. Background Studies in many countries show that oral health status of elderly care home residents is poor and there is an urgent need to improve it. Methods The study included 259 care home residents, aged 65 years and older. The oral examination was performed. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked about frequency of cleaning teeth and/or dentures, whether they needed assistance, and whether the assistance was available; they were also asked about the perceived dental needs, and about the time since their last visit to a dentist and the purpose of the visit. If they had not visited the dentist in the past 12 months, they were asked about reasons for failing to visit the dentist. Results Forty-six percent of the subjects were edentulous. Only 5.8% of all participants had a sufficient number of functional natural teeth. Dental treatment was found to be necessary in 59.8% of the respondents. One in four subjects reported reduced ability of correctly cleaning teeth and dentures themselves, of whom only one-third were helped by others. An insufficient level of hygiene was found in every other subject. About 42% of residents had not visited a dentist for over 5 years, mainly due to organizational reasons. Conclusion Expanding the current scope of medical care for the elderly care home residents to include dental care would improve their currently poor oral health status. PMID:25284997

  18. Problem-solving treatment and coping styles in primary care for minor depression.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Thomas E; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Dietrich, Allen J

    2008-12-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care clinics. Those subjects who were eligible were randomized (N = 151), and 107 subjects completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 usual care) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis with linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping, such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC. PMID:19045962

  19. Psychological treatment of depression in primary care: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; van Schaik, Anneke; Andersson, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Although most depressive disorders are treated in primary care and several studies have examined the effects of psychological treatment in primary care, hardly any meta-analytic research has been conducted in which the results of these studies are integrated. Aim To integrate the results of randomised controlled trials of psychological treatment of depression in adults in primary care, and to compare these results to psychological treatments in other settings. Design of study A meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of psychological treatments of adult depression in primary care. Setting Primary care. Method An existing database of studies on psychological treatments of adult depression that was built on systematic searches in PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Dissertation Abstracts International was used. Randomised trials were included in which the effects of psychological treatments on adult primary care patients with depression were compared to a control condition. Results In the 15 included studies, the standardised mean effect size of psychological treatment versus control groups was 0.31 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.45), which corresponds with a numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) of 5.75. Studies in which patients were referred by their GP for treatment had significantly higher effect sizes (d = 0.43; NNT = 4.20) than studies in which patients were recruited through systematic screening (d = 0.13, not significantly different from zero; NNT = 13.51). Conclusions Although the number of studies was relatively low and the quality varied, psychological treatment of depression was found to be effective in primary care, especially when GPs refer patients with depression for treatment. PMID:19192368

  20. Using a best practice approach to prevent treatment interference in critical care.

    PubMed

    Happ, M B

    2000-01-01

    Treatment interference, also known as therapy disruption, device disruption, or self extubation, is a common and especially difficult clinical problem in critical care. This paper presents creative and practical clinical innovations and relevant research findings as a "best practice approach" to prevent treatment interference in critical care settings. Key principles are presented to guide patient assessment and selection of nursing strategies. Nursing assessment parameters are described and a wide range of nonrestraint strategies are discussed. PMID:10804596

  1. Treatment of sepsis in the surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Carney, Daniel E; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Frankel, Heidi L

    2011-11-01

    Since the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines (SSG) were published in 2004, critical care physicians can readily access the evidence and current recommendations regarding management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However, several issues including a potential conflict of interest in developing the guidelines were disclosed. There have also been dramatic changes in the management of sepsis, supported by high levels of evidence. SSG 2008 was developed to update the evidence using a new grading system. We reviewed select topics, routinely addressed by intensivists in the surgical intensive care unit, that have changed between SSG 2004 and SSG 2008: namely, glucose control, and administration of steroids, recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) and total parenteral nutrition. PMID:22279706

  2. Treatment of acute burn blisters in unscheduled care settings.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sarah; Cole, Elaine

    2012-09-01

    Many patients with minor burns present at emergency departments and urgent care centres, where their management is often undertaken by experienced nurses rather than experts in treating burns. This article describes a small study of the clinical decision making that underpins nurses' management of minor burns in these non-specialist settings. The results suggest that, due to a lack of relevant research, nurses base their decisions on previous experience or expert colleagues' opinions and advice rather than on the evidence. PMID:23256353

  3. Supportive Care Treatment Guidelines: Value, Limitations, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Douglas E.; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Lalla, Rajesh V.; McGuire, Deborah B.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines in clinical oncology practice are now prominent, with emphasis on clinical, health outcome and economic perspectives. Given the complexity of cancer management, a multidisciplinary approach is essential. Evidence-based guidelines to address supportive cancer care have merged expert opinion, systematic evaluation of clinical and research data, and meta-analyses of clinical trials. Production of supportive care guidelines by the interdisciplinary team is dependent on sufficient high-quality research studies. Once published, it is essential they be customized at institutional and national levels. Implementation in clinical practice is perhaps the greatest challenge. Optimal management occurs through integration of country-specific issues, including care access, healthcare resources, information technology, and national coordination of healthcare practices. The purpose of this article is to: (1) provide an overview of interdisciplinary cancer management using evidence-based guidelines; (2) delineate the theory and practice of guideline dissemination, utilization and outcome assessment; and (3) recommend future research strategies to maximize guidelines use in clinical practice. PMID:21600365

