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1

Barriers to Primary Care Physicians Prescribing Buprenorphine  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Despite the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone for the treatment of opioid use disorders, few physicians in Washington State use this clinical tool. To address the acute need for this service, a Rural Opioid Addiction Management Project trained 120 Washington physicians in 2010–2011 to use buprenorphine. We conducted this study to determine what proportion of those trained physicians began prescribing this treatment and identify barriers to incorporating this approach into outpatient practice. METHODS We interviewed 92 of 120 physicians (77%), obtaining demographic information, current prescribing status, clinic characteristics, and barriers to prescribing buprenorphine. Residents and 7 physicians who were prescribing buprenorphine at the time of the course were excluded from the study. We analyzed the responses of the 78 remaining respondents. RESULTS Almost all respondents reported positive attitudes toward buprenorphine, but only 22 (28%) reported prescribing buprenorphine. Most (95%, n = 21) new prescribers were family physicians. Physicians who prescribed buprenorphine were more likely to have partners who had received a waiver to prescribe buprenorphine. A lack of institutional support was associated with not prescribing the medication (P = .04). A lack of mental health and psychosocial support was the most frequently cited barrier by both those who prescribe and who do not prescribe buprenorphine. CONCLUSION Interventions before and after training are needed to increase the number of physicians who offer buprenorphine for treatment of addiction. Targeting physicians in clinics that agree in advance to institute services, coupled with technical assistance after they have completed their training, their clinical teams, and their administrations is likely to help more physicians become active providers of this highly effective outpatient treatment. PMID:24615308

Hutchinson, Eliza; Catlin, Mary; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Rosenblatt, Roger A.

2014-01-01

2

Five Year Experience with Collaborative Care of Opioid Addicted Patients using Buprenorphine in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Background Opioid addiction is a chronic disease treatable in primary care settings with buprenorphine, but this treatment remains underutilized. We describe a collaborative care model for managing opioid addiction with buprenorphine. Methods This is a cohort study of patients treated for opioid addiction utilizing collaborative care between nurse care managers and generalist physicians in an urban academic primary care practice over 5 years. We examine patient characteristics, 12-month treatment success (i.e., retention or taper after 6 months), and predictors of successful outcomes. Results From 2003 to 2008, 408 patients with opioid addiction were treated with buprenorphine. Twenty-six patients were excluded from analysis as they left treatment due to preexisting legal or medical conditions or a need for transfer to another buprenorphine program. At 12 months 51% of patients (196/382) underwent successful treatment. Of patients remaining in treatment at 3-, 6-, 9- and 12 months, 93% were no longer using illicit opioids or cocaine based on urine drug tests. On admission, patients who were older, employed, and used illicit buprenorphine had significantly higher odds of treatment success; those of African American or Hispanic race had significantly lower odds of treatment success. These outcomes were achieved with a model that facilitated physician involvement. Conclusions Collaborative care with nurse care managers in an urban primary care practice is an alternative and successful method of service delivery for the majority of patients with opioid addiction while effectively utilizing the time of physicians prescribing buprenorphine. PMID:21403039

Alford, Daniel P.; LaBelle, Colleen T.; Kretsch, Natalie; Bergeron, Alexis; Winter, Michael; Botticelli, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

3

Naltrexone implant treatment for buprenorphine dependence - Mauritian case series.  

PubMed

Although substitution therapy with opiate agonist treatments such as methadone and buprenorphine has resulted in a reduction of illicit drug use related harm, such treatment has also resulted in severe problems in some countries where opioid-dependent individuals now inject illicitly sold buprenorphine or buprenorphine-naloxone instead of heroin. There is no approved treatment for buprenorphine dependence. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist which has been used for the treatment of both alcohol and opioid dependencies. Although both buprenorphine and heroin resemble each other concerning their effects, buprenorphine has a higher affinity to opioid receptors than heroin. Therefore, it is not known if naltrexone can block the psychoactive effects of buprenorphine as it does for heroin. This paper presents observational case series data on the use of a sustained-release naltrexone implant for the treatment of buprenorphine dependence. To the authors' knowledge this is the first use of sustained-release naltrexone for this indication. PMID:24695742

Jhugroo, Anil; Ellayah, Darmen; Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary

2014-04-01

4

Smoking cessation treatment among office-based buprenorphine treatment patients.  

PubMed

Opioid-dependent patients smoke at high rates, and office-based buprenorphine treatment provides an opportunity to offer cessation treatment. We examined tobacco use and smoking cessation treatment patterns among office-based buprenorphine treatment patients. We reviewed records of 319 patients treated with buprenorphine from 2005 to 2010. We examined smoking status, cessation medication prescriptions, and factors associated with receipt of cessation prescriptions. Mean age was 43.9 years; most were men (74.2%) and Hispanic (70.9%). At buprenorphine initiation, 21.9% had no documentation of smoking status, while 67.4% were current, 10% former, and 0.9% never smokers. Of current smokers, 16.8% received smoking cessation prescriptions. Patients retained (vs. not retained) in buprenorphine treatment were more likely to receive smoking cessation medications (26.3% vs. 11.2%, p<0.005). We observed a high tobacco use prevalence among buprenorphine patients, and limited provision of cessation treatment. This is a missed opportunity to impact the high tobacco use burden in opioid-dependent persons. PMID:24912863

Nahvi, Shadi; Blackstock, Oni; Sohler, Nancy L; Thompson, Devin; Cunningham, Chinazo O

2014-08-01

5

Outcomes among buprenorphine-naloxone primary care patients after Hurricane Sandy  

PubMed Central

Background The extent of damage in New York City following Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 was unprecedented. Bellevue Hospital Center (BHC), a tertiary public hospital, was evacuated and temporarily closed as a result of hurricane-related damages. BHC’s large primary care office-based buprenorphine clinic was relocated to an affiliate public hospital for three weeks. The extent of environmental damage and ensuing service disruption effects on rates of illicit drug, tobacco, and alcohol misuse, buprenorphine medication supply disruptions, or direct resource losses among office-based buprenorphine patients is to date unknown. Methods A quantitative and qualitative semi-structured survey was administered to patients in BHC’s primary care buprenorphine program starting one month after the hurricane. Survey domains included: housing and employment disruptions; social and economic support; treatment outcomes (buprenorphine adherence and ability to get care), and tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Open-ended questions probed general patient experiences related to the storm, coping strategies, and associated disruptions. Results There were 132 patients enrolled in the clinic at the time of the storm; of those, 91 patients were recruited to the survey, and 89 completed (98% of those invited). Illicit opioid misuse was rare, with 7 respondents reporting increased heroin or illicit prescription opioid use following Sandy. Roughly half of respondents reported disruption of their buprenorphine-naloxone medication supply post-event, and self-lowering of daily doses to prolong supply was common. Additional buprenorphine was obtained through unscheduled telephone or written refills from relocated Bellevue providers, informally from friends and family, and, more rarely, from drug dealers. Conclusions The findings highlight the relative adaptability of public sector office-based buprenorphine treatment during and after a significant natural disaster. Only minimal increases in self-reported substance use were reported despite many disruptions to regular buprenorphine supplies and previous daily doses. Informal supplies of substitute buprenorphine from family and friends was common. Remote telephone refill support and a temporary back-up location that provided written prescription refills and medication dispensing for uninsured patients enabled some patients to maintain an adequate medication supply. Such adaptive strategies to ensure medication maintenance continuity pre/post natural disasters likely minimize poor treatment outcomes. PMID:24467734

2014-01-01

6

Revised Dose Schema of Sublingual Buprenorphine in the Treatment of the Neonatal Opioid Abstinence Syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIMS Over half of infants exposed to opioids in utero develop neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) of severity to require pharmacologic therapy. Current treatments are associated with prolonged hospitalization. We sought to optimize the dose of sublingual buprenorphine in the treatment of NAS. DESIGN Randomized, phase 1, open-label, active-control clinical trial comparing sublingual buprenorphine to oral morphine. SETTING Large, urban, tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-four term infants requiring pharmacological treatment for NAS. MEASUREMENTS Outcomes were neonatal safety, length of treatment, and length of hospitalization. FINDINGS Sublingual buprenorphine was safe and effective. Infants treated with buprenorphine had a 23-day length of treatment compared to 38 days for those treated with morphine (p=0.01), representing a 40% reduction. Length of hospital stay in the buprenorphine group was reduced 24%, from 42 to 32 days (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS Sublingual buprenorphine was safe in NAS, with a substantial efficacy advantage over standard of care therapy with oral morphine. PMID:20925688

Kraft, Walter K.; Dysart, Kevin; Greenspan, Jay S.; Gibson, Eric; Kaltenbach, Karol; Ehrlich, Michelle E.

2010-01-01

7

A randomized trial of buprenorphine maintenance for heroin dependence in a primary care clinic for substance users versus a methadone clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Buprenorphine is an alternative to methadone for the maintenance treatment of heroine dependence and may be effective on a thrice weekly basis. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of thrice weekly buprenorphine maintenance for the treatment of heroin dependence in a primary care clinic on retention in treatment and illicit opioid use.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Opioid-dependent patients were randomly

PatrickG O’Connor; AlisonH Oliveto; JuliaM Shi; ElisaG Triffleman; KathleenM Carroll; ThomasR Kosten; BruceJ Rounsaville; JulianaA Pakes; RichardS Schottenfeld

1998-01-01

8

Impact of research network participation on the adoption of buprenorphine for substance abuse treatment.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of research supporting the use of buprenorphine and other medication assisted treatments (MATs) for the rapidly accelerating opioid epidemic in the United States. Despite numerous advantages of buprenorphine (accessible in primary care, no daily dosing required, minimal stigma), implementation has been slow. As the field progresses, there is a need to understand the impact of participation in practitioner-scientist research networks on acceptance and uptake of buprenorphine. This paper examines the impact of research network participation on counselor attitudes toward buprenorphine addressing both counselor-level characteristics and program-level variables using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to account for nesting of counselors within treatment programs. Using data from the National Treatment Center Study, this project compares privately funded treatment programs (N=345) versus programs affiliated with the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) (N=198). Models included 922 counselors in 172 CTN programs and 1203 counselors in 251 private programs. Results of two-level HLM logistic (Bernoulli) models revealed that counselors with higher levels of education, larger caseloads, more buprenorphine-specific training, and less preference for 12-step treatment models were more likely to perceive buprenorphine as acceptable and effective. Furthermore, buprenorphine was 50% more likely to be perceived as effective among counselors working in CTN-affiliated programs as compared to private programs. This study suggests that research network affiliation positively impacts counselors' acceptance and perceptions of buprenorphine. Thus, research network participation can be utilized as a means to promote positive attitudes toward the implementation of innovations including medication assisted treatment. PMID:24594902

Rieckmann, Traci R; Abraham, Amanda J; Kovas, Anne E; McFarland, Bentson H; Roman, Paul M

2014-05-01

9

A qualitative study of the adoption of buprenorphine for opioid addiction treatment.  

PubMed

Qualified physicians may prescribe buprenorphine to treat opioid dependence, but medication use remains controversial. We examined adoption of buprenorphine in two not-for-profit integrated health plans, over time, completing 101 semi-structured interviews with clinicians and clinician-administrators from primary and specialty care. Transcripts were reviewed, coded, and analyzed. A strong leader championing the new treatment was critical for adoption in both health plans. Once clinicians began using buprenorphine, patients' and other clinicians' experiences affected decisions more than did the champion. With experience, protocols developed to manage unsuccessful patients and changed to support maintenance rather than detoxification. Diffusion outside addiction and mental health settings was nonexistent; primary care clinicians cited scope-of-practice issues and referred patients to specialty care. With greater diffusion came questions about long-term use and safety. Recognizing how implementation processes develop may suggest where, when, and how to best expend resources to increase adoption of such treatments. PMID:24268947

Green, Carla A; McCarty, Dennis; Mertens, Jennifer; Lynch, Frances L; Hilde, Anadam; Firemark, Alison; Weisner, Constance M; Pating, David; Anderson, Bradley M

2014-03-01

10

Hypogonadism in men receiving methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the aetiology of hypogonadism in men on methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MMT, BMT). 103 men (mean age 37.6 +/- 7.9) on MMT (n = 84) or BMT (n = 19) were evaluated using hormone assays, body mass index (BMI), serological, biochemical, demographic and substance use measures. Overall 54% of men (methadone 65%; buprenorphine 28%) had total testosterone (TT) <12.0 nm; 34% (methadone 39%; buprenorphine 11%) had TT <8.0 nm. Both methadone- and buprenorphine-treated men had lower free testosterone, luteinising hormone and estradiol than age-matched reference groups. Methadone-treated men had lower TT than buprenorphine-treated men and reference groups. Prolactin did not differ between methadone, buprenorphine groups, and reference groups. Primary testicular failure was an uncommon cause of hypogonadism. Yearly percentage fall in TT by age across the patient group was 2.3%, more than twice that expected normally. There were no associations between TT and opioid dose, cannabis, alcohol and tobacco consumption, or chronic hepatitis C viraemia. On multiple regression higher TT was associated with higher alanine aminotransferase and lower TT with higher BMI. Men on MMT have high prevalence of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The extent of hormonal changes associated with buprenorphine needs to be explored further in larger studies. Men receiving long term opioid replacement treatment, especially methadone treatment, should be screened for hypogonadism. Wide interindividual differences in methadone metabolism and tolerance may in a cross-sectional study obscure a methadone dose relationship to testosterone in individuals. Future studies of hypogonadism in opioid-treated men should examine the potential benefits of dose reduction, choice of opioid medication, weight loss, and androgen replacement. PMID:17971165

Hallinan, R; Byrne, A; Agho, K; McMahon, C G; Tynan, P; Attia, J

2009-04-01

11

Overcoming policy and financing barriers to integrated buprenorphine and HIV primary care.  

PubMed

Treatment for substance abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection historically have come from different providers, often in separate locations, and have been reimbursed through separate funding streams. We describe policy and financing challenges faced by health care providers seeking to integrate buprenorphine, a new treatment for opioid dependence, into HIV primary care. Regulatory challenges include licensing and training restrictions imposed by the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 and confidentiality regulations for alcohol and drug treatment records. Potential responses include the development of local training programs and electronic medical records. Addressing the complexity of funding sources for integrated care will require administrative support, up-front investments, and federal and state leadership. A policy and financing research agenda should address evidence gaps in the rationales for regulatory restrictions and should include cost-effectiveness studies that quantify the "value for money" of investments in integrated care to improve health outcomes for HIV-infected patients with opioid dependence. PMID:17109311

Schackman, Bruce R; Merrill, Joseph O; McCarty, Dennis; Levi, Jeffrey; Lubinski, Christine

2006-12-15

12

Combined abuse of clonidine and amitriptyline in a patient on buprenorphine maintenance treatment.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance therapy is often prescribed in primary care to treat opioid dependence. Previous reports have described concomitant abuse of opioids and clonidine. In this case, a primary care patient on buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance therapy demonstrating altered mental status, hallucinations, falls, and rebound hypertension was found to be concomitantly abusing clonidine and amitryptyline, which share metabolic pathways with buprenorphine. Clinicians should be aware of patients' combining amitryptyline, clonidine, and gabapentin with buprenorphine to achieve a mood altering state, avoid co-prescribing them if possible, and maintain communication with pharmacies and other providers when they are prescribed. PMID:25314340

Seale, J Paul; Dittmer, Trent; Sigman, Erika J; Clemons, Holly; Johnson, J Aaron

2014-01-01

13

Combined Abuse of Clonidine and Amitriptyline in a Patient on Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment  

PubMed Central

Buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance therapy is often prescribed in primary care to treat opioid dependence. Previous reports have described concomitant abuse of opioids and clonidine. In this case, a primary care patient on buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance therapy demonstrating altered mental status, hallucinations, falls, and rebound hypertension was found to be concomitantly abusing clonidine and amitryptyline, which share metabolic pathways with buprenorphine. Clinicians should be aware of patients' combining amitryptyline, clonidine, and gabapentin with buprenorphine to achieve a mood altering state, avoid co-prescribing them if possible, and maintain communication with pharmacies and other providers when they are prescribed. PMID:25314340

Dittmer, Trent; Sigman, Erika J.; Clemons, Holly; Johnson, J. Aaron

2014-01-01

14

The effects of chronic buprenorphine treatment on cocaine and food self-administration by rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine if buprenorphine continues to reduce cocaine self-administration over long periods of treatment, or if tolerance develops to this effect. The effects of 30 to 120 days of buprenorphine treatment (0.32 mg/kg/day) on cocaine and food self-administration were examined in six rhesus monkeys. Saline control treatment was studied for 15 days before and after buprenorphine treatment. Intravenous cocaine (0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg) and food (1 g banana pellet) self-administration were maintained on a FR 4 (VR 16:S) schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine self-administration decreased significantly (P less than .0001) and remained 60 to 97% below saline treatment baseline levels (52 +/- 2 injections/day) throughout 120 days of buprenorphine treatment (P less than .01). After substitution of saline for buprenorphine, cocaine self-administration resumed and averaged between 21 (+/- 3.6) and 56 (+/- 6.5) injections per day over 20 days. Buprenorphine plasma levels averaged 18 (+/- 2.84) ng/ml (range 10.9-30 ng/ml) during buprenorphine treatment. Buprenorphine plasma levels usually decreased by 50% or more within 27 hr after the last buprenorphine dose. Low levels of buprenorphine (0.10-0.19 ng/ml) were measured for 30 to 74 days after abrupt termination of daily buprenorphine treatment. Food self-administration was initially reduced (P less than .01-.05), but tolerance to buprenorphine's suppression of food-maintained responding developed over 30 to 70 days of treatment. Food self-administration returned to and significantly exceeded (P less than .05-.01) saline treatment base-line levels, whereas cocaine self-administration remained significantly suppressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1545386

Mello, N K; Lukas, S E; Kamien, J B; Mendelson, J H; Drieze, J; Cone, E J

1992-03-01

15

Bringing Buprenorphine-Naloxone Detoxification to Community Treatment Providers: The NIDA Clinical Trials Network Field Experience  

PubMed Central

In October 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone®) sublingual tablets as an opioid dependence treatment available for use outside traditionally licensed opioid treatment programs. The NIDA Center for Clinical Trials Network (CTN) sponsored two clinical trials assessing buprenorphine-naloxone for short-term opioid detoxification. These trials provided an unprecedented field test of its use in twelve diverse community-based treatment programs. Opioid-dependent men and women were randomized to a thirteen-day buprenorphine-naloxone taper regimen for short-term opioid detoxification. The 234 buprenorphine-naloxone patients averaged 37 years old and used mostly intravenous heroin. Direct and rapid induction onto buprenorphine-naloxone was safe and well tolerated. Most patients (83%) received 8 mg buprenorphine-2 mg naloxone on the first day and 90% successfully completed induction and reached a target dose of 16mg buprenorphine-4 mg naloxone in three days. Medication compliance and treatment engagement was high. An average of 81% of available doses was ingested, and 68% of patients completed the detoxification. Most (80.3%) patients received some ancillary medications with an average of 2.3 withdrawal symptoms treated. The safety profile of buprenorphine-naloxone was excellent. Of eighteen serious adverse events reported, only one was possibly related to buprenorphine-naloxone. All providers successfully integrated buprenorphine-naloxone into their existing treatment milieus. Overall, data from the CTN field experience suggest that buprenorphine-naloxone is practical and safe for use in diverse community treatment settings, including those with minimal experience providing opioid-based pharmacotherapy and/or medical detoxification for opioid dependence. PMID:15204675

Amass, Leslie; Ling, Walter; Freese, Thomas E.; Reiber, Chris; Annon, Jeffrey J.; Cohen, Allan J.; M.F.T.; McCarty, Dennis; Reid, Malcolm S.; Brown, Lawrence S.; Clark, Cynthia; Ziedonis, Douglas M.; Krejci, Jonathan; Stine, Susan; Winhusen, Theresa; Brigham, Greg; Babcock, Dean; L.C.S.W.; Muir, Joan A.; Buchan, Betty J.; Horton, Terry

2005-01-01

16

Buprenorphine versus dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification in primary care: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many drug users present to primary care requesting detoxification from illicit opiates. There are a number of detoxification agents but no recommended drug of choice. The purpose of this study is to compare buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for detoxification from illicit opiates in primary care. METHODS: Open label randomised controlled trial in NHS Primary Care (General Practices), Leeds, UK. Sixty

Nat MJ Wright; Laura Sheard; Charlotte NE Tompkins; Clive E Adams; Victoria L Allgar; Nicola S Oldham

2007-01-01

17

Buprenorphine augmentation in the treatment of refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: OCD is often refractory to treatment. There is a need for the development of new, non-invasive treatments for severe OCD. Rationale: There is evidence that opiates can be a useful adjunctive treatment in OCD. We summarise our experience with sublingual buprenorphine augmentation of standard pharmacological management of severe OCD. Methods: Patients were recruited from a standard psychiatric outpatient clinic and gave their consent to the treatment trial. The severity of the OCD was rated with the Y-BOCS. The buprenorphine was introduced to their existing medication regime at a low dose and the dose increased according to response. In order to gauge the reproducibility of the response the buprenorphine was withdrawn and then reintroduced once symptoms had returned. Results: 4 out of 7 patients with treatment resistant OCD showed a 30% reduction in the Y-BOCS score following buprenorphine augmentation. 3 of the responders were comorbid for other Axis 1 diagnoses. All of the responders had shown some improvement with SSRIs or clomipramine. Non-responders had not shown any improvement with either antidepressant or antipsychotic drugs. Typically improvement appeared within 2 days of initiating buprenorphine and waned within 1 to 2 days of its discontinuation. The dose of buprenorphine required varied between 400 µg and 600 µg a day. One responder managed on alternate day dosing. Reintroduction of buprenorphine resulted in symptom control within 2 to 3 days. The buprenorphine treatment was not associated with significant side-effects and the improvement was maintained without progressive dose escalation. Conclusions: Buprenorphine augmentation of standard treatment for OCD can result in clinically meaningful improvement in a proportion of refractory OCD cases. Further treatment trials are indicated. PMID:23983988

Aziz, Victor; Briggs, Patrick; Kanakkehewa, Nimalee; Rawi, Omar

2013-01-01

18

Consensus statement on office-based treatment of opioid dependence using buprenorphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buprenorphine and buprenorphine\\/naloxone (BUP) are newly approved for office-based treatment of opioid dependence. Federal and non-federal regulatory and monitoring agencies, national and international researchers, national professional organizations, researchers involved in monitoring, opioid treatment programs and the pharmaceutical industry met to synthesize and disseminate practical information to guide training, practice, monitoring, regulation and evaluation efforts with these medications. We performed a

David A. Fiellin; Herbert Kleber; Jeanne G. Trumble-Hejduk; A. Thomas McLellan; Thomas R. Kosten

2004-01-01

19

Adoption of evidence-based clinical innovations: the case of buprenorphine use by opioid treatment programs.  

PubMed

This article examines changes from 2005 to 2011 in the use of an evidence-based clinical innovation, buprenorphine use, among a nationally representative sample of opioid treatment programs and identifies characteristics associated with its adoption. We apply a model of the adoption of clinical innovations that focuses on the work needs and characteristics of staff; organizations' technical and social support for the innovation; local market dynamics and competition; and state policies governing the innovation. Results indicate that buprenorphine use increased 24% for detoxification and 47% for maintenance therapy between 2005 and 2011. Buprenorphine use was positively related to reliance on private insurance and availability of state subsidies to cover its cost and inversely related to the percentage of clients who injected opiates, county size, and local availability of methadone. The results indicate that financial incentives and market factors play important roles in opioid treatment programs' decisions to adopt evidence-based clinical innovations such as buprenorphine use. PMID:24051897

Andrews, Christina M; D'Aunno, Thomas A; Pollack, Harold A; Friedmann, Peter D

2014-02-01

20

Consensus statement on office-based treatment of opioid dependence using buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP) are newly approved for office-based treatment of opioid dependence. Federal and non-federal regulatory and monitoring agencies, national and international researchers, national professional organizations, researchers involved in monitoring, opioid treatment programs and the pharmaceutical industry met to synthesize and disseminate practical information to guide training, practice, monitoring, regulation and evaluation efforts with these medications. We performed a review of the literature, training curricula and practice guidelines and commissioned manuscripts describing recently completed, or still in progress, studies or field experiences with BUP treatment. A consensus process generated fifteen statements: (1) The federal government should collect baseline data on opioid-related deaths and morbidity to assess the effect of BUP on public health, (2) the patient limit for group practices should apply to individual physicians rather than group practices, (3 and 4) telephone and Internet-based physician and pharmacist support is needed, (5) clinicians who provide psychosocial services to opioid dependent patients should be informed of the role of BUP, (6) opioid-dependent patients should be instructed to present for induction in mild withdrawal, (7) the existing Center for Substance Abuse Treatment guidelines provide a reasonable induction protocol, (8) physicians should be prepared to use ancillary medications with BUP induction, (9) a physician or nurse must be available to the patient during the induction period, (10) concurrent counseling and support services are necessary, (11) detoxification without appropriate followup addiction treatment leads to rapid relapse and is not as effective as maintenance, (12) pregnant opioid-dependent women should be treated using good clinical practice including specialist addiction care and prenatal care, (13) BUP induction and withdrawal treatment may benefit from different designations for payment, (14) take-home medication options should be tailored to patients' needs, (15) there is a need for clinical and policy research in unique patient populations. PMID:15450648

Fiellin, David A; Kleber, Herbert; Trumble-Hejduk, Jeanne G; McLellan, A Thomas; Kosten, Thomas R

2004-09-01

21

Extended vs Short-term Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Treatment of Opioid-Addicted Youth  

PubMed Central

Context The usual treatment for opioid-addicted youth is detoxification and counseling. Extended medication-assisted therapy may be more helpful. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of continuing buprenorphine-naloxone for 12 weeks vs detoxification for opioid-addicted youth. Design, Setting, and Patients Clinical trial at 6 community programs from July 2003 to December 2006 including 152 patients aged 15 to 21 years who were randomized to 12 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone or a 14-day taper (detox). Interventions Patients in the 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone group were prescribed up to 24 mg per day for 9 weeks and then tapered to week 12; patients in the detox group were prescribed up to 14 mg per day and then tapered to day 14. All were offered weekly individual and group counseling. Main Outcome Measure Opioid-positive urine test result at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The number of patients younger than 18 years was too small to analyze separately, but overall, patients in the detox group had higher proportions of opioid-positive urine test results at weeks 4 and 8 but not at week 12 ( ?22 = 4.93, P = .09). At week 4, 59 detox patients had positive results (61%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 47%-75%) vs 58 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (26%; 95% CI = 14%-38%). At week 8, 53 detox patients had positive results (54%; 95% CI = 38%-70%) vs 52 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (23%; 95% CI = 11%-35%). At week 12, 53 detox patients had positive results (51%; 95% CI = 35%-67%) vs 49 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (43%; 95% CI = 29%-57%). By week 12, 16 of 78 detox patients (20.5%) remained in treatment vs 52 of 74 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (70%; ?12 = 32.90, P < .001). During weeks 1 through 12, patients in the 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone group reported less opioid use ( ?12 = 18.45, P < .001), less injecting ( ?12 = 6.00, P = .01), and less nonstudy addiction treatment ( ?12 = 25.82, P < .001). High levels of opioid use occurred in both groups at follow-up. Four of 83 patients who tested negative for hepatitis C at baseline were positive for hepatitis C at week 12. Conclusions Continuing treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone improved outcome compared with short-term detoxification. Further research is necessary to assess the efficacy and safety of longer-term treatment with buprenorphine for young individuals with opioid dependence. PMID:18984887

Woody, George E.; Poole, Sabrina A.; Subramaniam, Geetha; Dugosh, Karen; Bogenschutz, Michael; Abbott, Patrick; Patkar, Ashwin; Publicker, Mark; McCain, Karen; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Forman, Robert; Vetter, Victoria; McNicholas, Laura; Blaine, Jack; Lynch, Kevin G.; Fudala, Paul

2008-01-01

22

Comment on "a comparison of buprenorphine + naloxone to buprenorphine and methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes".  

PubMed

In a recent article, Lund et al sought to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of various treatment regimens for opioid dependence during pregnancy.1 In their background, discussion the authors state that "In the United States buprenorphine plus naloxone [Suboxone(®)] … has been the preferred form of prescribed buprenorphine due to its reduced abuse liability relative to buprenorphine alone [Subutex(®)]." This claim is certainly consistent with the view of the firm that has manufactured and sold both products, Reckitt Benckiser. In September of 2011, the company announced that it was "… discontinuing distribution and sale of Subutex(®) tablets as we believe that mono product (product containing buprenorphine alone with no naloxone) creates a greater risk of misuse, abuse and diversion …".2 Supporting evidence for the alleged "reduced abuse liability" appears to be lacking, however, and evidence cannot be located in the two references cited by Dr. Lund and his co-authors, which in fact are silent on the subject of abuse potential.3,4 In contrast, it has been reported that the transition to buprenorphine/naloxone from the mono formulation has been associated with "… no reduction in injection risk behaviors among IDUs."5. PMID:23772177

Newman, Robert G; Gevertz, Susan G

2013-01-01

23

Persistence During Stress-Challenge Associated With Lapse to Opioid Use During Buprenorphine Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lapse to opiate use after initiation of buprenorphine treatment is common and is a strong predictor of poor treatment retention and increased risk of chronic opiate use. Drug-cues and situations or events associated with distress are known to provoke craving and increase risk for lapse. The current study evaluated the predictive validity of a behavioral index of persistence during a stress-challenge among opiate users identified as affectively vulnerable to lapse risk due to elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Patients from on ongoing clinical trial (n=48) completed a stress-challenge task prior to receiving their first dose of buprenorphine. Results After controlling for levels of craving on their induction day, persistence on the stress-challenge task prior to initiating buprenorphine treatment was associated with successful transition to early abstinence, and lower rates of opiate use during the initial three months of buprenorphine treatment across antidepressant and placebo groups. Conclusions Results from this preliminary study suggest the promise of laboratory-based behavioral paradigms in facilitating understanding of important mechanisms of early lapse. Identifying individual behavioral responses to drug- and stress-cues prior to attempts at abstinence may facilitate delivery of adjunctive behavioral treatments to prevent early lapse. PMID:22864399

Strong, David R.; Brown, Richard A.; Sims, Meredith; Herman, Debra S.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

2014-01-01

24

Developing and Implementing a New Prison-Based Buprenorphine Treatment Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that buprenorphine treatment may be a promising intervention for incarcerated individuals with heroin addiction histories. However, its implementation varies from corrections-based methadone because of unique challenges regarding dosing, administration, and regulation. Describing the first randomized clinical trial of…

Kinlock, Timothy W.; Gordon, Michael S.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Fitzgerald, Terrence T.

2010-01-01

25

Compliance with buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment and relapse to opioid use.  

PubMed

Opioid dependence (OD), often characterized as a chronic relapsing disorder, affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of compliance with buprenorphine on reducing relapse among a sample of patients in treatment for OD. Patients new to buprenorphine (N?= 703) completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) at baseline, and at 1, 2, and 3 months postbaseline. The ASI is a semistructured interview designed to measure problem severity in seven functional areas known to be affected by alcohol and drug dependence. Compliance was defined as taking buprenorphine medication on at least 22 of the past 28 days (80%), while relapse classification was based on resumed use of opioids during the follow-up period (months 2 and 3). Relapse was regressed onto demographic indicators, baseline ASI composite scores, and compliance with buprenorphine. Noncompliant patients were over 10 times more likely to relapse than those who were compliant (exp ?= 10.55;?p?< .001). Neither demographics nor baseline ASI composite scores were predictive of relapse (p's > .05). Compliance with medication-assisted treatment supports abstinence, essential for patient recovery. Understanding the factors that drive treatment compliance and noncompliance may assist providers in supporting patient compliance and recovery.? PMID:22211347

Tkacz, Joseph; Severt, Jamie; Cacciola, John; Ruetsch, Charles

2012-01-01

26

Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 40  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) addresses the clinical use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts…

Boone, Margaret; Brown, Nancy J.; Moon, Mary A.; Schuman, Deborah J.; Thomas, Josephine; Wright, Denise L.

2004-01-01

27

Motivational Assessment of Non-Treatment Buprenorphine Research Participation in Heroin Dependent Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Heroin abuse remains an important public health problem, particularly in economically disadvantaged areas. Insight into this problem is gained from interviewing addicted individuals. However, we lack systematic data on factors that motivate heroin users to participate in non-treatment research that offers both financial incentives (compensation) and non-financial incentives (e.g., short-term medication). Aim To better understand the relative importance of several types of personal motivations to participate in non-treatment buprenorphine research, and to relate self-motivations to social, economic, demographic and drug use factors. Methods Heroin dependent volunteers (N = 235 total; 57 female and 178 male; 136 African American, 86 Caucasian, and 13 Other) applied for non-therapeutic buprenorphine research in an urban outpatient setting from 2004–2008. We conducted a semi-structured behavioral economic interview, after which participants ranked 11 possible motivations for research participation. Results Although the study was repeatedly described as non-treatment research involving buprenorphine, participants often ranked some treatment-related motivations as important (wanting to reduce/stop heroin use, needing a medication to get stabilized/detoxify). Some motivations correlated with income, heroin use, and years since marketing of buprenorphine. Two dimensions emerged from principal component analysis of motivation rankings: (1) treatment motivation vs. greater immediate needs, and (2) commitment to trying alternatives vs. a more accepting attitude toward traditional interventions. In summary, heroin addicts’ self-motivations to engage in non-therapeutic research are complex – they value economic gain but not exclusively or primarily – and relate to variables such as socioeconomic factors and drug use. PMID:22137646

Papke, Gina; Greenwald, Mark K.

2011-01-01

28

PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF STREET-OBTAINED BUPRENORPHINE USE AMONG CURRENT AND FORMER INJECTORS IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND  

PubMed Central

Objectives There are few systematic assessments of street-obtained buprenorphine use from community-based samples in the United States. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence, correlates, and reasons for street-obtained buprenorphine use among current and former injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, Maryland. Methods In 2008, participants of the ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience) study, a community-based cohort of IDUs, were administered a survey on buprenorphine. Street-obtained buprenorphine represented self-reported use of buprenorphine obtained from the street or a friend in the prior three months. Results 602 respondents were predominantly male (65%), African-American (91%), and 30% were HIV-positive. Overall, nine percent reported recent street-obtained buprenorphine use, and only 2% reported using to get high. Among active opiate users, 23% reported recent use of street-obtained buprenorphine. Use of buprenorphine prescribed by a physician, injection and non-injection drug use, use of street-obtained methadone and prescription opiates, homelessness, and opioid withdrawal symptoms were positively associated, while methadone treatment, health insurance, outpatient care, and HIV-infection were negatively associated with recent street-obtained buprenorphine use in univariate analysis. After adjustment, active injection and heroin use were positively associated with street-obtained buprenorphine use. Ninety-one percent reported using street-obtained buprenorphine to manage withdrawal symptoms. Conclusions While 9% reported recent street-obtained buprenorphine use, only a small minority reported using buprenorphine to get high, with the majority reporting use to manage withdrawal symptoms. There is limited evidence of diversion of buprenorphine in this sample and efforts to expand buprenorphine treatment should continue with further monitoring. PMID:24018232

Genberg, Becky L.; Gillespie, Mirinda; Schuster, Charles R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Astemborski, Jacquie; Kirk, Gregory D.; Vlahov, David; Mehta, Shruti H.

2013-01-01

29

Management of opioid painkiller dependence in primary care: ongoing recovery with buprenorphine/naloxone.  

PubMed

Opioid painkiller dependence is a growing problem and best-practice management is not well defined. We report a case of a young woman exhibiting dependence on codeine, originally prescribed for myalgic encephalopathy, after escalating use over a 10-year period. In 2012, a consultation with a new general practitioner, who had extensive experience of patients with substance abuse, revealed the underlying dependence. After building trust for 6?months, she was able to admit to medication abuse, and was referred to the community drug and alcohol team. On presentation to the team, the patient had no pain issues and the dihydrocodeine use-600 tablets/week-solely reflected her dependence. The patient successfully underwent rapid induction with buprenorphine/naloxone as opioid substitution treatment over 2?days. She is currently stable, engaged with recovery support services and psychosocial counselling, and has just returned to work. She is maintained on a therapeutic dose of buprenorphine 10?mg/naloxone 2.5?mg. PMID:25432908

Hard, Bernadette

2014-01-01

30

[Buprenorphine transdermal patch (Norspan tape)].  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is a chemically synthesized opioid characterized as the partial mu agonist and kappa antagonist, and transdermal buprenorphine patch will be considered useful as a strong analgesic with fewer psychological side effects in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. Use of transdermal buprenorphine should be limited for pain relief of intractable muscle skeletal pain that cannot be alleviated with other analgesics. To avoid severe complication and drug abuse or addiction, assessment of pain and medical history including drug dependence by medical team are important before administration of transdermal buprenorphine. Moreover, side effects such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, erythema and itching, loss of appetite should be treated appropriately. When transdermal buprenorphine is administered to chronic pain patients, physicians must examine the condition of patients regularly at an outpatient clinic. Moreover, decreasing and discontinuation of opioid including transdermal buprenorphine should always be considered during the treatment. Most important objective of chronic pain treatment is to improve QOL and ADL of patients. PMID:23905402

Hamaguchi, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Tomohito

2013-07-01

31

Diversion of methadone and buprenorphine from opioid substitution treatment: a staff perspective.  

PubMed

Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is still controversial, despite positive results. The issue of diversion to the illicit drug market is a cornerstone in the criticism typically voiced against the treatment. Little research is available concerning how professionals who work in OST view the issue of diversion. In this article, we discuss existing ideas and attitudes toward diversion of methadone and buprenorphine among OST staff in Sweden. The article is based on semi-structured interviews with 25 professionals working in eight OST-programs in southern Sweden. Diversion was seen as a deleterious phenomenon by the interviewees. Three problematic aspects were highlighted: medical risks in the form of overdose fatalities and the recruitment of new opiate/opioid users; negative consequences for the legitimacy of OST; and moral objections, since diversion means that the patients remain in a criminal environment. However, positive aspects were also highlighted. Illicit methadone or buprenorphine is perceived as safer than heroin. In this way, diversion can fulfill a positive function; for instance, if there is a shortage of access to regular treatment. Patients who share their medication with opioid-dependent friends are seen as less culpable than those who sell to anyone for money. PMID:25364995

Johnson, Björn; Richert, Torkel

2014-01-01

32

Variation in use of Buprenorphine and Methadone Treatment by Racial, Ethnic and Income Characteristics of Residential Social Areas in New York City  

PubMed Central

National data indicate that patients treated with buprenorphine for opiate use disorders are more likely to be White, highly educated, and to have greater incomes than those receiving methadone, but patterns of buprenorphine dissemination across demographic areas have not been documented in major metropolitan areas where poverty, minority populations and injection heroin use are concentrated. Rates of buprenorphine and methadone treatment are compared among areas of New York City defined by their income and ethnic/racial composition. Residential social areas (hereinafter called social areas) were defined as aggregations of ZIP codes with similar race/ethnicity and income characteristics, and were formed based on clustering techniques. Treatment rates were obtained for each New York City ZIP code: buprenorphine treatment rates were based on the annual number of buprenorphine prescriptions written, and the methadone treatment rate on the number of methadone clinic visits for persons in each ZIP code. Treatment rates were correlated univariately with ethnicity and income characteristics of ZIP codes. Social area treatment rates were compared using individual ANOVA models for each rate. Buprenorphine and methadone treatment rates were significantly correlated with the ethnicity and income characteristics of ZIP codes, and treatment rates differed significantly across the social areas. Buprenorphine treatment rates were highest in the social area with the highest income and lowest percentage of Black and Hispanic residents. Conversely, the methadone treatment rate was highest in the social area with the highest percentage of low income and Hispanic residents. The uneven dissemination of 0pioid maintenance treatment in New York City may be reflective of the limited public health impact of buprenorphine in ethnic minority and low income areas. Specific policy and educational interventions to providers are needed to promote the use of buprenorphine for opiate use disorders in diverse populations. PMID:23702611

Hansen, Helena B.; Siegel, Carole E.; Case, Brady G.; Bertollo, David N.; DiRocco, Danae; Galanter, Marc

2013-01-01

33

Predictors of Abstinence: National Institute of Drug Abuse Multisite Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid-Dependent Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal)-assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid-dependent youth. Method: Secondary analyses were performed of data from 152 youth (15-21 years old) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with weekly…

Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

2011-01-01

34

Buprenorphine for opioid addiction  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist of the µ-receptor, and is used as a daily dose sublingual tablet or filmstrip for managing opioid addiction. In the USA, the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 made buprenorphine the only opioid medication for opioid addiction that can be prescribed in an office-based setting. Owing to its high affinity for the µ-receptor, buprenorphine inhibits the reinforcing effect of exogenous opioids. The ceiling effect of buprenorphine's µ-agonist activity reduces the potential for drug overdose and confers low toxicity even at high doses. Buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has proven to be a treatment approach that supports recovery from addiction while reducing or curtailing the use of opioids. This article examines buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction, focusing on the situation in the USA, and is based on a review of pertinent literature, and the authors’ research and clinical experience. The references in this paper were chosen according to the authors’ judgment of quality and relevance, and with respect to their familiarity and involvement in related research. PMID:24654720

Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Torrington, Matthew

2014-01-01

35

Supply of buprenorphine waivered physicians: The influence of state policies.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine, an effective opioid use disorder treatment, can be prescribed only by buprenorphine-waivered physicians. We calculated the number of buprenorphine-waivered physicians/100,000 county residents using 2008-11 Buprenorphine Waiver Notification System data, and used multivariate regression models to predict number of buprenorphine-waivered physicians/100,000 residents in a county as a function of county characteristics, state policies and efforts to promote buprenorphine use. In 2011, 43% of US counties had no buprenorphine-waivered physicians and 7% had 20 or more waivered physicians. Medicaid funding, opioid overdose deaths, and specific state guidance for office-based buprenorphine use were associated with more buprenorphine-waivered physicians, while encouraging methadone programs to promote buprenorphine use had no impact. Our findings provide important empirical information to individuals seeking to identify effective approaches to increase the number of physicians able to prescribe buprenorphine. PMID:25218919

Stein, Bradley D; Gordon, Adam J; Dick, Andrew W; Burns, Rachel M; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Farmer, Carrie M; Leslie, Douglas L; Sorbero, Mark

2015-01-01

36

Buprenorphine Sublingual  

MedlinePLUS

... dependence (addiction to opioid drugs, including heroin and narcotic painkillers). Buprenorphine is in a class of medications ... other medications.do not take antidepressants ('mood elevators'), narcotic pain killers, sedatives, sleeping pills, or tranquilizers while ...