  4. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a novel sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablet formulation in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Hjelmström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context Bitter taste, as well as dissolve time, presents a significant challenge for the acceptability of formulations for oral transmucosal drug delivery. Objective To characterize a novel sublingual tablet formulation of buprenorphine/naloxone with regards to pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and formulation acceptability. Methods Dry mixing techniques were employed to produce a small and fast dissolving buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet formulation, OX219 (Zubsolv®), using sucralose and menthol as sweetener and flavor to mask the bitter taste of the active ingredients. Two cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and acceptability of OX219 5.7/1.4 mg tablets compared to the commercially available buprenorphine/naloxone formulations Suboxone® tablets and films (8/2 mg). Results Buprenorphine exposure was equivalent in OX219 and Suboxone tablets. Sublingual dissolve times were significantly shorter for OX219 than for Suboxone tablets and were similar to Suboxone films. The OX219 formulation received significantly higher subjective ratings for taste and overall acceptability than both Suboxone formulations. OX219 was preferred over Suboxone tablet and film formulations by 77.4% and 88.9% of subjects, respectively. Conclusions A sublingual tablet formulation with an improved acceptability has been successfully developed. PMID:24099551

  5. Improved memory for reward cues following acute buprenorphine administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Terburg, David; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2015-03-01

    In rodents, there is abundant evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the processing of reward cues, but this system has remained understudied in humans. In humans, the happy facial expression is a pivotal reward cue. Happy facial expressions activate the brain's reward system and are disregarded by subjects scoring high on depressive mood who are low in reward drive. We investigated whether a single 0.2mg administration of the mixed mu-opioid agonist/kappa-antagonist, buprenorphine, would influence short-term memory for happy, angry or fearful expressions relative to neutral faces. Healthy human subjects (n38) participated in a randomized placebo-controlled within-subject design, and performed an emotional face relocation task after administration of buprenorphine and placebo. We show that, compared to placebo, buprenorphine administration results in a significant improvement of memory for happy faces. Our data demonstrate that acute manipulation of the opioid system by buprenorphine increases short-term memory for social reward cues. PMID:25569708

  6. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in conscious rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Four healthy, opioid-naïve, socially-housed, adult male macaques were used. Buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 24 h, post-administration. Serum buprenorphine concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with commercially available software. Mean residence time in the IV study as compared to the IM study was 177 (159–189) minutes vs. 185 (174–214) minutes, respectively [median (range)]. In the IV study, concentration back extrapolated to time zero was found to be 33.0 (16.8–57.0) ng/mL [median (range)]. On the other hand, the maximum serum concentration found in the IM study was 11.8 (6.30–14.8) ng/mL [median (range)]. Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than 0.10 ng/mL for over 24 h in the IV study and over 12 h in the IM study. Bioavailability was found to be 68.1 (59.3–71.2)% [median (range)]. No significant adverse effects were observed in the monkeys at the 0.03 mg/kg dose of buprenorphine during either study. PMID:24666428

  7. Treatment of Hip Dislocations and Associated Injuries: Current State of Care.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Michael J; Bauer, Jennifer M; Mir, Hassan R

    2016-07-01

    Hip dislocations, most often caused by motor vehicle accidents or similar high-energy trauma, traverse a large subset of distinct injury patterns. Understanding these patterns and their associated injuries allows surgeons to provide optimal care for these patients both in the early and late postinjury periods. Nonoperative care requires surgeons to understand the indications. Surgical care requires the surgeon to understand the benefits and limitations of several surgical approaches. This article presents the current understanding of hip dislocation treatment, focusing on anatomy, injury classifications, nonoperative and operative management, and postinjury care. PMID:27241377

  8. Postconcussive Syndrome Following Sports-related Concussion: A Treatment Overview for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Moran, Byron; Tadikonda, Prathima; Sneed, Kevin B; Hummel, Michelle; Guiteau, Sergio; Coris, Eric E

    2015-09-01

    Postconcussive syndrome is an increasingly recognized outcome of sports-related concussion (SRC), characterized by a constellation of poorly defined symptoms. Treatment of PCS is significantly different from that of SRC alone. Primary care physicians often are the first to evaluate these patients, but some are unfamiliar with the available therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology of SRC and descriptions of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options to allow primary care physicians to provide evidence-based care to patients experiencing postconcussive syndrome. PMID:26332481

  9. Treatment preference and patient centered prostate cancer care: Design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar; Chhatre, Sumedha; Gallo, Joseph J; Wittink, Marsha; Morales, Knashawn H; Bruce Malkowicz, S; Lee, David; Guzzo, Thomas; Caruso, Adele; Van Arsdalen, Keith; Wein, Alan J; Sanford Schwartz, J

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a slow progressing cancer that affects millions of men in the US. Due to uncertainties in outcomes and treatment complications, it is important that patients engage in informed decision making to choose the "optimal treatment". Patient centered care that encompasses informed decision-making can improve treatment choice and quality of care. Thus, assessing patient treatment preferences is critical for developing an effective decision support system. The objective of this patient-centered randomized clinical trial was to study the comparative effectiveness of a conjoint analysis intervention compared to usual care in improving subjective and objective outcomes in prostate cancer patients. We identified preferred attributes of alternative prostate cancer treatments that will aid in evaluating attributes of treatment options. In this two-phase study, in Phase 1 we used mixed methods to develop an adaptive conjoint task instrument. The conjoint task required the patients to trade-off attributes associated with treatments by assessing their relative importance. Phase 2 consisted of a randomized controlled trial of men with localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the effect of conjoint task intervention on the association between preferences, treatment and objective and subjective outcomes. Our conjoint task instrument can lead to a values-based patient-centered decision aid tool and help tailor treatment decision making to the values of prostate cancer patients. This will ultimately improve clinical decision making, clinical policy process, enhance patient centered care and improve prostate cancer outcomes. PMID:26435200

  10. Pathways to Care: Narratives of American Indian Adolescents Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Spicer, Paul; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Pescosolido, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 89 American Indian adolescents and guided by the Network Episode Model, this paper analyses pathways to residential substance abuse treatment and their correlates. These adolescents were recruited at admission to a tribally-operated substance abuse treatment program in the southern United States from October 1998 to May 2001. Results from the qualitative analyses of these adolescents pathways to care narratives indicated that 35% ultimately agreed with the decision for their entry into treatment; 41% were compelled to enter treatment by others, usually by their parents, parole officers, and judges; and 24% did not describe a clear pathway to care. In the multinomial logistic regression model examining correlates of these pathways to care classifications, adolescents who described pathways indicative of agreement also reported greater readiness for treatment than the adolescents who described compelled or no clear pathways to care. Adolescents who described a compelled pathway were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder and described fewer social network ties. We were unable to find a relationship between pathways classifications and referral source, suggesting these narratives were subjective constructions of pathways to care rather than a factual representation of this process. In the final logistic regression model examining correlates of treatment completion, articulating a pathway to care, whether it was one of agreement or of being compelled into treatment, predicted a greater likelihood of completing treatment. Overall, these narratives and their correlates are highly consistent with the Network-Episode Models emphasis on the interaction of self, situation, and social network in shaping the treatment seeking process, demonstrating the applicability of this model to understanding the treatment seeking process in this special population and suggests important considerations for understanding the dynamics of service utilization across diverse communities. PMID:22472275

  11. Delirium in the intensive care unit: role of the critical care nurse in early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Olson, Terra

    2012-01-01

    Critically ill patients are at increased risk of developing delirium, which has been considered one of the most common complications of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Despite the high occurrence of delirium in the ICU, researchers have shown it is consistently overlooked and often undiagnosed. An understanding of delirium and the three clinical subtypes of hyperactive, hypoactive and mixed-type delirium that exist are key to early detection and treatment. Critical care nurses are in the frontline position to detect and monitor for risk factors that contribute to the development of delirium in the ICU. Recognition of predisposing risk factors and the elimination of precipitating risk factors for delirium can prevent the devastating short-term and long-term consequences for the critically ill patient. The importance of the use of validated assessment tools, such as the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) to detect key features of delirium development is emphasized. Recommendations to improve the practice of critical care nurses include continuing education regarding the causes, risk factors and treatments of delirium, and education sessions on the use of validated assessment tools. Early prevention strategies, such as modification of the ICU environment to promote normal sleep/wake cycles, including reduction of unit noise and nighttime interruptions, are examined as interventions to avoid the development of delirium. PMID:23342936

  12. Postpartum depression: Etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Pregnancy and postpartum are associated with dramatic alterations in steroid and peptide hormones which alter the mothers' hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Dysregulations in these endocrine axes are related to mood disorders and as such it should not come as a major surprise that pregnancy and the postpartum period can have profound effects on maternal mood. Indeed, pregnancy and postpartum are associated with an increased risk for developing depressive symptoms in women. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development. Maternal attachment, sensitivity and parenting style are essential for a healthy maturation of an infant's social, cognitive and behavioral skills and depressed mothers often display less attachment, sensitivity and more harsh or disrupted parenting behaviors, which may contribute to reports of adverse child outcomes in children of depressed mothers. Here we review, in honor of the "father of motherhood", Jay Rosenblatt, the literature on postnatal depression in the mother and its effect on mother-infant interactions. We will cover clinical and pre-clinical findings highlighting putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying postpartum depression and how they relate to maternal behaviors and infant outcome. We also review animal models that investigate the neurobiology of maternal mood and disrupted maternal care. In particular, we discuss the implications of endogenous and exogenous manipulations of glucocorticoids on maternal care and mood. Lastly we discuss interventions during gestation and postpartum that may improve maternal symptoms and behavior and thus may alter developmental outcome of the offspring. PMID:26319224