37

Predictors of attrition with buprenorphine/naloxone treatment in opioid dependent youth?  

PubMed Central

Background In opioid dependent youth there is substantial attrition from medication-assisted treatment. If youth at risk for attrition can be identified at treatment entry or early in treatment, they can be targeted for interventions to help retain them in treatment. Methods Opioid dependent adolescents and young adults (n=152), aged 15–21, were randomized to 12 weeks (BUP, n=74) or 2 weeks of detoxification (DETOX, n=78) with buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal), both in combination with 12 weeks of psychosocial treatment. Baseline and early treatment related predictors of treatment attrition were identified in each group using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results In the DETOX group 36% left between weeks 2 and 4, at the end of the dose taper, while in the BUP group only 8% left by week 4. In the BUP group, early adherence to Bup/Nal, early opioid negative urines, use of any medications in the month prior to treatment entry, and lifetime non-heroin opioid use were associated with retention while prior 30-day hallucinogen use was associated with attrition. In the DETOX group, only use of sleep medications was associated with retention although not an independent predictor. A broad range of other pre-treatment characteristics was unrelated to attrition. Conclusions Prompt attention to those with early non-adherence to medication or an early opioid positive urine, markers available in the first 2 weeks of treatment, may improve treatment retention. Extended Bup/ Nal treatment appeared effective in improving treatment retention for youth with opioid dependence across a wide range of demographics, and pre-treatment clinical characteristics. PMID:22626890

Warden, Diane; Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Carmody, Thomas; Woody, George E.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Poole, Sabrina A.; Potter, Jennifer; Fishman, Marc; Bogenschutz, Michael; Patkar, Ashwin; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

2012-01-01

38

Predictors of Abstinence: NIDA Multi-site Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid Dependent Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal) assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid dependent youth Method Secondary analyses of data from 152 youth (ages 15–21) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification, both with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify baseline and during-treatment predictors of opioid positive urines (OPU) at week-12. Predictors were selected based on significance or trend toward significance (i.e. p<0.1) and backward stepwise selection was used, controlling for treatment group, to produce final independent predictors at p ? 0.05. Results Youth presenting to treatment with past 30-day injection drug use (IDU) and more active medical/psychiatric problems were less likely to have a week-12 OPU. Those with early treatment opioid abstinence (i.e. weeks 1 and 2); and those who received additional non-study treatments during the study were less likely to have a week-12 OPU; and those not completing 12 weeks of treatment were more likely to have an OPU. Conclusions Youth with advanced illness (i.e. reporting IDU and additional health problems), and those receiving ancillary treatments to augment study treatment were more likely to have lower opioid use. Treatment success in the first 2 weeks and completion of 12 weeks of treatment were associated with lower rates of OPU. These findings suggest that youth with advanced illness respond well to Bup/Nal treatment, and identify options for tailoring treatment for opioid-dependent youth presenting at community-based settings. PMID:22024000

Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

2013-01-01

39

Patient perspectives on buprenorphine/naloxone: a qualitative study of retention during the starting treatment with agonist replacement therapies (START) study.  

PubMed

This study examines the barriers and facilitators of retention among patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone at eight community-based opioid treatment programs across the United States. Participants (n = 105) were recruited up to three and a half years after having participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone on liver function. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 67 patients provided with buprenorphine/naloxone who had terminated early and 38 patients who had completed at least 24 weeks of the trial. Qualitative data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Barriers to buprenorphine/naloxone retention that emerged included factors associated with: (1) the design of the clinical trial; (2) negative medication or treatment experience; and (3) personal circumstances. The facilitators comprised: (1) positive experience with the medication; (2) personal determination and commitment to complete; and (3) staff encouragement and support. The themes drawn from interviews highlight the importance of considering patients' prior experience with buprenorphine/naloxone and methadone, medication preference, personal circumstances, and motivation to abstain from illicit use or misuse of opioids, as these may influence retention. Ongoing education of patients and staff regarding buprenorphine/naloxone, especially in comparison to methadone, and support from staff and peers are essential. PMID:25364994

Teruya, Cheryl; Schwartz, Robert P; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Hasson, Albert L; Thomas, Christie; Buoncristiani, Samantha H; Hser, Yih-Ing; Wiest, Katharina; Cohen, Allan J; Glick, Naomi; Jacobs, Petra; McLaughlin, Paul; Ling, Walter

2014-01-01

40

Patient Characteristics Associated with Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Outcome for Prescription Opioid Dependence: Results from a Multisite Study  

PubMed Central

Background Prescription opioid dependence is a growing problem, but little research exists on its treatment, including patient characteristics that predict treatment outcome. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a large multisite, randomized clinical trial, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) was undertaken to examine baseline patient characteristics (N=360) associated with success during 12-week buprenorphine/naloxone treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Baseline predictor variables included self-reported demographic and opioid use history information, diagnoses assessed via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and historical opioid use and related information from the Pain And Opiate Analgesic Use History. Results In bivariate analyses, pre-treatment characteristics associated with successful opioid use outcome included older age, past-year or lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder, initially obtaining opioids with a medical prescription to relieve pain, having only used opioids by swallowing or sublingual administration, never having used heroin, using an opioid other than extended-release oxycodone most frequently, and no prior opioid dependence treatment. In multivariate analysis, age, lifetime major depressive disorder, having only used opioids by swallowing or sublingual administration, and receiving no prior opioid dependence treatment remained as significant predictors of successful outcome. Conclusions This is the first study to examine characteristics associated with treatment outcome in patients dependent exclusively on prescription opioids. Characteristics associated with successful outcome after 12 weeks of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment include some that have previously been found to predict heroin-dependent patients’ response to methadone treatment and some specific to prescription opioid-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone. PMID:23333292

Dreifuss, Jessica A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Frost, Katherine; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Fiellin, David A.; Selzer, Jeffrey; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Sonne, Susan C.; Weiss, Roger D.

2012-01-01

41

Treatment Retention among Patients Randomized to Buprenorphine/Naloxone Compared to Methadone in A Multi-site Trial  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine patient and medication characteristics associated with retention and continued illicit opioid use in methadone (MET) versus buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP) treatment for opioid dependence. Design/Settings/Participants This secondary analysis included 1,267 opioid-dependent individuals participating in 9 opioid treatment programs between 2006 and 2009 and randomized to receive open-label BUP or MET for 24 weeks. Measurements The analyses included measures of patient characteristics at baseline (demographics; use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit drugs; self-rated mental and physical health), medication dose and urine drug screens during treatment, and treatment completion and days in treatment during the 24 week trial. Findings The treatment completion rate was 74% for MET vs. 46% for BUP (p<.01); the rate among MET participants increased to 80% when the maximum MET dose reached or exceeded 60mg/day. With BUP, the completion rate increased linearly with higher doses, reaching 60% with doses of 30–32mg/day. Of those remaining in treatment, positive opioid urine results were significantly lower (OR=0.63, 95%CI=0.52–0.76, p<.01) among BUP relative to MET participants during the first 9 weeks of treatment. Higher medication dose was related to lower opiate use, more so among BUP patients. A Cox proportional hazards model revealed factors associated with dropout: (1) BUP (vs. MET, HR=1.61, CI:1.20–2.15), (2) lower medication dose (<16mg for BUP, <60mg for MET; HR=3.09, CI:2.19–4.37), (3) the interaction of dose and treatment condition (those with higher BUP dose were 1.04 times more likely to drop out than those with lower MET dose, and (4) being younger, Hispanic, and using heroin or other substances during treatment. Conclusions Provision of methadone appears to be associated with better retention in treatment for opioid dependence than buprenorphine, as does use of provision of higher doses of both medications. Provision of buprenorphine is associated with lower continued use of illicit opioids. PMID:23961726

Hser, Yih-Ing; Saxon, Andrew J.; Huang, David; Hasson, Al; Thomas, Christie; Hillhouse, Maureen; Jacobs, Petra; Teruya, Cheryl; McLaughlin, Paul; Wiest, Katharina; Cohen, Allan; Ling, Walter

2013-01-01

42

Dosing considerations with transdermal formulations of fentanyl and buprenorphine for the treatment of cancer pain  

PubMed Central

Opioids continue to be first-line pharmacotherapy for patients suffering from cancer pain. Unfortunately, subtherapeutic dosage prescribing of pain medications remains common, and many cancer patients continue to suffer and experience diminished quality of life. A large variety of therapeutic options are available for cancer pain patients. Analgesic pharmacotherapy is based on the patient’s self-report of pain intensity and should be tailored to meet the requirements of each individual. Most, if not all, cancer pain patients will ultimately require modifications in their opioid pharmacotherapy. When changes in a patient’s medication regimen are needed, adequate pain control is best maintained through appropriate dosage conversion, scheduling immediate release medication for withdrawal prevention, and providing as needed dosing for breakthrough pain. Transdermal opioids are noninvasive, cause less constipation and sedation when compared to oral opioids, and may improve patient compliance. A relative potency of 100:1 is recommended when converting the patient from oral morphine to transdermal fentanyl. Based on the limited data available, there is significant interpatient variability with transdermal buprenorphine and equipotency recommendations from oral morphine of 75:1–110:1 have been suggested. Cancer patients may require larger transdermal buprenorphine doses to control their pain and may respond better to a more aggressive 75–100:1 potency ratio. This review outlines the prescribing of transdermal fentanyl and transdermal buprenorphine including how to safely and effectively convert to and use them for those with cancer pain. PMID:25170278

Skaer, Tracy L

2014-01-01

43

Gender Differences Among Prisoners With Pre-Incarceration Heroin Dependence Participating in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Buprenorphine Treatment  

PubMed Central

The primary focus of the current study is to examine whether gender and other baseline characteristics were significantly associated with more severe patterns of drug use. It involves data from 260 male and female pre-release prison inmates with pre-incarceration heroin dependence who enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine. Three outcomes are examined: 1) Lifetime Intravenous drug use; 2) Lifetime number of drugs used; and 3) Heroin use in prison. Regarding lifetime intravenous drug use; race (p = .0001), education (p = .009), age (p = .0001), and psychological treatment (p = .028) were significant. Concerning lifetime number of drugs used; race (p =.0001) and age of first crime (p = .001) were significant. Finally, gender (p = .004), was the only significant variable in terms of using heroin while in prison. All of these differences may have important clinical, treatment, and research implications, which are discussed. PMID:23997546

Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Wilson, Monique E.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

2013-01-01

44

A review of buprenorphine diversion and misuse: the current evidence base and experiences from around the world.  

PubMed

Outpatient opioid addiction treatment with sublingual buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has rapidly expanded in the United States and abroad, and, with this increase in medication availability, there have been increasing concerns about its diversion, misuse, and related harms. This narrative review defines the behaviors of diversion and misuse, examines how the pharmacology of buprenorphine alone and in combination with naloxone influence its abuse liability, and describes the epidemiological data on buprenorphine diversion and intravenous misuse, risk factors for its intravenous misuse, and the unintended consequences of misuse and diversion. Physician practices to prevent, screen for, and therapeutically respond to these behaviors, which are a form of medication nonadherence, are discussed, and gaps in knowledge are identified. Outpatient opioid addiction treatment with sublingual buprenorphine pharmacotherapy experiences from other countries that have varied health care systems, public policies, and access to addiction treatment are shared to make clear that diversion and misuse occur across the world in various contexts, for many different reasons, and are not limited to buprenorphine. Comparisons are made with other opioids with known abuse liability and medications with no known abuse. The objective was to facilitate understanding of diversion and misuse so that all factors influencing their expression (patient and provider characteristics and public policy) can be appreciated within a framework that also recognizes the benefits of addiction treatment. With this comprehensive perspective, further careful work can help determine how to minimize these behaviors without eroding the current benefits realized through improved addiction treatment access and expansion. PMID:25221984

Lofwall, Michelle R; Walsh, Sharon L

2014-01-01

45

Failure to identify or effectively manage prescription opioid dependence acted as a gateway to heroin use-buprenorphine/naloxone treatment and recovery in a surgical patient.  

PubMed

The prescribing of opioid pain medication has increased markedly in recent years, with strong opioid dispensing increasing 18-fold in Tayside, Scotland since 1995. Despite this, little data is available to quantify the problem of opioid pain medication dependence (OPD) and until recently there was little guidance on best-practice treatment. We report the case of a young mother prescribed dihydrocodeine for postoperative pain relief who became opioid dependent. When her prescription was stopped without support, she briefly used heroin to overcome her withdrawal. After re-exposure to dihydrocodeine following surgery 9?years later and treatment with methadone for dependency, she was transferred to buprenorphine/naloxone. In our clinical experience and in agreement with Department of Health and Royal College of General Practitioner guidance, buprenorphine/naloxone is the preferred opioid substitution treatment for OPD. Our patient remains within her treatment programme and has returned to work on buprenorphine 16?mg/naloxone 4?mg in conjunction with social and psychological support. PMID:25519865

Conroy, Stephen; Hill, Duncan

2014-01-01

46

Comparative Effects of Vasectomy Surgery and Buprenorphine Treatment on Faecal Corticosterone Concentrations and Behaviour Assessed by Manual and Automated Analysis Methods in C57 and C3H Mice  

PubMed Central

Establishing effective cage-side pain assessment methods is essential if post-surgical pain is to be controlled effectively in laboratory animals. Changes to overall activity levels are the most common methods of assessment, but may not be the most appropriate for establishing the analgesic properties of drugs, especially in mice, due their high activity levels. Use of drugs that can affect activity (e.g. opioids) is also a problem. The relative merits of both manual and automated behaviour data collection methods was determined in two inbred mouse strains undergoing vasectomy following treatment with one of 2 buprenorphine dose rates. Body weights and the effects of surgery and buprenorphine on faecal corticosterone were also measured. Surgery caused abnormal behaviour and reduced activity levels, but high dose buprenorphine caused such large-scale increases in activity in controls that we could not establish analgesic effects in surgery groups. Only pain-specific behaviour scoring using the manual approach was effective in showing 0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine alleviated post-vasectomy pain. The C57 mice also responded better to buprenorphine than C3H mice, indicating they were either less painful, or more responsive to its analgesic effects. C3H mice were more susceptible to the confounding effects of buprenorphine irrespective of whether data were collected manually or via the automated approach. Faecal corticosterone levels, although variable, were higher in untreated surgery mice than in control groups, also indicating the presence of pain or distress. Pain-specific scoring was superior to activity monitoring for assessing the analgesic properties of buprenorphine in vasectomised mice. Buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg), in these strains of male mice, for this procedure, provided inadequate analgesia and although 0.05 mg/kg was more effective, not completely so. The findings support the recommendation that analgesic dose rates should be adjusted in relation to the potential severity of the surgical procedure, the mouse strain, and the individual animals' response. PMID:24098748

Wright-Williams, Sian; Flecknell, Paul A.; Roughan, Johnny V.

2013-01-01

47

Costs of care for persons with opioid dependence in commercial integrated health systems  

PubMed Central

Background When used in general medical practices, buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opioid dependence, yet little is known about how use of buprenorphine affects the utilization and cost of health care in commercial health systems. Methods The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to examine how buprenorphine affects patterns of medical care, addiction medicine services, and costs from the health system perspective. Individuals with two or more opioid-dependence diagnoses per year, in two large health systems (System A: n = 1836; System B: n = 4204) over the time span 2007–2008 were included. Propensity scores were used to help adjust for group differences. Results Patients receiving buprenorphine plus addiction counseling had significantly lower total health care costs than patients with little or no addiction treatment (mean health care costs with buprenorphine treatment?=?$13,578; vs. mean health care costs with no addiction treatment?=?$31,055; p?buprenorphine plus addiction counseling and those with addiction counseling only did not differ significantly in total health care costs (mean costs with counseling only: $17,017; p?=?.5897). In comparison to patients receiving buprenorphine plus counseling, those with little or no addiction treatment had significantly greater use of primary care (p?buprenorphine plus counseling) used less inpatient detoxification (p?Buprenorphine is a viable alternative to other treatment approaches for opioid dependence in commercial integrated health systems, with total costs of health care similar to abstinence-based counseling. Patients with buprenorphine plus counseling had reduced use of general medical services compared to the alternatives. PMID:25123823

2014-01-01

48

Two-year Experience with Buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone) for Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence Within a Private Practice Setting.  

PubMed

Office-based buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone) treatment in the United States has significantly improved access to safe and effective opioid-dependence therapy. Little data from physicians' experiences prescribing Suboxone in private offices have been available. This retrospective chart review describes a family practitioner's first 2 years of clinical experience prescribing Suboxone for opioid dependence to 71 patients in a private office. After directly observed rapid office dose induction, Suboxone prescriptions were given monthly after evidence of continued stability. Urine was screened regularly and patients were referred for counseling and other ancillary services. Patients averaged 32 years old, 4.3 years of opioid dependence, and were primarily white (93%) and employed (70%). Fifty-two percent used heroin primarily (most by injection), and 70% had no agonist substitution therapy history. Almost half (47%) paid for their own treatment. Compliance during dose induction was excellent. Suboxone maintenance doses averaged 10 (range, 2-24) mg per day. More than 80% of urine samples were opioid-negative after Suboxone treatment began, although urinalysis did not always include a test for oxycodone. Seventy-five percent had successful outcomes by remaining in Suboxone treatment (43%), tapering successfully (21%), transferring to methadone maintenance (7%), or inpatient treatment (4%). Fifty-eight percent reported receiving counseling. Almost all (85%) paid their fees on time. There were no safety, medication abuse, or diversion issues detected. Overall, office-based Suboxone therapy was easily implemented and the physician considered the experience excellent. Suboxone maintenance was associated with good treatment retention and significantly reduced opioid use, and it is helping to reach patients, including injection drug users, without histories of agonist substitution therapy. PMID:21768942

Finch, James W; Kamien, Jonathan B; Amass, Leslie

2007-06-01

49

The impact of recent cocaine use on plasma levels of methadone and buprenorphine in patients with and without HIV-infection.  

PubMed

Cocaine decreases methadone and buprenorphine plasma concentrations. HIV infection and/or antiretroviral medication use may impact these relationships. We sought to determine the association between recent cocaine use and methadone and buprenorphine concentrations in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects in clinical care. R- and S-methadone or buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine concentrations were assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 24hours after dosing in subjects with confirmed cocaine use and abstinence. We compared methadone and buprenorphine concentrations for cocaine use vs. abstinence, by HIV status in 16 subjects receiving methadone (6 HIV-infected) and 17 receiving buprenorphine (8 HIV-infected). With recent cocaine use, peak R-methadone (244 vs. 297ng/mL, p=0.03) and peak S-methadone (285 vs. 339ng/mL); p=0.03 concentrations were lower in HIV-uninfected subjects only. Peak buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine concentrations were unchanged regardless of cocaine use or HIV status. Cocaine may decrease methadone concentrations in HIV-uninfected subjects. HIV infection or its treatment may attenuate cocaine's effect on methadone. PMID:25480096

Tetrault, Jeanette M; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Moody, David E; Fiellin, David A; Lruie, Bonnie S; DInh, An T; Fiellin, Lynn E

2014-11-01

50

Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Methadone Maintenance Treatment Outcomes for Opioid Analgesic, Heroin, and Combined Users: Findings From Starting Treatment With Agonist Replacement Therapies (START)  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this secondary analysis was to explore differences in baseline clinical characteristics and opioid replacement therapy treatment outcomes by type (heroin, opioid analgesic [OA], or combined [heroin and OA]) and route (injector or non-injector) of opioid use. Method: A total of 1,269 participants (32.2% female) were randomized to receive one of two study medications (methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone [BUP]). Of these, 731 participants completed the 24-week active medication phase. Treatment outcomes were opioid use during the final 30 days of treatment (among treatment completers) and treatment attrition. Results: Non-opioid substance dependence diagnoses and injecting differentiated heroin and combined users from OA users. Non-opioid substance dependence diagnoses and greater heroin use differentiated injectors from non-injectors. Further, injectors were more likely to be using at end of treatment compared with non-injectors. OA users were more likely to complete treatment compared with heroin users and combined users. Non-injectors were more likely than injectors to complete treatment. There were no interactions between type of opioid used or injection status and treatment assignment (methadone or BUP) on either opioid use or treatment attrition. Conclusions: Findings indicate that substance use severity differentiates heroin users from OA users and injectors from non-injectors. Irrespective of medication, heroin use and injecting are associated with treatment attrition and opioid misuse during treatment. These results have particular clinical interest, as there is no evidence of superiority of BUP over methadone for treating OA users versus heroin users. PMID:23739025

Potter, Jennifer S.; Marino, Elise N.; Hillhouse, Maureen P.; Nielsen, Suzanne; Wiest, Katharina; Canamar, Catherine P.; Martin, Judith A.; Ang, Alfonso; Baker, Rachael; Saxon, Andrew J.; Ling, Walter

2013-01-01

51

Pain and Associated Substance Use among Opioid Dependent Individuals Seeking Office-Based Treatment with Buprenorphine-Naloxone: A Needs Assessment Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives A paucity of studies has examined the pain experiences of opioid dependent individuals seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT). We set out to examine, among those seeking BNT: (a) the prevalence of pain types (i.e., recent pain, chronic pain), (b) the characteristics of pain (intensity, frequency, duration, interference, location, and genesis), and (c) substance use to alleviate pain. Methods We surveyed 244 consecutive individuals seeking office-based buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (BNT) for opioid dependence about physical pain and associated substance use. Results Thirty-six percent of respondents reported chronic pain (CP) (i.e., pain lasting at least 3 months) and 36% reported “some pain” (SP) (i.e., past week pain not meeting the threshold for CP). In comparison to SP respondents, those with CP were, on average, older; reported greater current pain intensity, pain frequency, typical pain duration, typical pain intensity, and typical pain interference; were more likely to report shoulder or pelvis and less likely to report stomach or arms as their most bothersome pain location; and were more likely to report accident or nerve damage and less likely to report opioid withdrawal as the genesis of their pain. Both pain subgroups reported similarly high rates of past-week substance use to alleviate pain. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The high rates of pain and self-reported substance use to manage pain suggest the importance of assessing and addressing pain in BNT patients. PMID:23617861

Barry, Declan T.; Savant, Jonathan D.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Moore, Brent A.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Fiellin, David A.

2012-01-01

52

Buprenorphine substitution treatment in France: drug users' views of the doctor-user relationship  

PubMed Central

The French system for drug substitution, or maintenance treatment, established in 1996, differs from the often strict conditions attached to methadone clinics in other countries. Because of the predominant role of general practitioners and the flexible prescription rules for Subutex® in France, the relationship between the physician and the drug user becomes a central element in the treatment. This article deals with the expectations that these users have of the physician, and their perception of his or her attitude towards them. In order to identify possible reasons for the absence of treatment compliance and of Subutex® misuse, it focuses on the users’ assessment of the physician’s response to the problems they report. This study, based on a diversified sample of 28 persons in treatment, showed 4 patterns of relationships between physicians and users, which differed in their focus: a) dosage, b) compliance, c) the person and d) obtaining a prescription. In all four case types, users had difficulty reporting other drug use or intravenous Subutex® injection within this relationship in which the stigma attached to drug dependence seems to reappear. Moreover, the lack of clarity about the treatment objectives and time frame limits the users’ ability to integrate the treatment into their lives and to commit themselves to it. The heterogeneity and fragility of the users’ situations are elements related to dependence that, during contact with the physician, require regular assessment of the individual’s situation and of the treatment objectives. This constant reappraisal of the situation with the physician should help to optimize the treatment and avoid the hiatus that can generate or continue “misuse.” PMID:17442473

Guichard, Anne; Lert, France; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Richard, Lucie

2007-01-01

53

Buprenorphine for Cancer Pain: Is It Ready for Prime Time?  

PubMed

Buprenorphine (BUP) is a semisynthetic derivative of the opium alkaloid thebaine found in the poppy Papaver somniferum. Its chemical structure contains the morphine structure but differs by having a cyclopropylmethyl group. Buprenorphine is a potent µ opioid agonist. Buprenorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver and gut. The development of a transdermal BUP formulation in 2001 led to its evaluation in cancer pain. This article provides the practitioner with an update on the current role of BUP in cancer care. It highlights data suggesting effectiveness in various types of cancer pain. The article reviews pharmacology, routes of administration, adverse effects, drug interactions, and cost considerations. PMID:25163678

Prommer, Eric

2014-08-27

54

Buprenorphine may not be as safe as you think: a pediatric fatality from unintentional exposure.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is a partial ?-opioid receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of opioid dependency. It is generally believed to be safer than methadone because of its ceiling effect on respiratory depression. As more adults in US households use buprenorphine, an increasing number of children are being exposed. We report a fatal exposure to buprenorphine in a small child that occurred after ingestion of a caretaker's buprenorphine/naloxone. Postmortem toxicology analysis showed free serum concentrations of 52 ng/mL and 39 ng/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, respectively. No other drugs were detected. Autopsy did not find signs of injury or trauma. The theoretical safety provided by the ceiling effect in respiratory depression from buprenorphine may not apply to children, and buprenorphine may cause dose-dependent respiratory depression. PMID:23129079

Kim, Hong K; Smiddy, Monica; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

2012-12-01

55

Formulation of Buprenorphine for Sublingual Use in Neonates  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The only medication used sublingually in the neonate is buprenorphine for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Compared with morphine, buprenorphine reduces the length of treatment and length of hospitalization in neonates treated for NAS. The objective of this study was to characterize the stability of ethanolic buprenorphine for sublingual administration. METHODS Buprenorphine solution was prepared and stored in amber glass source bottles at either 68°F to 77°F (20°C-25°C) or 36°F to 46°F (2.2°C-7.8°C). Samples were collected from each of these batches on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 30. Additional samples were withdrawn at baseline from each batch and placed in oral dispensing syringes for 3 and 7 days. Buprenorphine concentration was assessed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS Neither storage temperature (p=0.65) nor storage time (p=0.24) significantly affected buprenorphine concentrations. All of the mean concentrations, regardless of storage temperature, were above 95% of the labeled concentration, and the potency was maintained for samples stored either in the original amber glass source bottles or in oral syringes. CONCLUSIONS An ethanolic buprenorphine solution is stable at room temperature for 30 days. PMID:22768012

Anagnostis, Ellena A.; Sadaka, Rania E.; Sailor, Linda A.; Moody, David E.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Kraft, Walter K.

2011-01-01

56

Psychiatric comorbidity, red flag behaviors, and associated outcomes among office-based buprenorphine patients following Hurricane Sandy.  

PubMed

In October 2012, Bellevue Hospital Center (Bellevue) in New York City was temporarily closed as a result of Hurricane Sandy, the largest hurricane in US history. Bellevue's primary care office-based buprenorphine program was temporarily closed and later relocated to an affiliate public hospital. Previous research indicates that the relationships between disaster exposure, substance use patterns, psychiatric symptoms, and mental health services utilization is complex, with often conflicting findings regarding post-event outcomes (on the individual and community level) and antecedent risk factors. In general, increased use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs is associated with both greater disaster exposure and the development or exacerbation of other psychiatric symptoms and need for treatment. To date, there is limited published information regarding post-disaster outcomes among patients enrolled in office-based buprenorphine treatment, as the treatment modality has only been relatively approved recently. Patients enrolled in the buprenorphine program at the time of the storm were surveyed for self-reported buprenorphine adherence and illicit substance and alcohol use, as well as disaster-related personal consequences and psychiatric sequelae post-storm. Baseline demographic characteristics and insurance status were available from the medical record. Analysis was descriptive (counts and proportions) and qualitative, coding open-ended responses for emergent themes. There were 132 patients enrolled in the program at the time of the storm; of those, 91 were contacted and 89 completed the survey. Almost half of respondents reported disruption of their buprenorphine supply. Unexpectedly, patients with psychiatric comorbidity were no more likely to report increased use/relapse as a result. Rather, major risk factors associated with increased use or relapse post-storm were: (1) shorter length of time in treatment, (2) exposure to storm losses such as buprenorphine supply disruption, (3) a pre-storm history of red flag behaviors (in particular, repeat opioid-positive urines), and (4) new-onset post-storm psychiatric symptoms. Our findings highlight the relative resilience of buprenorphine as an office-based treatment modality for patients encountering a disaster with associated unanticipated service disruption. In responding to future disasters, triaging patient contact and priority based on a history of red-flag behaviors, rather than a history of psychiatric comorbidity, will likely optimize resource allocation, especially among recently enrolled patients. Additionally, patients endorsing new-onset psychiatric manifestations following disasters may be an especially high-risk group for poor outcomes, warranting further study. PMID:24619775

Williams, Arthur R; Tofighi, Babak; Rotrosen, John; Lee, Joshua D; Grossman, Ellie

2014-04-01

57

Structural Determinants of Opioid and NOP Receptor Activity in Derivatives of Buprenorphine  

PubMed Central

The unique pharmacological profile of buprenorphine has led to its considerable success as an analgesic and as a treatment agent for drug abuse. Activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors has been postulated to account for certain aspects of buprenorphine’s behavioural profile. In order to investigate the role of NOP activation further, a series of buprenorphine analogues has been synthesised with the aim of increasing affinity for the NOP receptor. Binding and functional assay data on these new compounds indicate that the area around C20 in the orvinols is key to NOP receptor activity, with several compounds displaying higher affinity than buprenorphine. One compound, 1b, was found to be a mu opioid receptor partial agonist of comparable efficacy to buprenorphine, but with higher efficacy at NOP receptors. PMID:21866885

Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Polgar, Willma E.; Khroyan, Taline V; Toll, Lawrence; Husbands, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

58

Treatment Approaches (Palliative Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... about such topics as religion, death, and afterlife. Palliative Care Websites American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine ... Life Physician Education Resource Center European Association for Palliative Care Growth House, Inc. Hospice Cares International Hospice Institute & ...

59

Who prescribes buprenorphine for rural patients? The impact of specialty, location and practice type in Washington State?,??  

PubMed Central

We determined the specialty, geographic location, practice type and treatment capacity of waivered clinicians in Washington State. We utilized the April 2011 Drug Enforcement Agency roster of all waivered buprenorphine prescribers and cross-referenced the data with information from the American Medical Association and online resources. Waivered physicians, as compared to Washington State physicians overall, are more likely to be primary care providers, be older, less likely to be younger than 35years, and more likely to be female. Isolated rural areas have the lowest provider to population ratios. Ten counties lack either a buprenorphine provider or a methadone clinic. In rural areas, waivered physicians work predominately in federally-subsidized safety-net settings, which underscores the need for continued governmental support of primary care and mental health in these settings. PMID:22939650

Kvamme, Erik; Catlin, Mary; Banta-Green, Caleb; Roll, John; Rosenblatt, Roger

2013-01-01

60

Who prescribes buprenorphine for rural patients? The impact of specialty, location and practice type in Washington State.  

PubMed

We determined the specialty, geographic location, practice type and treatment capacity of waivered clinicians in Washington State. We utilized the April 2011 Drug Enforcement Agency roster of all waivered buprenorphine prescribers and cross-referenced the data with information from the American Medical Association and online resources. Waivered physicians, as compared to Washington State physicians overall, are more likely to be primary care providers, be older, less likely to be younger than 35 years, and more likely to be female. Isolated rural areas have the lowest provider to population ratios. Ten counties lack either a buprenorphine provider or a methadone clinic. In rural areas, waivered physicians work predominately in federally-subsidized safety-net settings, which underscores the need for continued governmental support of primary care and mental health in these settings. PMID:22939650

Kvamme, Erik; Catlin, Mary; Banta-Green, Caleb; Roll, John; Rosenblatt, Roger

2013-03-01

61

Effects of intermittent buprenorphine administration on cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

In previous studies, daily buprenorphine administration significantly reduced cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys over 15 to 120 days (Mello et al., 1990, 1992). This report describes the effects of 60 days of intermittent buprenorphine (0.40 mg/kg) treatment once every 48 hr or 72 hr on cocaine and food self-administration by six rhesus monkeys. Cocaine (0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg/injection) and food (1-g banana pellet) self-administration were maintained on a fixed ratio 4, (variable ratio 16:S) reinforcement schedule. Intermittent buprenorphine treatment reduced cocaine self-administration significantly below saline treatment levels (P < .01). On the first day of buprenorphine treatment, cocaine self-administration averaged 53 and 60% below base line (P < .01-.0001). Cocaine self-administration remained significantly below base line on day 2 (P < .02-.0001) but usually returned to base-line levels by day 3. During buprenorphine treatment once every 48 hr, cocaine self-administration gradually increased over time in four monkeys (P < .001-.0005). These data suggest that intermittent buprenorphine treatment is less effective than daily buprenorphine treatment in reducing cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys. Food self-administration decreased by 23.6 and 12.7% from the saline base line during buprenorphine treatment every 48 and 72 hr, respectively. On the day of buprenorphine treatment, food self-administration was usually significantly lower than during the saline base line (P < .05-.0001), but usually returned to or exceeded base line levels by days 2 and 3. There were no significant changes in food self-administration over time with intermittent buprenorphine treatment every 48 hr. PMID:8437105

Mello, N K; Kamien, J B; Lukas, S E; Mendelson, J H; Drieze, J M; Sholar, J W

1993-02-01

62

Methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone are effective in reducing illicit buprenorphine and other opioid use, and reducing HIV risk behavior – Outcomes of a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Aims Determine the extent to which buprenorphine injectors continue treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone or methadone, and the impact of these treatments on substance use and HIV risk in the Republic of Georgia. Methods Randomized controlled 12-week trial of daily-observed methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone followed by a dose taper, referral to ongoing treatment, and follow-up at week 20 at the Uranti Clinic in Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. Eighty consenting treatment-seeking individuals (40/group) aged 25 and above who met ICD-10 criteria for opioid dependence with physiologic features and reported injecting buprenorphine 10 or more times in the past 30 days. Opioid use according to urine tests and self-reports, treatment retention, and HIV risk behavior as determined by the Risk Assessment Battery. Results Mean age of participants was 33.7 (SD5.7), 4 were female, mean history of opioid injection use was 5.8 years (SD4.6), none were HIV+ at intake or at the 12-week assessment and 73.4% were HCV+. Sixty-eight participants (85%) completed the 12-week medication phase (33 from methadone and 35 from buprenorphine/naloxone group); 37 (46%) were in treatment at the 20-week follow-up (21 from methadone and 16 from the buprenorphine/naloxone group). In both study arms, treatment resulted in a marked reduction in unprescribed buprenorphine, other opioid use, and HIV injecting risk behavior with no clinically significant differences between the two treatment arms. Conclusions Daily observed methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone are effective treatments for non-medical buprenorphine and other opioid use in the Republic of Georgia and likely to be useful for preventing HIV infection. PMID:23916321

Otiashvili, David; Piralishvili, Gvantsa; Sikharulidze, Zura; Kamkamidze, George; Poole, Sabrina; Woody, George E.

2013-01-01

63

Optimizing the dosing interval of buprenorphine in a multimodal postoperative analgesic strategy in the rat: minimizing side-effects without affecting weight gain and food intake.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is commonly used as (part of) postoperative analgesic treatment with dosage dependent side-effects such as pica behaviour. No strict consensus exists about the optimal dosing interval of buprenorphine, as its duration of action has been described as being in the range of 6-12 h. In this study, dosing intervals of 8 h (thrice-a-day) and 12 h (twice-a-day) for buprenorphine in a multimodal analgesic strategy (concurrent administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) were compared on food intake, weight and side-effects (gnawing on plastic Petri dishes and growth rate, indicative of pica behaviour) in rats. The food intake and weight of both intervals were comparable, as the animals from the twice-a-day group did not lose more weight or consumed less food during the analgesic period. The rats from the thrice-a-day group suffered from more side-effects, as the growth rate was decreased and more plastic was gnawed on. It is recommended to carefully evaluate analgesic and side-effects when using buprenorphine. When side-effects are observed, the possibility of increasing the dosing interval of buprenorphine should be explored. In this study, increasing the dosing interval of buprenorphine in a multimodal analgesic regimen resulted in reduced unwanted side-effects, without increasing weight loss or decreasing food intake. Although this is suggestive of provision of comparable analgesia, future studies including more pain-related readout parameters to assess the effect of the dosing interval on analgesic efficacy are recommended. PMID:23097561

Schaap, Manon W H; Uilenreef, Joost J; Mitsogiannis, Manuela D; van 't Klooster, José G; Arndt, Saskia S; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

2012-10-01

64

ROAD TRAFFIC CRASHES AND PRESCRIBED METHADONE AND BUPRENORPHINE: A FRENCH REGISTRY-BASED CASE-  

E-print Network

functioning in healthy volunteers with no history of opioid abuse. Few or no significant effects have been-consumption of other substances (alcohol and benzodiazepines). Injured drivers exposed to buprenorphine or methadone of risky behaviors and treatments. Key words: methadone, buprenorphine, road traffic crashes 2 hal-01027574

Boyer, Edmond

65

New developments in the management of opioid dependence: focus on sublingual buprenorphine–naloxone  

PubMed Central

Opioid maintenance therapy is a well-established first-line treatment approach in opioid dependence. Buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, has been found by numerous studies to be an effective and safe medication in the treatment of opioid dependence. At present, buprenorphine is available as a monodrug or in a fixed 4:1 ratio combination with naloxone. A diminished risk of diversion and abuse for the buprenorphine–naloxone combination is likely but not firmly established. Conventional formulations are given sublingually to avoid the hepatic first-pass effect. A novel film tablet is available only in the US and Australia. Other novel, sustained-release formulations (implant, depot) are currently being developed and tested. Recent studies, including a Cochrane meta-analysis, suggest that the retention with buprenorphine is lower than for methadone, but that buprenorphine may be associated with less drug use. Higher doses of buprenorphine are associated with better retention rates. Buprenorphine has a ceiling effect at the opioid receptor with regard to respiratory depression, and may cause fewer fatal intoxications than methadone. Possible antidepressant effects of buprenorphine and its use in comorbid psychiatric patients has not been studied in much detail. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25610012

Soyka, Michael

2015-01-01

66

Interactions of buprenorphine and dipotassium clorazepate on anxiety and memory functions in the mouse.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine, a partial mu-receptor agonist widely substituted for heroin in the treatment of addiction, is often misused in combination with benzodiazepines. Improved hedonic properties may result, but only at the cost of increased buprenorphine toxicity. In order to elucidate the appeal of the benzodiazepine-buprenorphine combination, the present study looked at its neuropsycho-pharmacological effects on various emotional and cognitive parameters in the mouse. On the basis of previous dose-response studies, the regimen used was buprenorphine 0.3mg/kg, s.c. plus dipotassium clorazepate 1, 4 and 16 mg/kg, i.p. Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using the black and white test box, and memory processes were examined via the spontaneous alternation paradigm in the Y-maze, and passive avoidance tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity was also evaluated. High doses of clorazepate impaired buprenorphine-induced hyperactivity and anxiogenic-like effects. They also increased buprenorphine-induced spontaneous alternation impairment, but did not modify its impact on long-term memory processes. These results suggest that the positive reinforcement experienced with the buprenorphine-benzodiazepine combination may be attributable, at least in part, to an increase in buprenorphine's sedative effect associated with a decrease in anxiogenicity. PMID:16720083

Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique; Quentin, Thomas; Moreaux, Fabien; Debruyne, Danièle; Boulouard, Michel; Coquerel, Antoine

2006-11-01

67

Buprenorphine Reduces Alcohol Drinking Through Activation of the Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ-NOP Receptor System  

PubMed Central

Background Activation of the NOP receptor by its endogenous ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ reduces ethanol intake in genetically selected alcohol preferring Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring (msP) rats. Here we evaluated whether buprenorphine, a partial agonist at ?-opioid and NOP receptors, would reduce ethanol consumption in msP rats via activation of NOP receptors. Methods Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring rats trained to drink 10% alcohol 2 hours/day were injected with buprenorphine (.03, .3, 3.0, or 6.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]) 90 min before access to ethanol. Results Similar to prototypical ?-agonists, the two lowest doses of buprenorphine significantly increased ethanol consumption (p < .01); in contrast, the two highest doses reduced it (p < .05). Pretreatment with naltrexone (.25 mg/kg IP) prevented the increase of ethanol intake induced by .03 mg/kg of buprenorphine (p < .001) but did not affect the inhibition of ethanol drinking induced by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conversely, pretreatment with the selective NOP receptor antagonist UFP-101 (10.0 or 20.0 ?g/rat) abolished the suppression of ethanol drinking by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine has dualistic effects on ethanol drinking; low doses increase alcohol intake via stimulation of classic opioid receptors, whereas higher doses reduce it via activation of NOP receptors. We suggest that NOP agonistic properties of buprenorphine might be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:16533497

Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Economidou, Daina; Rimondini, Roberto; Sommer, Wolfgang; Massi, Maurizio; Heilig, Markus

2011-01-01

68

The Implementation of Buprenorphine/Naloxone in College Health Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Opiate abuse and dependence have become important concerns for college healthcare providers. The passage of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 and the approval of the combination buprenorphine/naloxone for office-based treatment of opiate dependence have increased the options available for college students and their healthcare providers. The…

DeMaria, Peter A., Jr.; Patkar, Ashwin A.