  13. Substance use disorders: Recent advances in treatment and models of care.

    PubMed

    Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T

    2006-09-01

    Drug and alcohol misuse is a global health problem with great health economic costs to substance misusers, their families, and their communities. It is associated with high physical and psychiatric morbidity, and with high mortality. There are serious obstacles to its treatment, including the stigma associated with it. Major advances in assessment and treatment have enabled health professionals to tackle drug and alcohol problems in a variety of settings, including primary care setting. This overview focuses on recent advances in the treatment of substance use disorders and on optimal models of care and services, with reference to studies conducted in the United Arab Emirates. Community surveys in Dubai and Al-Ain have shown a high prevalence of these disorders. It is proposed that these problems be dealt with in primary care settings, and it has been found that primary health care workers have a key role to play and are often in an ideal position to coordinate the community's response. PMID:16938506

  14. Financing and payment reform for primary health care and substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Kunnes, R; Niven, R; Gustafson, T; Brooks, N; Levin, S M; Edmunds, M; Trumble, J G; Coye, M J

    1993-01-01

    One of the most controversial areas for health care reform concerns the treatment of alcohol and other drug problems, which account for some of the most rapidly rising costs in the health care sector. There is arguably no other set of conditions that show such variation in accessibility to treatment on the basis of insurance status, present the same degree of difficulty in providing comprehensive care, or challenge as many public and professional assumptions about behavioral, social and economic determinants. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the financing and coverage barriers to comprehensive treatment for alcohol and other drug abuse; to discuss some innovative mechanisms for providing and financing comprehensive services; and to suggest some directions for public policy to support the development of new practice models that emphasize cost-effectiveness and efficiency of care. PMID:8386551

  15. Cancer care quality measures: diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Meenal B; Samsa, Gregory P; McCrory, Douglas C; Fisher, Deborah A; Mantyh, Christopher R; Morse, Michael A; Prosnitz, Robert G; Cline, Kathryn E; Gray, Rebecca N

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify measures that are currently available to assess the quality of care provided to patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and to assess the extent to which these measures have been developed and tested. DATA SOURCES Published and unpublished measures identified through a computerized search of English-language citations in MEDLINE (1966-January 2005), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse; through review of reference lists contained in seed articles, all included articles, and relevant review articles; and through searches of the grey literature (institutional or government reports, professional society documents, research papers, and other literature, in print or electronic format, not controlled by commercial publishing interests). Sources for grey literature included professional organization websites and the Internet. REVIEW METHODS Measures were selected by reviewers according to standardized criteria relating to each question, and were then rated according to their importance and usability, scientific acceptability, and extent of testing; each domain was rated from 1 (poor) to 5 (ideal). RESULTS We identified a number of well-developed and well-tested CRC-related quality-of-care measures, both general process-of-care measures (on a broader scale) and technical measures (pertaining to specific details of a procedure). At least some process measures are available for diagnostic imaging, staging, surgical therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiation therapy, and colonoscopic surveillance. Various technical measures were identified for quality of colonoscopy (e.g., cecal intubation rate, complications) and staging (adequate lymph node retrieval and evaluation). These technical measures were guideline-based and well developed, but less well tested, and the linkage between them and patient outcomes, although intuitive, was not always explicitly provided. For some elements of the care pathway, such as operative reports and chemotherapy reports, no technical measures were found. CONCLUSIONS Some general process measures have a stronger evidence base than others. Those based on guidelines have the strongest evidence base; those derived from basic first principles supported by some research findings are relatively weaker, but are often sufficient for the task at hand. A consistent source of tension is the distinction between the clinically derived fine-tuning of the definition of a quality measure and the limitations of available data sources (which often do not contain sufficient information to act on such distinctions). Although some excellent technical measures were found, the overall development of technical measures seems less advanced than that of the general process measures. PMID:17764215

  16. Adherence to HIV and TB care and treatment, the role of food security and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Claros, Joan M; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W

    2014-10-01

    Food security and nutrition play an important role in HIV and TB care and treatment, including for improving treatment outcomes, adherence and uptake of HIV and TB care. This AIDS and behaviour supplement on "Adherence to HIV and TB care and treatment, the role of food security and nutrition" provides an overview of the current evidence and knowledge about the barriers to uptake and retention in HIV and TB treatment and care and on whether and how food and nutrition assistance can help overcome these barriers. It contains nine papers on three topic areas discussing: (a) adherence and food and nutrition security in context of HIV and TB, their definitions, measurement tools and the current situation; (b) food and nutrition insecurity as barriers to uptake and retention; and (c) food and nutrition assistance to increase uptake and retention in care and treatment. Future interventions in the areas of food security, nutrition and social protection for increasing access and adherence should be from an HIV sensitive lens, linking the continuum of care with health systems, food systems and the community, complementing existing platforms through partnerships and integrated services. PMID:25092515

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Treatment Burden Among Low-Income Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda S.; Vest, Bonnie M.; Madurai, Nethra; Singh, Ranjit; York, Trevor R.M.; Cipparone, Charlotte W.; Reilly, Sarah; Malik, Khalid S.; Fox, Chester H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explored the self-management strategies and treatment burden experienced by low income US primary care patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 patients from two primary care practices on Buffalo’s East Side, a low-income community. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using an inductive thematic content analysis approach. We applied Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to the concept of treatment burden to interpret and categorize our findings. Results The sample was predominantly African-American (79%) and female (59%). Most patients (79%) had a diagnosis of Stage 3 CKD. Four major themes were identified corresponding to NPT and treatment burden: (1) Coherence – making sense of CKD; (2) Cognitive participation – enlisting support and organizing personal resources; (3) Collective action – self-management work; and (4) Reflexive monitoring – further refining chronic illness self-care in the context of CKD. For each component we identified barriers hindering patients’ ability to accomplish the necessary tasks. Conclusions Our findings highlight the substantial treatment burden faced by inner-city primary care patients self-managing CKD in combination with other chronic illnesses. Health care providers’ awareness of treatment burden can inform the development of person-centered care plans that can help patients to better manage their chronic illnesses. PMID:25416418

  18. Intraclass correlation coefficients for cluster randomized trials in care pathways and usual care: hospital treatment for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster randomized trials are increasingly being used in healthcare evaluation to show the effectiveness of a specific intervention. Care pathways (CPs) are becoming a popular tool to improve the quality of health-care services provided to heart failure patients. In order to perform a well-designed cluster randomized trial to demonstrate the effectiveness of Usual care (UC) and CP in heart failure treatment, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) should be available before conducting a trial to estimate the required sample size. This study reports ICCs for both demographical and outcome variables from cluster randomized trials of heart failure patients in UC and care pathways. Methods To calculate the degree of within-cluster dependence, the ICC and associated 95% confidence interval were calculated by a method based on analysis of variance. All analyses were performed in R software version 2.15.1. Results ICCs for baseline characteristics ranged from 0.025 to 0.058. The median value and interquartile range was 0.043 [0.026-0.052] for ICCs of baseline characteristics. Among baseline characteristics, the highest ICCs were found for admission by referral or admission from home (ICC = 0.058) and the disease severity at admission (ICC = 0.046). Corresponding ICCs for appropriateness of the stay, length of stay and hospitalization cost were 0.069, 0.063, and 0.001 in CP group and 0.203, 0.020, 0.046 for usual care, respectively. Conclusion Reported values of ICCs from present care pathway trial and UC results for some common outcomes will be helpful for estimating sample size in future clustered randomized heart failure trials, in particular for the evaluation of care pathways. PMID:24565441

  19. Comparison between Transdermal Buprenorphine and Transdermal Fentanyl for Postoperative Pain Relief after Major Abdominal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Zia; Gautam, Shefali; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid is generally regarded as an important part of multimodal, perioperative analgesia, especially for moderate to severe pain. Amongst the various modes of delivery transdermal route has several potential benefits over oral and parentral administration. These include noninvasive dosing, better absorption and lack of first-pass metabolism. A transdermal drug delivery system provides steady and continuous drug delivery resulting in steady plasma concentration. Bolus dosing of systemic analgesic results in supra and sub therapeutic plasma resulting in toxic and sub analgesic plasma drug concentration. It also improves patient compliance. Materials and Methods Sixty patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under GA were randomly divided in two groups (n=30). Group A received buprenorphine 10 mcg/h TDS and group B received 25 mcg/h fentanyl TDS, 6 hours prior to surgery. Patients were followed for three days for postoperative pain relief and adverse effects. Results Baseline and demographic variables are comparable in both groups. The mean level of VAS was significantly lower in group B as compared to group A at Day 1, 2 and 3. The mean level of sedation score was significantly lower in Group B than Group A. Haemodynamic variables in both groups (SBP, DBP and HR), shows comparable values in both groups and no significant difference was observed. Five out of 30 (16.7%) patients in group A required single dose of rescue analgesic while 0 out of 30 patients (0.00%) in group B required rescue analgesic. This difference in rescue analgesic requirement in not quiet statistically significant (p-value 0.0522). Twenty percent patient in fentanyl group and 16.7% patients in buprenorphine group experienced some adverse effects. Nausea and vomiting were main side effects of the drugs. The incidence of nausea and vomiting were 6.7% and 10% in buprenorphine and fentanyl group respectively. Conclusion Fentanyl and buprenorphine TDS were effective and safe in controlling postoperative pain. Fentanyl is better than buprenorphine in this respect. PMID:26816973

  20. Acceptable Care? Illness Constructions, Healthworlds, and Accessible Chronic Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509

  1. A costly separation between withdrawing and withholding treatment in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-03-01

    Ethical analyses, professional guidelines and legal decisions support the equivalence thesis for life-sustaining treatment: if it is ethical to withhold treatment, it would be ethical to withdraw the same treatment. In this paper we explore reasons why the majority of medical professionals disagree with the conclusions of ethical analysis. Resource allocation is considered by clinicians to be a legitimate reason to withhold but not to withdraw intensive care treatment. We analyse five arguments in favour of non-equivalence, and find only relatively weak reasons to restrict rationing to withholding treatment. On the contrary, resource allocation provides a strong argument in favour of equivalence: non-equivalence causes preventable death in critically ill patients. We outline two proposals for increasing equivalence in practice: (1) reduction of the mortality threshold for treatment withdrawal, (2) time-limited trials of intensive care. These strategies would help to move practice towards more rational treatment limitation decisions. PMID:22762352