2008-01-01

69

Patient Perspectives of an Integrated Program of Medical Care and Substance Use Treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract The benefits of integrating primary care and substance use disorder treatment are well known, yet true integration is difficult. We developed and evaluated a team-based model of integrated care within the primary care setting for HIV-infected substance users and substance users at risk for contracting HIV. Qualitative data were gathered via focus groups and satisfaction surveys to assess patients' views of the program, evaluate key elements for success, and provide recommendations for other programs. Key themes related to preferences for the convenience and efficiency of integrated care; support for a team-based model of care; a feeling that the program requirements offered needed structure; the importance of counseling and education; and how provision of concrete services improved overall well-being and quality of life. For patients who received buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid dependence, this was viewed as a major benefit. Our results support other studies that theorize integrated care could be of significant value for hard-to-reach populations and indicate that having a clinical team dedicated to providing substance use disorder treatment, HIV risk reduction, and case management services integrated into primary care clinics has the potential to greatly enhance the ability to serve a challenging population with unmet treatment needs. PMID:24428768

Farrell, Caitlin; Sorensen-Alawad, Amy; Palmisano, Joseph N.; Chaisson, Christine; Walley, Alexander Y.

2014-01-01

70

Novel depots of buprenorphine have a long-acting effect for the management of physical dependence to morphine.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is a promising new pharmacotherapy for the management of physical dependence to opioids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the duration of action of several novel depots of buprenorphine in the treatment of physical dependence to morphine in mice. Following intramuscular injection, the duration of action of several novel oil-based depots of buprenorphine base in morphine-dependent mice were evaluated. The traditional dosage form of buprenorphine hydrochloride in saline was used as control. We found that the depot of buprenorphine base in sesame oil produced a dose-related long-lasting effect. On an equimolar basis of 6 micromol kg(-1), its effect was 5.7-fold longer than that of buprenorphine hydrochloride in saline. When prepared in several other oleaginous vehicles (castor oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil and soybean oil), buprenorphine base also produced a long-lasting effect, which was similar to buprenorphine base in sesame oil. In conclusion, buprenorphine base, when prepared in oleaginous vehicles and injected intramuscularly in mice, produced a long-lasting effect on physical dependence to morphine. PMID:16536900

Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Kao, Cheng-Hsiung; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Sung, K C; Kuei, Chun-Hsiung; Wang, Jhi-Joung

2006-03-01

71

Opioid Abstinence Reinforcement Delays Heroin Lapse during Buprenorphine Dose Tapering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…

Greenwald, Mark K.

2008-01-01

72

Efficacy of daily and alternate-day dosing regimens with the combination buprenorphine–naloxone tablet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a combination tablet formulation of buprenorphine containing 8 mg of buprenorphine and 2 mg of naloxone for every other day treatment and whether increasing the daily maintenance dose was essential for maintaining an efficacious alternate-day treatment. Twenty-six opioid-dependent outpatients completing a 16-day baseline entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, triple crossover trial. Twenty-one days of daily

Leslie Amass; Jonathan B Kamien; Susan K Mikulich

2000-01-01

73

Thienorphine is a potent long-acting partial opioid agonist: a comparative study with buprenorphine.  

PubMed

A strategy in the development of new treatment for opioid addiction is to find partial opioid agonists with properties of long duration of action and high oral bioavailability. In a search for such compounds, thienorphine, a novel analog of buprenorphine, was synthesized. Here, we reported that, like buprenorphine, thienorphine bound potently and nonselectively to mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors stably expressed in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells and behaved as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptor. However, some differences were observed between the pharmacological profiles of thienorphine and buprenorphine. In vitro, thienorphine was more potent than buprenorphine in inhibiting [3H]diprenorphine and stimulating guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding to rat mu-opioid receptor stably expressed in CHO cells. In vivo, thienorphine exhibited a less potent but more efficacious antinociceptive effect with an ED50 value of 0.25 mg/kg s.c. and more potent antimorphine effect with an ED50 value of 0.64 mg/kg intragastric, compared with buprenorphine. Additionally, the bioavailability of thienorphine was greatly higher than that of buprenorphine after oral administration. Moreover, compared with buprenorphine, thienorphine showed a similar long-lasting antinociceptive effect but a much longer antagonism of morphine-induced lethality (more than 15 days). These results indicate that thienorphine is a potent, long-acting partial opioid agonist with high oral bioavailability and may have possible application in treating addiction. PMID:16569757

Yu, Gang; Yue, Yong-Juan; Cui, Meng-Xun; Gong, Ze-Hui

2006-07-01

74

Can the chronic administration of the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential?  

PubMed Central

Opiate addiction is associated with many adverse health and social harms, fatal overdose, infectious disease transmission, elevated health care costs, public disorder, and crime. Although community-based addiction treatment programs continue to reduce the harms of opiate addiction with narcotic substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance, there remains a need to find a substance that not only blocks opiate-type receptors (mu, delta, etc.) but also provides agonistic activity; hence the impetus arose for the development of a combination of narcotic antagonism and mu receptor agonist therapy. After three decades of extensive research the federal Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA) opened a window of opportunity for patients with addiction disorders by providing increased access to options for treatment. DATA allows physicians who complete a brief specialty-training course to become certified to prescribe buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone (Subutex, Suboxone) for treatment of patients with opioid dependence. Clinical studies indicate buprenorphine maintenance is as effective as methadone maintenance in retaining patients in substance abuse treatment and in reducing illicit opioid use. With that stated, we must consider the long-term benefits or potential toxicity attributed to Subutex or Suboxone. We describe a mechanism whereby chronic blockade of opiate receptors, in spite of only partial opiate agonist action, may ultimately block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential. While the direct comparison is not as yet available, toxicity to buprenorphine can be found in the scientific literature. In considering our cautionary note in this commentary, we are cognizant that to date this is what we have available, and until such a time when the real magic bullet is discovered, we will have to endure. However, more than anything else this commentary should at least encourage the development of thoughtful new strategies to target the specific brain regions responsible for relapse prevention. PMID:21948099

Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas JH; Bailey, John; Bowirrat, Abdulla; Femino, John; Chen, Amanda LC; Simpatico, Thomas; Morse, Siobhan; Giordano, John; Damle, Uma; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Eric R.; Fornari, Frank; Downs, B.William; Rector, Cynthia; Barh, Debmayla; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

2013-01-01

75

[Necrosis of the glans penis: a complication of an injection of buprenorphin in a opioid abuser].  

PubMed

Necrosis of the penis glans is commonly described after circumcision or strangulation. We report the case of a patient, opioid abuser, who presented an isolated glans necrosis after an injection of buprenorphin. The buprenorphin (Subutex) is a sublingual partial mu-opioid agonist used for the treatment of heroin dependance. Its intravenous or subcutaneous abuse is associated with local infection. The patient require a surgical intervention. After the failure of a mucosal graft, a soft skin graft was done. PMID:19269730

Hornez, E; Laroche, J; Monchal, T; Bourgouin, S; Riviere, P; Fournier, R; Dantzer, E

2010-04-01

76

An Unusual Case of Death Probably Triggered by the Association of Buprenorphine at Therapeutic Dose with Ethanol and Benzodiazepines and with Very Low Norbuprenorphine Level.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is largely prescribed for maintenance treatment in opioid dependence due to its safety profile. Nevertheless, fatalities at therapeutic dose have been described when associated with other central nervous system depressants, such as ethanol or benzodiazepines. Here, we report a case of death due to association of buprenorphine at therapeutic dose with benzodiazepines and ethanol. Although toxicity has been often attributed to its metabolite norbuprenorphine rather than to buprenorphine itself, in our case, norbuprenorphine was not detected in urine and bile and only in traces in blood. Moreover, the presence in blood of free buprenorphine but not of glucuronide metabolites argues for an unusual early death, at the beginning of buprenorphine metabolism. We propose that in the context of prior toxic impregnation, buprenorphine directly (and not via its metabolite norbuprenorphine) acted as a triggering factor by blocking the ventilatory response, rapidly leading to fatal respiratory depression. PMID:25348172

Bardy, Guillaume; Cathala, Philippe; Eiden, Céline; Baccino, Eric; Petit, Pierre; Mathieu, Olivier

2014-10-27

77

Differential activation of pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor by buprenorphine in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is a partial ?-opioid receptor agonist used for the treatment of opioid dependence that has several advantages over methadone. The principal route of buprenorphine disposition has been well established; however, little is known regarding the potential for buprenorphine to influence the metabolism and clearance of other drugs by affecting the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Here, we investigate the effects of buprenorphine on the activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), as well as the induction of DMEs, in both HepG2 cells and human primary hepatocytes (HPHs). In HepG2 cells, buprenorphine significantly increased human PXR-mediated CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 reporter activities. CYP2B6 reporter activity was also enhanced by buprenorphine in HepG2 cells cotransfected with a chemical-responsive human CAR variant. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that buprenorphine strongly induced CYP3A4 expression in both PXR- and CAR-transfected HepG2 cells. However, treatment with the same concentrations of buprenorphine in HPHs resulted in literally no induction of CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 expression. Further studies indicated that buprenorphine could neither translocate human CAR to the nucleus nor activate CYP2B6/CYP3A4 reporter activities in transfected HPHs. Subsequent experiments to determine whether the differential response was due to buprenorphine's metabolic stability revealed a dramatically differential rate of elimination for buprenorphine between HPHs and HepG2 cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that metabolic stability of buprenorphine defines the differential induction of DMEs observed in HepG2 and HPHs, and the results obtained from PXR and CAR reporter assays in immortalized cell line require cautious interpretation. PMID:20829393

Li, Linhao; Hassan, Hazem E; Tolson, Antonia H; Ferguson, Stephen S; Eddington, Natalie D; Wang, Hongbing

2010-12-01

78

[High-dose buprenorphine for outpatient palliative pain therapy].  

PubMed

The case of a 78-year-old patient with cancer-related pain and additionally mixed-pain syndrome is presented. Pain therapy with buprenorphine TTS 210 microg/h every 3 days was sufficient in the beginning, later the therapy was changed because of increasing problems of tape fixing during fever periods under chemotherapy to a continuous infusion of buprenorphine intravenously via an external medication pump. During the course of therapy it became necessary to increase the dose to 99.9 mg/day buprenorphine. Under this medication a sufficient pain reduction (median NRS 2-3) over a period of 135 days could be achieved. At the same time the patient was vigilant and cooperative without signs of intoxication until the end of life at home in the presence of his family.If no signs of intoxication occur under extreme opioid therapy and a sufficient pain therapy can be achieved, a rotation to another opioid is not necessary. However, outpatient palliative care requires a frequent adaptation to the individually varying opioid demand of the patient and time-consuming nursing care. PMID:19066981

Gastmeier, K; Freye, E

2009-04-01

79

Buprenorphine is protective against the depressive effects of norbuprenorphine on ventilation  

SciTech Connect

High dose buprenorphine is used as substitution treatment in heroin addiction. However, deaths have been reported in addicts using buprenorphine. The role of norbuprenorphine, an N-dealkyl metabolite of buprenorphine, was hypothesized to explain these fatal cases. We determined the median intravenous lethal dose (LD{sub 5}) of norbuprenorphine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of a single intravenous dose of 3 or 9 mg/kg norbuprenorphine alone on arterial blood gases were studied. Finally, the effect of pre- and post-administrations of buprenorphine on norbuprenorphine-induced changes on arterial blood gases were analyzed. Norbuprenorphine's LD{sub 5} was 10 mg kg{sup -1}. Norbuprenorphine 3 mg kg{sup -1} produces the rapid onset of sustained respiratory depression, as demonstrated at 20 min by a maximal significant increase in PaCO{sub 2} (8.4 {+-} 0.9 versus 5.7 {+-} 0.1 kPa), decrease in arterial pH (7.25 {+-} 0.06 versus 7.44 {+-} 0.01), and hypoxia (8.3 {+-} 0.6 versus 11.1 {+-} 0.2 kPa). Buprenorphine not only protected against the effects of 3 mg kg{sup -1} norbuprenorphine in a dose-dependent manner but also reversed the effects when given afterward. Binding experiments suggest a role for mu- and to a lesser extent for delta-opioid receptors in buprenorphine protective effect against norbuprenorphine-induced respiratory depression. In conclusion, our data clearly show that norbuprenorphine alone causes important deleterious effects on ventilation in rats. However, buprenorphine protective effect calls into question the role for norbuprenorphine in respiratory toxicity associated with buprenorphine use.

Megarbane, Bruno [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France) and Reanimation Medicale et Toxicologique, Hopital Lariboisiere, 2 Rue Ambroise Pare, 75010 Paris (France)]. E-mail: bruno-megarbane@wanadoo.fr; Marie, Nicolas [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France); Pirnay, Stephane [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75012 Paris (France); Borron, Stephen W. [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France) and Departments of Emergency Medicine and Medicine - Occupational and Environmental Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC 22052 (United States); Gueye, Papa N. [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France); Risede, Patricia [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France); Monier, Claire [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France); Noble, Florence [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France); Baud, Frederic J. [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris VII, Hopital Fernand Widal, Paris (France); Reanimation Medicale et Toxicologique, Hopital Lariboisiere, 2 Rue Ambroise Pare, 75010 Paris (France)

2006-05-01

80

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous buprenorphine in children.  

PubMed Central

Buprenorphine (3 micrograms kg-1) was given intravenously as premedication to small children (age 4-7 years) undergoing minor surgery. Because of the rapid decline of the plasma buprenorphine concentrations, the terminal elimination half-life could not be estimated reliably. Given this constraint, values of clearance appeared to be higher than those in adults but values of Vss were similar. PMID:2775626

Olkkola, K T; Maunuksela, E L; Korpela, R

1989-01-01

81

Pregnancy under high-dose buprenorphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study was first conducted to compare the consequences of the use of methadone and high-dose buprenorphine in pregnancy in France and secondly to describe the heterogeneity of women under high-dose buprenorphine. This paper focuses on the second point only.

Laurence Simmat-Durand; Claude Lejeune; Laurent Gourarier

2009-01-01

82

Correlations of maternal buprenorphine dose, buprenorphine, and metabolite concentrations in meconium with neonatal outcomes.  

PubMed

For the first time, relationships among maternal buprenorphine dose, meconium buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations, and neonatal outcomes are reported. Free and total buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, nicotine, opiates, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and metabolites were quantified in meconium from 10 infants born to women who had received buprenorphine during pregnancy. Neither cumulative nor total third-trimester maternal buprenorphine dose predicted meconium concentrations or neonatal outcomes. Total buprenorphine meconium concentrations and buprenorphine/norbuprenorphine ratios were significantly related to neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) scores >4. As free buprenorphine concentration and percentage free buprenorphine increased, head circumference decreased. Thrice-weekly urine tests for opiates, cocaine, and benzodiazepines and self-reported smoking data from the mother were compared with data from analysis of the meconium to estimate in utero exposure. Time of last drug use and frequency of use during the third trimester were important factors associated with drug-positive meconium specimens. The results suggest that buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations in the meconium may predict the onset and frequency of NAS. PMID:18701886

Kacinko, S L; Jones, H E; Johnson, R E; Choo, R E; Huestis, M A

2008-11-01

83

Buprenorphine and methadone for opioid addiction during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine and methadone are opioid-receptor agonists used as opioid substitution therapy during pregnancy to limit exposure of the fetus to cycles of opioid withdrawal and reduce the risk of infectious comorbidities of illicit opioid use. As part of a comprehensive care plan, such therapy may result in improved access to prenatal care, reduced illicit drug use, reduced exposure to infections associated with intravenous drug use, and improved maternal nutrition and infant birth weight. This article describes differences in patient selection between the two drugs, their relative safety during pregnancy, and changes in daily doses as a guide for prescribing clinicians. PMID:24845488

Mozurkewich, Ellen L; Rayburn, William F

2014-06-01

84

Buprenorphine versus methadone in pregnant opioid-dependent women: a prospective multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods  In order to investigate the effects of exposure to buprenorphine compared with methadone during pregnancy, a prospective multicenter\\u000a study was conducted in collaboration with maternity hospitals, maintenance therapy centers, and general practitioners involved\\u000a in addiction care. Ninety pregnant women exposed to buprenorphine and 45 to metadone were selected for the study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  During pregnancy, some women were exposed to

Isabelle Lacroix; Alain Berrebi; Daniel Garipuy; Laurent Schmitt; Yamina Hammou; Catherine Chaumerliac; Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre; Jean-Louis Montastruc; Christine Damase-Michel

85

A Double Blind, within Subject Comparison of Spontaneous Opioid Withdrawal from Buprenorphine versus Morphine  

PubMed Central

Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical ?-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days. They then underwent an 18-day period of spontaneous withdrawal, during which four double-blind i.m. placebo injections were administered daily. Stabilization and spontaneous withdrawal were assessed for the second opioid using the same time course. Opioid withdrawal measures were collected eight times daily. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those of buprenorphine withdrawal as measured by mean peak ratings of Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), all subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sick and pain (0–100) Visual Analog Scales, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pupil dilation. Peak ratings on COWS and SOWS occurred on day 2 of morphine withdrawal and were significantly greater than on day 2 of buprenorphine withdrawal. Subjective reports of morphine withdrawal resolved on average by day 7. There was minimal evidence of buprenorphine withdrawal on any measure. In conclusion, spontaneous withdrawal from high-dose buprenorphine appears subjectively and objectively milder compared with that of morphine for at least 18 days after drug cessation. PMID:24227768

Smith, Michael T.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Campbell, Claudia M.; Strain, Eric C.

2014-01-01

86

Clinical efficacy of buprenorphine to minimize distress in MRL/lpr mice  

PubMed Central

MRL/MpJ-Faslpr (MRL/lpr) mice are an accepted animal model to study human systemic lupus erythematosus. We tested if a commonly used analgesic (buprenorphine hydrochloride) would reduce pain and distress in these mice without impacting the progression of autoimmune disease. Female MRL/lpr mice were randomly separated into four groups. Experimental groups received cyclophosphamide (25 mg/kg i.p. weekly), buprenorphine (0.09 mg/kg/mouse/day via drinking water), or cyclophosphamide + buprenorphine from 11 - 21 weeks of age. Controls received no treatments. Mice were monitored daily by a licensed veterinarian (blinded observer) and assigned a score weekly on parameters associated with pain and distress as well as progression of disease. Proteinuria was measured weekly, and serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels were determined at 11, 15, and 18 weeks of age. At 21 weeks of age, the animals were euthanized and the kidneys and spleens were removed for evaluation. Regardless of the parameter observed, buprenorphine did not significantly decrease distress when compared to the controls. Buprenorphine did not alter the progression of autoimmune disease, based on characteristics of splenic architecture and splenocyte cell profiles, development of lymphadenopathy, or kidney histology as compared to controls. This study indicates that buprenorphine at this dose and route of administration was ineffective in reducing distress associated with disease progression in the MRL/lpr strain. More studies are needed to determine if, at a different dose or route, buprenorphine would be useful as adjunctive therapy in reducing distress in MRL/lpr mice. PMID:17490635

Swenson, Julie; Olgun, Selen; Radjavi, Ali; Kaur, Taranjit; Reilly, Christopher M.

2007-01-01

87

Randomized controlled study transitioning opioid-dependent pregnant women from short-acting morphine to buprenorphine or methadone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the safety and withdrawal discomfort associated with transitioning pregnant opioid-dependent women from short-acting morphine onto buprenorphine or methadone under well-controlled double-blind conditions. Participants (n=18) were patients in a comprehensive treatment setting and were part of a larger randomized controlled trial comparing the neonatal abstinence syndrome in mothers treated with individualized doses of sublingual buprenorphine or oral methadone.

Hendree E. Jones; Rolley E. Johnson; Donald R. Jasinski; Lorraine Milio

2005-01-01

88

Antihyperalgesic effect of buprenorphine involves nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide-receptor activation in rats with spinal nerve injury-induced neuropathy.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of buprenorphine, a mixed agonist for ?-opioid receptors and nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors, in neuropathic rats, using the paw pressure test. Buprenorphine, administered i.p. at 50, but not 20, ?g/kg, exhibited naloxone-reversible analgesic activity in naïve rats. In contrast, buprenorphine at 0.5 - 20 ?g/kg produced a naloxonesensitive antihyperalgesic effect in the L5 spinal nerve-injured neuropathic rats. Intrathecal injection of [N-Phe(1)]nociceptin(1-13)NH2, a NOP-receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of buprenorphine in neuropathic rats, but not in naïve rats. Together, buprenorphine suppresses neuropathic hyperalgesia by activating NOP and opioid receptors, suggesting its therapeutic usefulness in treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:23603932

Takahashi, Tomoko; Okubo, Kazumasa; Kojima, Shota; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Takemura, Motohide; Tsubota-Matsunami, Maho; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawabata, Atsufumi

2013-01-01

89

Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment and Care  

MedlinePLUS

... blood cholesterol. In the late nonproliferative stage, focal laser treatments may be used to seal leaking blood ... begin to appear in the proliferative stage, scatter laser treatment can be used to shrink them. Laser ...

90

Respiratory Rates and Arterial Blood-Gas Tensions in Healthy Rabbits Given Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, Midazolam, or Their Combinations  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory effects of buprenorphine, butorphanol, midazolam, and their combinations in healthy conscious rabbits. Six adult female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized briefly with isoflurane by mask to allow placement of a catheter into the central ear artery. After a 60-min recovery period, a baseline arterial sample was obtained. Animals then were injected intramuscularly with either 0.9% NaCl (1 mL), buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg), midazolam (2 mg/kg), buprenorphine + midazolam (0.03 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg), or butorphanol + midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg). Arterial blood gases were evaluated at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 360 min after drug administration. All drug treatments caused significant decreases in respiratory rate, compared with saline. Buprenorphine and the combinations of midazolam–butorphanol and midazolam–buprenorphine resulted in statistically significant decreases in pO2. No significant changes in pCO2 pressure were recorded for any treatment. Increases in blood pH were associated with administration of butorphanol, midazolam, and the combinations of midazolam–butorphanol and midazolam–buprenorphine. In light of these results, buprenorphine and the combinations of midazolam–buprenorphine and midazolam–butorphanol result in statistically significant hypoxemia in rabbits that breathe room air. The degree of hypoxemia is of questionable clinical importance in these healthy subjects. Hypoxemia resulting from these drug combinations may be amplified in rabbits with underlying pulmonary or systemic disease. PMID:21439214

Schroeder, Carrie A; Smith, Lesley J

2011-01-01

91

Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

2011-01-01

92

Supportive Care During Adjuvant Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer has a substantial impact on health, emotional well-being and quality of life.\\u000a Adjuvant systemic therapy (the administration of chemotherapy, endocrine or biologic therapy) is a distinct phase of breast\\u000a cancer treatment following primary treatment [1]. Adjuvant systemic therapy is currently recommended to most women with newly\\u000a diagnosed breast cancer and is associated with

Annabel Pollard

93

Coordinating care and treatment for cancer patients.  

PubMed

Survival following a diagnosis of cancer is contingent upon an interplay of factors, some non-modifiable (e.g., age, sex, genetics) and some modifiable (e.g., volitional choices) but the majority determined by circumstance (personal, social, health system context and capacity, and health policy). Accordingly, mortality and survival rates vary considerably as a function of geography, opportunity, wealth and development. Quality of life is impacted similarly, such that aspects of care related to coordination and integration of care across primary, community and specialist environments; symptom control, palliative and end-of-life care for those who will die of cancer; and survivorship challenges for those who will survive cancer, differs greatly across low, middle and high-income resource settings. Session 3 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on cancer care and treatment through three plenary presentations and five interactive workshop discussions: 1) establishing, implementing, operating and sustaining the capacity for quality cancer care; 2) the role of primary, community, and specialist care in cancer care and treatment; 3) the economics of affordable and sustainable cancer care; 4) issues around symptom control, support, and palliative/end-of-life care; and 5) issues around survivorship. A number of recommendations were proposed relating to capacity-building (standards and guidelines, protocols, new technologies and training and deployment) for safe, appropriate evidence-informed care; mapping and analysis of variations in primary, community and specialist care across countries with identification of models for effective, integrated clinical practice; the importance of considering the introduction, or expansion, of evidence-supported clinical practices from the perspectives of health economic impact, the value for health resources expended, and sustainability; capacity-building for palliative, end-of-life care and symptom control and integration of these services into national cancer control plans; the need for public education to reduce the fear and stigma associated with cancer so that patients are better able to make informed decisions regarding follow-up care and treatment; and the need to recognize the challenges and needs of survivors, their increasing number, the necessity to integrate survivorship into cancer control plans and the economic and societal value of functional survival after cancer. Discussions highlighted that coordinated care and treatment for cancer patients is both a ' systems'challenge and solution, requiring the consideration of patient and family circumstances, societal values and priorities, the functioning of the health system (access, capacity, resources, etc.) and the importance assigned to health and illness management within public policy. PMID:22631594

Yip, Cheng Har; Samiei, Massoud; Cazap, Eduardo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Camacho, Rolando; Weller, David; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Goh, Cynthia; Black, Fraser; Kaur, Ranjit; Fitch, Margaret; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

2012-01-01

94

Utilizing buprenorphine–naloxone to treat illicit and prescription-opioid dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives To review current evidence on buprenorphine–naloxone (bup/nx) for the treatment of opioid-use disorders, with a focus on strategies for clinical management and office-based patient care. Quality of evidence Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. Consensus reports, guidelines published, and other authoritative sources were also included in this review. Apart from expert guidelines, data included in this review constitute level 1 evidence. Findings Bup/nx is a partial ?-opioid agonist combined with the opioid antagonist naloxone in a 4:1 ratio. It has a lower abuse potential, carries less stigma, and allows for more flexibility than methadone. Bup/nx is indicated for both inpatient and ambulatory medically assisted withdrawal (acute detoxification) and long-term substitution treatment (maintenance) of patients who have a mild-to-moderate physical dependence. A stepwise long-term substitution treatment with regular monitoring and follow-up assessment is usually preferred, as it has better outcomes in reducing illicit opioid use, minimizing concomitant risks such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C transmission, retaining patients in treatment and improving global functioning. Conclusion Bup/nx is safe and effective for opioid detoxification and substitution treatment. Its unique pharmaceutical properties make it particularly suitable for office-based maintenance treatment of opioid-use disorder. PMID:24741316

Mauger, Sofie; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

2014-01-01

95

Tramadol versus buprenorphine for the management of acute heroin withdrawal: a retrospective matched cohort controlled study.  

PubMed

Many medications have been used over the past thirty years for the treatment of opioid withdrawal, including propoxyphene, methadone, clonidine, parenteral buprenorphine, and, more recently, sublingual buprenorphine. Each has been found to have clinical strengths and limitations. Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic with opiate activity primarily due to the binding of a metabolite to the micro receptor. Despite this micro receptor activity, tramadol appears to have low abuse potential and is a non-scheduled analgesic. The pharmacologic profile of tramadol makes it a candidate for opiate withdrawal treatment. A chart review was undertaken to retrospectively compare treatment outcomes of heroin-dependent patients when detoxified with parenteral buprenorphine (1996-1997) versus tramadol (1999-2000). Inclusion criteria for this study were heroin as drug of choice, current opioid physical dependence (ie, withdrawal symptoms), no current abuse of oral opioid analgesics, and no alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Patient cases that met inclusion criteria were group-matched between buprenorphine and tramadol on the basis of age, sex, and amount of heroin used (bags/day). Charts were audited for patient demographics, daily heroin use at admission, withdrawal symptoms, and discharge status. In total, 129 patient charts were reviewed, and 115 met all inclusion criteria and were group-matched (45 patients in the buprenorphine group, seventy in the tramadol group). There were no differences in demographics between the two groups of patients. Fifty-six percent of the buprenorphine group and 71% of the tramadol group completed detoxification; tramadol-treated patients had significantly higher average withdrawal symptoms when compared to the buprenorphine group and a greater reduction in withdrawal symptoms over time. Finally, the number of side effects was small and did not differ between the groups. The results of this study are consistent with previous pilot reports that indicated few clinical differences between parenteral buprenorphine and oral tramadol protocols when used in the management of acute heroin withdrawal. As a consequence, tramadol shows some promise as an opioid withdrawal management medication. PMID:16595358

Threlkeld, Melinda; Parran, Theodore V; Adelman, Christopher A; Grey, Scott F; Yu, Jaehak

2006-01-01

96

Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among young drug users is not a widespread problem in Sweden. Harm-reduction measures should target drug users with more severe problems, among whom illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common and pose a medical risk. Illicit use of other prescription drugs, which are less controlled and more widely used by young people, is an important issue for further research. PMID:24139199

2013-01-01

97

The reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenous and intranasal buprenorphine in heroin users.  

PubMed

Abuse of buprenorphine (BUP) by the intravenous (IV) route has been documented in several studies, and reports of intranasal (IN) abuse are increasing. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of BUP when it is administered intranasally and intravenously. The present secondary analysis used data from two separate studies to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of IV and IN buprenorphine. One study evaluated IV buprenorphine (N=13) and the other evaluated IN buprenorphine (N=12). Participants were maintained on 2 mg sublingual (SL) BUP and tested with each intranasal or intravenous buprenorphine test dose (0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, and 16 mg). During morning laboratory sessions, participants received money (US $20) and sample doses of IN or IV BUP, and then completed subjective effects questionnaires. Later that day, they completed a self-administration task to receive 10% portions of the drug and/or money they previously sampled. In general, positive subjective ratings for both IV and IN BUP were significantly greater than placebo, with IV BUP having a greater effect than IN BUP. All active BUP doses (IV and IN) maintained significantly higher progressive ratio breakpoint values than placebo, but breakpoint values for IV BUP were greater than for IN BUP. Buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, valued for its ability to reduce the positive subjective effects of other opioids. Nevertheless, the present data demonstrate that in participants maintained on a low dose of SL BUP, the medication itself has abuse liability when used intravenously or intranasally. PMID:24793093

Jones, Jermaine D; Madera, Gabriela; Comer, Sandra D

2014-07-01

98

Postcastration analgesia in ponies using buprenorphine hydrochloride.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine has recently obtained UK Marketing Authorisation for horses. The analgesic effects are long lasting, and have considerable potential for postoperative pain relief. This observer blinded, randomised study aimed to evaluate postsurgical analgesia in ponies premedicated with buprenorphine prior to castration under intravenous anaesthesia. Ponies received either 0.01 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) buprenorphine (group B) or an equivalent volume of 5 per cent glucose (group C) given intravenously before induction of anaesthesia. Pain was assessed and recorded using dynamic interactive visual analogue scores (DIVAS 0-100) and a Simple Descriptive Scale (SDS 0-3) (high scores=most pain) before and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours after anaesthesia. Rescue analgesia was given if DIVAS>40 mm. Data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test at P<0.05. Median (range) areas under the curve for DIVAS were 63 (0-383) mm hour in group B and 209 (0-391) mm hour in group C (P=0.0348). The SDS was lower in group B than in group C (P=0.038). Three group B and five group C animals required rescue analgesia. Buprenorphine did not produce any serious adverse effects. Buprenorphine at 0.01 mg/kg BW intravenously administered before anaesthesia provided near-comprehensive postoperative analgesia after surgical castration in ponies. PMID:23736517

Love, E J; Taylor, P M; Whay, H R; Murrell, J

2013-06-15

99

Efficacy of daily and alternate-day dosing regimens with the combination buprenorphine-naloxone tablet.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of a combination tablet formulation of buprenorphine containing 8 mg of buprenorphine and 2 mg of naloxone for every other day treatment and whether increasing the daily maintenance dose was essential for maintaining an efficacious alternate-day treatment. Twenty-six opioid-dependent outpatients completing a 16-day baseline entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, triple crossover trial. Twenty-one days of daily combination tablet administration were compared to two different 21-day periods of alternate-day buprenorphine administration where subjects received either 8 or 16 mg of the combination tablet every other day with placebo on the interposed day. Fifty-four percent (14/26) of subjects completed the study, but only two subjects dropped out during the 16-mg alternate-day condition. Rates of medication compliance, illicit opioid use and subject- and observer-rated measures of opioid effects did not distinguish daily from alternate-day treatments in subjects completing the study. However, pupillary diameter was significantly increased during 8-mg alternate-day compared to the 8-mg daily or 16-mg alternate-day treatment. These data replicate earlier findings describing the acceptability of alternate-day buprenorphine treatment using multiples of the daily maintenance dose and extend these findings by establishing the clinical efficacy of daily and alternate-day dosing regimens with the combination buprenorphine naloxone tablet. This study also suggests slightly improved outcomes during alternate-day treatment using multiples of the daily dose. PMID:10669065

Amass, L; Kamien, J B; Mikulich, S K

2000-02-01

100

Effects of Buprenorphine and Hepatitis C on Liver Enzymes in Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to explore changes in transaminase values associated with buprenorphine treatment and hepatitis C status among opioid dependent subjects aged 15–21. Methods 152 subjects seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine/naloxone (DETOX) or 12 weeks buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP). Liver chemistries including transaminases were obtained baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. 111 patients had at least one set of transaminases during treatment and were included in analyses of treatment effects. Results Overall, 8/60 BUP participants vs. 12/51 DETOX participants had at least one elevated ALT value during follow-up (Chi-square n.s.). 5/60 BUP participants vs. 11/51 DETOX participants had at least one elevated AST value (Chi-square = 3.194, p = .048). Twenty-eight out of 152 participants were hepatitis C (HCV) positive at baseline, and 4 seroconverted within 12 weeks, 2 in each group. HCV status was significantly associated with transaminase abnormalities (p = .009 and p = .006 for ALT an AST, respectively). HCV status had a strong effect on transaminase abnormalities among participants assigned to DETOX, but not among those assigned to BUP. Conclusions No evidence was found for hepatotoxicity of buprenorphine in this exploratory analysis. HCV was present in a significant minority of participants and was a significant predictor of transaminase elevation. Results suggest that stabilization on buprenorphine may decrease the frequency of transaminase abnormalities associated with HCV in opioid dependent young people. The high rate of seroconversion underscores the importance of effective treatment and prevention. PMID:21170166

Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Abbott, Patrick J.; Kushner, Robert; Tonigan, J. Scott; Woody, George E.

2010-01-01

101

Children of Cocaine: Treatment and Child Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information concerning the treatment and care of children addicted to cocaine is provided. Contents: (1) describe the drug; (2) put cocaine use in its historical and demographic perspectives; (3) report findings of a study documenting the incidence of maternal substance abuse in Pinellas County, Florida; (4) point out false perceptions,…

Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

102

Postoperative Intensive Care Treatment after Esophageal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to give a short review of problems associated with the intensive care treatment of patients after esophageal resection. Pulmonary dysfunction, supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, anastomotic leakage and mental disorders are the topics covered. Systemic inflammatory reaction and sepsis is the linking topic between these specific complications. Pulmonary dysfunction having an incidence of up to 40% is

Dirk L. Stippel; K. Tobias E. Beckurts

2004-01-01

103

Does buprenorphine maintenance improve the quality of life of opioid users?  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: The quality of life (QOL) of substance abusers is known to be severely impaired. Information on impact of opioid maintenance treatment on the QOL of opioid dependent subjects though available from the developed countries, is lacking from India. This study was carried out to assess the impact of buprenorphine maintenance treatment on the quality of life (QOL) of opioid dependent subjects at nine months follow up. Methods: Based on specified inclusion criteria a total of 231 subjects were recruited from five participating centres across India. They received sublingual buprenorphine as a directly observed therapy along with brief psychosocial intervention (provided in groups of 8-10 subjects) after intake in to the study. The WHOQOL-BREF scale domain scores obtained at baseline were compared to domain scores at nine months follow up. Results: At nine months follow up, among the 64.1 per cent retained in buprenorphine maintenance, there was a significant (P<0.001) decline in opioid use from 24.9 ± 10.1 days at baseline to 1.7 ± 4.7 days at nine months follow up and improvements in score of the four WHOQOL-BREF domains (Physical, Psychological, Social relationships and Environment). Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed the beneficial effects of buprenorphine maintenance treatment in improving the QOL of opioid-dependent subjects at nine month follow up. These results point towards the need for an expanded nation-wide provision of buprenorphine maintenance treatment as a harm reduction strategy for the opioid dependent population. PMID:23481062

Dhawan, A.; Chopra, A.

2013-01-01

104

Management of opioid addiction with buprenorphine: French history and current management  

PubMed Central

The way in which opioid addiction is managed in France is unique, as it is based on the prescription of buprenorphine by general practitioners and is dispensed by retail pharmacies. This policy has had a direct, positive impact on the number of deaths caused by heroin overdose, which was reduced by four-fifths between 1994 and 2002. In addition, certain associated comorbidities, such as infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, have also been reduced; the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in intravenous drug users fell from 25% in the mid-1990s to 6% in 2010. Since the implementation of this French model of opioid management, major scientific progress has been made, leading to a better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of addiction and of the management modalities required for its treatment. However, despite notable advances in scientific knowledge and in the implementation of devices, opioid addiction remains a major public health care issue in France, with 275,000–360,000 “problem drug users” being reported in 2011. The situation is still particularly worrying due to psychoactive substance use and misuse of opioid substitution treatments. Since 2003, there has been a persistent increase in the number of deaths and comorbidities related to opioid addiction, principally hepatitis C virus infection, which affects up to 40% of intravenous drug users. In France, the direct involvement of general practitioners in the management of opioid addiction is indisputable. Nevertheless, management could be optimized through better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disease, better knowledge of the pharmacology of opioid substitution treatments, and clear definition of short-, medium- and long-term treatment objectives. Data related to the management of opioid addiction by general practitioners in France have been published in 2005. Since then, the context has changed, other drugs were launched on the market such as generics of buprenorphine, methadone capsule, and Suboxone. Thus, an update seems necessary. This paper provides a description of opioid addiction management objectives and treatment modalities for general practitioners, based on currently available knowledge. PMID:24623988

Poloméni, Pierre; Schwan, Raymund

2014-01-01

105

Modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine by buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine by the mixed-action opioid buprenorsphine was studied in squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline, using a two-lever drug discrimination procedure. Lever pressing was maintained under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. During test sessions, monkeys received cumulative doses of cocaine after presession treatment with either saline or buprenorphine (0.001-0.01mg/kg). After pretreatment with saline, cocaine engendered dose-related increases in the percentage of cocaine-appropriate responses, reaching a maximum of 99-100 percent at doses of 0.3 or 1.0mg/kg. Pretreatment with buprenorphine shifted the cocaine dose-response function to the left, resulting in 98-100 percent cocaine-appropriate responding at doses of cocaine that previously engendered only saline-appropriate responding. When tested alone, buprenorphine did not occasion cocaine-appropriate responding at any dose. The results show that although buprenorphine does not itself have cocaine-like discriminative-stimulus effects, it can potentiate the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine. PMID:11224094

Kamien, J.B.; Spealman, R.D.

1991-12-01

106

Effects of Multimodal Analgesia with Low-Dose Buprenorphine and Meloxicam on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites after Surgery in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing use of rabbits as companion animals and models for biomedical research, rabbits have not been extensively studied to identify an efficacious postsurgical analgesic that does not cause systemic complications. The synergy of NSAID and systemic opioids is well-documented, and their combined use reduces the amount of either drug required for adequate analgesia. We measured fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in rabbits after a minimally invasive vascular cut-down procedure. Rabbits received buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), buprenorphine–meloxicam (0.01 mg/kg–0.1 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), or a single dose of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.5 mL) infused locally at the incision site. By day 3 after surgery, buprenorphine, meloxicam, and bupivacaine groups showed elevated FCM levels, which continued to rise until day 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by day 28. In the buprenorphine–meloxicam group, FCM was relatively unchanged until day 3, when treatment was discontinued, and then began to rise. Rabbits in the buprenorphine–meloxicam group gained more weight over the 28-d study than did those in the other 3 treatment groups. This study shows that in rabbits low-dose buprenorphine administered with meloxicam effectively mitigates the FCM response that develops after surgery without the adverse effects associated with higher doses. PMID:24041213

Goldschlager, Gregg B; Gillespie, Virginia L; Palme, Rupert; Baxter, Mark G

2013-01-01

107

Effects of buprenorphine and an alternative nondrug reinforcer, alone and in combination on smoked cocaine self-administration in monkeys.  

PubMed

The abuse of smoked cocaine base, also known as 'crack', continues to be a major public health problem and to date the success of pharmacological or behavioral interventions has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral (alternative reinforcer-saccharin) and pharmacological (0.01 mg/kg buprenorphine) treatment alone and in combination. Five adult male rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine base (1.0 mg/kg/delivery) via the smoking/inhalation route. Each day ten smoke deliveries were available contingent upon completion of a chained FR (lever press), FR (inhalation response) response schedule during 4 hr sessions. The data were analyzed using a behavioral economic framework in which the lever press response requirements were varied from 64 to 1024 to generate a demand function (consumption x FR) for cocaine under the following conditions: (1) buprenorphine pretreatment alone (0.01 mg/kg, i.m., 30 min presession); (2) concurrent access to saccharin alone (0.03% wt/vol); and (3) buprenorphine pretreatment in the presence of concurrent access to saccharin. Under all conditions, increases in the lever FR resulted in significant decreases in smoked cocaine base deliveries. Neither buprenorphine pretreatment alone nor concurrent saccharin alone produced significant decreases in smoked cocaine deliveries; however, the combination of buprenorphine pretreatment and concurrent saccharin significantly decreased the mean number of smoked cocaine deliveries from the no treatment baseline and from the buprenorphine alone condition. These data suggest that the combination of pharmacotherapy and alternative reinforcers may be an effective treatment strategy to alter smoked cocaine self-administration. PMID:9179503

Rodefer, J S; Mattox, A J; Thompson, S S; Carroll, M E

1997-04-14

108

Enhancing transitions from addiction treatment to primary care.  

PubMed

Despite long-standing recommendations that patients with substance use disorders receive primary care, only one-half of patients with substance use disorders receive such care. This article presents a conceptual model to facilitate the transition of patients from addiction treatment to primary care. A narrative review of the healthcare transition literature was conducted with an emphasis on identifying substance use disorder-specific model elements. The resulting model is intended to guide addiction treatment and primary care providers and researchers in understanding factors that impact care coordination between addiction treatment and primary care and to provide an overview of evidence-based methods for supporting this care transition. PMID:25299380

Cucciare, Michael A; Coleman, Eric A; Saitz, Richard; Timko, Christine

2014-01-01

109

The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of intranasal crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in opioid abusers  

PubMed Central

Aims Sublingual buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are efficacious opioid dependence pharmacotherapies, but there are reports of their diversion and misuse by the intranasal route. The study objectives were to characterize and compare their intranasal pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting An in-patient research unit at the University of Kentucky. Participants Healthy adults (n=10) abusing, but not physically dependent on, intranasal opioids. Measurements Six sessions (72 hours apart) tested five intranasal doses [0/0, crushed buprenorphine (2, 8 mg), crushed buprenorphine/naloxone (2/0.5, 8/2 mg)] and one intravenous dose (0.8 mg buprenorphine/0.2 mg naloxone for bioavailability assessment). Plasma samples, physiological, subject- and observer-rated measures were collected before and for up to 72 hours after drug administration. Findings Both formulations produced time- and dose-dependent increases on subjective and physiological mu-opioid agonist effects (e.g. ‘liking’, miosis). Subjects reported higher subjective ratings and street values for 8 mg compared to 8/2 mg, but these differences were not statistically significant. No significant formulation differences in peak plasma buprenorphine concentration or time-course were observed. Buprenorphine bioavailability was 38–44% and Tmax was 35–40 minutes after all intranasal doses. Naloxone bioavailability was 24% and 30% following 2/0.5 and 8/2 mg, respectively. Conclusions It is difficult to determine if observed differences in abuse potential between intranasal buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are clinically relevant at the doses tested. Greater bioavailability and faster onset of pharmacodynamic effects compared to sublingual administration suggests a motivation for intranasal misuse in non-dependent opioid abusers. However, significant naloxone absorption from intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone administration may deter the likelihood of intranasal misuse of buprenorphine/naloxone, but not buprenorphine, in opioid-dependent individuals. PMID:21395892

Middleton, L.S.; Nuzzo, P.A.; Lofwall, M.R.; Moody, D.E.; Walsh, S.L.

2011-01-01

110

Comparison of Buprenorphine and Butorphanol Analgesia in the Eastern Red-Spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens)  

PubMed Central

The experimental use of amphibian models in biomedical research increases yearly, but there is a paucity of reports concerning analgesic use in many of these species. In this study, buprenorphine given by intracoelomic injection and butorphanol added to the tank water were compared for analgesic effect in the eastern red-spotted newt after bilateral forelimb amputations. Newts undergoing anesthesia but not surgery and newts having surgery but not given analgesia postoperatively were used as control groups. Animals were tested for food consumption, spontaneous movement, response to tapping on the tank, response to being touched, and body posture. Both buprenorphine by intracoelomic injection and butorphanol in tank water significantly promoted resumption of normal behavior after bilateral surgical amputation of the forelimbs. The difference between analgesic treatment and no analgesic treatment was maintained until 72 h after surgery. PMID:19383214

2009-01-01

111

Clinical pharmacology of buprenorphine: Ceiling effects at high doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the acute effects of buprenorphine, an opioid partial (?-agonist, across a wide range of doses in comparison to methadone.Method: Healthy adult male volunteers, who had experience with but were not physically dependent on opioids, participated while residing on a closed research unit. Four subjects received buprenorphine (0, 1, 2, 4, 8,

Sharon L Walsh; Kenzie L Preston; Maxine L Stitzer; Edward J Cone; George E Bigelow

1994-01-01

112

Effects of buprenorphine and meloxicam analgesia on induced cerebral ischemia in C57BL/6 male mice.  

PubMed

Laboratory mice constitute an extensively used model to study the pathologic and functional outcomes of cerebral ischemic stroke. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model requires surgical intervention, which potentially can result in postsurgical pain and stress. In the present study, we investigated whether buprenorphine and meloxicam, at clinically relevant doses provided pain relief without altering infarct volume in male C57BL/6 mice. Common known side-effects of buprenorphine, including decreased food consumption, were noted after surgery in buprenorphine-treated mice, but these effects were brief and seen only during the treatment period. Fecal corticosterone metabolites did not differ significantly between the groups. In the present study, buprenorphine treatment did not alter infarction volume when compared with that of mice that did not receive analgesia. In contrast, meloxicam treatment significantly reduced infarct volume and may be a confounder if used as an analgesic during MCAO surgery. Furthermore, investigation of behavioral profiles by using an automated behavioral scoring system showed that rearing and sniffing behaviors decreased as infarct volume increased. This suggests that studies of exploratory behavior may aid in developing new markers of short-term stroke-related behavioral deficiencies in laboratory mice. PMID:23582417

Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Fauerby, Natasha; Raida, Zindy; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Johansen, Flemming F; Abelson, Klas Sp

2013-04-01

113

Twelve reasons for considering buprenorphine as a frontline analgesic in the management of pain.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is an opioid that has a complex and unique pharmacology which provides some advantages over other potent mu agonists. We review 12 reasons for considering buprenorphine as a frontline analgesic for moderate to severe pain: (1) Buprenorphine is effective in cancer pain; (2) buprenorphine is effective in treating neuropathic pain; (3) buprenorphine treats a broader array of pain phenotypes than do certain potent mu agonists, is associated with less analgesic tolerance, and can be combined with other mu agonists; (4) buprenorphine produces less constipation than do certain other potent mu agonists, and does not adversely affect the sphincter of Oddi; (5) buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression but not analgesia; (6) buprenorphine causes less cognitive impairment than do certain other opioids; (7) buprenorphine is not immunosuppressive like morphine and fentanyl; (8) buprenorphine does not adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or cause hypogonadism; (9) buprenorphine does not significantly prolong the QTc interval, and is associated with less sudden death than is methadone; (10) buprenorphine is a safe and effective analgesic for the elderly; (11) buprenorphine is one of the safest opioids to use in patients in renal failure and those on dialysis; and (12) withdrawal symptoms are milder and drug dependence is less with buprenorphine. In light of evidence for efficacy, safety, versatility, and cost, buprenorphine should be considered as a first-line analgesic. PMID:22809652

Davis, Mellar P

2012-01-01

114

Indicators of Buprenorphine and Methadone Use and Abuse: What Do We Know?  

PubMed Central

Abuse of prescription opioids is a growing problem. The number of methadone pain pills distributed now exceeds liquid methadone used in opioid treatment, and the increases in buprenorphine indicators provide evidence of the need to monitor and intervene to decrease the abuse of this drug. The need for additional and improved data to track trends is discussed, along with findings as to the characteristics of the users and combinations of drugs. Data on toxicities related to methadone or buprenorphine, particularly in combination with other prescribed drugs, are presented and clinical implications and considerations are offered. These findings underscore the need for physicians to be aware of potential toxicities and to educate their patients regarding these issues. PMID:20132124

Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.

2013-01-01

115

Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Buprenorphine For Opioid Dependent Women in the Criminal Justice System  

PubMed Central

Aims Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine when used with opioid dependent men transitioning from prison to the community, but no studies have been conducted with women in the criminal justice (CJ) system. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of buprenorphine for relapse prevention among opioid dependent women in the CJ system transitioning back to the community. Methods 36 women under CJ supervision were recruited from an inpatient drug treatment facility that treats CJ individuals returning back to the community. Nine were enrolled in an open label buprenorphine arm then 27 were randomized to buprenorphine (n=15) or placebo (n=12; double-blind). All women completed baseline measures and started study medication prior to release. Participants were followed weekly, provided urine drug screens (UDS), received study medication for 12 weeks, and returned for a 3 month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed for all time points through end-of-treatment (EOT). Results The majority of participants were Caucasian (88.9%), young (M±SD=31.8±8.4 years), divorced/separated (59.2%) women with at least a high school/GED education (M±SD =12±1.7 years). GEE analyses showed that buprenorphine was efficacious in maintaining abstinence across time compared to placebo. At End of Treatment, 92% of placebo and 33% of active medication participants were positive for opiates on urine drug screen (Chi-Square = 10.9, df=1; p<0.001). However, by the three month follow-up point, no differences were found between the two groups, with 83% of participants at follow-up positive for opiates. Conclusions Women in the CJ system who received buprenorphine prior to release from a treatment facility had fewer opiate positive UDS through the 12-weeks of treatment compared to women receiving placebo. Initiating buprenorphine in a controlled environment prior to release appears to be a viable strategy to reduce opiate use when transitioning back to the community. PMID:21782352

Cropsey, Karen L.; Lane, Peter S.; Hale, Galen J.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Clark, C. Brendan; Ingersoll, Karen S.; Islam, M. Aminul; Stitzer, Maxine L.

2011-01-01

116

Hormone testing and treatment enters pain care.  

PubMed

A number of factors have recently coalesced to bring hormone testing and treatment to the field of pain care. Uncontrolled, severe pain as well as opioid drugs have a profound impact on the endocrine system. Because pain is a potent stressor, it initially causes pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormones to elevate in the serum. If severe pain goes uncontrolled for too long, however, hormone levels deplete in the serum. The finding of abnormal (too high or low) serum hormone levels serve as biomarker of endocrinopathies, which helps inform the clinician that enhanced analgesia as well as hormone replacement may be necessary. Adequate, physiologic levels of some specific hormones are necessary for optimal analgesia, neuroprotection, and neurogenesis. Although not a substitute for opioids, some hormone replacements may minimize their use. We know that the central nervous system produces a group of hormones called neurohormones whose natural function is neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Their clinical use in centralized pain states is new, and early reports indicate that they may have considerable benefit for treatment. PMID:25485913

Tennant, Forest

2014-12-01

117

Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care: The Model of Care Thirty Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1950s, trends in children's mental health have moved care from residential and office-based treatment to community-based interventions. The Pressley Ridge Treatment Foster Care (PRTFC) program was developed in 1981 in response to these trends. Currently, Pressley Ridge provides PR-TFC treatment in 15 programs in six states and the…

Trunzo, Annette C.; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Strickler, Amy; Doncaster, James

2012-01-01

118

Atipamezole Reverses Ketamine-Dexmedetomidine Anesthesia without Altering the Antinociceptive Effects of Butorphanol and Buprenorphine in Female C57BL/6J Mice.  

PubMed

Butorphanol and buprenorphine are common analgesics used in laboratory mice. Inadvertent attenuation of the antinociceptive effects of these analgesics via the administration of an anesthetic reversal agent could result in postprocedural pain and distress, with subsequent negative effects on animal welfare, study outcomes, and regulatory compliance. This study was undertaken to determine whether atipamezole reverses ketamine-dexmedetomidine anesthesia and alters the antinociceptive effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine in female C57BL/6J mice. Atipamezole reliably reversed the anesthetic effects of ketamine-dexmedetomidine, and mice were ambulatory 17.4 ± 30.6 min after administration of the ?2-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Atipamezole alone had no significant effect on tail-flick latency and did not alter the antinociceptive properties of butorphanol or low-dose (0.05 mg/kg) or high-dose (0.1 mg/kg) buprenorphine in female C57BL/6J mice. After reversal of ketamine-dexmedetomidine anesthesia, tail-flick latency at 30, 60, and 150 min after analgesic treatment differed significantly between mice treated with atipamezole alone and those given atipamezole followed by butorphanol or high-dose buprenorphine. These results suggest that the analgesic effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine are not affected by atipamezole. Buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg) administered 30 min prior to or at the time of anesthesia resulted in a greater magnitude of antinociception after antagonism of anesthesia than when given at the time of reversal. Given these results, we recommend the use of ketamine-dexmedetomidine anesthesia with buprenorphine administered either preemptively or at the time of anesthetic induction to provide a defined period of surgical anesthesia that is effectively reversed by atipamezole. PMID:25650975

Izer, Jenelle M; Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Wilson, Ronald P

2014-01-01

119

Improving Care for the Treatment of Alcohol and Drug Disorders  

PubMed Central

The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) teaches alcohol and drug treatment programs to apply process improvement strategies and make organizational changes that improve quality of care. Participating programs reduce days to admission, increase retention in care and spread the application of process improvement within their treatment centers. More generally, NIATx provides a framework for addressing the Institute of Medicine’s six dimensions of quality care (i.e., safe, effective, patient-centered, efficient, timely and equitable) in treatments for alcohol, drug and mental health disorders. NIATx and its extensions illustrate how the behavioral health field can respond to the demand for higher quality treatment services. PMID:18259871

McCarty, Dennis; Gustafson, David; Capoccia, Victor A.; Cotter, Frances

2008-01-01

120

Haemophilia care - beyond the treatment guidelines.  

PubMed

Care for people with haemophilia (PWH) has improved much over the last two decades leading to near normal lives for those receiving early regular prophylaxis with clotting factor concentrates (CFC). Yet, there are significant limitations of those practices. In the absence of a well-defined optimal prophylaxis protocol, there are wide variations in practices with a two to threefold difference in doses. In those parts of the world where there are constraints on the availability of CFC, episodic replacement remains the norm for most patients even though it is evident that this does not change the natural history of the disease over a wide range of doses. Suitable prophylactic protocols therefore need to be developed wherever possible at these doses. Finally, there are only limited data on long-term outcomes in haemophilia from anywhere in the world. The practice of documenting specific outcomes as part of the regular evaluation of PWH needs to be established and the appropriate instruments used to assess them. Definitions of clinical events and endpoints of interventions in clinical studies are being developed to help such data collection. The correlations between different replacement therapy protocols and specific outcomes will help define what is best at different dose levels. Such data will allow better health planning and treatment choices throughout the world. PMID:24762268

Srivastava, A

2014-05-01

121

Acute Pain Management for Patients Receiving Maintenance Methadone or Buprenorphine Therapy  

PubMed Central

More patients with opioid addiction are receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT) with methadone and buprenorphine. As a result, physicians will more frequently encounter patients receiving OAT who develop acutely painful conditions, requiring effective treatment strategies. Undertreatment of acute pain is suboptimal medical treatment, and patients receiving long-term OAT are at particular risk. This paper acknowledges the complex interplay among addictive disease, OAT, and acute pain management and describes 4 common misconceptions resulting in suboptimal treatment of acute pain. Clinical recommendations for providing analgesia for patients with acute pain who are receiving OAT are presented. Although challenging, acute pain in patients receiving this type of therapy can effectively be managed. PMID:16418412

Alford, Daniel P.; Compton, Peggy; Samet, Jeffrey H.

2007-01-01

122

The Effects of Maternally Administered Methadone, Buprenorphine and Naltrexone on Offspring: Review of Human and Animal Data  

PubMed Central

Most women using heroin are of reproductive age with major risks for their infants. We review clinical and experimental data on fetal, neonatal and postnatal complications associated with methadone, the current “gold standard”, and compare these with more recent, but limited, data on developmental effects of buprenorphine, and naltrexone. Methadone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist and is commonly recommended for treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, it has undesired outcomes including neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Animal studies also indicate detrimental effects on growth, behaviour, neuroanatomy and biochemistry, and increased perinatal mortality. Buprenorphine is a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist and a ?-opioid receptor antagonist. Clinical observations suggest that buprenorphine during pregnancy is similar to methadone on developmental measures but is potentially superior in reducing the incidence and prognosis of NAS. However, small animal studies demonstrate that low doses of buprenorphine during pregnancy and lactation lead to changes in offspring behaviour, neuroanatomy and biochemistry. Naltrexone is a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Although data are limited, humans treated with oral or sustained-release implantable naltrexone suggest outcomes potentially superior to those with methadone or buprenorphine. However, animal studies using oral or injectable naltrexone have shown developmental changes following exposure during pregnancy and lactation, raising concerns about its use in humans. Animal studies using chronic exposure, equivalent to clinical depot formulations, are required to evaluate safety. While each treatment is likely to have maternal advantages and disadvantages, studies are urgently required to determine which is optimal for offspring in the short and long term. PMID:19305793

Farid, W.O; Dunlop, S.A; Tait, R.J; Hulse, G.K

2008-01-01

123

The costs of nonbeneficial treatment in the intensive care setting.  

PubMed

Ethics consultations have been shown to reduce the use of "nonbeneficial treatments," defined as life-sustaining treatments delivered to patients who ultimately did not survive to hospital discharge, when treatment conflicts occurred in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). In this paper we estimated the costs of nonbeneficial treatment using the results from a randomized trial of ethics consultations. We found that ethics consultations were associated with reductions in hospital days and treatment costs among patients who did not survive to hospital discharge. We conclude that consultations resolved conflicts that would have inappropriately prolonged nonbeneficial or unwanted treatments in the ICU instead of focusing on more appropriate comfort care. PMID:16136635

Gilmer, Todd; Schneiderman, Lawrence J; Teetzel, Holly; Blustein, Jeffrey; Briggs, Kathleen; Cohn, Felicia; Cranford, Ronald; Dugan, Daniel; Kamatsu, Glen; Young, Ernlé

2005-01-01

124

Caudal epidural buprenorphine for postoperative pain relief in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative pain relief by caudal epidural buprenorphine, a highly lipid-soluble, semisynthetic derivative of thebaine, has not been reported in children. Over a period of 1 year, 58 children undergoing various surgical procedures were given 3 g\\/kg epidural buprenorphine via the caudal route. No serious side effects were encountered; on the contrary, the excellent and long-lasting pain relief (about 7 days)

A. N. Gangopadhyay; P. Bhattacharya; A. Sinhal; A. Digar; S. C. Gopall; G. D. Singhall

1992-01-01

125

Follow-up Care After Cancer Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Association of Cancer Online Resources, a cancer information system that offers access to electronic mailing lists and websites, provides a list of long-term follow-up care clinics on its Ped-Onc Resource Center ...

126

Protein Innovations Advance Drug Treatments, Skin Care  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dan Carter carefully layered the sheets of tracing paper on the light box. On each sheet were renderings of the atomic components of an essential human protein, one whose structure had long been a mystery. With each layer Carter laid down, a never-before-seen image became clearer. Carter joined NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in 1985 and began exploring processes of protein crystal growth in space. By bouncing intense X-rays off the crystals, researchers can determine the electron densities around the thousands of atoms forming the protein molecules, unveiling their atomic structures. Cultivating crystals of sufficient quality on Earth was problematic; the microgravity conditions of space were far more accommodating. At the time, only a few hundred protein structures had been mapped, and the methods were time consuming and tedious. Carter hoped his work would help reveal the structure of human serum albumin, a major protein in the human circulatory system responsible for ferrying numerous small molecules in the blood. More was at stake than scientific curiosity. Albumin has a high affinity for most of the world s pharmaceuticals, Carter explains, and its interaction with drugs can change their safety and efficacy. When a medication enters the bloodstream a cancer chemotherapy drug, for example a majority of it can bind with albumin, leaving only a small percentage active for treatment. How a drug interacts with albumin can influence considerations like the necessary effective dosage, playing a significant role in the design and application of therapeutic measures. In spite of numerous difficulties, including having no access to microgravity following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, the image Carter had hoped to see was finally clarifying. In 1988, his lab had acquired specialized X-ray and detection equipment a tipping point. Carter and his colleagues began to piece together albumin s portrait, the formation of its electron densities coalescing on the sheets of tracing paper he arranged on the light box. While space-grown crystals were ultimately not involved in the achievement, a year later, Carter says, we were on the cover of Science magazine, having determined the atomic structure of albumin.

2012-01-01

127

Subnanogram-concentration measurement of buprenorphine in human plasma by electron-capture capillary gas chromatography: application to pharmacokinetics of sublingual buprenorphine.  

PubMed

We describe a sensitive and specific method for the measurement of buprenorphine in human plasma. The method involves a structural analog as an internal calibrator, careful control of pH during sample extraction to maximize drug recovery, and back-extraction into acid followed by reextraction to eliminate endogenous interferences. After evaporation, sample residues are derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analyzed by separation on a fused-silica polymethylsiloxane capillary column and electron-capture detection. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges 0.1-2.0 micrograms/L and 2.0-20 micrograms/L, with within-run CVs of 9.7% at 0.1 microgram/L to 5.0% at 20 micrograms/L, and total CVs of 15.9% at 0.1 microgram/L to 6.5% at 10 micrograms/L. The limit of quantification was 0.1 microgram/L. The method was utilized in studies to determine the absolute bioavailability of sublingual doses of 2 mg of buprenorphine in 1 mL of 300 mL/L ethanol and the bioequivalence of sublingual 8-mg tablet and 300 mL/L ethanol solution formulations. PMID:9439446

Everhart, E T; Cheung, P; Shwonek, P; Zabel, K; Tisdale, E C; Jacob, P; Mendelson, J; Jones, R T

1997-12-01

128

Race, Managed Care, And The Quality Of Substance Abuse Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of managed behavioral health care by state Medicaid agencies has the potential to increase the quality of treatment for racial minorities by promoting access to substance abuse treatment and creating more appropriate utilization patterns. This paper examines three indicators of quality for white, Black, and Hispanic Medicaid clients who received substance abuse treatment in Massachusetts between 1992 and

Marilyn C. Daley; Grant A. Ritter; Dominic Hodgkin; Richard H. Beinecke

2005-01-01

129

Depression Treatment Preferences in Older Primary Care Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: For depressed older primary care patients, this study aimed to examine (a) characteristics associated with depression treatment preferences; (b) predictors of receiving preferred treatment; and (c) whether receiving preferred treatment predicted satisfaction and depression outcomes. Design and Methods: Data are from 1,602 depressed older…

Gum, Amber M.; Arean, Patricia A.; Hunkeler, Enid; Tang, Lingqi; Katon, Wayne; Hitchcock, Polly; Steffens, David C.; Dickens, Jeanne; Unutzer, Jurgen

2006-01-01

130

Tobacco use treatment in primary care patients with psychiatric illness  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of smoking is higher in patients with psychiatric illness compared to the general population. Smoking causes chronic illnesses which lead to premature mortality in those with psychiatric illness, is associated with greater burden of psychiatric symptoms, and contributes to the social isolation experienced by individuals with psychiatric disorders. Most patients with psychiatric illness present initially to primary care rather than specialty care settings, and some patients receive care exclusively in the primary care setting. Therefore, family physicians and other primary care clinicians have an important role in the recognition and treatment of tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illnesses. In this article we review common myths associated with smoking and psychiatric illness, techniques in implementing evidence-based tobacco use treatments, the evidence base for tobacco use treatment for patients with specific psychiatric diagnoses, and factors to consider in treating tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illness. PMID:24808119

Cerimele, Joseph M.; Halperin, Abigail C.; Saxon, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

131

Orthopedic Health: Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past ... Exercise helps bone density, improves muscle strength and joint flexibility, and enhances your balance. Take part in ...

132

45 CFR 211.6 - Reception; temporary care, treatment, and assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Reception; temporary care, treatment, and assistance. 211.6 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CARE AND TREATMENT OF MENTALLY ILL NATIONALS OF THE UNITED...211.6 Reception; temporary care, treatment, and assistance. (a)...

2010-10-01

133

Effects of buprenorphine and an alternative nondrug reinforcer, alone and in combination on smoked cocaine self-administration in monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abuse of smoked cocaine base, also known as ‘crack’, continues to be a major public health problem and to date the success of pharmacological or behavioral interventions has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral (alternative reinforcer-saccharin) and pharmacological (0.01 mg\\/kg buprenorphine) treatment alone and in combination. Five adult male rhesus

Joshua S. Rodefer; Adande J. Mattox; Sherry S. Thompson; Marilyn E. Carroll

1997-01-01

134

Effect of ?-opioids morphine and buprenorphine on the development of adjuvant arthritis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and Design: On the basis that endogenous opioids play a role in the physiological response to inflammation, this\\u000a study tests the antiarthritic effects of a ?-opioid agonist, morphine and the partial ?-agonist, buprenorphine.\\u000a \\u000a Material: Male Lewis rats were used.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Treatment: Rats were innoculated subcutaneously with 0.05 ml of Freund's complete adjuvant (5 mg\\/ml) into the right hind paw\\u000a to

J. S. Walker; A. K. Chandler; J. L. Wilson; W. Binder; R. O. Day

1996-01-01

135

Predictors of Dropout from Inpatient Opioid Detoxification with Buprenorphine: A Chart Review  

PubMed Central

Inpatient withdrawal treatment (detoxification) is common in opioid dependence, although dropout against medical advice often limits its outcome. This study aimed to assess baseline predictors of dropout from inpatient opioid detoxification with buprenorphine, including age, gender, current substance use, and type of postdetoxification planning. A retrospective hospital chart review was carried out for inpatient standard opioid detoxifications using buprenorphine taper, in a detoxification ward in Malmö, Sweden (N = 122). Thirty-four percent of patients (n = 42) dropped out against medical advice. In multivariate logistic regression, dropout was significantly associated with younger age (OR 0.93 [0.89–0.97]) and negatively predicted by inpatient postdetoxification plan (OR 0.41 [0.18–0.94]), thus favouring an inpatient plan as opposed to outpatient treatment while residing at home. Dropout was unrelated to baseline urine toxicology. In opioid detoxification, patients may benefit from a higher degree of postdetoxification planning, including transition to residential treatment, in order to increase the likelihood of a successful detoxification and treatment entry. Young opioid-dependent patients may need particular attention in the planning of detoxification. PMID:25530903

Hallén, Emma

2014-01-01

136

Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

2011-01-01

137

Buprenorphine versus morphine for patient-controlled analgesia after cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is an opioid agonist-antagonist that has emerged as an option for postoperative analgesia. We compared the postoperative hospital course of patients undergoing open cholecystectomy who received buprenorphine hydrochloride with those who received morphine sulfate. Patients in both groups administered the analgesic using a patient-controlled analgesia infusion device. Comparison of the two groups demonstrated no difference with respect to clinical indicators of intestinal motility, visual analog pain scores and hospitalization period. Postoperative nausea occurred more frequently in the buprenorphine group, but the difference was not significant. We concluded that the patient-controlled analgesia device is a valuable tool for comparing different analgesics. Both analgesics tested provide adequate analgesia with a similar postoperative course. PMID:8322143

Dingus, D J; Sherman, J C; Rogers, D A; DiPiro, J T; May, R; Bowden, T A

1993-07-01

138

Buprenorphine Response as a Function of Neurogenetic Polymorphic Antecedents: Can Dopamine Genes Affect Clinical Outcomes in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)?  

PubMed Central

There is a plethora of research indicating the successful treatment of opioid dependence with either buprenorphine alone or in combination with naloxone (Suboxone®). However, we encourage caution in long-term maintenance with these drugs, albeit, lack of any other FDA approved opioid maintenance compound to date. Our concern has been supported by severe withdrawal (even with tapering of the dosage of for example Suboxone® which is 40 times more potent than morphine) from low dose of buprenorphine (alone or with naloxone). In addition our findings of a long-term flat affect in chronic Suboxone® patients amongst other unwanted side effects including diversion and suicide attempts provides impetus to reconsider long-term utilization. However, it seems prudent to embrace genetic testing to reveal reward circuitry gene polymorphisms especially those related to dopaminergic pathways as well as opioid receptor(s) as a way of improving treatment outcomes. Understanding the interaction of reward circuitry involvement in buprenorphine effects and respective genotypes provide a novel framework to augment a patient's clinical experience and benefits during opioid replacement therapy. PMID:25664200

Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Jacobs, William; McLaughlin, Thomas; Gold, Mark S.

2014-01-01

139

Reversal of opioid overdose syndrome in morphine-dependent rats using buprenorphine.  

PubMed

The method of choice for reversal of opioid-toxicity is administration of naloxone. This treatment can be accompanied by complications including acute lung-injury, myocardial infarction, or withdrawal-syndrome (in dependent-patients). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of buprenorphine in reversal of opioid-overdose syndrome in dependent-rats. A prospective case-control study was designed, in which a total of 30 rats were put on opioid-dependency protocol with 10mg/kg of intra-peritoneal morphine twice daily for 10 days. After confirmation of dependency by naloxone administration, the rats were overdosed by giving 16mg/kg of intra-peritoneal methadone. They were divided into four groups receiving naloxone (n=7; 2mg/kg) and buprenorphine(n=8, 8, and 7 with doses of 3mg/kg, 6mg/kg, and 10mg/kg), respectively. These four groups were compared regarding reversal of opioid signs/symptoms and development of withdrawal-syndrome. Rats in the first group showed signs/symptoms of opioid-withdrawal severely and with a higher frequency (P<0.001). In the groups 2-4, all doses recovered the intoxicated-rats without inducing signs/symptoms of withdrawal; however, the 3mg/kg dose reversed toxicity slower (P<0.001) and one rat in this group died later due to the re-development of signs of toxicity. Buprenorphine recovers opioid-overdose in morphine-dependent rats and bypasses the withdrawal-syndrome due to administration of naloxone. PMID:25510513

Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Bayat, Amir Hossein; Haghparast, Abbas; Shadnia, Shahin; Rahimi, Mitra; Hashemi Demaneh, Behrouz; Assar, Nasim

2015-02-01

140

Community-Based Treatment for Opioid Dependent Offenders: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care opioid substitution treatment (OST) has not been compared to program-based OST for community-supervised offenders. Objective To compare primary care to specialist supervised OST for opioid dependent offenders in terms of substance use and HIV risk outcomes. This project randomly assigned 15 jail diversion participants to either: (1) primary care buprenorphine OST, (2) specialist facility buprenorphine OST, or (3) specialist facility methadone OST. Participation lasted 13.5 months (12 month active treatment plus a post-participation visit). Results All subjects endorsed 0 days of opioid use in the previous 14 at follow-up. Specialty care reduced HIV risk (Risk Assessment Battery composite score) over 6 months (?0.24±0.17) compared to primary care (0.02±0.14; p=0.032). Conclusion Findings support primary care OST feasibility for a community-supervised offender sample. Specialist care may facilitate improvements in secondary outcomes, such as HIV risk behaviors. Scientific significance Further research is needed to clarify (1) the role of primary care in addicted offender management, and (2) the matching of offenders, based upon history and co-morbidity, to care coordination conditions. PMID:23952897

Brown, Randy; Gassman, Michele; Hetzel, Scott; Berger, Lisa

2013-01-01

141

42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing...HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.34 Care and treatment of people losing...and those receiving inpatient care under contract, including...

2011-10-01

142

42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing...HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.34 Care and treatment of people losing...and those receiving inpatient care under contract, including...

2010-10-01

143

42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing...HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.34 Care and treatment of people losing...and those receiving inpatient care under contract, including...

2014-10-01

144

42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing...HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.34 Care and treatment of people losing...and those receiving inpatient care under contract, including...

2013-10-01

145

42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing...HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.34 Care and treatment of people losing...and those receiving inpatient care under contract, including...

2012-10-01

146

42 CFR 136.14 - Care and treatment of ineligible individuals.  

...Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Care and treatment of ineligible individuals. 136.14...Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible To Receive Care? § 136.14 Care and treatment of ineligible individuals....

2014-10-01

147

Transcultural oral health care: 3. Dental care and treatment during the fast of Ramadan.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to highlight issues that may affect dental treatment and care of Muslim patients when they are fasting during Ramadan. Recommendations are provided on how to provide culturally sensitive oral health care for this community. By taking into account the beliefs and wishes of the individual, dentists will provide a service that is acceptable and appropriate to both the Muslim community and individual Muslims. PMID:11218533

Raja, A; Anees, K; Bedi, R

2000-10-01

148

Comparison of the transcriptional responses induced by acute morphine, methadone and buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Despite their widespread use in opioid maintenance treatment and pain management, little is known about the intracellular effectors of methadone and buprenorphine and the transcriptional responses they induce. We therefore studied the acute effects of these two opioids in rats, comparing our observations with those for the reference molecule, morphine. We determined the analgesic ED50 of the three molecules in the tail flick test, to ensure that transcriptional effects were compared between doses of equivalent analgesic effect. We analysed changes in gene expression over time in three cerebral structures involved in several opioid behaviours-the dorsal striatum, thalamus and nucleus accumbens-by real-time quantitative PCR. We analysed the expression of genes encoding proteins of the endogenous opioid system in parallel with that of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation. The acute transcriptional effects of methadone resembled those of morphine more closely than did those of buprenorphine, in terms of kinetics and intensities. Our results provide the first evidence that these two drugs widely used in pain management and opioid maintenance treatment can disturb the regulation of endogenous opioid system genes and induce molecular outcomes different from those observed with morphine. PMID:23624329

Belkaï, Emilie; Crété, Dominique; Courtin, Cindie; Noble, Florence; Marie-Claire, Cynthia

2013-07-01

149

Quality of Care Measures for the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The staff of the American Psychiatric Assocition (APA), the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE), and a national panel of experts in bipolar disorder and practice guideline development have collaborated to generate a set of quality of care indicators for the pharmacologic and psychosocial treatment of bipolar disorder. The indicators were derived from APA’s evidence-based Practice Guideline for

Farifteh Firoozmand Duffy; William Narrow; Joyce C. West; Laura J. Fochtmann; David A. Kahn; Trisha Suppes; John M. Oldham; John S. McIntyre; Ronald W. Manderscheid; Paul Sirovatka; Darrel Regier

2005-01-01

150

Primary Care and Substance Abuse Treatment Linkages: Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls divided undervalued treatment approaches of alcoholism/substance abuse a major anomaly in the American health care system. Presents American Psychological Association policy statement on alcoholism and other drug abuse adopted in February 1992. Includes discussion of overall policy and policies pertaining to prevention; assessment,…

Wiggins, Jack G.

1993-01-01

151

Effect of steady-state faldaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone in subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy.  

PubMed

The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24,ss), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (Cmax,ss), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C24,ss) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01637922.). PMID:25385094

Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J; Riesenberg, Robert R; Vince, Bradley D; Webster, Lynn R; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei

2015-01-01

152

Opioid substitution treatment in New Zealand: a 40 year perspective.  

PubMed

We provide an overview of the history and philosophy of the treatment for opioid dependence, which has been dominated by methadone substitution treatment for the past 40 years in New Zealand. Although changes in approach have occurred over this time, influenced by various sociopolitical events and changing ideologies, opioid substitution treatment has still "not come of age". It remains undermined by stigma and risk concerns associated with methadone and has struggled to be accessible and attractive to illicit opioid drug users, comprehensive and integrated into mainstream health care. However, the introduction in 2012 of Pharmac-subsidised buprenorphine combined with naloxone (Suboxone) in the context of an emerging trend towards a broader recovery and well-being orientation could signal a new era in treatment. The availability of buprenorphine-naloxone may also facilitate a further shift in treatment from primarily siloed specialist addiction services to integrated primary care services. This shift will help reduce stigma, promote patient self-management and community integration and align opioid substitution treatment with treatment for other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and asthma. PMID:24997702

Deering, Daryle; Sellman, J Douglas; Adamson, Simon

2014-07-01

153

Continuing care in the treatment of addictive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newer models of continuing care in the addictions are designed to improve the long-term management of substance use disorders\\u000a by engaging patients into flexible, or “adaptive,” treatment algorithms that change in focus and intensity as symptoms wax\\u000a and wane over time. This article describes some of these newer approaches to the management of substance use disorders and\\u000a presents recent research

James R. McKay

2006-01-01

154

[Treatment of constipation in the palliative care phase].  

PubMed

Constipation is a common problem with a considerable negative impact on quality of life in patients who receive palliative care. Over 35% of patients with heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cancer have constipation. In the palliative phase constipation often has multiple causes. Treatment of constipation consists of both medical treatment with laxatives and non-medical treatment. A specific recommendation for the use of laxatives cannot be made because of the lack of comparative trials. The choice of what laxative to use can only be made on the basis of clinical experience, mechanism of action, personal preference of the patient and costs. Prophylactic use of laxatives is indicated to prevent constipation when initiating constipation inducing medication such as opioids. In treatment-resistant constipation prucalopride, colchicine or misoprostol may be effective. Opioid-antagonists such as naloxone and methylnaltrexone are effective in patients with persistent opioid-induced constipation despite the use of laxatives. PMID:21176258

de Groot, Jan Willem B; Peters, Frans T M; Reyners, Anna K L

2010-01-01

155

Treatment-Resistant Depression in Primary Care Across Canada  

PubMed Central

Objective: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) represents a considerable global health concern. The goal of the InSight study was to investigate the prevalence of TRD and to evaluate its clinical characterization and management, compared with nonresistant depression, in primary care centres. Methods: Physicians completed a case report on a consecutive series of patients with major depressive disorder (n = 1212), which captured patient demographics and comorbidity, as well as current and past medication. Results: Using failure to respond to at least 2 antidepressants (ADs) from different classes as the definition of TRD, the overall prevalence was 21.7%. There were no differences in prevalence between men and women or among ethnicities. Patients with TRD had longer episode duration, were more likely to receive polypharmacy (for example, psychotropic, lipid-lowering, and antiinflammatory agents), and reported more AD related side effects. Higher rates of disability and comorbidity (axes I to III) were associated with treatment resistance. Obesity and being overweight were also associated with treatment resistance. While the selection and sequencing of pharmacotherapy by family physicians in this sample was in line with recommendations from evidence-based treatment guidelines, the wait time to make a change in treatment was 6 to 8 weeks in both groups, which exceeds guideline recommendations. Conclusions: These real-world data demonstrate the high prevalence of TRD in primary care settings, and underscore the substantial burden of illness associated with TRD. PMID:25007419

Rizvi, Sakina J; Grima, Etienne; Tan, Mary; Rotzinger, Susan; Lin, Peter; McIntyre, Roger S; Kennedy, Sidney H

2014-01-01

156

38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. 21...Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6242 Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services....