  2. A costly separation between withdrawing and withholding treatment in intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, DJC; Savulescu, J

    2012-01-01

    Ethical analyses, professional guidelines and legal decisions support the Equivalence Thesis for life-sustaining treatment: if it is ethical to withhold treatment, it would be ethical to withdraw the same treatment. In this article we explore reasons why the majority of medical professionals disagree with the conclusions of ethical analysis. Resource allocation is considered by clinicians to be a legitimate reason to withhold but not to withdraw intensive care treatment. We analyse 5 arguments in favour of non-equivalence, and find only relatively weak reasons to restrict rationing to treatment withholding. On the contrary, resource allocation provides a strong argument in favour of equivalence: non-equivalence causes preventable death in critically ill patients. We outline two proposals for increasing equivalence in practice: (1) reduction of the mortality threshold for treatment withdrawal, (2) time-limited trials of intensive care. These strategies would help to move practice towards more rational treatment limitation decisions. PMID:22762352

  3. The continuing care model of substance use treatment: what works, and when is "enough," "enough?".

    PubMed

    Proctor, Steven L; Herschman, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    There is little disagreement in the substance use treatment literature regarding the conceptualization of substance dependence as a cyclic, chronic condition consisting of alternating episodes of treatment and subsequent relapse. Likewise, substance use treatment efforts are increasingly being contextualized within a similar disease management framework, much like that of other chronic medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, etc.). As such, substance use treatment has generally been viewed as a process comprised of two phases. Theoretically, the incorporation of some form of lower intensity continuing care services delivered in the context of outpatient treatment after the primary treatment phase (e.g., residential) appears to be a likely requisite if all stakeholders aspire to successful long-term clinical outcomes. Thus, the overarching objective of any continuing care model should be to sustain treatment gains attained in the primary phase in an effort to ultimately prevent relapse. Given the extant treatment literature clearly supports the contention that treatment is superior to no treatment, and longer lengths of stay is associated with a variety of positive outcomes, the more prudent question appears to be not whether treatment works, but rather what are the specific programmatic elements (e.g., duration, intensity) that comprise an adequate continuing care model. Generally speaking, it appears that the duration of continuing care should extend for a minimum of 3 to 6 months. However, continuing care over a protracted period of up to 12 months appears to be essential if a reasonable expectation of robust recovery is desired. Limitations of prior work and implications for routine clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24839597

  4. Preliminary Support for Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care in Reducing Substance Use in Delinquent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dana K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Eddy, J. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Although effective outpatient treatments have been identified for the well-documented negative outcomes associated with delinquency and substance use, effective treatments for youths in out-of-home care are rare. In this study, 12- and 18-month substance use outcomes were examined for a sample of 79 boys who were randomly assigned to

  5. Preliminary Support for Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care in Reducing Substance Use in Delinquent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dana K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Eddy, J. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Although effective outpatient treatments have been identified for the well-documented negative outcomes associated with delinquency and substance use, effective treatments for youths in out-of-home care are rare. In this study, 12- and 18-month substance use outcomes were examined for a sample of 79 boys who were randomly assigned to…

  6. Impact of Team Structure on Achieving Treatment Goals in a System of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Eric R.; Russell, Lisa A.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Kooreman, Harold E.; Wright, Dustin E.

    2006-01-01

    Although some evidence suggests that providing treatment via service coordination teams is related to improved outcomes among youth in a system of care, the aspects of team structure that contribute to treatment effectiveness are not well understood. This study draws on team membership and attendance data to identify and describe the structure of

  7. Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Catherine M; Abernethy, Amy P; Abbott, Katherine H; Tulsky, James A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence and nature of interpersonal conflicts that arise when patients in the intensive care unit are considered for limitation of life-sustaining treatment. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of prospectively gathered interviews. SETTING Six intensive care units at a university medical center. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred six physicians and nurses who were involved in the care of 102 patients for whom withdrawal or withholding of treatment was considered. MEASUREMENTS Semistructured interviews addressed disagreements during life-sustaining treatment decision making. Two raters coded transcripts of the audiotaped interviews. MAIN RESULTS At least 1 health care provider in 78% of the cases described a situation coded as conflict. Conflict occurred between the staff and family members in 48% of the cases, among staff members in 48%, and among family members in 24%. In 63% of the cases, conflict arose over the decision about life-sustaining treatment itself. In 45% of the cases, conflict occurred over other tasks such as communication and pain control. Social issues caused conflict in 19% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS Conflict is more prevalent in the setting of intensive care decision making than has previously been demonstrated. While conflict over the treatment decision itself is most common, conflict over other issues, including social issues, is also significant. By identifying conflict and by recognizing that the treatment decision may not be the only conflict present, or even the main one, clinicians may address conflict more constructively. PMID:11359545