2011-07-01

157

38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. 21...Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6242 Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services....

2012-07-01

158

38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. 21...Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6242 Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services....

2013-07-01

159

38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. 21...Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6242 Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services....

2010-07-01

160

38 CFR 21.6242 - Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services.  

... false Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services. 21...Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6242 Resources for provision of medical treatment, care and services....

2014-07-01

161

Can health care organizations improve health behavior and treatment adherence?  

PubMed

Many Americans are failing to engage in both the behaviors that prevent and those that effectively manage chronic health conditions, including pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and cancer. Expectations that health care providers are responsible for changing patients' health behaviors often do not stand up against the realities of clinical care that include large patient loads, limited time, increasing co-pays, and restricted access. Organizations and systems that might share a stake in changing health behavior include employers, insurance payers, health care delivery systems, and public sector programs. However, although the costs of unhealthy behaviors are evident, financial resources to address the problem are not readily available. For most health care organizations, the return on investment for developing behavior change programs appears highest when addressing treatment adherence and disease self-management, and lowest when promoting healthy lifestyles. Organizational strategies to improve adherence are identified in 4 categories: patient access, provider training and support, incentives, and information technology. Strategies in all 4 categories are currently under investigation in ongoing studies and have the potential to improve self-management of many chronic health conditions. PMID:24152056

Bender, Bruce G

2014-04-01

162

28 CFR 43.2 - Obligations of persons receiving care and treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Obligations of persons receiving care and treatment. 43.2 Section 43.2 Judicial...COST OF HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CARE AND TREATMENT FURNISHED BY THE UNITED STATES § 43...Obligations of persons receiving care and treatment. (a) In the discretion of the...

2010-07-01

163

Medical interventions for addictions in the primary care setting.  

PubMed

Primary care physicians treating HIV-infected patients should not be afraid or reluctant to engage in medication-assisted treatment for substance dependence. Effective medications are available for many types of substance addictions, including buprenorphine for opioid dependence, disulfiram for cocaine dependence, bupropion for methamphetamine dependence, and naltrexone for alcohol dependence. Physician use of medications coupled with encouragement to adhere to all aspects of treatment including counseling and other psychosocial interventions can produce substantial rewards in terms of keeping patients involved in their HIV care and improving overall patient health and functioning. This article summarizes a presentation made by R. Douglas Bruce, MD, MA, MSc, at the 12th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in October 2009 in Dallas, Texas. The original presentation is available as a Webcast at www.iasusa.org. PMID:20305310

Bruce, R Douglas

2010-01-01

164

Withdrawal from Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Maintenance with a Natural Dopaminergic Agonist: A Cautionary Note  

PubMed Central

Background While numerous studies support the efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the stabilization and maintenance of opioid dependence, clinically significant opioid withdrawal symptoms occur upon tapering and cessation of dosage. Methods We present a case study of a 35 year old Caucasian female (Krissie) who was prescribed increasing dosages of prescription opioids after carpel tunnel surgery secondary to chronic pain from reflex sympathetic dystrophy and fibromyalgia. Over the next 5 years, daily dosage requirements increased to over 80 mg of Methadone and 300 ug/hr Fentanyl transdermal patches, along with combinations of 12–14 1600 mcg Actig lollipop and oral 100 mg Morphine and 30 mg oxycodone 1–2 tabs q4-6hr PRN for breakthrough pain. Total monthly prescription costs including supplemental benzodiazepines, hypnotics and stimulants exceeded $50,000. The patient was subsequently transferred to Suboxone® in 2008, and the dosage was gradually tapered until her admission for inpatient detoxification with KB220Z a natural dopaminergic agonist. We carefully documented her withdrawal symptoms when she precipitously stopped taking buprenorphine/naloxone and during follow-up while taking KB220Z daily. We also genotyped the patient using a reward gene panel including (9 genes 18 alleles): DRD 2,3,4; MOA-A; COMT; DAT1; 5HTTLLR; OPRM1; and GABRA3. Findings At 432 days post Suboxone® withdrawal the patient is being maintained on KB220Z, has been urine tested and is opioid free. Genotyping data revealed a moderate genetic risk for addiction showing a hypodopaminergic trait. This preliminary case data suggest that the daily use of KB220Z could provide a cost effective alternative substitution adjunctive modality for Suboxone®. We encourage double-blind randomized –placebo controlled studies to test the proposition that KB220Z may act as a putative natural opioid substitution maintenance adjunct. PMID:24273683

Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Femino, John; Waite, Roger L; Benya, Lisa; Giordano, John; Borsten, Joan; Downs, William B; Braverman, Eric R; Loehmann, Raquel; Dushaj, Kristina; Han, David; Simpatico, Thomas; Hauser, Mary; Barh, Debmalya; McLaughlin, Thomas

2013-01-01

165

Opioids and the management of chronic severe pain in the elderly: consensus statement of an International Expert Panel with focus on the six clinically most often used World Health Organization Step III opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone).  

PubMed

SUMMARY OF CONSENSUS: 1. The use of opioids in cancer pain: The criteria for selecting analgesics for pain treatment in the elderly include, but are not limited to, overall efficacy, overall side-effect profile, onset of action, drug interactions, abuse potential, and practical issues, such as cost and availability of the drug, as well as the severity and type of pain (nociceptive, acute/chronic, etc.). At any given time, the order of choice in the decision-making process can change. This consensus is based on evidence-based literature (extended data are not included and chronic, extended-release opioids are not covered). There are various driving factors relating to prescribing medication, including availability of the compound and cost, which may, at times, be the main driving factor. The transdermal formulation of buprenorphine is available in most European countries, particularly those with high opioid usage, with the exception of France; however, the availability of the sublingual formulation of buprenorphine in Europe is limited, as it is marketed in only a few countries, including Germany and Belgium. The opioid patch is experimental at present in U.S.A. and the sublingual formulation has dispensing restrictions, therefore, its use is limited. It is evident that the population pyramid is upturned. Globally, there is going to be an older population that needs to be cared for in the future. This older population has expectations in life, in that a retiree is no longer an individual who decreases their lifestyle activities. The "baby-boomers" in their 60s and 70s are "baby zoomers"; they want to have a functional active lifestyle. They are willing to make trade-offs regarding treatment choices and understand that they may experience pain, providing that can have increased quality of life and functionality. Therefore, comorbidities--including cancer and noncancer pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and postherpetic neuralgia--and patient functional status need to be taken carefully into account when addressing pain in the elderly. World Health Organization step III opioids are the mainstay of pain treatment for cancer patients and morphine has been the most commonly used for decades. In general, high level evidence data (Ib or IIb) exist, although many studies have included only few patients. Based on these studies, all opioids are considered effective in cancer pain management (although parts of cancer pain are not or only partially opioid sensitive), but no well-designed specific studies in the elderly cancer patient are available. Of the 2 opioids that are available in transdermal formulation--fentanyl and buprenorphine--fentanyl is the most investigated, but based on the published data both seem to be effective, with low toxicity and good tolerability profiles, especially at low doses. 2. The use of opioids in noncancer-related pain: Evidence is growing that opioids are efficacious in noncancer pain (treatment data mostly level Ib or IIb), but need individual dose titration and consideration of the respective tolerability profiles. Again no specific studies in the elderly have been performed, but it can be concluded that opioids have shown efficacy in noncancer pain, which is often due to diseases typical for an elderly population. When it is not clear which drugs and which regimes are superior in terms of maintaining analgesic efficacy, the appropriate drug should be chosen based on safety and tolerability considerations. Evidence-based medicine, which has been incorporated into best clinical practice guidelines, should serve as a foundation for the decision-making processes in patient care; however, in practice, the art of medicine is realized when we individualize care to the patient. This strikes a balance between the evidence-based medicine and anecdotal experience. Factual recommendations and expert opinion both have a value when applying guidelines in clinical practice. 3. The use of opioids in neuropathic pain: The role of opioids in neuropathic pain has been under debate in the

Pergolizzi, Joseph; Böger, Rainer H; Budd, Keith; Dahan, Albert; Erdine, Serdar; Hans, Guy; Kress, Hans-Georg; Langford, Richard; Likar, Rudolf; Raffa, Robert B; Sacerdote, Paola

2008-01-01

166

Depression in adults: psychological treatments and care pathways  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression may affect up to 10% of the population, with symptoms recurring in half of affected people. In mild to moderate depression, there is no reliable evidence that any one treatment is superior in improving symptoms of depression, but the strength of evidence supporting different treatments varies. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of psychological treatments, and of interventions to reduce relapse rates, in mild to moderate or severe depression? What are the effects of psychological interventions to improve delivery of treatments in mild to moderate or severe depression? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to April 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 55 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: befriending, care pathways, cognitive therapy, combining antidepressant drugs and psychological treatments, interpersonal psychotherapy, non-directive counselling, problem-solving therapy, relapse prevention programme. PMID:19454109

2007-01-01

167

Opioid Dependence Treatment: Options In Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

The development of effective treatments for opioid dependence is of great importance given the devastating consequences of the disease. Pharmacotherapies for opioid addiction include opioid agonists, partial agonists, opioid antagonists, and alpha-2-adrenergic agonists, which are targeted toward either detoxification or long-term agonist maintenance. Agonist maintenance therapy is currently the recommended treatment for opioid dependence due to its superior outcomes relative to detoxification. Detoxification protocols have limited long term efficacy and patient discomfort remains a significant therapy challenge. Buprenorphine’s effectiveness relative to methadone remains a controversy and may be most appropriate for patients in need of low doses of agonist treatment. Buprenorphine appears superior to alpha-2 agonists, however, and office-based treatment with buprenorphine in the US is gaining support. Studies of sustained-release formulations of naltrexone suggest improved effectiveness for retention and sustained abstinence, however, randomized clinical trials are needed. PMID:19538000

Stotts, Angela L.; Dodrill, Carrie L.; Kosten, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

168

Religion and anxiety treatments in primary care patients  

PubMed Central

Earlier data suggested religious physicians are less likely to refer to a psychiatrist or psychologist. This follow-up study measures how religious beliefs affect anxiety treatments in primary care. We surveyed U.S. primary care physicians and psychiatrists using a vignette of a patient with anxiety symptoms. Physicians were asked how likely they were to recommend anti-anxiety medication, see the patient for counseling, refer to a psychiatrist, refer to a psychologist or licensed counselor, encourage meaningful relationships and activities, and encourage involvement in religious community. We experimentally varied symptom severity, whether the patient was Christian or Jewish, and whether she attended religious services. Physician attendance at religious services was assessed in the survey. The response rate was 896 out of 1427 primary care physicians and 312 out of 487 psychiatrists. Religious physicians were more likely to promote religious resources. There was no statistically significant difference between physicians' recommendations for religious and non-religious patients. There was no statistically significant difference in religious and non-religious physicians' referrals to a psychologist, licensed counselor, or psychiatrist. Ultimately, we did not find a difference in religious and non-religious physicians' support for mental health referrals, however religious physicians were more likely encourage using religious resources. PMID:23286341

Lawrence, Ryan E; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

2012-01-01

169

Outpatient treatment costs and their potential impact on cancer care  

PubMed Central

Cancer creates a tremendous financial burden. Cancer-related costs are categorized into direct, indirect, and psychosocial costs. Although there have been many reports on medical care costs, which are direct, those on other costs are extremely scarce. We estimated travel time and costs required for cancer patients to receive outpatient treatment. We studied 521 cancer patients receiving anti-cancer treatment between February 2009 and December 2012 at the Outpatient Chemotherapy Center of Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center. Address data were extracted from Data Warehouse electronic medical records, and travel distance and time required for outpatient treatment were calculated via MapInfo and ACT Distance Calculator Package. Transportation costs were estimated on the basis of ¥274 (=$3.00) per kilometer. The study design was approved by an ethics review board of Teikyo University (12–851). Average round-trip travel distance, time, and cost for all patients were 26.7 km, 72.5 min, and ¥7,303 ($79.99), respectively. Cancer patients incurred a travel cost of ¥4000–¥9000 ($40.00 to $100.00) for each outpatient treatment. With population aging, seniors living alone and senior households are increasing, and outpatient visits are becoming a common burden. PMID:25060622

Isshiki, Takahiro

2014-01-01

170

Outpatient treatment costs and their potential impact on cancer care.  

PubMed

Cancer creates a tremendous financial burden. Cancer-related costs are categorized into direct, indirect, and psychosocial costs. Although there have been many reports on medical care costs, which are direct, those on other costs are extremely scarce. We estimated travel time and costs required for cancer patients to receive outpatient treatment. We studied 521 cancer patients receiving anti-cancer treatment between February 2009 and December 2012 at the Outpatient Chemotherapy Center of Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center. Address data were extracted from Data Warehouse electronic medical records, and travel distance and time required for outpatient treatment were calculated via MapInfo and ACT Distance Calculator Package. Transportation costs were estimated on the basis of ¥274 (=$3.00) per kilometer. The study design was approved by an ethics review board of Teikyo University (12-851). Average round-trip travel distance, time, and cost for all patients were 26.7 km, 72.5 min, and ¥7,303 ($79.99), respectively. Cancer patients incurred a travel cost of ¥4000-¥9000 ($40.00 to $100.00) for each outpatient treatment. With population aging, seniors living alone and senior households are increasing, and outpatient visits are becoming a common burden. PMID:25060622

Isshiki, Takahiro

2014-12-01

171

Antinociceptive effects of sustained-release buprenorphine in a model of incisional pain in rats (Rattus norvegicus).  

PubMed

Effective management of postoperative pain is an essential component of the care and welfare of laboratory animals. A sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) has recently been introduced to the veterinary market and has been reported to provide analgesia for as long as 72 h. Using evoked mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity tests, we here evaluated the antinociceptive effects of Bup-SR in a model of incisional pain in rats. Paw withdrawal responses were obtained before and 1 through 4 d after surgery. Rats are assigned to receive Bup-SR (0.3, 1.2, or 4.5 mg/kg SC once) or buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl, 0.05 mg/kg SC twice daily for 3 d). Responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the 1.2 and 4.5 Bup-SR groups did not differ from those of rats in the Bup HCl group. Thermal latency on day 3 in rats that received 0.3 mg/kg Bup-SR was significantly different from baseline, indicating that this dose effectively decreased thermal hypersensitivity for at least 48 h. Marked sedation occurred in rats in the 4.5 Bup-SR group. Our findings indicate that Bup-SR at 0.3 or 1.2 mg/kg SC is effective in minimizing hypersensitivity with minimal sedation for at least 48 h (thermal hypersensitivity) and 72 h, respectively, in the incisional pain model in rats. PMID:24602547

Chum, Helen H; Jampachairsri, Katechan; McKeon, Gabriel P; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Felt, Stephen A

2014-03-01

172

Antinociceptive Effects of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine in a Model of Incisional Pain in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

PubMed Central

Effective management of postoperative pain is an essential component of the care and welfare of laboratory animals. A sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) has recently been introduced to the veterinary market and has been reported to provide analgesia for as long as 72 h. Using evoked mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity tests, we here evaluated the antinociceptive effects of Bup-SR in a model of incisional pain in rats. Paw withdrawal responses were obtained before and 1 through 4 d after surgery. Rats are assigned to receive Bup-SR (0.3, 1.2, or 4.5 mg/kg SC once) or buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl, 0.05 mg/kg SC twice daily for 3 d). Responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the 1.2 and 4.5 Bup-SR groups did not differ from those of rats in the Bup HCl group. Thermal latency on day 3 in rats that received 0.3 mg/kg Bup-SR was significantly different from baseline, indicating that this dose effectively decreased thermal hypersensitivity for at least 48 h. Marked sedation occurred in rats in the 4.5 Bup-SR group. Our findings indicate that Bup-SR at 0.3 or 1.2 mg/kg SC is effective in minimizing hypersensitivity with minimal sedation for at least 48 h (thermal hypersensitivity) and 72 h, respectively, in the incisional pain model in rats. PMID:24602547

Chum, Helen H; Jampachairsri, Katechan; McKeon, Gabriel P; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Felt, Stephen A

2014-01-01

173

Crushed and Injected Buprenorphine Tablets: Characteristics of Princeps and Generic Solutions  

PubMed Central

Self-injection of high-dose buprenorphine is responsible for well-described complications. In 2011, we have been alerted by unusual but serious cutaneous complication among injection buprenorphine users. A prospective data collection identified 30 cases of necrotic cutaneous lesions after injection of filtered buprenorphine solution, among which 25 cases occurred following injection of buprenorphine generics. The main goal of our study was to put forward particularities that could explain the cutaneous complications, by qualitatively and quantitatively confronting particles present in Subutex and generics solutions. We used the same protocol that injected-buprenorphine users: generic or subutex tablets were crushed in sterile water and filtered through 2 filters commonly used (cotton-pad and sterifilt). Solutions were analyzed by laser granulometry, flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy. We have highlighted the wide variation of the quantity and the size of the particles present in solution between the two drugs after cotton-pad filtration. The proportion of particles <10 µm is systematically higher in the generic solutions than with Subutex. All of the insoluble particles found in generic solutions contain silica, whereas non- organic element was to be identified in the insoluble particles of Subutex. One skin biopsy obtained from one patient who developed a necrotic lesion after intravenous injection of filtrated solution of buprenorphine generic, shows non-organic elements. Identification of particles in situ enables us to confirm the presence of silica in the biopsy. Actually the monitoring of patient receiving generic of buprenorphine must be strengthened. PMID:25474108

Bouquié, Régis; Wainstein, Laura; Pilet, Paul; Mussini, Jean-Marie; Deslandes, Guillaume; Clouet, Johann; Dailly, Eric; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

2014-01-01

174

The Effectiveness of an Experimental Treatment when Compared to Care as Usual Depends on the Type of Care as Usual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In psychotherapy, effectiveness of an experimental treatment often is compared to care as usual. However, little if any attention has been paid to the heterogeneity of care as usual. The authors examined the effectiveness of manualized behavior therapy on school-aged disruptive behavior disordered (DBD) children in everyday clinical practice. A…

van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Matthys, Walter; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Lochman, John E.; van Engeland, Herman

2007-01-01

175

Nanocarriers and nanoparticles for skin care and dermatological treatments  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology (nano: One billionth) is a novel arena with promising applications in the field of medicine, especially pharmaceuticals for safe and targeted drug delivery. The skin is a phenomenal tool for investigation of nanocarriers for drug delivery for topical and dermatological application. The physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as rigidity, hydrophobicity, size and charge are crucial to the skin permeation mechanism. Many nanocarriers such as polymeric, inorganic and lipid nanoparticles and nanoemulsions have been developed and some like carbon nanotubes and fullerenes still need further exploration for future use in skin care and dermatological treatments. Risks of nanopollution and cytotoxicity also need to be kept in mind while exploring various nanoparticles for medical use. PMID:24350003

Gupta, Sanjeev; Bansal, Radhika; Gupta, Sunita; Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Abhinav

2013-01-01

176

Treatment of Acute Gastroenteritis: Too Much and Too Little Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the health services literature regarding care for gastroenteritis in children. United States health care utilization, use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and quality of care considerations are described. The literature suggests that some US children may receive too much care while others may not be getting enough and that physician practices continue to differ from expert recommendations.

Nancy Merrick; Bruce Davidson; Steven Fox

1996-01-01

177

Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

2008-01-01

178

Antidepressant Treatment Patterns and Success Rates in a Managed Care Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment patterns and success rates with antidepressants utilized by patients in a managed care organization (MCO). Methods: Data were extrapolated from a claims database from an MCO with 225 000 members. Treatment patterns were determined by creating episodes of care for each patient. Successful treatment was defined as a therapeutic

Edward P. Armstrong

2003-01-01

179

Dexamethasone hepatic induction in rats subsequently treated with high dose buprenorphine does not lead to respiratory depression  

SciTech Connect

In humans, asphyxic deaths and severe poisonings have been attributed to high-dosage buprenorphine, a maintenance therapy for heroin addiction. However, in rats, intravenous buprenorphine at doses up to 90 mg kg{sup -1} was not associated with significant effects on arterial blood gases. In contrast, norbuprenorphine, the buprenorphine major cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-derived metabolite, is a potent respiratory depressant. Thus, our aim was to study the consequences of CYP3A induction on buprenorphine-associated effects on resting ventilation in rats. We investigated the effects on ventilation of 30 mg kg{sup -1} buprenorphine alone or following cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A induction with dexamethasone, using whole body plethysmography (N = 24) and arterial blood gases (N = 12). Randomized animals in 4 groups received sequential intraperitoneal dosing with: (dexamethasone [days 1-3] + buprenorphine [day 4]), (dexamethasone solvent [days 1-3] + buprenorphine [day 4]), (dexamethasone [days 1-3] + buprenorphine solvent [day 4]), or (dexamethasone solvent [days 1-3] + buprenorphine solvent [day 4]). Buprenorphine alone caused a significant rapid and sustained increase in the inspiratory time (P < 0.001), without significant effects on the respiratory frequency, the tidal volume, the minute volume, or arterial blood gases. In dexamethasone-pretreated rats, there was no significant alteration in the respiratory parameters, despite CYP3A induction and significant increase of the ratio of plasma norbuprenorphine-to-buprenorphine concentrations. In conclusion, dexamethasone did not modify the effects of 30 mg kg{sup -1} buprenorphine on rat ventilation. Our results suggest a limited role of drug-mediated CYP3A induction in the occurrence of buprenorphine-attributed respiratory depression in addicts.

Hreiche, Raymond [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris 7, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Fernand Widal, 75010 Paris (France); Megarbane, Bruno [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris 7, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Fernand Widal, 75010 Paris (France) and Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Lariboisiere, Reanimation Medicale et Toxicologique, Universite Paris 7, 75010 Paris (France)]. E-mail: bruno-megarbane@wanadoo.fr; Pirnay, Stephane [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris 7, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Fernand Widal, 75010 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75012 Paris (France); Borron, Stephen W. [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris 7, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Fernand Widal, 75010 Paris (France); Department of Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Monier, Claire [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris 7, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Fernand Widal, 75010 Paris (France); Risede, Patricia [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris 7, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Fernand Widal, 75010 Paris (France); Milan, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75012 Paris (France); Descatoire, Veronique [INSERM U481, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, 75018 Paris (France); Pessayre, Dominique [INSERM U481, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, 75018 Paris (France); Baud, Frederic J. [INSERM U705, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Paris 7, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Fernand Widal, 75010 Paris (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Lariboisiere, Reanimation Medicale et Toxicologique, Universite Paris 7, 75010 Paris (France)

2006-12-15

180

Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Clients’ Self-Care Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study\\u000a of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and\\u000a depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia. Participants described a range of\\u000a self-care practices for mental health including: self-medication, seeking

Martin Holt; Carla Treloar

2008-01-01

181

Buprenorphine Medication versus Voucher Contingencies in Promoting Abstinence from Opioids and Cocaine  

PubMed Central

This study compared the relative efficacy of two contingency management (CM) interventions versus standard care. During a 12-week intervention, opioid dependent participants (N = 120) were maintained on thrice-a-week (M, W, F) buprenorphine plus therapist and computer-based counseling. They were randomized to receive: (a) medication contingencies (MC= thrice weekly dosing schedule vs. daily attendance and single-day 50% dose reduction imposed upon submission of an opioid and/or cocaine positive urine sample); (b) voucher contingency (VC=escalating schedule for opioid and/or cocaine negative samples with reset for drug-positive samples); or (c) standard care (SC), with no programmed consequences for urinalysis results. Voucher reinforcement resulted in better 12-week retention (85%) compared to contingent medication (58%; p=0.009), but neither differed from standard care (76% retained). The groups submitted a similar overall percentage of opioid and cocaine-free urines (MC = 79%, VC = 76%, SC = 69%). After adjusting for baseline differences in employment, the medication contingency group achieved 1.5 more continuous weeks of combined opioid/cocaine abstinence than standard care (p=0.030), while the voucher group had 2 more total weeks of abstinence than standard care (p=0.048). Drug use results suggest that the two interventions were both efficacious, with effects seen primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results. Findings should be interpreted in light of the greater attrition associated with medication-based contingencies versus the greater monetary costs of voucher-based contingencies. PMID:19653788

Chopra, Mohit P.; Landes, Reid D.; Gatchalian, Kirstin M; Jackson, Lisa C.; Buchhalter, August R; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.

2010-01-01

182

Transforming Assertive Community Treatment Into an Integrated Care System: The Role of Nursing and Primary Care Partnerships  

PubMed Central

Despite the high rate of co-occurring medical conditions experienced by individuals receiving assertive community treatment (ACT), this comprehensive service model continues to be considered primarily a mental health intervention. Without compromising fidelity to the model, ACT can serve as an ideal platform from which to provide both primary and behavioral health care to those with complex service needs. Using a case example, this article considers the transformation of the ACT mental health care model into an integrated health care delivery system through establishing nursing and primary care partnerships. Specifically, by expanding and explicitly redefining the role of the ACT nurse, well-developed care models, such as Guided Care, can provide additional guidelines and training to ACT nurses who are uniquely trained and oriented to serve as the leader and coordinator of health integration efforts. PMID:21659296

Weinstein, Lara Carson; Henwood, Benjamin F.; Cody, Julianne W.; Jordan, Maria; Lelar, Rebecca

2014-01-01

183

Hepatitis B prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care: a review.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The likelihood of developing CHB is related to the age at which infection is acquired; the risk being lowest in adults and >90% in neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B e antigen positive. Treatment of CHB infection aims to clear HBV DNA and prevent the development of complications. There are currently seven drugs available for the treatment of CHB: five nucleos(t)ide analogues and two interferon-based therapies. Long-term treatment is often required, and the decision to treat is based on clinical assessment including the phase of CHB infection and the presence and extent of liver damage. A safe and effective HBV vaccine has been available since the early 1980s. Vaccination plays a central role in HBV prevention strategies worldwide, and a decline in the incidence and prevalence of HBV infection following the introduction of universal HBV vaccination programmes has been observed in many countries including the USA and parts of South East Asia and Europe. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with HBV vaccine +/- hepatitis B immunoglobulin is highly effective in preventing mother to child transmission and in preventing transmission following sharps injuries, sexual contact and other exposures to infected blood and body fluids. Transmission of HBV in the health care setting has become an increasingly rare event in developed nations. However, it remains a significant risk in developing countries reflecting the higher prevalence of CHB, limited access to HBV vaccination and PEP and a lack of adherence to standard infection control precautions. PMID:22114089

Aspinall, E J; Hawkins, G; Fraser, A; Hutchinson, S J; Goldberg, D

2011-12-01

184

Impact of Advanced Health Care Directives on Treatment Decisions by Physicians in Patients with Acute Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background The implementation of advance health care directives, prepared by almost half of the adult population in United States remains relatively under studied. We determined the impact of advance health care directives on treatment decisions by multiple physicians in stroke patients. Methods A de-identified summary of clinical and radiological records of 28 patients with stroke was given to six stroke physicians who were not involved in the care of the patients. Each physician independently rated 28 treatment decisions per patient in the presence or absence of advance health care directives 1 month apart to allow memory washout. The percentage agreement to treat/intervene per patient and proportion of treatment withheld as a group were estimated for each of the 28 treatment decision items. We also determined the interobserver reliability between the two raters (attorneys) in interpretation of 6 items characterizing the adequacy of documentation within the 28 advance health care directives. Results The percentage agreement among physician raters for treatment decisions in 28 stroke patients was highest for treatment of hyperpyrexia (100%, 100%) and lowest for intensive care unit monitoring duration based on family-physician considerations outside of accepted criteria within institution (68%, 69%) in presence and absence of advance care health directives. The physician rater agreement in choosing “yes” was highest for “routine complexity” treatment decisions and lowest for “moderate complexity” treatment decisions. The choice of withholding treatment in routine complexity,” “moderate complexity,” or “high complexity” treatment decisions was remarkably similar among raters in presence or absence of advance care health directives. The only treatment decision that showed an impact of advance care health directives was intensive care unit monitoring withheld in 32% of treatment decisions in presence of directives (compared with 8% in the absence of directives). Intravenous medication and defibrillation for cardiac arrest was withheld in 29% (compared with 19%) of the treatment decisions in the presence of advance health care directives. The two attorney raters found the description of acceptable outcome inadequate in 14 and 21 of 28 advance health care directives reviewed, respectively. The overall mean kappa for agreement regarding adequacy of documentation was modest (43%) for “does the advance health care directive specify which treatments the patient would choose, or refuse to receive if they were diagnosed with an acute, terminal condition?” and lowest (3%) for “description of acceptable outcome”. Conclusions We did not find any prominent differences in most “routine complexity,” “moderate complexity,” or “high complexity” treatment decisions in patient management in the presence of advance health care directives. Presence of advance health care directives also did not reduce the prominent variance among physicians in treatment decisions. PMID:23552508

Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Connelly, Bo; Abott, Emily; Janjua, Tariq; Kim, Stanley H.; Miley, Jefferson T.; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Uzun, Guven; Watanabe, Masaki

2012-01-01

185

The Severity, Frequency, and Variety of Crime in Heroin-Dependent Prisoners Enrolled in a Buprenorphine Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Data were obtained on four dimensions of criminal activity (frequency, variety, severity, and income) from male and female prisoners (N = 200) with preincarceration heroin dependence who participated in a randomized clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment. The article examines the above-mentioned dimensions of crime and their relationships with demographic characteristics, substance use, legitimate employment, drug treatment episodes, and psychological problems. Results largely show several important similarities to results on previous prison inmate cohorts with histories of heroin addiction, although the present sample may have more of a tendency toward violent crime than earlier cohorts of heroin-dependent offenders. This study’s findings may have implications for the design of appropriate treatment interventions for prisoners with preincarceration heroin dependence that address not only substance use but also criminal activity. PMID:25392564

Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

2014-01-01

186

Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

2009-01-01

187

Suicides in Users of Mental Health Care Services: Treatment Characteristics and Hindsight Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aims to describe the patient and treatment characteristics of a sample of 505 suicides by mental health care patients, and to determine how clinicians view the care provided and what they learned. The results indicate that the quality of mental health care for suicidal patients could be improved by focusing on communication among…

Huisman, Annemiek; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Robben, Paul B. M.

2011-01-01

188

Confidentiality protections versus collaborative care in the treatment of substance use disorders  

PubMed Central

Practitioners in federally-assisted substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs are faced with increasingly complex decisions when addressing patient confidentiality issues. Recent policy changes, intended to make treatment more available and accessible, are having an impact on delivery of SUD treatment in the United States. The addition of electronic health records provides opportunity for more rapid and comprehensive communication between patients’ primary and SUD care providers while promoting a collaborative care environment. This shift toward collaborative care is complicated by the special protections that SUD documentation receives in SUD treatment programs, which vary depending on what care is provided and the setting where the patient is treated. This article explores the special protections for substance abuse documentation, discrepancies in treatment documentation, ways to deal with these issues in clinical practice, and the need for more knowledge about how to harmonize treatment in the SUD and primary care systems. PMID:23972141

2013-01-01

189

The effects of prenatal exposure to buprenorphine or methadone on infant visual evoked potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the neurological development of 4month old infants exposed to buprenorphine or methadone during pregnancy to that of a control group of non-exposed infants. Participants were 30 buprenorphine-maintained women, 22 methadone-maintained women and 33 non opioid-dependent controls, and their infants. Women were enrolled during pregnancy as part of an open-label non-randomised flexible-dosing longitudinal study. Groups were matched for

Justine N. Whitham; Nicola J. Spurrier; Michael G. Sawyer; Peter A. Baghurst; John E. Taplin; Jason M. White; Andrea L. Gordon

2010-01-01

190

Breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema self-care: Education, practices, symptoms, and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The primary purpose of this study was to cross-sectionally examine breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema self-care education,\\u000a self-care practices, and perceived self-care barriers, burdens, and benefits. We also explored the associations among self-care\\u000a education, practices, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors with known lymphedema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional design was used to obtain data about lymphedema self-care education, self-care

Sheila H. Ridner; Mary S. Dietrich; Nancy Kidd

2011-01-01

191

Comorbid Chronic Illness and the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Safety Net Primary Care Settings  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the impact of chronic medical conditions on depression diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care in primary care settings. Design This was a cross-sectional study that used interviewer-administered surveys and medical record reviews. Three hundred fifteen participants were recruited from 3 public primary care clinics. Depression diagnosis, guideline-concordant treatment, and follow-up care were the primary outcomes examined in individuals with depression alone compared with individuals with depression and chronic medical conditions measured using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Results Physician diagnosis of depression (32.6%), guideline-concordant depression treatment (32.7%), and guideline-concordant follow-up care (16.3%) were all low. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference in the likelihood of depression diagnosis, guideline-concordant treatment, or follow-up care in individuals with depression alone compared with those with both depression and chronic medical conditions. Participants with severe depression were, however, twice as likely to receive a diagnosis of depression as participants with moderate depression. In addition, participants with moderately severe and severe depression received much less appropriate follow-up care than participants with moderate depression. Among participants receiving a depression diagnosis, 74% received guideline-concordant treatment. Conclusion Physician depression care in primary care settings is not influenced by competing demands for care for other comorbid medical conditions. PMID:19264935

Ani, Chizobam; Bazargan, Mohsen; Hindman, David; Bell, Douglas; Rodriguez, Michael; Baker, Richard S.

2013-01-01

192

A pharmaceutical industry perspective on the economics of treatments for alcohol and opioid use disorders.  

PubMed

Individuals with alcohol and/or drug use disorders often fail to receive care, or evidence-based care, yet the literature shows health economic benefits. Comparative effectiveness research is emerging that examines approved approaches in terms of real, total healthcare cost/utilization. Comprehensive retrospective insurance claims analyses are few but tend to be nationally distributed and large. The emerging pattern is that, while treatment in general is cost effective, specific therapeutics can yield different health economic outcomes. Cost/utilization data consistently show greater savings with pharmacotherapies (despite their costs) versus psychosocial treatment alone. All FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies (oral naltrexone, extended-release naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and methadone) are intended for use in conjunction with psychosocial management, not as stand-alone therapeutics; hence, pharmacotherapy costs must offer benefits in addition to abstinence alone or psychological therapy. Patient persistence is problematic, and (despite its cost) extended-release pharmacotherapy may be associated with lower or no greater total healthcare cost, mostly due to reduced hospitalization. The reviewed studies use rigorous case-mix adjustment to balance treatment cohorts but lack the randomization that clinical trials use to protect against confounding. Unlike trials, however, these studies can offer generalizability to diverse populations, providers, and payment models--and are of particular salience to payers. PMID:25236185

Gastfriend, David R

2014-10-01

193

A pharmaceutical industry perspective on the economics of treatments for alcohol and opioid use disorders  

PubMed Central

Individuals with alcohol and/or drug use disorders often fail to receive care, or evidence-based care, yet the literature shows health economic benefits. Comparative effectiveness research is emerging that examines approved approaches in terms of real, total healthcare cost/utilization. Comprehensive retrospective insurance claims analyses are few but tend to be nationally distributed and large. The emerging pattern is that, while treatment in general is cost effective, specific therapeutics can yield different health economic outcomes. Cost/utilization data consistently show greater savings with pharmacotherapies (despite their costs) versus psychosocial treatment alone. All FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies (oral naltrexone, extended-release naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and methadone) are intended for use in conjunction with psychosocial management, not as stand-alone therapeutics; hence, pharmacotherapy costs must offer benefits in addition to abstinence alone or psychological therapy. Patient persistence is problematic, and (despite its cost) extended-release pharmacotherapy may be associated with lower or no greater total healthcare cost, mostly due to reduced hospitalization. The reviewed studies use rigorous case-mix adjustment to balance treatment cohorts but lack the randomization that clinical trials use to protect against confounding. Unlike trials, however, these studies can offer generalizability to diverse populations, providers, and payment models—and are of particular salience to payers. PMID:25236185

Gastfriend, David R

2014-01-01

194

Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.  

PubMed

A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 ?g/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 ?g/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 ?g/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of < 95% was recorded at least once during anesthesia in all cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. PMID:21885310

Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

2011-12-01

195

Public managed care and service access in outpatient substance abuse treatment units.  

PubMed

The continued growth of public managed behavioral health care has raised concerns about possible effects on services provided. This study uses a national sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment units surveyed in 2005 to examine associations between public managed care and service access, measured as both the types of services provided and the amount of treatment received by clients. The percentage of clients funded through public managed care versus other types of public funding was positively associated with treatment units' odds of providing some types of resource-intensive services and with the odds of providing transportation to clients, but was negatively associated with the average number of individual therapy sessions clients received over the course of treatment. In general, public managed care does not appear to restrict access to outpatient substance abuse treatment, although states should monitor these contracts to ensure clients receive adequate courses of individual treatment. PMID:21184286

Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey A

2011-10-01

196

Use of Pharmacotherapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders and Opioid Dependence in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F.; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley

2015-01-01

197

Race and Beliefs about Mental Health Treatment Among Anxious Primary Care Patients  

PubMed Central

Large racial disparities in the utilization of mental health care persist. Differences in treatment preferences could partially explain the differences in care between minority and non-minority populations. We compared beliefs about mental illness and treatment preferences among adult African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and whites, with diagnosed anxiety disorders. Measures of beliefs about mental illness and treatment were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and from our previous work. There were no significant differences between African-Americans’ and whites’ beliefs. Hispanics’ and Native Americans’ beliefs were most distinctive, but the differences were small in magnitude. Across race/ethnicity, the associations between beliefs and service use were generally weak and statistically insignificant. Differences in illness beliefs and treatment preferences do not fully explain the large, persistent racial disparities in mental health care. Other crucial barriers to quality care exist in our health care system and our society as a whole. PMID:23407203

Hunt, Justin; Sullivan, Greer; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.; Craske, Michelle G.; Golinelli, Daniella; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Sherbourne, Cathy D.

2013-01-01

198

What Works in Group Care? – A Structured Review of Treatment Models for Group Homes and Residential Care  

PubMed Central

This paper presents findings from a structured review of treatment models that are relevant to group care and residential treatment settings for children involved with the child welfare system. Initiated and guided by The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, five treatment models – Positive Peer Culture, Teaching Family Model, Sanctuary Model, Stop-Gap Model, and Re-ED – were reviewed for effectiveness. In this paper, each model s treatment features are described and relevant outcome studies reviewed in terms of their effectiveness as well as relevance for child welfare practice. Findings indicate that four of the models are either supported or promising in terms of evidence for effectiveness. Implications for group care practice and research are discussed. PMID:22468014

James, Sigrid

2011-01-01

199

Opioid partial agonist buprenorphine dampens responses to psychosocial stress in humans.  

PubMed

Pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates that opioid drugs have stress-dampening effects. In animal models, opioid analgesics attenuate responses to isolation distress, and in humans, opioids reduce stress related to anticipation of physical pain. The stress-reducing effects of opioid drugs may contribute to their abuse potential. Despite this evidence in laboratory animals, the effects of opioids on responses to psychosocial stress have not been determined in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a ?-opioid partial agonist used to treat opioid dependence and pain, on subjective and physiological responses to a stressful public speaking task in healthy adults. We hypothesized that buprenorphine would reduce subjective and physiological stress responses. Healthy adult volunteers (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine, or 0.4mg sublingual buprenorphine in a two-session study with a stressful speaking task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and a non-stressful control task. During the sessions, the participants reported on their mood states, provided subjective appraisals of the task, and measures of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure at regular intervals. Stress produced its expected effects, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and subjective ratings of anxiety and negative mood. In line with our hypothesis, both doses of buprenorphine significantly dampened salivary cortisol responses to stress. On self-report ratings, buprenorphine reduced how threatening participants found the tasks. These results suggest that enhanced opioid signaling dampens responses to social stress in humans, as it does in laboratory animals. This stress-dampening effect of buprenorphine may contribute to the non-medical use of opioid drugs. PMID:25544740

Bershad, Anya K; Jaffe, Jerome H; Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

2015-02-01

200

Preliminary Support for Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care in Reducing Substance Use in Delinquent Boys  

PubMed Central

Although effective outpatient treatments have been identified for the well-documented negative outcomes associated with delinquency and substance use, effective treatments for youths in out-of-home care are rare. In this study, 12- and 18-month substance use outcomes were examined for a sample of 79 boys who were randomly assigned to Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (experimental condition) or to group care (comparison condition). The boys in the experimental condition had lower levels of self-reported drug use at 12 months and lower levels of tobacco, marijuana, and other drug use at 18 months. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:20953309

Smith, Dana K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Eddy, J. Mark

2009-01-01

201

TRICARE; coverage of care related to non-covered initial surgery or treatment. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule revises the limitations on certain TRICARE basic program benefits. More specifically, it allows coverage for otherwise covered services and supplies required in the treatment of complications (unfortunate sequelae), as well as medically necessary and appropriate follow-on care, resulting from a non-covered incident of treatment provided pursuant to a properly granted Supplemental Health Care Program waiver. This final rule amends two provisions of the TRICARE regulations which limits coverage for the treatment of complications resulting from a non-covered incident of treatment, and which expressly excludes from coverage in the Basic Program services and supplies related to a non-covered condition or treatment. PMID:25562894

2014-12-31

202

Benzodiazepines increase the reward effects of buprenorphine in a conditioned place preference test in the mouse.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine (BPN) is widely used as a substitution treatment for opioid addiction. Some cases of abuse and misuse, especially associated with various benzodiazepines (BZDs), have been described, and a previous study has shown that BZDs increase the sedative effect of BPN and decrease its anxiogenic properties. To investigate the reward effect that may lead to the abusive combination of BPN and BZD, we studied the influence of different doses of three BZDs extensively used with BPN by drug addicts on conditioned place preference behavior in mice. BPN (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously into male mice alone or in combination with a BZD administered intraperitoneally: dipotassium clorazepate (CRZ; 1, 4, 16 mg/kg), diazepam (DAZ; 0.5, 1, 5 mg/kg), or bromazepam (BMZ; 0.5, 1, 3 mg/kg). Amphetamine (8 mg/kg) was used as a reference drug. Reward effects of BPN alone or in combination were measured in a conditioned place preference paradigm using an unbiased procedure. Our results showed that groups treated with BPN associated with different doses of diazepam and clorazepate, but not bromazepam, spent significantly more time in the drug-paired compartment compared to the group treated with BPN alone. Our study shows that joint consumption of diazepam and clorazepate, but not bromazepam, can increase the reward properties of BPN alone in mice. These results could help to explain the use of this type of drug combination in the drug addict population. PMID:24617653

Ma, Lin-Lin; Freret, Thomas; Lange, Mathilde; Bourgine, Joanna; Coquerel, Antoine; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique

2014-12-01

203

Prenatal buprenorphine versus methadone exposure and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Increasing rates of maternal opioid use during pregnancy and neonatal withdrawal, termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), are public health concerns. Prenatal buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) versus methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) may improve neonatal outcomes, but associations vary. To summarize evidence, we used a random-effects meta-analysis model and estimated summary measures of BMT versus MMT on several outcomes. Sensitivity analyses evaluated confounding, publication bias, and heterogeneity. Subjects were 515 neonates whose mothers received BMT and 855 neonates whose mothers received MMT and who were born from 1996 to 2012 and who were included in 12 studies. The unadjusted NAS treatment risk was lower (risk ratio=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.98) and mean length of hospital stay shorter (-7.23 days, 95% CI: -10.64, -3.83) in BMT-exposed versus MMT-exposed neonates. In treated neonates, NAS treatment duration was shorter (-8.46 days, 95% CI: -14.48, -2.44) and morphine dose lower (-3.60 mg, 95% CI: -7.26, 0.07) in those exposed to BMT. BMT-exposed neonates had higher mean gestational age and greater weight, length, and head circumference at birth. Fewer women treated with BMT used illicit opioids near delivery (risk ratio=0.44, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.70). Simulations suggested that confounding by indication could account for some of the observed differences. Prenatal BMT versus MMT may improve neonatal outcomes, but bias may contribute to this protective association. Further evidence is needed to guide treatment choices. PMID:25150272

Brogly, Susan B; Saia, Kelley A; Walley, Alexander Y; Du, Haomo M; Sebastiani, Paola

2014-10-01

204

Antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine and hydromorphone in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).  

PubMed

Despite the frequent clinical use of buprenorphine in reptiles, its antinociceptive efficacy is not known. In a randomized, complete cross-over study, the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) was compared with hydromorphone (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), and saline (0.9% s.c. equivalent volume) in 11 healthy red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). Additionally, buprenorphine at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg was compared with saline in six turtles. Hindlimb withdrawal latencies were measured after exposure to a focal, thermal noxious stimulus before and between 3 hr and up to 96 hr after drug administration. Buprenorphine did not significantly increase hindlimb withdrawal latencies at any time point compared with saline. In contrast, hydromorphone administration at 0.5 mg/kg significantly increased hindlimb withdrawal latencies for up to 24 hr. These results show that hydromorphone, but not buprenorphine, provides thermal antinociception in red-eared slider turtles. PMID:23082538

Mans, Christoph; Lahner, Lesanna L; Baker, Bridget B; Johnson, Stephen M; Sladky, Kurt K

2012-09-01

205

Oral health status, dental treatment needs, and barriers to dental care of elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine oral health status, dental treatment needs, and to identify barriers that prevent easy access to dental care by elderly care home residents in Lodz. Background Studies in many countries show that oral health status of elderly care home residents is poor and there is an urgent need to improve it. Methods The study included 259 care home residents, aged 65 years and older. The oral examination was performed. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked about frequency of cleaning teeth and/or dentures, whether they needed assistance, and whether the assistance was available; they were also asked about the perceived dental needs, and about the time since their last visit to a dentist and the purpose of the visit. If they had not visited the dentist in the past 12 months, they were asked about reasons for failing to visit the dentist. Results Forty-six percent of the subjects were edentulous. Only 5.8% of all participants had a sufficient number of functional natural teeth. Dental treatment was found to be necessary in 59.8% of the respondents. One in four subjects reported reduced ability of correctly cleaning teeth and dentures themselves, of whom only one-third were helped by others. An insufficient level of hygiene was found in every other subject. About 42% of residents had not visited a dentist for over 5 years, mainly due to organizational reasons. Conclusion Expanding the current scope of medical care for the elderly care home residents to include dental care would improve their currently poor oral health status. PMID:25284997

Gaszynska, Ewelina; Szatko, Franciszek; Godala, Malgorzata; Gaszynski, Tomasz

2014-01-01

206

Assessing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Treatment Across Episodes of Mental Health Care  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate disparities in mental health care episodes, aligning our analyses with decisions to start or drop treatment, and choices made during treatment. Study Design We analyzed whites, Blacks and Latinos with probable mental illness from Panels 9-13 of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, assessing disparities at the beginning, middle, and end of episodes of care (initiation, adequate care, having an episode with only psychotropic drug fills, intensity of care, the mixture of PCP and specialist visits, use of acute psychiatric care, and termination). Findings Compared to whites, Blacks and Latinos had less initiation and adequacy of care. Black and Latino episodes were shorter and had fewer psychotropic drug fills. Black episodes had a greater proportion of specialist visits and Latino episodes had a greater proportion of PCP visits. Blacks were more likely to have an episode with acute psychiatric care. Conclusions Disparities in adequate care were driven by initiation disparities, reinforcing the need for policies that improve access. Many episodes were characterized only by psychotropic drug fills, suggesting inadequate medication guidance. Blacks’ higher rate of specialist use contradicts previous studies and deserves future investigation. Blacks’ greater acute mental health care use raises concerns over monitoring of their treatment. PMID:23855750

Lê Cook, Benjamin; Zuvekas, Samuel H.; Carson, Nicholas; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Vesper, Andrew; McGuire, Thomas G.

2013-01-01

207

Electronic health records: essential tools in integrating substance abuse treatment with primary care  

PubMed Central

While substance use problems are considered to be common in medical settings, they are not systematically assessed and diagnosed for treatment management. Research data suggest that the majority of individuals with a substance use disorder either do not use treatment or delay treatment-seeking for over a decade. The separation of substance abuse services from mainstream medical care and a lack of preventive services for substance abuse in primary care can contribute to under-detection of substance use problems. When fully enacted in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 will address these barriers by supporting preventive services for substance abuse (screening, counseling) and integration of substance abuse care with primary care. One key factor that can help to achieve this goal is to incorporate the standardized screeners or common data elements for substance use and related disorders into the electronic health records (EHR) system in the health care setting. Incentives for care providers to adopt an EHR system for meaningful use are part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 2009. This commentary focuses on recent evidence about routine screening and intervention for alcohol/drug use and related disorders in primary care. Federal efforts in developing common data elements for use as screeners for substance use and related disorders are described. A pressing need for empirical data on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for drug-related disorders to inform SBIRT and related EHR efforts is highlighted. PMID:24474861

Tai, Betty; Wu, Li-Tzy; Clark, H Westley

2012-01-01

208

Clinical efficacy of sustained-release buprenorphine with meloxicam for postoperative analgesia in beagle dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.  

PubMed

The goal of the current study was to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and plasma buprenorphine concentrations of sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and buprenorphine after subcutaneous administration in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, randomized, blinded design, 20 healthy adult female Beagle dogs underwent routine ovariohysterectomy and received multimodal analgesia consisting of meloxicam and one of two buprenorphine formulations. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either SRB (0.2 mg/kg SC, once) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d). Blinded observers assessed all dogs by using sedation scores, pain scores, temperature, HR, RR, and general wellbeing. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine SC if the postoperative pain score exceeded a prede- termined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison. Age, body weight, anesthetic duration, surgical duration, sevoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between groups. Dogs in both formulation groups had comparable postoperative sedation and pain scores. One dog from each formulation group had breakthrough pain requiring rescue analgesia. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations remained above a hypothesized therapeutic concentration of 0.6 ng/mL for 136.0 ± 11.3 and 10.67 ± 0.84 h for SRB and buprenorphine, respectively. Based on the results of this study, multimodal analgesic regimens consisting of meloxicam and either buprenorphine or SRB are equally efficacious in managing pain associated with an ovariohysterectomy and show comparable side effects. PMID:25255072

Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Wilsey, Amanda S; Jenkins, Gary J; Medina, Chris L

2014-09-01

209

The Impact of Publicly Funded Managed Care on Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the 12-month changes in substance use following admission to substance abuse treatment in Massachusetts between adolescents enrolled in Medicaid managed care and other publicly funded adolescents. Two hun- dred and fifty-five adolescents were interviewed as they entered substance abuse treatment and at 6 and 12 month follow-ups. Medicaid enrollment data were used to determine the managed care

Brooke S. Harrow; Christopher P. Tompkins; Paul D. Mitchell; Kevin W. Smith; Stephen Soldz; Linda Kasten; Kathleen Fleming

2006-01-01

210

Patient Perspectives on Tobacco Use Treatment in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Introduction Evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions increase quit rates, yet most smokers do not use them. Every primary care visit offers the potential to discuss such options, but communication can be tricky for patients and provider alike. We explored smokers’ personal interactions with health care providers to better understand what it is like to be a smoker in an increasingly smoke-free era and the resources needed to support quit attempts and to better define important patient-centered outcomes. Methods Three 90-minute focus groups, involving 33 patients from 3 primary care clinics, were conducted. Participants were current or recent (having quit within 6 months) smokers. Topics included tobacco use, quit attempts, and interactions with providers, followed by more pointed questions exploring actions patients want from providers and outcome measures that would be meaningful to patients. Results Four themes were identified through inductive coding techniques: 1) the experience of being a tobacco user (inconvenience, shame, isolation, risks, and benefits), 2) the medical encounter (expectations of providers, trust and respect, and positive, targeted messaging), 3) high-value actions (consistent dialogue, the addiction model, point-of-care nicotine patches, educational materials, carbon monoxide monitoring, and infrastructure), and 4) patient-centered outcomes. Conclusion Engaged patient-centered smoking cessation counseling requires seeking the patient voice early in the process. Participants desired honest, consistent, and pro-active discussions and actions. Participants also suggested creative patient-centered outcome measures to consider in future research. PMID:25654219

Vu, Maihan; Ripley-Moffitt, Carol; Gupta, Sachin K.; O’Meara, Christine; Goldstein, Adam O.

2015-01-01

211

Primary care-mental health integration and treatment retention among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and medical comorbidity among veterans from Iraq/Afghanistan (OEF/OIF), keeping these patients engaged in health care is challenging. Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI), an initiative in the Veterans Health Administration (VA), sought to improve access to mental health care from within primary care. This study examined the lag between first PC-MHI visit and next mental/medical care visit, if any, and the relationship of PC-MHI with short-term (subsequent year) and long-term (4 years later) use of VA. We identified 2,470 OEF/OIF veterans receiving care during fiscal year 2006 (FY06) in a regional VA health care system. Unconditional survival analysis modeled time to next mental/medical visit and logistic regression modeled short- and long-term care as a function of PC-MHI, demographics, and clinical covariates. Of 181 patients in the PC-MHI program, 60%/18% returned for mental/medical care within 1 month, and 82%/74% within 1 year. Sixty-one percent (1,503) were still using the VA in FY09. Short-term mental care was related to prior-year PC-MHI. Consistent correlates of short- and long-term mental/medical care included physical comorbidity and Priority 1 status. Most patients attended mental health appointments subsequent to PC-MHI, and PC-MHI was correlated with mental health treatment retention in adjusted models for our cohort. Need for treatment, notably VA Priority 1 status and physical comorbidity, were the primary correlates of care-seeking. Developing innovative approaches to engaging new veterans in care remains imperative as multiple options will be necessary to meet the needs of these complex patients. PMID:22545824

Tsan, Jack Y; Zeber, John E; Stock, Eileen M; Sun, Fangfang; Copeland, Laurel A

2012-11-01

212

The effect of an electronic medicine dispenser on diversion of buprenorphine-naloxone-experience from a medium-sized Finnish city.  

PubMed

Providing unobserved opioid substitution treatment (OST) safely is a major challenge. This study examined whether electronic medicine dispensers (EMDs) can reduce diversion of take-home buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) in a medium-sized Finnish city. All BNX treated OST patients in Kuopio received their take-home BNX in EMDs for 4months. EMDs' effect on diversion was investigated using questionnaires completed by patients (n=37) and treatment staff (n=19), by survey at the local needle exchange service and by systematic review of drug screen data from the Kuopio University Hospital. The majority of patients (n=21, 68%) and treatment staff (n=11, 58%) preferred to use EMDs for the safe storage of tablets. Five patients (16%) declared that EMDs had prevented them from diverting BNX. However, EMDs had no detectable effect on the availability or origin of illegal BNX or on the hospital-treated buprenorphine-related health problems. EMDs may improve the safety of storage of take-home BNX, but their ability to prevent diversion needs further research. PMID:23433750

Uosukainen, Hanna; Pentikäinen, Hannu; Tacke, Ulrich

2013-07-01

213

Primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment versus standard care: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity needs effective approaches for weight loss in primary care and community settings. We compared weight loss with standard treatment in primary care with that achieved after referral by the primary care team to a commercial provider in the community. Methods In this parallel group, non-blinded, randomised controlled trial, 772 overweight and obese adults were recruited by primary care practices in Australia, Germany, and the UK. Participants were randomly assigned with a computer-generated simple randomisation sequence to receive either 12 months of standard care as defined by national treatment guidelines, or 12 months of free membership to a commercial programme (Weight Watchers), and followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was weight change over 12 months. Analysis was by intention to treat (last observation carried forward [LOCF] and baseline observation carried forward [BOCF]) and in the population who completed the 12-month assessment. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN85485463. Findings 377 participants were assigned to the commercial programme, of whom 230 (61%) completed the 12-month assessment; and 395 were assigned to standard care, of whom 214 (54%) completed the 12-month assessment. In all analyses, participants in the commercial programme group lost twice as much weight as did those in the standard care group. Mean weight change at 12 months was ?5·06 kg (SE 0·31) for those in the commercial programme versus ?2·25 kg (0·21) for those receiving standard care (adjusted difference ?2·77 kg, 95% CI ?3·50 to ?2·03) with LOCF; ?4·06 kg (0·31) versus ?1·77 kg (0·19; adjusted difference ?2·29 kg, ?2·99 to ?1·58) with BOCF; and ?6·65 kg (0·43) versus ?3·26 kg (0·33; adjusted difference ?3·16 kg, ?4·23 to ?2·11) for those who completed the 12-month assessment. Participants reported no adverse events related to trial participation. Interpretation Referral by a primary health-care professional to a commercial weight loss programme that provides regular weighing, advice about diet and physical activity, motivation, and group support can offer a clinically useful early intervention for weight management in overweight and obese people that can be delivered at large scale. Funding Weight Watchers International, through a grant to the UK Medical Research Council. PMID:21906798

Jebb, Susan A; Ahern, Amy L; Olson, Ashley D; Aston, Louise M; Holzapfel, Christina; Stoll, Julia; Amann-Gassner, Ulrike; Simpson, Annie E; Fuller, Nicholas R; Pearson, Suzanne; Lau, Namson S; Mander, Adrian P; Hauner, Hans; Caterson, Ian D

2011-01-01

214

Development of the cancer survivorship care plan: what's next? Life after cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Long-term information needs are increasingly important as more people are diagnosed with cancer and living well beyond initial diagnosis and treatment. Consequently, cancer is joining the ranks of chronic conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes) for which ongoing, long-term surveillance and management should be the model of care. However, the post-treatment period is fraught with uncertainty for patients and care providers. The "who, what, and when" of follow-up care, in particular, can be complex and confusing. Therefore, survivorship care plans (SCPs) are recommended. The Minnesota Cancer Alliance, a coalition working to improve quality of life for cancer survivors, developed a patient-focused SCP. This user-friendly SCP could be considered for use in patient care--particularly by nurses, who are well suited and positioned to implement SCPs. PMID:23715704

Jackson, Jody M; Scheid, Kathy; Rolnick, Sharon J

2013-06-01

215

Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Chronic Pain in At-Risk Patients: Development and Pilot Test of a Clinical Protocol  

PubMed Central

Objective Sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) is approved for addiction treatment and may be useful for pain management, particularly in opioid-treated pain patients with nonadherence behaviors. The transition of opioid-treated pain patients to buprenorphine carries the risk of precipitated withdrawal and increased pain. This study convened pain and addiction specialists to develop and pilot a clinical protocol for safe transitioning to Bup/Nx. Design The protocol was revised three times based on outside expert review and pilot study observations. The pilot was conducted with a prospective cohort of 12 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain, who were receiving long-term opioid therapy with any full ?-agonist drug, and had exhibited one or more aberrant drug-related behaviors. Patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months with the expectation that they would experience few adverse events and report lower pain severity. Results The three patients on the highest baseline opioid dose (equivalent to 303–450 mg of oral morphine) and the three on the lowest doses (?20 mg) had early adverse events (AEs) when switched to Bup/Nx and did not complete the trial. Of the remaining six, one withdrew due to AEs; one responded well, then withdrew; and four completed a three-month trial. A mixed effects model controlling for dropouts found that average and worst pain significantly decreased after the switch to Bup/Nx (both p < .01). Conclusion Based on this experience, the protocol recommends Bup/Nx for pain only when baseline opioid doses are within bounds that reduce AEs at transition and incorporates dose flexibility to further reduce risks. This protocol warrants further testing. PMID:23264315

Rosenblum, Andrew; Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Strain, Eric C; Cleland, Charles M.; Joseph, Herman; Magura, Stephen; Marsch, Lisa A; McNicholas, Laura F; Savage, Seddon R; Sundaram, Arun; Portenoy, Russell K.

2013-01-01

216

A Comparison of Treatment Outcomes Among Chronically Homelessness Adults Receiving Comprehensive Housing and Health Care Services Versus Usual Local Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service use and 2-year treatment outcomes were compared between chronically homelessness clients receiving comprehensive housing\\u000a and healthcare services through the federal Collaborative Initiative on Chronic Homelessness (CICH) program (n = 281) a sample of similarly chronically homeless individuals receiving usual care (n = 104) in the same 5 communities. CICH clients were housed an average of 23 of 90 days (52%) more than comparison group

Alvin S. MaresRobert; Robert A. Rosenheck

217

The Continuing Care Model of Substance Use Treatment: What Works, and When Is “Enough,” “Enough?”  

PubMed Central

There is little disagreement in the substance use treatment literature regarding the conceptualization of substance dependence as a cyclic, chronic condition consisting of alternating episodes of treatment and subsequent relapse. Likewise, substance use treatment efforts are increasingly being contextualized within a similar disease management framework, much like that of other chronic medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, etc.). As such, substance use treatment has generally been viewed as a process comprised of two phases. Theoretically, the incorporation of some form of lower intensity continuing care services delivered in the context of outpatient treatment after the primary treatment phase (e.g., residential) appears to be a likely requisite if all stakeholders aspire to successful long-term clinical outcomes. Thus, the overarching objective of any continuing care model should be to sustain treatment gains attained in the primary phase in an effort to ultimately prevent relapse. Given the extant treatment literature clearly supports the contention that treatment is superior to no treatment, and longer lengths of stay is associated with a variety of positive outcomes, the more prudent question appears to be not whether treatment works, but rather what are the specific programmatic elements (e.g., duration, intensity) that comprise an adequate continuing care model. Generally speaking, it appears that the duration of continuing care should extend for a minimum of 3 to 6 months. However, continuing care over a protracted period of up to 12 months appears to be essential if a reasonable expectation of robust recovery is desired. Limitations of prior work and implications for routine clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24839597

Proctor, Steven L.; Herschman, Philip L.

2014-01-01

218

Patterns of care for men with prostate cancer after failure of primary treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. This study sought to determine trends in patterns of care after failure of primary prostate cancer treatment and to determine whether nonclini- cal factors influenced the receipt of secondary treatment. METHODS. The authors identified individuals treated for nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the years 1991-1999 from the linked databases of Medicare and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End

Tracey L. Krupski; Christopher S. Saigal; Janet Hanley; Matthias Schonlau; Mark S. Litwin

2006-01-01

219

Effect of primary medical care on addiction and medical severity in substance abuse treatment programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the availability of primary medical care on-site at addiction treatment programs or off-site by referral\\u000a improves patients’ addiction severity and medical outcomes, compared to programs that offer no primary care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients admitted to a purposive national sample of substance abuse treatment\\u000a programs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Substance abuse treatment programs

Peter D. Friedmann; Zhiwei Zhang; James Hendrickson; Michael D. Stein; Dean R. Gerstein

2003-01-01

220

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stratified Versus Stepped Care Strategies for Acute Treatment of Migraine: The Disability in Strategies for Care (DISC) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Disability in Strategies for Care (DISC) study was the first large randomised controlled trial to compare alternative treatment strategies in the acute treatment of migraine. With 835 patients in its intention-to-treat efficacy analysis, DISC compared a stratified care strategy, where initial therapy was based on clinical need as determined by the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) and two

Mark Sculpher; David Millson; David Meddis; Lynne Poole

2002-01-01

221

competency Course Objective 1 1a Apply current neuroscience knowledge to diagnosis and treatment questions in patient care.  

E-print Network

of improving quality of care, patient safety, and value of care in neurologically ill knowledge to diagnosis and treatment questions in patient care. 2 1c,1d Apply current clinical and translational sciences to diagnosis and treatment questions in patient

Myers, Lawrence C.

222

Differential patient-caregiver opinions of treatment and care for advanced lung cancer patients.  

PubMed

This study examined the differences of opinion between cancer patients and caregivers with regard to treatment and care decisions. 184 advanced lung cancer patients and 171 primary caregivers were recruited as a convenience sample from hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio. A telephone interview was conducted to collect data using a semi-structured questionnaire. Nonparametric tests and regression analysis were performed. The findings showed that patients and caregivers reported significant disagreement on three main issues: trade-off between treatment side effects and benefits; reporting treatment side effects to physicians, and hospice care. Caregivers were more concerned about patient's quality of life and more willing to discuss hospice issues than were patients (p < or = 01). Perceived family disagreement is associated with depression in both patients and caregivers (p < or = 01; R(2)=8%). The study provided empirical evidence for patient-caregiver disagreement about treatment and care decisions and its significant adverse impact on both patients and caregivers. PMID:20137849

Zhang, Amy Y; Zyzanski, Stephen J; Siminoff, Laura A

2010-04-01

223

Adverse impact of coercive treatments on psychiatric inpatients' satisfaction with care.  

PubMed

Consumers' satisfaction with inpatient mental health care is recognized as a key quality indicator that prospectively predicts functional and clinical outcomes. Coercive treatment experience is a frequently cited source of dissatisfaction with inpatient care, yet more research is needed to understand the factors that influence consumers' perceptions of coercion and its effects on satisfaction, including potential "downstream" effects of past coercive events on current treatment satisfaction. The current study examined associations between objective and subjective indices of coercive treatments and patients' satisfaction with care in a psychiatric inpatient sample (N = 240). Lower satisfaction ratings were independently associated with three coercive treatment variables: current involuntary admission, perceived coercion during current admission, and self-reported history of being refused a requested medication. Albeit preliminary, these results document associations between patients' satisfaction ratings and their subjective experiences of coercion during both current and prior hospitalizations. PMID:23054144

Strauss, Jennifer L; Zervakis, Jennifer B; Stechuchak, Karen M; Olsen, Maren K; Swanson, Jeffrey; Swartz, Marvin S; Weinberger, Morris; Marx, Christine E; Calhoun, Patrick S; Bradford, Daniel W; Butterfield, Marian I; Oddone, Eugene Z

2013-08-01

224

76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities...military treatment facilities through the Department of Defense (DoD). The rates have...

2011-03-21

225

Uncovering Treatment Burden as a Key Concept for Stroke Care: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that services are configured to prioritise patient needs rather than those of health care systems. Systematic Review Registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42011001123 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23824703

Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.

2013-01-01

226

Stepping Down and Stepping In: Youth’s Perspectives on Making the Transition from Residential Treatment to Treatment Foster Care  

PubMed Central

Older youth preparing to emancipate from the foster care system are often served in residential treatment settings where they have limited opportunities to practice skills for independent living in a community setting. Stepping these youth down to less restrictive environments such as treatment foster care is a growing trend, especially for youth with mental health issues. Yet, few studies have explored the youth’s perspective on making this transition. This study utilized qualitative interviews with youths who were participating in a treatment foster care intervention study (n=8) to gain their perspectives on the process of transitioning from residential care. Youths were interviewed right before they exited residential care and two months after placement in the new foster home. Youths reported hopes for gaining family in the new home as well as fears of placement disruption. Findings point to the need to enlist youths in discussion and problem solving about difficulties they anticipate in the new home and expectations for their relationship with the new foster parents. In addition, the struggles described after two months in the home point to the need for youths to build specific skills to better manage ongoing relationships with foster parents and for foster parent training on how to help build these skills. PMID:22247580

Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Fedoravicius, Nicole; McMillen, J. Curtis; McNelly, David; Robinson, Debra R.

2011-01-01

227

Patient Factors Associated with Guideline-concordant Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify associations of patient characteristics (predisposing, enabling and need factors) with guideline-concordant care for anxiety and depression in primary care. Design Analysis of data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Participants Seven hundred and twenty-one patients with a current anxiety or depressive disorder, recruited from 67 general practitioners (GPs), were included. Measures Diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) were made using a structured and widely validated assessment. Socio-demographic and enabling characteristics, severity of symptoms, disability, (under treatment for) chronic somatic conditions, perceived need for care, beliefs and evaluations of care were measured by questionnaires. Actual care data were derived from electronic medical records. Criteria for guideline-concordant care were based on general practice guidelines, issued by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. Results Two hundred and eighty-one (39%) patients received guideline-concordant care. High education level, accessibility of care, comorbidity of anxiety and depression, and severity and disability scores were positively associated with receiving guideline-concordant care in univariate analyses. In multivariate multi-level logistic regression models, significant associations with the clinical need factors disappeared. Positive evaluations of accessibility of care increased the chance (OR?=?1.31; 95%?CI?=?1.05–1.65; p?=?0.02) of receiving guideline-concordant care, as well as perceiving any need for medication (OR?=?2.99; 95%?CI?=?1.84–4.85; p?care. Conclusions This study shows that education level, accessibility of care and patients’ perceived needs for care are more strongly associated with the delivery of guideline-concordant care for anxiety or depression than clinical need factors. Initiatives to improve GPs’ communication skills around mental health issues, and to improve recognition of people suffering from anxiety disorders, could increase the number of patients receiving treatment for depression and anxiety in primary care. PMID:20049547

Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Smolders, Mirrian; Laurant, Miranda G. H.; van der Meer, Klaas; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bensing, Jozien M.

2010-01-01

228

Expanding a Continuum of Care: A Report on a Partial-Day Treatment Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Day treatment has been used to treat children with disruptive behavior disorders for over 20 years. This modality is increasingly appealing with the move toward providing children with the least-restrictive treatment. These less-intensive services are also cost-effective, which aligns with managed-care goals. Several studies over the past decade have supported the effectiveness of the day treatment model, and now this

Kristin E. Robinson; Randal T. Dow; Peter M. Nicholas

1999-01-01

229

Depression among entrants to treatment for heroin dependence in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS): prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine the rate of current major depressive disorder (MDD) among entrants to treatment for heroin dependence in three treatment modalities and a non-treatment comparison group; and to ascertain factors associated with depression. Design: Cross sectional structured interview. Setting: Sydney, Australia. Participants: 615 current heroin users: 201 entering methadone\\/buprenorphine maintenance (MT), 201 entering detoxification (DTX), 133 entering drug free

Maree Teesson; Alys Havard; Sandra Fairbairn; Joanne Ross; Michael Lynskey; Shane Darke

2005-01-01

230

Understanding and treatment of chronic abdominal pain in pediatric primary care.  

PubMed

This study examined the practices used by primary care pediatricians to assess and treat chronic abdominal pain (CAP), as an initial step in guiding clinical practice guideline (CPG) development. A survey was mailed to a random sample of office-based pediatrician members (primary care pediatricians [PCPs]) of the American Medical Association. PCPs (n = 470) provided information about the typical presentation of CAP, assessment/treatment approaches used in their own practice, their definition of a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), and their familiarity with the Rome Criteria for diagnosing FGIDs. Substantial variability among PCPs was noted across all these areas. Results suggest that perceptions and practices of pediatric CAP vary widely among PCPs; no single standard of care emerged to guide development of a CPG for this population. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of specific strategies currently in use to identify potential opportunities for improving assessment and treatment of CAP in pediatric primary care. PMID:25079069

Schurman, Jennifer Verrill; Kessler, Emily D; Friesen, Craig A

2014-10-01

231

Do Intensive Care Unit treatment modalities predict mortality in geriatric patients: An observational study from an Indian Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Background: Ageing being a global phenomenon, increasing number of elderly patients are admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICU). Hence, there is a need for continued research on outcomes of ICU treatment in the elderly. Objectives: Examine age-related difference in outcomes of geriatric ICU patients. Analyze ICU treatment modalities predicting mortality in patients >65 years of age. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 2317 patients admitted in a multi-specialty ICU of a tertiary care hospital over 2-year study period from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. A clinical database was collected which included age, sex, specialty under which admitted, APACHE-II and SOFA scores, patient outcome, average length of ICU stay, and the treatment modalities used in ICU including mechanical ventilation, inotropes, hemodialysis, and tracheostomy. Patients were divided into two groups: <65 years (Control group) and >65 years (Geriatric age group). Results: The observed overall ICU mortality rate in the study population was 19.6%; no statistical difference was observed between the control and geriatric age group in overall mortality (P > 0.05). Mechanical ventilation (P = 0.003, odds ratio [OR] =0.573, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.390–0.843) and use of inotropes (P = 0.018, OR = 0.661, 95% CI = 0.456–0.958) were found to be predictors of mortality in elderly population. On multivariate analysis, inotropic support was found to be an independent ICU treatment modality predicting mortality in the geriatric age group (? coefficient = 1.221, P = 0.000). Conclusion: Intensive Care Unit mortality rates increased in the geriatric population requiring mechanical ventilation and inotropes during ICU stay. Only inotropic support could be identified as independent risk factor for mortality. PMID:25538413

Sodhi, Kanwalpreet; Singla, Manender Kumar; Shrivastava, Anupam; Bansal, Namita

2014-01-01

232

Economic evaluation of relapse prevention for substance users: treatment settings and health care policy.  

PubMed

Evaluating the prevention, intervention, and treatment programme is critical to understanding the decision-making behaviour of substance abusers. The study interweaves behavioural health economics with the extended PRECEDE-PROCEED Model and examines the effectiveness of treatment settings for substance users in New Jersey Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment (13,775 samples). The study also identifies the factors that are associated with substance users' recurrence to the treatment centre. The results concluded that educational attainment, counselling services from health care providers, mental agency services, and detoxification treatments have a significant impact on preventing relapse behaviour. PMID:17867251

Yamada, Tetsuji; Chen, Chia-Ching; Yamada, Tadashi

2005-01-01

233

Treatment advances in neonatal neuroprotection and neurointensive care  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the nature, prognosis, and ways to treat brain lesions in neonatal infants has increased remarkably. Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term infants, mirrors a progressive cascade of excito-oxidative events that unfold in the brain after an asphyxial insult. In the laboratory, this cascade can be blocked to protect brain tissue through the process of neuroprotection. However, proof of a clinical effect was lacking until the publication of three positive randomised controlled trials of moderate hypothermia for term infants with HIE. These results have greatly improved treatment prospects for babies with asphyxia and altered understanding of the theory of neuroprotection. The studies show that moderate hypothermia within 6 h of asphyxia improves survival without cerebral palsy or other disability by about 40% and reduces death or neurological disability by nearly 30%. The search is on to discover adjuvant treatments that can further enhance the effects of hypothermia. PMID:21435600

Johnston, Michael V; Fatemi, Ali; Wilson, Mary Ann; Northington, Frances

2013-01-01

234

Treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a revolution in care.  

PubMed

A generation ago, children with arthritis faced a lifetime of pain and disability. Today, there are a multitude of treatment options, including a variety of biologics targeting key cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. While non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids were once the mainstay of therapy, they are now largely used as bridge or adjunctive therapies. Among the conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, methotrexate remains first-line therapy for most children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) due to its long track record of safety and effectiveness in the management of peripheral arthritis. Sulfasalazine and leflunomide may also have a secondary role. The tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) have shown tremendous benefit in children with polyarticular JIA and likely in enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic JIA as well. There may be additional benefit in combining TNFi with methotrexate. Abatacept and tocilizumab also appear to benefit polyarticular JIA; the role of rituximab remains unclear. For the treatment of systemic JIA, while the TNFi are of less benefit, blockade of interleukin-1 or interleukin-6 is highly effective. Additionally, interleukin-1 blockade appears to be effective treatment of macrophage activation syndrome, one of the most dangerous complications of JIA; specifically, anakinra in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids may obviate the need for cytotoxic approaches. In contrast, methotrexate along with the TNFi and abatacept are effective agents for the management of uveitis, another complication of JIA. Overall, the biologics have demonstrated an impressive safety record in children with JIA, although children do need to be monitored for rare but potentially dangerous adverse events, such as tuberculosis and other infections; paradoxical development of additional autoimmune diseases; and possibly an increased risk of malignancy. Finally, there may be a window of opportunity during which children with JIA will demonstrate most optimal responses to aggressive therapy, underscoring the need for rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment. PMID:24782683

Stoll, Matthew L; Cron, Randy Q

2014-01-01

235

Pharmacodynamic modelling of placebo and buprenorphine effects on event-related potentials in experimental pain.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate placebo and buprenorphine effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) in experimental pain and the potential benefit of population pharmacodynamic modelling in data analysis. Nineteen healthy volunteers received transdermal placebo and buprenorphine in a cross-over study. Drug plasma concentrations and ERPs after electrical stimulation at the median nerve with intensity adjusted to pain detection threshold were recorded until 144 hrs after administration. Placebo and concentration-effect models were fitted to data using non-linear mixed-effects modelling implemented in NONMEM (V7.2.0.). Pharmacodynamic models were developed to adequately describe both placebo and buprenorphine ERP data. Models predicted significant placebo effects, but did not predict significant effects related to buprenorphine concentration. Models revealed that ERPs varied both between subjects and between study occasions. ERPs were found to be reproducible within subjects and occasions as population variance was found to be eight times higher than the unexplained variances. Between-subject variance accounted for more than 75% of the population variance. In conclusion, pharmacodynamic modelling was successfully implemented to allow for placebo and variability correction in ERP of experimental pain. Improved outcome of ERP studies can be expected if variation between subjects and study occasions can be identified and described. PMID:25163749

Juul, Rasmus V; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N; Andresen, Trine; Graversen, Carina; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Christrup, Lona L; Kreilgaard, Mads

2014-10-01

236

Ambulatory tuberculosis treatment in post-Semashko health care systems needs supportive financing mechanisms.  

PubMed

The tuberculosis (TB) control strategy in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, is being changed to decentralised out-patient care for most TB patients by the Government of Uzbekistan, in collaboration with the international medical humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières. Ambulatory treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB from the first day of treatment has been recommended since 2011. Out-patient treatment of TB from the beginning of treatment was previously prohibited. However, the current Uzbek health financing system, which evolved from the Soviet Semashko model, offers incentives that work against the adoption of ambulatory TB treatment. Based on the 'Comprehensive TB Care for All' programme implemented in Karakalpakstan, we describe how existing policies for the allocation of health funds complicate the scale-up of ambulatory-based management of TB. PMID:25517802

Kohler, S; Asadov, D A; Bründer, A; Healy, S; Khamraev, A K; Sergeeva, N; Tinnemann, P

2014-12-01

237

Systemic Hypertension Requiring Treatment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the difference in the risk factors for systemic hypertension in preterm and term infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Study design Data were collected from an existing database of NICU children and confirmed by chart-review. Systemic hypertension was defined when 3 separate measurements of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure were >95th% percentile and an anti-hypertensive medication was administered for > 2 weeks in the NICU. Results From 4,203 infants, we identified 53 (1.3%) with treated hypertension; of whom 74% were preterm, 11% required surgical intervention and 85% required medications upon discharge. The pressure of a patent ductus arteriosus, umbilical catheterization, left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertensive medication at discharge and mortality was similar between the term and preterm. The major risk factors for preterm infants, especially those below 28 weeks gestation, were bronchopulmonary dysplasia and iatrogenic factors, but, in term infants, they were systemic diseases. Term infants were diagnosed with hypertension earlier during hospitalization, had a shorter duration of stay in NICU, and had higher incidence of hypertension needing more than 3 medications than preterm infants. Conclusions Perinatal risk factors are significant contributors to infantile hypertension. Term infants were diagnosed with hypertension earlier, had a shorter duration of stay, and had a higher incidence of resistant hypertension than preterm infants. PMID:23394775

Sahu, Raj; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Yu, Robert; Shete, Sanjay; Bricker, John T.; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha

2013-01-01

238

Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants -Conception of a database and first results  

E-print Network

1 Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants - Conception of detection and removals of pharmaceutical products in wastewater treatment plants. Abstract: We created and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). From 117 scientific publications, we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Psychosexual Symptoms and Treatment of Peyronie's Disease Within a Collaborative Care Model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Peyronie's disease (PD) can be emotionally and sexually debilitating for patients and may negatively impact partner relationships. Aims This study aims to present an ongoing collaborative care model for patients with PD and to discuss the critical need for integration of patient care among sexual medicine physicians and mental health practitioners or sex therapists. Methods PubMed searches using the terms “Peyronie's disease” and “natural history,” “treatment,” “psychosexual,” “depression,” “relationship,” and “partner” were conducted. Expert opinion based on review of the relevant published literature and clinical experience was used to identify meaningful treatment targets for patients with PD within a collaborative care model. Main Outcome Measure Characteristics of PD, medical treatment, and important assessment and treatment targets, including physical, emotional, psychosexual, and relationship concerns, from peer-reviewed published literature and clinical experience. Results PD can result in significant patient and partner distress and relationship disruption. Sex therapy interventions may be directed at acute emotional, psychosexual, and relationship problems that occur during the initial diagnosis of PD, the period following minimally invasive or surgical treatment for PD, or recurring problems over the lifelong course of the disease. Sex therapy to improve self-acceptance, learn new forms of sexual intimacy, and improve communication with partners provides comprehensive treatment targeting emotional, psychosexual, and relationship distress. Ongoing communication between the mental health practitioner and physician working with the patient with PD about key assessments, treatment targets, and treatment responses is necessary for coordinated treatment planning and patient care. Conclusions Men with PD are more likely now than in the past to see both a sexual medicine physician and a mental health practitioner or sex therapist, and the integration of assessments and treatment planning is essential for optimal patient outcomes.