  8. Rural substance use treatment centers in the United States: an assessment of treatment quality by location

    PubMed Central

    Edmond, Mary Bond; Aletraris, Lydia; Roman, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background While previous research has added to the understanding of rural residents’ unique health challenges, much remains to be learned about the provision of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment in rural areas. A key question is difference in structural resources and quality of care between rural and urban treatment centers. Objective To examine differences in treatment quality in rural and urban centers and to determine if differences in treatment quality are contextualized by centers’ structural resources. Methods Utilizing combined data from two representative samples of SUD treatment centers (N=591), we used a series of multivariate regressions to analyze the association between center rurality and various indicators of structural characteristics and treatment quality. Interaction effects were further examined between structural characteristics and treatment quality indicators. Results We found that structural and quality differences between rural and urban treatment centers were present. Rural centers had reduced access to highly educated counselors, were more likely to be nonprofit, dependent on public funding, offered fewer wraparound services, and had less diverse specialized treatment options. Our results also indicated that rural centers were less likely to prescribe buprenorphine as part of their treatment but were more likely to employ nursing staff and offer specialized treatment for adolescents. Rural center access to a physician contextualized the association between center rurality and the more limited provision of wraparound services. Conclusion Our findings suggest that treatment quality differs between urban and rural centers in complex ways that are subject to resource availability. PMID:26225814

  9. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  10. A three-component model for reengineering systems for the treatment of depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Thomas E; Dietrich, Allen J; Williams, John W; Kroenke, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Depression in primary care is a chronic disease. As with most chronic diseases, long-term adherence to treatment plans is problematic. Evidence-based systems of care address this problem, but persistence and dissemination of systems after testing is a new problem. The three-component model for the care of patients with depression is a system of widely applicable, easily transported strategies and materials to address dissemination. The three-component model provides a series of routines (processes for structured diagnostic and follow-up-care with a time line) and division of responsibility, including a role for a telephone care manager. In the three-component model, clinician and office education create a prepared practice that is predisposed to providing evidence-based depression management. Enabling elements include the telephone care managers, who are trained to promote adherence to a management plan, and a supervising psychiatrist. The key reinforcing element is care manager reports about patient response to treatment. The three-component model is bound together by a common depression diagnostic and severity measure that facilitates communication and treatment decisions. PMID:12444226

  11. Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care: executive summary of a Cochrane Collaboration systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mochamat; Cuhls, Henning; Peuckmann‐Post, Vera; Minton, Ollie; Stone, Patrick; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In palliative care patients, fatigue can be severely debilitating and is often not counteracted with rest, thereby impacting daily activity and quality of life. Further complicating issues are the multidimensionality, subjective nature and lack of a consensus definition of fatigue. The review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for fatigue in palliative care, with a focus on patients at an advanced stage of disease, including patients with cancer and other chronic diseases. Methods We considered randomized controlled trials concerning adult palliative care with a focus on pharmacological treatment of fatigue compared with placebo, application of two drugs, usual care or a non‐pharmacological intervention. The primary outcome had to be non‐specific fatigue (or related terms such as asthenia). We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and a selection of cancer journals up to 28 April 2014. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Results We screened 1645 publications of which 45 met the inclusion criteria. In total, we analysed data from 18 drugs and 4696 participants. There was a very high degree of statistical and clinical heterogeneity in the trials. Meta‐analysis of data was possible for modafinil, pemoline, and methylphenidate. Conclusions Due to the limited evidence, we cannot recommend a specific drug for the treatment of fatigue in palliative care patients. Some drugs, which may be beneficial for the treatment of fatigue associated with palliative care such as amantadine, methylphenidate, and modafinil, should be further researched. PMID:27066315

  12. Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    Alferink, Marike; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain; Agossadou, Chantal; Abass, Karibu M.; Phillips, Richard O.; Loth, Susanne; Jutten, Emma; Barogui, Yves T.; Stewart, Roy E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. People living in remote areas in tropical Sub Saharan Africa are mostly affected. Wound care is an important component of BU management; this often needs to be extended for months after the initial antibiotic treatment. BU is reported in the literature as being painless, however clinical observations revealed that some patients experienced pain during wound care. This was the first study on pain intensity during and after wound care in BU patients and factors associated with pain. In Ghana and Benin, 52 BU patients above 5 years of age and their relatives were included between December 2012 and May 2014. Information on pain intensity during and after wound care was obtained during two consecutive weeks using the Wong-Baker Pain Scale. Median pain intensity during wound care was in the lower range (Mdn = 2, CV = 1), but severe pain (score > 6) was reported in nearly 30% of the patients. Nevertheless, only one patient received pain medication. Pain declined over time to low scores 2 hours after treatment. Factors associated with higher self-reported pain scores were; male gender, fear prior to treatment, pain during the night prior to treatment, and pain caused by cleaning the wound. The general idea that BU is painless is incorrect for the wound care procedure. This procedural pain deserves attention and appropriate intervention. PMID:26030764

  13. Uncovering Treatment Burden as a Key Concept for Stroke Care: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that services are configured to prioritise patient needs rather than those of health care systems. Systematic Review Registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42011001123 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23824703