Hartzell, Rose

2014-01-01

240

The effects of prenatal exposure to buprenorphine or methadone on infant visual evoked potentials.  

PubMed

This study compared the neurological development of 4 month old infants exposed to buprenorphine or methadone during pregnancy to that of a control group of non-exposed infants. Participants were 30 buprenorphine-maintained women, 22 methadone-maintained women and 33 non opioid-dependent controls, and their infants. Women were enrolled during pregnancy as part of an open-label non-randomised flexible-dosing longitudinal study. Groups were matched for maternal age, parity, gravida, and tobacco and alcohol use. Infant neurological development was assessed by measuring latency of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP). One-way between groups analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to test the statistical significance of differences between the mean latencies of the peak response to two different sized checkerboard patterns (48' and 69' of retinal arc). Infants prenatally exposed to methadone had significantly prolonged latencies, compared with infants in the control group and infants prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, in response to checks of 48' and 69'. VEP latencies of infants prenatally exposed to buprenorphine did not differ significantly from controls for either check size. After adjustment for covariates, prenatal exposure to methadone remained a significant predictor of VEP response to checks of 48', but not 69'. Maternal self-reported used of marijuana during pregnancy made a significant unique contribution to the variance in P1 latencies for both check sizes. Data from this controlled, non-randomised study suggest that buprenorphine may confer an advantage over methadone as a maintenance drug during pregnancy in terms of infant neural development at 4 months of age. PMID:19751825

Whitham, Justine N; Spurrier, Nicola J; Sawyer, Michael G; Baghurst, Peter A; Taplin, John E; White, Jason M; Gordon, Andrea L

2010-01-01

241

Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care  

PubMed Central

Objective While foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as childhood abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. However, whether a history of foster care elevates the likelihood of psychiatric disorders and treatment among homeless young adults, after adjustment for childhood abuse, is unknown. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults, controlling for childhood abuse and other covariates. Methods Among a consecutive sample of 424 newly homeless young adults (18 to 21 years) in a crisis shelter, logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, psychotic) and psychiatric treatment, adjusted for demographics, childhood abuse, substance abuse, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Results Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely to report any psychiatric disorder (AOR=1.70) and twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder (AOR=2.17), been prescribed psychiatric medication (AOR=2.26), and been hospitalized for psychiatric problems (AOR=2.15) than those without such histories. Conclusions Histories of foster care should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders among homeless young adults to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, hospitalization) tailored to their psychiatric needs. PMID:22706986

Thompson, Ronald G.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2013-01-01

242

Instrumental support to facilitate hepatitis C treatment adherence: Working around shortfalls in shared-care.  

PubMed

Adherence to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the successful eradication of infection. However, patients often have difficulty adhering to HCV treatment because of factors such as the psychiatric side effects of regimens and social disadvantage. Commonly, health professionals including specialist physicians, nurses, social workers and psychologists work together under a multidisciplinary model of shared-care to support patients' adherence to HCV treatment. In some HCV treatment clinics, shared-care is not always available, or only partially implemented and this has implications for patient adherence. To explore the facilitators of adherence, an interview-based study was conducted in 2012 with a purposive sample of Australian physicians and nurses (N?=?20). The findings reveal that when comprehensive shared-care was limited or unavailable, physicians and nurses filled in the gaps by assuming roles outside of their expertise to help patients adhere to HCV treatment. Physicians and nurses applied instrumental support strategies based on psychosocial interventions, namely patient advocacy, pragmatic problem-solving, treatment engagement and emotional support. These strategies were provided by dedicated physicians and nurses to address shortfalls in multidisciplinary shared-care. Although these interventions were reported to assist adherence, there is an increased risk of complications when physicians and nurses move beyond the bounds of their disciplinary training, for example, to assess and manage patients' psychiatric side effects or advocate on their behalf for social services. Future research should measure the effectiveness of instrumental support strategies on HCV treatment adherence, and explore the costs associated with physicians and nurses providing instrumental support in the absence of comprehensive multidisciplinary shared-care. PMID:24998883

Sublette, Victoria A; Hopwood, Max; George, Jacob; Smith, Sian K; Nicholson Perry, Kathryn; McCaffery, Kirsten; Douglas, Mark W

2015-03-01

243

Symptom monitoring, alleviation, and self-care among Mexican Americans during cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108

Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela

2014-10-01

244

[Integrated headache care network. Kiel Migraine and Headache Center and German National Headache Treatment Network].  

PubMed

Migraine and other headaches affect 54 million people in Germany. They rank among the ten most severely disabling complaints and the three most expensive neurological disorders. Nevertheless, they are not adequately recognized in the healthcare system with sketchy diagnoses and inadequate treatment. This inadequate care is not primarily due to a lack of medical and scientific knowledge on the development and treatment of headaches but is predominantly due to organizational deficits in the healthcare system and in the implementation of current knowledge. To overcome the organizational barriers the national headache treatment network was initiated in Germany. For the first time it allows national cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary links between inpatient and outpatient care. A hand in hand treatment programme, better education, better information exchange between all partners and combined efforts using clearly defined treatment pathways and goals are the basis for state of the art and efficient treatment results. The treatment network is geared towards the specialized treatment of severely affected patients with chronic headache disorders. A national network of outpatient and inpatient pain therapists in both practices and hospitals works hand in hand to optimally alleviate pain in a comprehensive cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary manner. For therapy refractive disorders, a high-intensive supraregional fully inpatient treatment can be arranged. This concept offers for the first time a nationwide coordinated treatment without limitation by specialization and bureaucratic remuneration sectors. PMID:23549863

Göbel, H; Heinze-Kuhn, K; Petersen, I; Göbel, A; Heinze, A

2013-04-01

245

The Associations between Structural Treatment Characteristics and Post-Treatment Functioning in Compulsory Residential Youth Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In 2005 a new compulsory residential treatment program was developed for adolescents in need for protection against themselves or their environment. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of structural treatment characteristics of this new residential treatment program (i.e., duration of treatment,…

Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Veerman, Jan W.; van Dam, Coleta; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

2012-01-01

246

Roles of ?-Opioid Receptors and Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Peptide Receptors in Buprenorphine-Induced Physiological Responses in Primates  

PubMed Central

Buprenorphine is known as a ?-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonist, but its antinociception is compromised by the activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of MOP and NOP receptors in regulating buprenorphine-induced physiological responses in primates (rhesus monkeys). The effects of MOP antagonist (naltrexone), NOP antagonist [(±)-1-[(3R*,4R*)-1-(cyclooctylmethyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397)], and NOP agonists [(1S,3aS)-8-(2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5] decan-4-one (Ro 64-6198) and 3-endo-8-[bis(2-methylphenyl)methyl]-3-phenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol (SCH 221510)] on buprenorphine were studied in three functional assays for measuring analgesia, respiratory depression, and itch in primates. Over the dose range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg, buprenorphine dose-dependently produced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching responses, and there was a ceiling effect at higher doses (0.1–1 mg/kg). Naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg) produced similar degrees of rightward shifts of buprenorphine's dose-response curves for all three endpoints. Mean pKB values of naltrexone (8.1–8.3) confirmed that MOP receptors mediated mainly buprenorphine-induced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching. In contrast, J-113397 (0.1 mg/kg) did not change buprenorphine-induced physiological responses, indicating that there were no functional NOP receptors in buprenorphine-induced effects. More importantly, both NOP agonists, Ro 64-6198 and SCH 221510, enhanced buprenorphine-induced antinociception without respiratory depression and itch/ scratching. The dose-addition analysis revealed that buprenorphine in combination with the NOP agonist synergistically produced antinociceptive effects. These findings provided functional evidence that the activation of NOP receptors did not attenuate buprenorphine-induced antinociception in primates; instead, the coactivation of MOP and NOP receptors produced synergistic antinociception without other side effects. This study strongly supports the therapeutic potential of mixed MOP/NOP agonists as innovative analgesics. PMID:22743574

Cremeans, Colette M.; Gruley, Erin; Kyle, Donald J.

2012-01-01

247

Roles of ?-opioid receptors and nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptors in buprenorphine-induced physiological responses in primates.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is known as a ?-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonist, but its antinociception is compromised by the activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of MOP and NOP receptors in regulating buprenorphine-induced physiological responses in primates (rhesus monkeys). The effects of MOP antagonist (naltrexone), NOP antagonist [(±)-1-[(3R*,4R*)-1-(cyclooctylmethyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397)], and NOP agonists [(1S,3aS)-8-(2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5] decan-4-one (Ro 64-6198) and 3-endo-8-[bis(2-methylphenyl)methyl]-3-phenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol (SCH 221510)] on buprenorphine were studied in three functional assays for measuring analgesia, respiratory depression, and itch in primates. Over the dose range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg, buprenorphine dose-dependently produced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching responses, and there was a ceiling effect at higher doses (0.1-1 mg/kg). Naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg) produced similar degrees of rightward shifts of buprenorphine's dose-response curves for all three endpoints. Mean pK(B) values of naltrexone (8.1-8.3) confirmed that MOP receptors mediated mainly buprenorphine-induced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching. In contrast, J-113397 (0.1 mg/kg) did not change buprenorphine-induced physiological responses, indicating that there were no functional NOP receptors in buprenorphine-induced effects. More importantly, both NOP agonists, Ro 64-6198 and SCH 221510, enhanced buprenorphine-induced antinociception without respiratory depression and itch/ scratching. The dose-addition analysis revealed that buprenorphine in combination with the NOP agonist synergistically produced antinociceptive effects. These findings provided functional evidence that the activation of NOP receptors did not attenuate buprenorphine-induced antinociception in primates; instead, the coactivation of MOP and NOP receptors produced synergistic antinociception without other side effects. This study strongly supports the therapeutic potential of mixed MOP/NOP agonists as innovative analgesics. PMID:22743574

Cremeans, Colette M; Gruley, Erin; Kyle, Donald J; Ko, Mei-Chuan

2012-10-01

248

The use of CAM and conventional treatments among primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the single most cited reason for use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Primary care is the most frequent conventional medical service used by patients with pain in the UK. We are unaware, however, of a direct evidence of the extent of CAM use by primary care patients, and how successful they perceive it to be. Methods Aims and objectives To determine CAM use among patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who have consulted about their pain in primary care. Study design Face-to-face interview-based survey. Setting Three general practices in North Staffordshire. Participants Respondents to a population pain survey who had reported having musculoskeletal pain in the survey and who had consulted about their pain in primary care in the previous 12 months as well as consenting to further research and agreeing to an interview. Information was gathered about their pain and the use of all treatments for pain, including CAM, in the previous year. Results 138 interviews were completed. 116 participants (84%) had used at least one CAM treatment for pain in the previous year. 65% were current users of CAM. The ratio of over-the-counter CAM use to care from a CAM provider was 3:2. 111 participants (80%) had used conventional treatment. 95 (69%) were using a combination of CAM and conventional treatment. Glucosamine and fish oil were the most commonly used CAM treatments (38%, 35% respectively). Most CAM treatments were scored on average as being helpful, and users indicated that they intended to use again 87% of the CAM treatments they had already used. Conclusion We provide direct evidence that most primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain have used CAM in the previous year, usually in combination with conventional treatments. The high prevalence and wide range of users experiences of benefit and harm from CAM strengthen the argument for more research into this type of medicine to quantify benefit and assess safety. The observation that most users of conventional medicine also used CAM suggests a continuing need for more investigation of effective pain management in primary care. PMID:17480212

Artus, Majid; Croft, Peter; Lewis, Martyn

2007-01-01

249

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of fibromyalgia treatment according to level of care  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this paper was to compare the efficacy of the treatments for fibromyalgia currently available in both primary care and specialised settings. Methods Published reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) researching pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in patients with fibromyalgia were found in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PsychInfo databases. The most recent electronic search was undertaken in June 2006. Results We identified a total of 594 articles. Based on titles and abstracts, 102 full articles were retrieved, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria. These RCTs assessed 120 treatment interventions in 7789 patients diagnosed with primary fibromyalgia. Of them, 4505 (57.8%) were included in the primary care group of our study and 3284 (42.2%) in the specialised intervention group. The sample was mostly made up of middle-aged women, who have had fibromyalgia for a mean period of 6 to 10 years. The mean effect size of the efficacy of the 120 treatment interventions in patients with fibromyalgia compared with controls was 0.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.58; p < 0.001). In the primary care group it was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.33 to 0.58) while in specialised care it was 0.53 (95% CI = 0.38 to 0.69), with no statistical significance in the differences. We analysed the efficacy of treatments by comparing primary and specialised care in the different fibromyalgia groups and there were no significant differences. The variables of the studies that affected the improvements in the efficacy of fibromyalgia treatment were low quality of the studies and a shorter duration of treatment. However, both factors were biased by the heterogeneity of the studies. Other variables that also improved outcome and were not biased by the heterogeneity of the studies, were younger age of the patients and shorter duration of the disorder. On the contrary, gender and type of treatment (pharmacological vs. psychological) did not affect outcome. Conclusion Based on this meta-analysis and despite the heterogeneity of specialised care studies and of the other limitations described in this article, treating fibromyalgia in specialised care offers no clear advantages. PMID:18627602

Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Magdalena, Jesus; Magallón, Rosa; Fernández-García, Esther; Salas, Montserrat; Andrés, Eva

2008-01-01

250

Impact of Brief Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia on Health Care Utilization and Costs  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine health care utilization (HCU) and costs following brief cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (bCBTi). Methods: Reviewed medical records of 84 outpatients [mean age = 54.25 years (19.08); 58% women] treated in a behavioral sleep medicine clinic (2005-2010) based in an accredited sleep disorders center. Six indicators of HCU and costs were obtained: estimated total and outpatient costs, estimated primary care visits, CPT costs, number of office visits, and number of medications. All patients completed ? 1 session of bCBTi. Those who attended ? 3 sessions were considered completers (n = 37), and completers with significant sleep improvements were considered responders (n = 32). Results: For completers and responders, all HCU and cost variables, except number of medications, significantly decreased (ps < 0.05) or trended towards decrease at post-treatment. Completers had average decreases in CPT costs of $200 and estimated total costs of $75. Responders had average decreases in CPT costs of $210. No significant decreases occurred for non-completers. Conclusions: bCBTi can reduce HCU and costs. Response to bCBTi resulted in greater reduction of HCU and costs. While limited by small sample size and non-normal data distribution, the findings highlight the need for greater dissemination of bCBTi for several reasons: a high percentage of completers responded to treatment, as few as 3 sessions can result in significant improvements in insomnia severity, bCBTi can be delivered by novice clinicians, and health care costs can reduce following treatment. Insomnia remains an undertreated disorder, and brief behavioral treatments can help to increase access to care and reduce the burden of insomnia. Citation: McCrae CS; Bramoweth AD; Williams J; Roth A; Mosti C. Impact of brief cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia on health care utilization and costs. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):127-135. PMID:24532995

McCrae, Christina S.; Bramoweth, Adam D.; Williams, Jacob; Roth, Alicia; Mosti, Caterina

2014-01-01

251

Does the Impact of Managed Care on Substance Abuse Treatment Services Vary By Profit Status?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend our previous research by determining whether, and how, the impact of managed care on substance abuse treatment (SAT) services differs by facility ownership. We use the 2000 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services that contains data on service offerings and other characteristics of 10,513 SAT facilities. For each group of for-profit, not-for-profit, and public facilities, we estimate

Jody Sindelar; Todd Olmstead

2004-01-01

252

Processes and outcomes of substance abuse treatment between two programs for clients insured under managed care.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research (N = 160) was to describe and compare substance abuse treatment in two programs under managed care: one residential (RT) and one outpatient (OP). Clients in both settings improved significantly from before to after treatment in relation to substance use and quality of life. However, intensity of treatment (hours of care/week) was much greater in RT and days of sobriety were significantly higher after treatment in RT than in OP (p = .04). Intensity was negatively related to incidents of substance use during treatment (SUdT), which predicted substance use after treatment; SUdT averaged .2 for RT, and 1.6 for OP (p = .0001). Importantly, treatment was completed by 74 patients (over 90%) from RT, with 8 dropping out, and 53 (almost 70%) of those in OP completed treatment while 25 dropped out. Intensity, as seen in the RT program, rather than duration, was more effective in substance use reduction and treatment completion. PMID:17613971

McNeese-Smith, Donna; Nyamathi, Adeline; Longshore, Douglas; Wickman, Mary; Robertson, Scott; Obert, Jeanne; McCann, Michael; Wells, Kenneth; Wenzel, Suzanne L

2007-01-01

253

Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

2015-01-01

254

The use of formal and informal services for antenatal care and malaria treatment in rural Uganda.  

PubMed

The study aimed to analyze reasons for the use or non-use of antenatal care services and malaria treatment among pregnant women living in rural areas in Uganda. Focus group discussions with pregnant women, in-depth interviews with key informants (Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) and health workers) and a structured questionnaire administered to pregnant women were used to collect the relevant information. Antenatal care attendance was irregular and few women knew that the purpose of attending antenatal care was to monitor both the growth of the baby and the health status of the woman. Parity significantly influenced antenatal care attendance, but level of education, religion and marital status did not. Fifty-five per cent of the women stated that they had delivered outside the formal health delivery system despite antenatal care attendance. All women in their second pregnancy had delivered their first child in the village, despite TBA training to the contrary. Malaria as perceived by pregnant women is common and multiple health service providers are used for its treatment. About 66% of the mothers reported having suffered from malaria during the current pregnancy; of these more than half had received treatment outside the formal health delivery system. Self-treatment with drugs bought from ordinary shops was commonly reported. Nearly all women (93.3%) knew about the antimalarial drug chloroquine and 83% thought that it was used for the treatment of malaria, not for its prevention. Some women believed that the drug could cause abortion. Health seeking behaviour was influenced by several factors, including the perceived high cost of antenatal care services, of conducting a delivery and treatment, and perceived inadequacy of services provided by the formal health system. Inadequacy of formal health services was perceived by users to be partly due to understaffing and to irregular supply of essential drugs. Intensive health education to pregnant women on the safety of chloroquine use in pregnancy, the importance and the need for regular antenatal care attendance are recommended. In addition, training of more TBAs and continued educational efforts to upgrade their knowledge, regular and adequate supply of essential drugs, and free health services for high-risk groups such as pregnant women are recommended to improve antenatal care services and drug prophylaxis use in pregnancy. PMID:10178189

Ndyomugyenyi, R; Neema, S; Magnussen, P

1998-03-01

255

Behavioral treatment of insomnia: a proposal for a stepped-care approach to promote public health  

PubMed Central

Chronic insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that has psychological and medical consequences for those who suffer from it and financial consequences for both the individual and society. In spite of the fact that nonpharmacologic treatment methods have been developed and shown to be as or more effective than medication for chronic insomnia, these methods remain greatly underutilized due to an absence of properly trained therapists and a general failure in dissemination. A stepped-care model implemented in a primary-care setting offers a public health solution to the problem of treatment accessibility and delivery of behavioral treatments for insomnia. Such a model would provide graduated levels of cognitive behavioral intervention, with corresponding increases in intensity and cost, including self-help, manualized group treatment, brief individual treatment, and finally, individualized behavioral treatment provided by a specialist. To provide such a systematic approach, future research would need to confirm several aspects of the model, and a cadre of professionals would need to be trained to administer manualized care in both group and individualized formats. PMID:23616720

Mack, Laurin J; Rybarczyk, Bruce D

2011-01-01

256

Chronic care and addictions treatment: a feasibility study on the implementation of posttreatment continuing recovery monitoring.  

PubMed

In the treatment of drug addiction, as with other chronic conditions, the effects of treatment are significant but not long lasting after discharge unless continuing monitoring is provided. Efforts to help patients sustain positive treatment outcomes are generally directed to community support. Postdischarge checkups can help patients evaluate their behavior and recovery-related issues--similar to a person with diabetes reporting on blood sugar levels and diet and exercise patterns. The challenge for providers is to raise awareness of the importance of continuing recovery monitoring and the responsibility of the treatment program to build a more seamless continuum of care for patients who have completed a primary treatment episode. This article reviews a pilot project of the Department of Alcohol & Drug Services of Santa Clara County, California that tested the feasibility of implementing a continuing recovery monitoring (CRM) service using post-discharge telephone check-ups for volunteer patients (N=32) who completed treatment. The aims of the study were to (a) develop a model for continuing recovery monitoring, (b) gather data on the model's utility including identifying organizational and logistical challenges and, (c) describe several changes needed in the system of care to add CRM. The study showed that the model of continuing recovery monitoring is a feasible way to extend a system's existing continuum of care. PMID:21138206

Stanford, Mark; Banerjee, Kakoli; Garner, Robert

2010-09-01

257

The role of coping in depression treatment utilization for VA primary care patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of Veterans’ coping strategies on mental health treatment engagement following a positive screen for depression. Methods A mixed methods observational study using a mailed survey and semi structured interviews. Sample included 271 Veterans who screened positive for depression during a primary care visit at one of three VA medical centers and had not received a diagnosis of depression or prescribed antidepressants 12 months prior to screening. A subsample of 23 Veterans was interviewed. Results Logistic regression models showed that Veterans who reported more instrumental support and active coping were more likely to receive depression or other mental health treatment within three months of their positive depression screen. Those who reported emotional support or self distraction as coping strategies were less likely to receive any treatment in the same time frame. Qualitative analyses revealed that how Veterans use these and other coping strategies can impact treatment engagement in a variety of ways. Conclusions The relationship between Veterans’ use of coping strategies and treatment engagement for depression may not be readily apparent without in depth exploration. Practice implications In VA primary care clinics, nurse care managers and behavioral health providers should explore how Veterans’ methods of coping may impact treatment engagement. PMID:24315160

Osei-Bonsu, Princess E.; Bokhour, Barbara G.; Glickman, Mark E.; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Mueller, Nora M.; Dell, Natalie S.; Zhao, Shibei; Eisen, Susan V.; Elwy, A. Rani

2014-01-01

258

Patterns of geographic mobility predict barriers to engagement in HIV care and antiretroviral treatment adherence.  

PubMed

Migration and geographic mobility increase risk for HIV infection and may influence engagement in HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Our goal is to use the migration-linked communities of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and New York City, New York, to determine the impact of geographic mobility on HIV care engagement and adherence to treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with HIV+Dominicans receiving antiretroviral therapy, reporting travel or migration in the past 6 months and key informants (n=45). Mobility maps, visual representations of individual migration histories, including lifetime residence(s) and all trips over the past 2 years, were generated for all HIV+ Dominicans. Data from interviews and field observation were iteratively reviewed for themes. Mobility mapping revealed five distinct mobility patterns: travel for care, work-related travel, transnational travel (nuclear family at both sites), frequent long-stay travel, and vacation. Mobility patterns, including distance, duration, and complexity, varied by motivation for travel. There were two dominant barriers to care. First, a fear of HIV-related stigma at the destination led to delays seeking care and poor adherence. Second, longer trips led to treatment interruptions due to limited medication supply (30-day maximum dictated by programs or insurers). There was a notable discordance between what patients and providers perceived as mobility-induced barriers to care and the most common barriers found in the analysis. Interventions to improve HIV care for mobile populations should consider motivation for travel and address structural barriers to engagement in care and adherence. PMID:24839872

Taylor, Barbara S; Reyes, Emily; Levine, Elizabeth A; Khan, Shah Z; Garduño, L Sergio; Donastorg, Yeycy; Hammer, Scott M; Brudney, Karen; Hirsch, Jennifer S

2014-06-01

259

Emerging Standards of Care for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Panic Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes eight emerging standards of care, based on a literature review, for the diagnosis and treatment of panic disorder without agoraphobia in adults. The diagnostic criteria were particularly analyzed in terms of comorbid psychological disorders, medical disorders, and substances that mimic panic symptoms. Defines minimal professional conduct.…

Beamish, Patrica M.; Granello, Darcy Haag; Granello, Paul F.; McSteen, Patricia B.; Stone, David A.

1997-01-01

260

Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care  

E-print Network

Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care through NIMH Funded Interventions Research Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Clinical Trials EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH

Baker, Chris I.

261

Healing Childhood Ear Infections: Prevention, Home Care, and Alternative Treatment. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes current controversy in medical journals over existing treatments for chronic childhood earaches. It suggests that the causes of otitis media are a series of events which flourish when poor nutrition occurs, noting that careful attention to diet and nutrition to prevent food allergies, and the use of acupressure, homeopathic…

Schmidt, Michael A.

262

Music therapy—a complementary treatment for mechanically ventilated intensive care patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether music therapy had a measurable relaxing effect on patients who were temporarily on a respirator in an intensive care unit (ICU) and after completion of respirator treatment investigate those patients’ experiences of the music therapy. In the study both quantitative and qualitative measurements were applied. Twenty patients were included using consecutive

Sofia Almerud; Kerstin Petersson

2003-01-01

263

Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

2008-01-01

264

Deliberate Self-Harm among Children in Tertiary Care Residential Treatment: Prevalence and Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few studies have examined deliberate self-harm (DSH) among children in residential treatment in Canada. Most of the existing studies examined adolescent students or children from pediatric emergency departments. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of DSH among children in tertiary care residential…

Stewart, Shannon L.; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura; den Dunnen, Wendy

2014-01-01

265

Community Treatment Orders: relationship to clinical care, medication compliance, behavioural disturbance and readmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the readmission rate, and the level of patient disturbance and community care associated with readmission following Community Treatment Orders (CTOs) in New South Wales, Australia. Method: The readmission rates of all patients given CTOs within a 4-year period and a matched comparison group were investigated. The following factors were com- pared

Kevin Vaughan; Neil McConaghy; Cherry Wolf; Craig Myhr; Terry Black

2000-01-01

266

The Effect of Medicaid Policies on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Children's Mental Health Problems in Primary Care.  

PubMed

Primary care physicians play a substantial role in diagnosing and treating children's mental health disorders, but Medicaid managed care policies may limit these physicians' ability to serve low-income children. Using data from the universe of Medicaid recipients in three states, I evaluate how Medicaid managed care policies impact primary care diagnosis and treatment of children's mental health disorders. Specific policies examined include the presence of a behavioral carve-out, traditional health maintenance organization, or primary care case management program. To alleviate concerns of endogenous patient sorting, my preferred identification strategy uses variation in Medicaid policy penetration to instrument for individual plan choices. I show that while health maintenance organizations reduce diagnosis and non-drug treatment of mental health disorders, primary care case management program policies shift in diagnosis and treatment from within primary care to specialist providers such as psychiatrists, where serious mental health conditions are more likely to be identified. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24123653

Turner, Lesley J

2015-02-01

267

Palliative Care  

MedlinePLUS

Palliative care is treatment of the discomfort, symptoms, and stress of serious illness. It provides relief from distressing symptoms ... of the medical treatments you're receiving. Hospice care, care at the end of life, always includes ...

268

House calls revisited: Leveraging technology to overcome obstacles to psychiatric care and improve treatment outcomes  

PubMed Central

Despite an increasing number of military service members in need of mental health treatment following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, numerous psychological and practical barriers limit access to care. Perceived stigma about admitting psychological difficulties as well as frequent long distances to treatment facilities reduce many veterans' willingness and ability to receive care. Telemedicine and virtual human technologies offer a unique potential to expand services to those in greatest need. Telemedicine-based treatment has been used to address multiple psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance use, as well as to provide suicide risk assessment and intervention. Clinician education and training has also been enhanced and expanded through the use of distance technologies, with trainees practicing clinical skills with virtual patients and supervisors connecting with clinicians via videoconferencing. The use of these innovative and creative vehicles offer a significant and as yet unfulfilled promise to expand delivery of high quality psychological therapies, regardless of clinician and patient location. PMID:20955335

Olden, Megan; Cukor, Judith; Rizzo, Albert “Skip”; Rothbaum, Barbara; Difede, JoAnn

2014-01-01

269

Scaling up antiretroviral treatment and improving patient retention in care: lessons from Ethiopia, 2005-2013  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) was provided to more than nine million people by the end of 2012. Although ART programs in resource-limited settings have expanded treatment, inadequate retention in care has been a challenge. Ethiopia has been scaling up ART and improving retention (defined as continuous engagement of patients in care) in care. We aimed to analyze the ART program in Ethiopia. Methods A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Routine ART program data was used to study ART scale up and patient retention in care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with program managers. Results The number of people receiving ART in Ethiopia increased from less than 9,000 in 2005 to more than 439, 000 in 2013. Initially, the public health approach, health system strengthening, community mobilization and provision of care and support services allowed scaling up of ART services. While ART was being scaled up, retention was recognized to be insufficient. To improve retention, a second wave of interventions, related to programmatic, structural, socio-cultural, and patient information systems, have been implemented. Retention rate increased from 77% in 2004/5 to 92% in 2012/13. Conclusion Ethiopia has been able to scale up ART and improve retention in care in spite of its limited resources. This has been possible due to interventions by the ART program, supported by health systems strengthening, community-based organizations and the communities themselves. ART programs in resource-limited settings need to put in place similar measures to scale up ART and retain patients in care. PMID:24886686

2014-01-01

270

Attrition through Multiple Stages of Pre-Treatment and ART HIV Care in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Introduction While momentum for increasing treatment thresholds is growing, if patients cannot be retained in HIV care from the time of testing positive through long-term adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), such strategies may fall short of expected gains. While estimates of retention on ART exist, few cohorts have data on retention from testing positive through long-term ART care. Methods We explored attrition (loss or death) at the Themba Lethu HIV clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa in 3 distinct cohorts enrolled at HIV testing, pre-ART initiation, and ART initiation. Results Between March 2010 and August 2012 we enrolled 380 patients testing HIV+, 206 initiating pre-ART care, and 185 initiating ART. Of the 380 patients enrolled at testing HIV-positive, 38.7% (95%CI: 33.9–43.7%) returned for eligibility staging within ?3 months of testing. Of the 206 enrolled at pre-ART care, 84.5% (95%CI: 79.0–88.9%) were ART eligible at their first CD4 count. Of those, 87.9% (95%CI: 82.4–92.2%) initiated ART within 6 months. Among patients not ART eligible at their first CD4 count, 50.0% (95%CI: 33.1–66.9%) repeated their CD4 count within one year of the first ineligible CD4. Among the 185 patients in the ART cohort, 22 transferred out and were excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 163, 81.0% (95%CI: 74.4–86.5%) were retained in care through two years on treatment. Conclusions Our findings from a well-resourced clinic demonstrate continual loss from all stages of HIV care and strategies to reduce attrition from all stages of care are urgently needed. PMID:25330087

Fox, Matthew P.; Shearer, Kate; Maskew, Mhairi; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Clouse, Kate; Sanne, Ian

2014-01-01

271

Lung and colorectal cancer treatment and outcomes in the Veterans Affairs health care system  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer (LC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are the second- and third-most commonly diagnosed cancers in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. While many studies have evaluated the treatment quality and outcomes of various aspects of VA LC and CRC care, there are no known reviews synthesizing this information across studies. The purpose of this literature review was to describe LC and CRC treatment (ie, surgical and nonsurgical) and outcomes (eg, mortality, psychosocial, and other) in the VA health care system as reported in the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature. We identified potential articles through a search of published literature using the PubMed electronic database. Our search strategy identified articles containing Medical Subject Headings terms and keywords addressing veterans or veterans’ health and LC and/or CRC. We limited articles to those published in the previous 11 years (January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2013). A total of 230 articles were retrieved through the search. After applying the selection criteria, we included 74 studies (34 LC, 47 CRC, and seven both LC and CRC). VA provides a full array of treatments, often with better outcomes than other health care systems. More work is needed to assess patient-reported outcomes. PMID:25609998

Zullig, Leah L; Williams, Christina D; Fortune-Britt, Alice G

2015-01-01

272

Prevention and screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for substance use in primary care.  

PubMed

Substance use and related disorders are among the leading causes of preventable injury and illness, chronic health conditions, medical complications, disability, increased suffering, and premature death. Primary care clinicians can help patients avoid, reduce, or eliminate high-risk behaviors and negative consequences associated with substance use by integrating prevention and screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment into their clinical practices. This article provides the necessary information, evidence-based recommendations, and readily available resources to help address substance use and related disorders in primary care, with special emphasis on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and nonmedical prescription opioid medications. PMID:24830605

Strobbe, Stephen

2014-06-01

273

Advancing Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, treatment, and care: recommendations from the Ware Invitational Summit.  

PubMed

To address the pending public health crisis due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative disorders, the Marian S. Ware Alzheimer Program at the University of Pennsylvania held a meeting entitled "State of the Science Conference on the Advancement of Alzheimer's Diagnosis, Treatment and Care," on June 21-22, 2012. The meeting comprised four workgroups focusing on Biomarkers; Clinical Care and Health Services Research; Drug Development; and Health Economics, Policy, and Ethics. The workgroups shared, discussed, and compiled an integrated set of priorities, recommendations, and action plans, which are presented in this article. PMID:22959699

Naylor, Mary D; Karlawish, Jason H; Arnold, Steven E; Khachaturian, Ara S; Khachaturian, Zaven S; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Baumgart, Matthew; Banerjee, Sube; Beck, Cornelia; Blennow, Kaj; Brookmeyer, Ron; Brunden, Kurt R; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Comer, Meryl; Covinsky, Kenneth; Feinberg, Lynn Friss; Frisoni, Giovanni; Green, Colin; Guimaraes, Renato Maia; Gwyther, Lisa P; Hefti, Franz F; Hutton, Michael; Kawas, Claudia; Kent, David M; Kuller, Lewis; Langa, Kenneth M; Mahley, Robert W; Maslow, Katie; Masters, Colin L; Meier, Diane E; Neumann, Peter J; Paul, Steven M; Petersen, Ronald C; Sager, Mark A; Sano, Mary; Schenk, Dale; Soares, Holly; Sperling, Reisa A; Stahl, Sidney M; van Deerlin, Vivianna; Stern, Yaakov; Weir, David; Wolk, David A; Trojanowski, John Q

2012-09-01

274

Evaluation of drug-drug interaction between daclatasvir and methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone  

PubMed Central

Introduction Daclatasvir (DCV) is a potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A replication complex inhibitor with pangenotypic (1–6) activity in vitro. Methadone (MET) and buprenorphine (BUP) are opioid medications used to treat opioid addiction; patients on HCV therapy may require MET or BUP treatment. The effect of DCV on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MET or BUP/naloxone (NLX) was assessed in subjects on stable MET or BUP. Materials and Methods An open-label, two-part study assessed the effect of steady-state oral administration of DCV on the PK of MET (Part 1, P1) or BUP/NAL (Part 2, P2). Safety/tolerability and pharmacodynamics (PD, opioid withdrawal scales/overdose assessment) were also assessed. Subjects (P1, N=14; P2, N=11) received daily single-dose oral MET (40–120mg) or BUP/NLX (8/2–24/6mg) based on their prescribed stable dose throughout, in addition to DCV (60mg QD) on Days 2–9. Serial PK sampling occurred predose and postdose till 24 hours on Day 1 (MET/BUP) and Day 10 (MET/BUP/DCV). Noncompartmental PK were derived. Geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) for MET/BUP/norBUP Cmax and AUCTAU were derived from linear mixed effects models. Results Subjects were aged 19–39 years, mostly white (P1, 93%; P2, 100%) and male (P1, 71%; P2, 91%). All subjects completed the study. No clinically meaningful effect was demonstrated as the GMR and 90% CIs fell within the prespecified interval (P1, 0.7–1.4; P2, 0.5–2.0: see Table 1). DCV coadministration was well-tolerated: overall, six (43%) subjects had adverse events (AEs) (all mild and resolved without treatment). DCV had no clinically significant effect on the PD of MET or BUP/NLX. Conclusions Steady-state administration of DCV 60mg QD had no clinically meaningful effect on the PK of MET or BUP/NLX and was generally well-tolerated, suggesting that no dose adjustments will be required. PMID:25394132

Garimella, Tushar; Wang, Reena; Luo, Wen-Lin; Wastall, Philip; Kandoussi, Hamza; Demicco, Michael; Bruce, Douglas; Hwang, Carey; Bertz, Richard; Bifano, Marc

2014-01-01

275

Improving quality of care in substance abuse treatment using five key process improvement principles  

PubMed Central

Process and quality improvement techniques have been successfully applied in health care arenas, but efforts to institute these strategies in alcohol and drug treatment are underdeveloped. The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) teaches participating substance abuse treatment agencies to use process improvement strategies to increase client access to, and retention in, treatment. NIATx recommends five principles to promote organizational change: 1) Understand and involve the customer; 2) Fix key problems; 3) Pick a powerful change leader; 4) Get ideas from outside the organization; and 5) Use rapid-cycle testing. Using case studies, supplemented with cross-agency analyses of interview data, this paper profiles participating NIATx treatment agencies that illustrate application of each principle. Results suggest that the most successful organizations integrate and apply most, if not all, of the five principles as they develop and test change strategies. PMID:22282129

Hoffman, Kim A.; Green, Carla A.; Ford, James H.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Gustafson, David H.; McCarty, Dennis

2012-01-01

276

Optimal control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci using preventive care and treatment of infections.  

PubMed

The rising prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is a major health problem in intensive care units (ICU) because of its association with increased mortality and high health care costs. We present a mathematical framework for determining cost-effective strategies for prevention and treatment of VRE in the ICU. A system of five ordinary differential equations describes the movement of ICU patients in and out of five VRE-related states. Two control variables representing the prevention and treatment of VRE are incorporated into the system. The basic reproductive number is derived and calculated for different levels of the two controls. An optimal control problem is formulated to minimize VRE-related deaths and costs associated with prevention and treatment controls over a finite time period. Numerical solutions illustrate optimal single and dual allocations of the controls for various cost values. Results show that preventive care has the greatest impact in reducing the basic reproductive number, while treatment of VRE infections has the most impact on reducing VRE-related deaths. PMID:24480735

Lowden, Jonathan; Miller Neilan, Rachael; Yahdi, Mohammed

2014-03-01

277

Discrimination by health care workers versus discrimination by others: Countervailing forces on HCV treatment intentions.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health burden. Despite recent advances in HCV treatment, uptake remains low, particularly amongst people who inject drugs. HCV-related stigma and discrimination are common, especially within the health care sector. This research examines a more nuanced approach for how HCV-related stigma and discrimination impacts treatment access and uptake. Based on a social identity framework, we explore whether perceived HCV-related discrimination is associated with attempts to remove the stigma of being HCV-positive via HCV treatment intentions. Based on the results of prior research it was also hypothesised that the source of discrimination (health care workers versus others), and whether the discrimination is perceived to be directed to oneself or to the HCV-positive group, will differentially impact treatment intentions. The sample consisted of 416 people living with HCV in New South Wales, Australia, who acquired HCV from injecting drugs. Participants were asked about their experiences of perceived discrimination directed towards themselves versus their HCV-positive group and perceived discrimination within the health care sector. Findings indicate that discrimination towards the self is a more powerful indicator of treatment intentions than discrimination aimed at the HCV-positive group. This finding is consistent with social identity theory suggesting that people from low status groups are motivated to change their stigmatised status when it is possible to do so. The source of the perceived discrimination also matters, however, as participants who report experiencing discrimination from health workers have lowered intentions to engage with HCV treatment in the future. In combination, the results indicate that while perceived discrimination is commonly understood to act as a barrier to treatment uptake, the relationship is actually more complex than previously conceptualised. PMID:24889417

Brener, Loren; Horwitz, Robyn; von Hippel, Courtney; Bryant, Joanne; Treloar, Carla

2015-03-01

278

A sensitivity analysis of the Children’s Treatment Network trial: a randomized controlled trial of integrated services versus usual care for children with special health care needs  

PubMed Central

Background The value of integrated care through comprehensive, coordinated, and family-centered services has been increasingly recognized for improving health outcomes of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the integrated care provided through the Children’s Treatment Network (CTN) was compared with usual care in improving the psychosocial health of target CSHCN. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the effect of CTN care by conducting multiple analyses to handle noncompliance in the trial. Methods The trial recruited target children in Simcoe County and York Region, ON, Canada. Children were randomized to receive CTN or usual care and were followed for 2 years. The CTN group received integrated services through multiple providers to address their specific needs while the usual care group continued to receive care directed by their parents. The outcome was change in psychosocial quality of life at 2 years. We conducted intention-to-treat, as-treated, per-protocol, and instrumental variable analyses to analyze the outcome. Results The trial randomized 445 children, with 229 in the intervention group and 216 in the control group. During follow-up, 52% of children in the intervention group did not receive complete CTN care for various reasons. At 2 years, we did not find a significant improvement in psychosocial quality of life among the children receiving CTN care compared with usual care (intention-to-treat mean difference 1.50, 95% confidence interval ?1.49 to 4.50; P = 0.32). Other methods of analysis yielded similar results. Conclusion Although the effect of CTN care was not significant, there was evidence showing benefits of integrated care for CSHCN. More RCTs are needed to demonstrate the magnitude of such an effect. The CTN study highlights the key challenges in RCTs when assessing interventions involving integrated care, and informs further RCTs including similar evaluations. PMID:24098089

Ye, Chenglin; Browne, Gina; Beyene, Joseph; Thabane, Lehana

2013-01-01

279

Buprenorphine for pain relief in mice: repeated injections vs sustained-release depot formulation.  