  14. Outreach education for integration of HIV/AIDS care, antiretroviral treatment, and tuberculosis care in primary care clinics in South Africa: PALSA PLUS pragmatic cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether PALSA PLUS, an on-site educational outreach programme of non-didactic, case based, iterative clinical education of staff, led by a trainer, can increase access to and comprehensiveness of care for patients with HIV/AIDS. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting Public primary care clinics offering HIV/AIDS care, antiretroviral treatment (ART), tuberculosis care, and ambulatory primary care in Free State province, South Africa. Participants Fifteen clinics all implementing decentralisation and task shifting were randomised. The clinics cared for 400 000 general primary care patients and 10 136 patients in an HIV/AIDS/ART programme. There were 150 nurses. Intervention On-site outreach education in eight clinics; no such education in seven (control). Main outcome measures Provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among patients referred to the HIV/AIDS/ART programme, and detection of cases of tuberculosis among those in the programme. Proportion of patients in the programme enrolled through general primary care consultations. Results Patients referred to the HIV/AIDS programme through general primary care at intervention clinics were more likely than those at control clinics to receive co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (41%, (2253/5523) v 32% (1340/4210); odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.40), and tuberculosis was more likely to be diagnosed among patients with HIV/AIDS/ART (7% (417/5793) v 6% (245/4343); 1.25, 1.01 to 1.55). Enrolment in the HIV/AIDS and ART programme through HIV testing in general primary care was not significantly increased (53% v 50%; 1.19, 0.51 to 2.77). Secondary outcomes were similar, except for weight gain, which was higher in the intervention group (2.3 kg v 1.9 kg, P<0.001). Conclusion Though outreach education is an effective and feasible strategy for improving comprehensiveness of care and wellbeing of patients with HIV/AIDS, there is no evidence that it increases access to the ART programme. It is now being widely implemented in South Africa. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 24820584. PMID:21511783

  15. Lack of adverse effects during a target animal safety trial of extended-release buprenorphine in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Alan; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Wilkerson, Gina; McKnight, Patrick; Guarnieri, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Extended-release buprenorphine is an effective analgesic in laboratory animals, and its safety has been established in mice but not in rats. The authors used a target animal safety trial to evaluate the safety of extended-release buprenorphine in rats. Fischer 344 rats received post-surgical subcutaneous injections of 1.3 mg, 3.9 mg or 6.5 mg buprenorphine per kg body weight (two times, six times or ten times the intended dose, respectively), and their body weight, clinical signs and symptoms, clinical pathology and histopathology were monitored for 4 d. Body weight was not significantly different in rats that received buprenorphine compared with control rats. Signs of nausea-related behavior were observed in 25% of the rats treated with buprenorphine. Clinical pathology results for all rats were normal, and gross and microscopic histopathology examinations identified no substantial abnormalities, suggesting that this behavior was of minor consequence. Other adverse events previously reported to occur with opiate therapy, including weight loss and dermal lesions at drug injection sites, were not observed in this study. The results of this study show that post-surgical administration of an extended-release buprenorphine product is safe in Fischer 344 rats and does not necessarily cause substantial adverse effects, confirming that opiate therapy is a viable choice in laboratory animal medicine. PMID:26684956

  16. Behavioral health referrals and treatment initiation rates in integrated primary care: a Collaborative Care Research Network study.

    PubMed

    Auxier, Andrea; Runyan, Christine; Mullin, Daniel; Mendenhall, Tai; Young, Jessica; Kessler, Rodger

    2012-09-01

    Although the benefits of integrating behavioral health (BH) services into primary care are well established (World Health Organization and World Organization of Family Doctors, 2012; Chiles et al. in Clin Psychol-Sci Pr 6:204-220, 1999; Cummings 1997; O'Donohue et al. 2003; Olfson et al. in Health Aff 18:79-93, 1999; Katon et al. in Ann Intern Med 124:917-925, 2001; Simon et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:850-856, 1995; Anderson et al. in Diabetes Care 24:1069-1078, 2001; Ciechanowski et al. in Arch Intern Med 160:3278-3285, 2000; Egede et al. in Diabetes Care 25:464-470, 2002), research has focused primarily on describing the types of interventions behavioral health providers (BHPs) employ rather than on reasons for referral, treatment initiation rates, or the patient characteristics that may impact them. This study presents the results of a multisite card study organized by The Collaborative Care Research Network, a subnetwork of the American Academy of Family Physicians' National Research Network devoted to conducting practice-based research focused on the provision of BH and health behavior services within primary care practices. The goals of the study included: (1) identifying the characteristics of patients referred for BH services; (2) codifying reasons for referral and whether patients were treated for the referral; (3) exploring any differences between patients who initiated BH contact and those who did not; and (4) assessing the types and frequency of BH services provided to patients who attended at least one appointment. Of the 200 patients referred to a BHP, 81 % had an initial contact, 71 % of which occurred on the same day. Men and women were equally likely to engage with a BHP although the time between appointments varied by gender. Depression and anxiety were the primary reasons for referral. Practice-based research is a viable strategy for advancing the knowledge about integrated primary care. PMID:24073133

  17. 78 FR 21631 - Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2