PubMed

Sustained-release formulations of analgesic drugs are promising alternatives to repeated drug injections. Here, we compared a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (SB, 2.2?mg/kg) with a standard protocol of three injections of buprenorphine (Temgesic, 0.1?mg/kg/8?h) in mice. Buprenorphine serum concentration and analgesic action (thermal sensitivity) were determined in healthy mice. Additionally, the pain relief properties of both protocols were assessed after laparotomy using physiological and ethological measures of pain and recovery. Serum concentrations and thermal sensitivity tests indicated duration of action of at least 4?h (but less than 8?h) with the Temgesic protocol, and 24-48?h with SB. Behavioural and clinical parameters indicated at least partial pain relief after surgery for both protocols. Observed side-effects of buprenorphine independent of the protocol were increased activity, disturbed circadian rhythm and several abnormal behaviours. A tendency for decreased food and water intake as well as body weight reduction was also seen. Body weight decreased significantly in animals that received three injections of Temgesic, regardless of whether surgery was performed or not (P?=?0.015; P?=?0.023), hinting at a stress response towards this repeated intervention. In conclusion, an application interval of 8?h (Temgesic) appears too long and might lead to repeated periods with insufficient analgesia in animals undergoing lasting and/or substantial pain after surgery. In comparison to the standard protocol, SB provided a long-lasting, assured analgesia without possible stressful repeated injections in a standard surgical model, with only limited and acceptable behavioural side-effects. PMID:25488320

Jirkof, P; Tourvieille, A; Cinelli, P; Arras, M

2014-12-01

280

Double-blind evaluation of buprenorphine hydrochloride for post-operative pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  In a double-blind, random assignment study of four groups of 40 patients, relief of severe pain with buprenorphine hydrochloride\\u000a 0.2 mg or 0.4 mg was evaluated and compared with morphine sulphate 5 or 10 mg. Evaluations included pain intensity, pain relief,\\u000a sedation and other effects for up to 12 hours after drug administration, following recovery of wakefulness from

Allen B. Dobkin; Barbara Esposito; Carole Philbin

1977-01-01

281

The applicability of a gel delivery system for self-administration of buprenorphine to laboratory mice.  

PubMed

Oral administration of perioperative analgesia to laboratory mice is beneficial compared with administration by injection. The mice become less stressed when allowed to voluntarily ingest the drug in a palatable feed item and it results in high and long-lasting serum concentrations of the drug. We have previously demonstrated sticky nut and chocolate paste to be well-liked by mice and readily ingested in most cases. However, a disadvantage with nut and chocolate paste is its high content of fat and sugar, which may have undesirable effects in some experimental models. Alternatively, a delivery system using an aqueous gel may serve as a supplementary source of fluid post-operatively and as a vehicle for analgesic drugs. In the present study, we investigated the willingness of the mice to ingest a commercially available gel, by measuring the duration from introduction of the gel to first ingestion, as well as the amount ingested overnight. Furthermore, buprenorphine in two different concentrations (5 and 15?µg/mL) was mixed in the gel and the resulting serum concentrations of buprenorphine were investigated. The aqueous gel was ingested by the mice, but their willingness was low and did not increase over time. The serum concentrations of buprenorphine were similar to, or higher than, those following a subcutaneous injection (0.1?mg/kg body weight), but the variation was considerably higher. In conclusion, aqueous gel may serve as a relevant vehicle for the voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in mice, but the willingness of the mice to ingest the gel needs to be improved. PMID:25193176

Hovard, Amb; Teilmann, Ac; Hau, J; Abelson, Ksp

2015-01-01

282

Flunitrazepam variably alters morphine, buprenorphine, and methadone lethality in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opiates and substitution products are frequently abused, alone and in association with benzodiazepines. While this combination may result in severe respiratory depression and death, the quantitative relationship remains uncertain. We performed randomized, blinded intravenous median lethal dose (MLD) studies in Sprague–Dawley rats of morphine, buprenorphine, and methadone, alone and in combination with intraperitoneal flunitrazepam pretreatment. We employed the up-and-down method,

S W Borron; C Monier; P Risède; F J Baud

2002-01-01

283

Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.  

PubMed

Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991

Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

2014-10-15

284

Determination of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD in whole blood by UPLC-MS-MS.  

PubMed

A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of buprenorphine, fentanyl and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in whole blood. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methyl tert-butyl ether. UPLC-MS-MS analysis was performed with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (pH 10.2) and methanol. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each of the analytes and the deuterium labeled internal standards. Limit of detection values of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD were 0.28, 0.044 and 0.0097 ng/mL and limit of quantification values were 0.94, 0.14 and 0.036 ng/mL, respectively. Most phospholipids were removed during LLE. No or only minor matrix effects were observed. The method has been routinely used at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health since September 2011 for qualitative and quantitative detections of buprenorphine, fentanyl and/or LSD in more than 400 whole blood samples with two replicates per sample. PMID:23423312

Berg, Thomas; Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Strand, Dag Helge

2013-04-01

285

Introducing high-cost health care to patients: dentists' accounts of offering dental implant treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives The decision-making process within health care has been widely researched, with shared decision-making, where both patients and clinicians share technical and personal information, often being cited as the ideal model. To date, much of this research has focused on systems where patients receive their care and treatment free at the point of contact (either in government-funded schemes or in insurance-based schemes). Oral health care often involves patients making direct payments for their care and treatment, and less is known about how this payment affects the decision-making process. It is clear that patient characteristics influence decision-making, but previous evidence suggests that clinicians may assume characteristics rather than eliciting them directly. The aim was to explore the influences on how dentists' engaged in the decision-making process surrounding a high-cost item of health care, dental implant treatments (DITs). Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken using a purposive sample of primary care dentists (n = 25). Thematic analysis was undertaken to reveal emerging key themes. Results There were differences in how dentists discussed and offered implants. Dentists made decisions about whether to offer implants based on business factors, professional and legal obligations and whether they perceived the patient to be motivated to have treatment and their ability to pay. There was evidence that assessment of these characteristics was often based on assumptions derived from elements such as the appearance of the patient, the state of the patient's mouth and demographic details. The data suggest that there is a conflict between three elements of acting as a healthcare professional: minimizing provision of unneeded treatment, trying to fully involve patients in shared decisions and acting as a business person with the potential for financial gain. Conclusions It might be expected that in the context of a high-cost healthcare intervention for which patients pay the bill themselves, that decision-making would be closer to an informed than a paternalistic model. Our research suggests that paternalistic decision-making is still practised and is influenced by assumptions about patient characteristics. Better tools and training may be required to support clinicians in this area of practice. PMID:25265369

Vernazza, Christopher R; Rousseau, Nikki; Steele, Jimmy G; Ellis, Janice S; Thomason, John Mark; Eastham, Jane; Exley, Catherine

2015-01-01

286

Unheard voices: outcomes of tertiary care for treatment-refractory psychosis  

PubMed Central

Aims and method In up to a quarter of patients, schizophrenia is resistant to standard treatments. We undertook a naturalistic study of 153 patients treated in the tertiary referral in-patient unit of the National Psychosis Service based at the Maudsley Hospital in London. A retrospective analysis of symptoms on admission and discharge was undertaken using the OPCRIT tool, along with preliminary economic modelling of potential costs related to changes in accommodation. Results In-patient treatment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all symptom categories in patients already identified as having schizophrenia refractory to standard secondary care. The preliminary cost analysis showed net savings to referring authorities due to changes from pre- to post-discharge accommodation. Clinical implications Despite the enormous clinical, personal and societal burden of refractory psychotic illnesses, there is insufficient information on the outcomes of specialised tertiary-level care. Our pilot data support its utility in all domains measured. PMID:25237502

Sarkar, S. Neil; Tracy, Derek K.; Fernandez, Maria-Jesus Mateos; Nalesnik, Natasza; Dhillon, Gurbinder; Onwumere, Juliana; Prins, Anne-Marye; Schepman, Karen; Collier, Tracy; White, Thomas P.; Patel, Anita; Gaughran, Fiona; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.

2014-01-01

287

The diagnosis of depression and its treatment in Canadian primary care practices: an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background A diagnosis of depression is common in primary care practices, but data are lacking on the prevalence in Canadian practices. We describe the prevalence of the diagnosis among men and women, patient characteristics and drug treatment in patients diagnosed with depression in the primary care setting in Canada. Methods Using electronic medical record data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network, we examined whether the prevalence of a depression diagnosis varied by patient characteristics, the number of chronic conditions and the presence of the following chronic conditions: hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis, dementia, epilepsy and parkinsonism. We used regression models to examine whether patient characteristics and type of comorbidity were associated with a depression diagnosis. Results Of the 304 412 patients who had at least 1 encounter with their primary care provider between Jan. 1, 2011, and Dec. 31, 2012, 14% had a diagnosis of depression. Current or past smokers and women with a high body mass index had higher rates of depression. One in 4 patients with a diagnosis of depression also had another chronic condition; those with depression had 1.5 times more primary care visits. About 85% of patients with depression were prescribed medication, most frequently selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, followed by atypical antipsychotics. Interpretation Our data provide information on the prevalence of a depression diagnosis in primary care and associations with being female, having a chronic condition, smoking history and obesity in women. Our findings may inform research and assist primary care providers with early detection and interventions in at-risk patient populations. PMID:25485260

Manca, Donna; Barber, David; Morkem, Rachael; Khan, Shahriar; Kotecha, Jyoti; Williamson, Tyler; Birtwhistle, Richard; Patten, Scott

2014-01-01

288

Patient satisfaction with eletriptan in the acute treatment of migraine in primary care  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective: The efficxacy of triptans for acute migraine has been well established in clinical trials but not in primary care, where they are most commonly prescribed. The aim of this open-label study was to evaluate the effectiveness of eletriptan 40 mg in primary care, using a patient-weighted satisfaction scale. Methods: Eligible patients met International Headache Society criteria for migraine, with 1–6 attacks per month. Patients completed questionnaires at screening and following a single eletriptan-treated attack. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using a six-item Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). MSQ item scores were weighted, based on the important score ratings, to yield individualised satisfaction scores. The primary end-point was the difference in weighted satisfaction scores between the patient's previous treatment and eletriptan 40 mg. Secondary end-points assessed quality of life (QOL), functioning and efficacy of treatment. Results: Of 590 patients screened, 437 completed the study. Degree (95.2%), time (88.8%) and duration (83.8%) of headache pain relief were rated as most important by patients. The mean (±SD) total satisfaction score on the MSQ was higher for eletriptan than previous therapy (2.2 ± 3.0 vs. 0.6 ± 2.4; p < 0.001). The high level of satisfaction with eletriptan vs. previous treatment reflects the improvements in QOL and functioning observed, and the high headache and pain-free response rates. Conclusions: Patient-weighted satisfaction with eletriptan 40 mg was higher than with previous treatment for all items. The use of patient-weighted importance ratings of satisfaction is a promising approach for establishing effectiveness of treatment in primary care. PMID:17877653

Nett, R B; Tiseo, P J; Almas, M; Sikes, C R

2007-01-01

289

Acid-base disturbances in intensive care patients: etiology, pathophysiology and treatment.  

PubMed

Acid-base disturbances are very common in critically ill and injured patients as well as contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders is vital to their proper management. This review will discuss the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of acid-base disturbances in intensive care patients-with particular attention to evidence from recent studies examining the effects of fluid resuscitation on acid-base and its consequences. PMID:25213433

Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Kellum, John A

2014-09-11

290

Biodegradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in treatment systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been the focus of much recent research as concerns rise about their\\u000a occurrence in bodies of water worldwide. In an effort to characterize the risk and determine the prevalence of these micropollutants\\u000a in lakes and rivers, many researchers are examining PPCP removal from impaired water during wastewater treatment and water\\u000a recycling (soil passage)

Kathryn M. Onesios; Jim T. Yu; Edward J. Bouwer

2009-01-01

291

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: Decision-Making in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a chronic episodic illness, characterized by recurrent episodes of manic or depressive symptoms. Patients with bipolar disorder frequently present first to primary care, but the diversity of the potential symptoms and a low index of suspicion among physicians can lead to misdiagnosis in many patients. Frequently, co-occurring psychiatric and medical conditions further complicate the differential diagnosis. A thorough diagnostic evaluation at clinical interview, combined with supportive case-finding tools, is essential to reach an accurate diagnosis. When treating bipolar patients, the primary care physician has an integral role in coordinating the multidisciplinary network. Pharmacologic treatment underpins both short- and long-term management of bipolar disorder. Maintenance treatment to prevent relapse is frequently founded on the same pharmacologic approaches that were effective in treating the acute symptoms. Regardless of the treatment approach that is selected, monitoring over the long term is essential to ensure continued symptom relief, functioning, safety, adherence, and general medical health. This article describes key decision-making steps in the management of bipolar disorder from the primary care perspective: from initial clinical suspicion to confirmation of the diagnosis to decision-making in acute and longer-term management and the importance of patient monitoring. PMID:25317368

2014-01-01

292

Pediatric Medical Care System in China Has Significantly Reduced Abandonment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment.  

PubMed

In this study, we have analyzed both administrative and clinical data from our hospital during 2002 to 2012 to evaluate the influence of government medical policies on reducing abandonment treatment in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two policies funding for the catastrophic diseases and the new rural cooperative medical care system (NRCMS) were initiated in 2005 and 2011, respectively. About 1151 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled in our study during this period and 316 cases abandoned treatment. Statistical differences in sex, age, number of children in the family, and family financial status were observed. Of most importance, the medical insurance coverage was critical for reducing abandonment treatment. However, 92 cases abandoning treatment after relapse did not show significant difference either in medical insurance coverage or in duration from first complete remission. In conclusion, financial crisis was the main reason for abandoning treatment. Government-funded health care expenditure programs reduced families' economic burden and thereby reduced the abandonment rate with resultant increased overall survival.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0. PMID:25393454

Zhou, Qi; Hong, Dan; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Defei; Ashwani, Neetica; Hu, Shaoyan

2014-11-12

293

Practical considerations in the pharmacological treatment of postherpetic neuralgia for the primary care provider  

PubMed Central

An estimated one million individuals in the US are diagnosed with herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) each year. Approximately 20% of these patients will develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a complex HZ complication characterized by neuropathic pain isolated to the dermatome that was affected by the HZ virus. PHN is debilitating, altering physical function and quality of life, and commonly affects vulnerable populations, including the elderly and the immunocompromised. Despite the availability of an immunization for HZ prevention and several approved HZ treatments, the incidence of PHN is increasing. Furthermore, management of the neuropathic pain associated with PHN is often suboptimal, and the use of available therapeutics may be complicated by adverse effects and complex, burdensome treatment regimens, as well as by patients’ comorbidities and polypharmacy, which may lead to drug–drug interactions. Informed and comprehensive assessments of currently available pharmacological treatment options to achieve effective pain control in the primary care setting are needed. In this article, we discuss the situation in clinical practice, review currently recommended prevention and treatment options for PHN, and outline practical considerations for the management of this neuropathic pain syndrome, with a focus on optimal, individual-based treatment plans for use in the primary care setting. PMID:24648752

Massengill, Jamie S; Kittredge, John L

2014-01-01

294

Patient Care Teams in treatment of diabetes and chronic heart failure in primary care: an observational networks study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Patient care teams have an important role in providing medical care to patients with chronic disease, but insight into how\\u000a to improve their performance is limited. Two potentially relevant determinants are the presence of a central care provider\\u000a with a coordinating role and an active role of the patient in the network of care providers. In this study, we aimed

Jan-Willem Weenink; Jan van Lieshout; Hans Peter Jung; Michel Wensing

2011-01-01

295

competency Course Objective 1 1a Apply evidence based knowledge to diagnosis and treatment questions in ambulatory and geriatric patient care.  

E-print Network

knowledge to diagnosis and treatment questions in ambulatory and geriatric patient and treatment question in ambulatory and geriatric patient care. 3 1e Apply current knowledge to clinical problems in ambulatory and geriatric patient care. 4 1f Apply knowledge

Myers, Lawrence C.

296

Suspicion and treatment of severe sepsis. An overview of the prehospital chain of care  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis is a life-threatening condition where the risk of death has been reported to be even higher than that associated with the major complications of atherosclerosis, i.e. myocardial infarction and stroke. In all three conditions, early treatment could limit organ dysfunction and thereby improve the prognosis. Aim To describe what has been published in the literature a/ with regard to the association between delay until start of treatment and outcome in sepsis with the emphasis on the pre-hospital phase and b/ to present published data and the opportunity to improve various links in the pre-hospital chain of care in sepsis. Methods A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Embase (Ovid SP) and Cochrane Library databases. Results In overall terms, we found a small number of articles (n?=?12 of 1,162 unique hits) which addressed the prehospital phase. For each hour of delay until the start of antibiotics, the prognosis appeared to become worse. However, there was no evidence that prehospital treatment improved the prognosis. Studies indicated that about half of the patients with severe sepsis used the emergency medical service (EMS) for transport to hospital. Patients who used the EMS experienced a shorter delay to treatment with antibiotics and the start of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). Among EMS-transported patients, those in whom the EMS staff already suspected sepsis at the scene had a shorter delay to treatment with antibiotics and the start of EGDT. There are insufficient data on other links in the prehospital chain of care, i.e. patients, bystanders and dispatchers. Conclusion Severe sepsis is a life-threatening condition. Previous studies suggest that, with every hour of delay until the start of antibiotics, the prognosis deteriorates. About half of the patients use the EMS. We need to know more about the present situation with regard to the different links in the prehospital chain of care in sepsis. PMID:22738027

2012-01-01

297

Costing Analysis of National HIV Treatment and Care Program in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background: Vietnam achieved rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), although external funds are declining sharply. To achieve and sustain universal access to HIV services, evidence-based planning is essential. To date, there had been limited HIV treatment and care cost data available in Vietnam. Methods: Cost data of outpatient and inpatient HIV care were extracted at 21 sentinel facilities (17 adult and 4 pediatric) that epitomize the national program. Step-down costing for administration costs and bottom-up resource costing for drugs, diagnostics, and labor were used. Records of 1401 adults and 527 pediatric patients were reviewed. Results: Median outpatient care costs per patient-year for pre-ART, first year ART, later year ART, and second-line ART were US $100, US $316, US $303, and US $1557 for adults; and US $171, US $387, US $320, and US $1069 for children, respectively. Median inpatient care cost per episode was US $162 for adults and US $142 for children. Non-antiretroviral (ARV) costs in adults at stand-alone facilities were 44% (first year ART) and 24% (later year ART) higher than those at integrated facilities. Adults who started ART with CD4 count ?100 cells per cubic millimeter had 47% higher non-ARV costs in the first year ART than those with CD4 count >100 cells per cubic millimeter. Adult ARV drug costs at government sites were from 66% to 85% higher than those at donor-supported sites in the first year ART. Conclusions: The study found that HIV treatment and care costs in Vietnam are economical, yet there is potential to further promote efficiency through strengthening competitive procurement, integrating HIV services, and promoting earlier ART initiation. PMID:23846564

Duong, Anh Thuy; Bales, Sarah; Do, Nhan Thi; Minh Nguyen, Thu Thi; Thanh Cao, Thuy Thi; Nguyen, Long Thanh

2014-01-01

298

Treatment reviews of older people on polypharmacy in primary care: cluster controlled trial comparing two approaches  

PubMed Central

Background Older people are prone to problems related to use of medicines. As they tend to use many different medicines, monitoring pharmacotherapy for older people in primary care is important. Aim To determine which procedure for treatment reviews (case conferences versus written feedback) results in more medication changes, measured at different moments in time. To determine the costs and savings related to such an intervention. Design of study Randomised, controlled trial, randomisation at the level of the community pharmacy. Setting Primary care; treatment reviews were performed by 28 pharmacists and 77 GPs concerning 738 older people (?75 years) on polypharmacy (>five medicines). Method In one group, pharmacists and GPs performed case conferences on prescription-related problems; in the other group, pharmacists provided results of a treatment review to GPs as written feedback. Number of medication changes was counted following clinically-relevant recommendations. Costs and savings associated with the intervention at various times were calculated. Results In the case-conference group significantly more medication changes were initiated (42 versus 22, P = 0.02). This difference was also present 6 months after treatment reviews (36 versus 19, P = 0.02). Nine months after treatment reviews, the difference was no longer significant (33 versus 19, P = 0.07). Additional costs in the case-conference group seem to be covered by the slightly greater savings in this group. Conclusion Performing treatment reviews with case conferences leads to greater uptake of clinically-relevant recommendations. Extra costs seem to be covered by related savings. The effect of the intervention declines over time, so performing treatment reviews for older people should be integrated in the routine collaboration between GPs and pharmacists. PMID:17761060

Denneboom, Wilma; Dautzenberg, Maaike GH; Grol, Richard; De Smet, Peter AGM

2007-01-01

299

Elderly care recipients’ perceptions of treatment helpfulness for depression and the relationship with help-seeking  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past). Results From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. Conclusion Beliefs in the helpfulness of certain treatments were related to the use of both professional and informal sources of help, indicating the possibility that campaigns or educational programs aimed at changing beliefs about treatments may be useful in older adults. PMID:25653512

Atkins, Joanna; Naismith, Sharon L; Luscombe, Georgina M; Hickie, Ian B

2015-01-01

300

PTSD in Latino Patients: Illness Beliefs, Treatment Preferences, and Implications for Care  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how Latinos with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) understand their illness and their preferences for mental health treatment. Objective To understand the illness beliefs and treatment preferences of Latino immigrants with PTSD. Design Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Participants Sixty foreign-born, Latino adults recruited from five primary care centers in New York and New Jersey and screened for PTSD. Approach Content analytic methods identified common themes, their range, and most frequent or typical responses. Results Participants identified their primary feelings as sadness, anxiety, nervousness, and fear. The most common feeling was “sad” (triste). Other words frequently volunteered were “angry” (enojada), “nervous” (nerviosa), and “scared” (miedo). Participants viewed their PTSD as impairing health and functioning. They ascribed their somatic symptoms and their general medical problems to the “stress” from the trauma and its consequences on their lives. The most common reason participants volunteered for their work and school functioning being impaired was their poor concentration, often due to intrusive thoughts. Most expressed their desire to receive mental health treatment, to receive it within their primary care center, and preferred psychotherapy over psychotropic medications. Among participants who did not report wanting treatment, most said it was because the trauma was “in the past.” Conclusions Clinicians may consider enquiring about PTSD in Latino patients who report feeling sad, anxious, nervous, or fearful. Our study suggests topics clinicians may include in the psychoeducation of patients with PTSD. PMID:18587619

Meredith, Lisa S.; Rhodes, Hilary; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N.

2008-01-01

301

Child care in outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities for women: findings from the 2008 National Survey of substance Abuse Treatment Services.  

PubMed

Mothers with substance use disorders who lack access to child care are often unable to enter or remain in substance abuse treatment. This study examined the availability of child care in outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities and whether or not certain facility characteristics were associated with the availability of child care. Using data from the 2008 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services, 6.5% of outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities that served women provided child care. The results of multivariate logistic regression found that child care was more common among facilities that were located in metropolitan areas, were operated by non-profit or government agencies, received public funding, or provided free services or other ancillary services including case management, domestic violence counseling, and transportation assistance. Facilities that served only women had more than three times higher odds of providing child care compared with mixed-gender facilities. Further research is needed to identify strategies for expanding child care in outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities. PMID:21293975

Brown, Jonathan David; Vartivarian, Sonya; Alderks, Cathie E

2011-10-01

302

Primary care providers' knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers to the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated primary care providers' (PCPs, pediatricians, and nurse practitioners) knowledge, current practices, and perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment, with an emphasis on first-year well-child care visits. A questionnaire was distributed to 192 PCPs in the primary care network at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) addressing (i) knowledge of obesity and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines, (ii) anticipatory guidance practices at well visits regarding nutrition and exercise, and (iii) perceived barriers to childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Eighty pediatricians and seven nurse practitioners responded, and a minority correctly identified the definition (26%) and prevalence (9%) of childhood overweight and AAP guidelines for exercise (39%) and juice consumption (44%). Most PCPs (81%) spent 11-20 min per well visit during the first 2 years, and 79% discussed diet, nutrition, and exercise for > or =3 min. Although >95% of PCPs discussed juice, fruits and vegetables, sippy cups, and finger foods during the first year, over 35% never discussed fast food, TV, or candy, and 55% never discussed exercise. Few rated current resources as adequate to treat or prevent childhood obesity. Over 90% rated the following barriers for obesity prevention and treatment as important or very important: parent is not motivated, child is not motivated, parents are overweight, families often have fast food, watch too much TV, and do not get enough exercise. In conclusion, there is much room to improve PCPs' knowledge of obesity and AAP guidelines. Although PCPs rate fast-food consumption, TV viewing, and lack of exercise as important treatment barriers, many never discussed these topics during the first year. PMID:19910934

Spivack, Jordan G; Swietlik, Maggie; Alessandrini, Evaline; Faith, Myles S

2010-07-01

303

The DOMUS study protocol: a randomized clinical trial of accelerated transition from oncological treatment to specialized palliative care at home  

PubMed Central

Background The focus of Specialized Palliative Care (SPC) is to improve care for patients with incurable diseases and their families, which includes the opportunity to make their own choice of place of care and ultimately place of death. The Danish Palliative Care Trial (DOMUS) aims to investigate whether an accelerated transition process from oncological treatment to continuing SPC at home for patients with incurable cancer results in more patients reaching their preferred place of care and death. The SPC in this trial is enriched with a manualized psychological intervention. Methods/Design DOMUS is a controlled randomized clinical trial with a balanced parallel-group randomization (1:1). The planned sample size is 340 in- and outpatients treated at the Department of Oncology at Copenhagen University Hospital. Patients are randomly assigned either to: a) standard care plus SPC enriched with a standardized psychological intervention for patients and caregivers at home or b) standard care alone. Inclusion criteria are incurable cancer with no or limited antineoplastic treatment options. Discussion Programs that facilitate transition from hospital treatment to SPC at home for patients with incurable cancer can be a powerful tool to improve patients’ quality of life and support family/caregivers during the disease trajectory. The present study offers a model for achieving optimal delivery of palliative care in the patient’s preferred place of care and attempt to clarify challenges. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01885637 PMID:25242890

2014-01-01

304

Diagnosis and Treatment of Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Primary Care Setting: A Primer for Nurse Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, health care costs, and mortality. Both early CKD and its attendant anemia may be asymptomatic and thus often go undetected. Appropriate anemia treatment may improve cardiovascular prognosis, physical activity, and quality of life in CKD patients not requiring dialysis. Primary care nurse practitioners are ideally positioned to detect

Cheryl Dalton; Rebecca Schmidt

2008-01-01

305

Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This work describes a protocol of a multicentric prospective observational study with one year follow up, to describe the women's reasons and preferences to choose the way of administration (oral vs topical) in the treatment of not complicated candidal vaginitis. The number of women required is 765, they are chosen by consecutive sampling. All of whom are aged 16 and over with vaginal discharge and/or vaginal pruritus, diagnosed with not complicated vulvovaginitis in Primary Care in Madrid. The main outcome variable is the preferences of the patients in treatment choice; secondary outcome variables are time to symptoms relief and adverse reactions and the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginitis and the risk factors. In the statistical analysis, for the main objective will be descriptive for each of the variables, bivariant analysis and multivariate analysis (logistic regression).. The dependent variable being the type of treatment chosen (oral or topical) and the independent, the variables that after bivariant analysis, have been associated to the treatment preference. Discussion Clinical decisions, recommendations, and practice guidelines must not only attend to the best available evidence, but also to the values and preferences of the informed patient. PMID:21281464

2011-01-01

306

TOWARDS PATIENT-CENTERED CARE FOR DEPRESSION: CONJOINT METHODS TO TAILOR TREATMENT BASED ON PREFERENCES  

PubMed Central

Background Although antidepressants and counseling have been shown to be effective in treating patients with depression, non-treatment or under-treatment for depression is common especially among the elderly and minorities. Previous work on patient preferences has focused on medication versus counseling, but less is known about the value patients place on attributes of medication and counseling. Objective Conjoint analysis has been recognized as a valuable means of assessing patient treatment preferences. We examine how conjoint analysis be used to determine the relative importance of various attributes of depression treatment at the group level as well as to determine the range of individual-level relative preference weights for specific depression treatment attributes. In addition we use conjoint analysis to predict what modifications in treatment characteristics are associated with a change in the stated preferred alternative. Study design 86 adults who participated in an internet-based panel responded to an on-line discrete choice task about depression treatment. Participants chose between medication and counseling based on choice sets presented first for a “mild depression” scenario and then for a “severe depression” scenario. Participants were given 18 choice sets which varied for medication based on type of side effect (nausea, dizziness, and sexual dysfunction) and severity of side effect (mild, moderate, and severe); and for counseling based on frequency of counseling sessions (once per week or every other week) and location of the sessions (mental health professional’s office, primary care doctor’s office or office of a spiritual counselor). Results Treatment type (counseling vs. medication) appeared to be more important in driving treatment choice than any specific attribute that was studied. Specifically counseling was preferred by most of the respondents. After treatment type, location of treatment and frequency of treatment were important considerations. Preferred attributes were similar in both the mild and severe depression scenarios. Side effect severity appeared to be most important in driving treatment choice as compared with the other attributes studied. Individual-level relative preferences for treatment type revealed a distribution that was roughly bimodal with 27 participants who had a strong preference for counseling and 14 respondents who had a strong preference for medication. Conclusion Estimating individual-level preferences for treatment type allowed us to see the variability in preferences and determine which participants had a strong affinity for medication or counseling. PMID:20671803

Wittink, Marsha N.; Cary, Mark; TenHave, Thomas; Baron, Jonathan; Gallo, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

307

Shared Decision-Making in the Primary Care Treatment of Late-Life Major Depression: A Needed New Intervention?  

PubMed Central

Objective We suggest that clinicians consider models of shared decision-making for their potential ability to improve the treatment of major depression in the primary care setting and overcome limitations of collaborative care and other interventions. Methods We explore the characteristics and techniques of patient-clinician shared decision-making, with particular emphasis on this model’s relevance to the unique treatment concerns of depressed older adults. Results We describe a shared decision-making intervention to engage older adults in depression treatment in the primary care sector. Conclusions It is timely to examine shared decision-making models for elderly depressed primary care patients given their potential ability to improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. PMID:19946872

Raue, Patrick J.; Schulberg, Herbert C.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Hoffman, Amy S.; Bruce, Martha L.

2010-01-01

308

45 CFR 164.506 - Uses and disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations.  

...disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations. 164.506 Section 164.506 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA... Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.506 Uses...

2014-10-01

309

45 CFR 164.506 - Uses and disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations. 164.506 Section 164.506 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA... Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.506 Uses...

2010-10-01

310

45 CFR 164.506 - Uses and disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations. 164.506 Section 164.506 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA... Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.506 Uses...

2012-10-01

311

45 CFR 164.506 - Uses and disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations. 164.506 Section 164.506 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA... Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.506 Uses...

2013-10-01

312

45 CFR 164.506 - Uses and disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations. 164.506 Section 164.506 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA... Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.506 Uses...

2011-10-01

313

Patient-centered care and its effect on outcomes in the treatment of asthma  

PubMed Central

Patient-centered care may be pivotal in improving health outcomes for patients with asthma. In addition to increased attention in both research and clinical forums, recent legislation also highlights the importance of patient-centered outcomes research in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, whether patient-centered care has been shown to improve outcomes for this population is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a systematic review of the literature that aimed to define current patient-focused management issues, characterize important patient-defined outcomes in asthma control, and identify current and emerging treatments related to patient outcomes and perspectives. We used a parallel search strategy via Medline®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and PsycINFO®, complemented with a reference review of key articles that resulted in a total of 133 articles; 58 were interventions that evaluated the effect on patient-centered outcomes, and 75 were descriptive studies. The majority of intervention studies demonstrated improved patient outcomes (44; “positive” results); none showed true harm (0; “negative”); and the remainder were equivocal (14; “neutral”). Key themes emerged relating to patients’ desires for asthma knowledge, preferences for tailored management plans, and simplification of treatment regimens. We also found discordance between physicians and patients regarding patients’ needs, beliefs, and expectations about asthma. Although some studies show promise regarding the benefits of patient-focused care, these methods require additional study on feasibility and strategies for implementation in real world settings. Further, it is imperative that future studies must be, themselves, patient-centered (eg, pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies) and applicable to a variety of patient populations and settings. Despite the need for further research, enough evidence exists that supports incorporating a patient-centered approach to asthma management, in order to achieve improved outcomes and patient health. PMID:22915970

Qamar, Nashmia; Pappalardo, Andrea A; Arora, Vineet M; Press, Valerie G

2011-01-01

314

Review article: recognition and treatment of eating disorders in primary and secondary care.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are serious illnesses affecting 1-2% of young women. Patients may present to any doctor, sometimes atypically (e.g. unexplained weight loss, food allergy, infertility, diarrhoea), delaying diagnosis and leading to needless investigation. The cardinal signs are weight loss, amenorrhoea, bingeing with vomiting and other compensatory behaviours, and disturbances in body image with an exaggeration of the importance of slimness. When other causes have been excluded, useful investigations are serum potassium, bone mineral density scanning and pelvic ultrasound. In emaciated patients multiple systems may fail with pancytopaenia, neuromyopathy and heart failure. Clinical assessment of muscle power is used to monitor physical risk. Treatment may involve individual, group or family sessions, using cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic and family approaches. More severe or intractable illness is treated with day care, with in-patient care in a medical or specialist psychiatric unit reserved for the most severely ill patients. Antidepressants have a place in the treatment of bulimia nervosa unresponsive to psychological approaches, and when severe depressive symptoms develop. The children of people with eating disorders may have an increased risk of difficulties. Support for the patient and family, and effective liaison between professionals, are essential in the treatment of severe eating disorders. PMID:10759615

Robinson, P H

2000-04-01

315

The treatment of depressed chinese americans using qigong in a health care setting: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Background. This pilot study examined the feasibility and efficacy of providing Qigong treatment in a health center to Chinese Americans with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods. Fourteen Chinese Americans with MDD were enrolled, and they received a 12-week Qigong intervention. The key outcome measurement was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17); the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were also administered. Positive response was defined as a decrease of 50% or more on the HAM-D17, and remission was defined as HAM-D17 ? 7. Patients' outcome measurements were compared before and after the Qigong intervention. Results. Participants (N = 14) were 64% female, with a mean age of 53 (±14). A 71% of participants completed the intervention. The Qigong intervention resulted in a positive treatment-response rate of 60% and a remission rate of 40% and statistically significant improvement, as measured by the HAM-D17, CGI-S, CGI-I, Q-LES-Q-SF, and the family support subscale of the MSPSS. Conclusions. The Qigong intervention provided at a health care setting for the treatment of primary care patients with MDD is feasible. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:23690836

Yeung, Albert; Slipp, Lauren E; Jacquart, Jolene; Fava, Maurizio; Denninger, John W; Benson, Herbert; Fricchione, Gregory L

2013-01-01

316

Prevention, treatment and care of hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs.  

PubMed

People who inject drugs (PWID) represent the core of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic in many countries. HCV transmission continues among PWID, despite evidence demonstrating that high coverage of combined harm reduction strategies, such as needle syringe programs (NSP) and opioid substitution treatment (OST), can be effective in reducing the risk of HCV transmission. Among infected individuals, HCV-related morbidity and mortality continues to grow and is accompanied by major public health, social and economic burdens. Despite the high prevalence of HCV infection, the proportion of PWID who have been tested, assessed and treated for HCV infection remains unacceptably low, related to systems-, provider- and patient-related barriers to care. This is despite compelling data demonstrating that with the appropriate programs, HCV treatment is safe and successful among PWID. The approaching era of interferon-free directly acting antiviral therapy has the potential to provide one of the great advances in clinical medicine. Simple, tolerable and highly effective therapy will likely address many of these barriers, thereby enhancing the numbers of PWID cured of HCV infection. However, the high cost of new HCV therapies will be a barrier to implementation in many settings. This paper highlights that restrictive national drug policy and law enforcement are key drivers of the HCV epidemic among PWID. This paper also calls for enhanced HCV treatment settings built on a foundation of both prevention (e.g. NSP and OST) and improved access to health care for PWID. PMID:25245939

Bruggmann, Philip; Grebely, Jason

2014-08-30

317

Effect of Rifampin and Nelfinavir on the Metabolism of Methadone and Buprenorphine in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that primary cultures of human hepatocytes could predict potential drug interactions with methadone and buprenorphine. Hepatocytes (five donors) were preincubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (vehicle), rifampin, or nelfinavir before incubation with methadone or buprenorphine. Culture media (0–60 min) was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for R- and S-methadone and R- and S-2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) or for buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their glucuronides [buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (B-3-G) and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide (N-3-G)]. R- and S-EDDP were detected in three of five, four of five, and five of five media from cells pretreated with DMSO, nelfinavir, and rifampin. R-EDDP increased 3.1- and 26.5-fold, and S-EDDP increased 2.5- and 21.3-fold after nelfinavir and rifampin. The rifampin effect was significant. B-3-G production was detected in media of all cells incubated with buprenorphine and accounted for most of the buprenorphine loss from culture media; it was not significantly affected by either pretreatment. Norbuprenorphine and N-3-G together were detected in three of five, four of five, and five of five donors pretreated with DMSO, nelfinavir and rifampin, and norbuprenorphine in one of five, one of five, and two of five donors. Although there was a trend for norbuprenorphine (2.8- and 4.9-fold) and N-3-G (1.7- and 1.9-fold) to increase after nelfinavir and rifampin, none of the changes were significant. To investigate low norbuprenorphine production, buprenorphine was incubated with human liver and small intestine microsomes fortified to support both N-dealkylation and glucuronidation; N-dealkylation predominated in small intestine and glucuronidation in liver microsomes. These studies support the hypothesis that methadone metabolism and its potential for drug interactions can be predicted with cultured human hepatocytes, but for buprenorphine the combined effects of hepatic and small intestinal metabolism are probably involved. PMID:19773542

Fang, Wenfang B.; Lin, Shen-Nan; Weyant, Denise M.; Strom, Stephen C.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

2009-01-01

318

Quality assurance of radiotherapy in cancer treatment: toward improvement of patient safety and quality of care.  

PubMed

The process of radiotherapy (RT) is complex and involves understanding of the principles of medical physics, radiobiology, radiation safety, dosimetry, radiation treatment planning, simulation and interaction of radiation with other treatment modalities. Each step in the integrated process of RT needs quality control and quality assurance (QA) to prevent errors and to give high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. Recent advances in RT, including intensity-modulated and image-guided RT, focus on the need for a systematic RTQA program that balances patient safety and quality with available resources. It is necessary to develop more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods, such as failure mode and effect analysis, to focus available QA resources optimally on process components. External audit programs are also effective. The International Atomic Energy Agency has operated both an on-site and off-site postal dosimetry audit to improve practice and to assure the dose from RT equipment. Several countries have adopted a similar approach for national clinical auditing. In addition, clinical trial QA has a significant role in enhancing the quality of care. The Advanced Technology Consortium has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials, including credentialing and individual case review. These activities have an impact not only on the treatment received by patients enrolled in clinical trials, but also on the quality of treatment administered to all patients treated in each institution, and have been adopted globally; by the USA, Europe and Japan also. PMID:18952706

Ishikura, Satoshi

2008-11-01

319

Covert Treatment in Psychiatry: Do No Harm, True, But Also Dare to Care  

PubMed Central

Covert treatment raises a number of ethical and practical issues in psychiatry. Viewpoints differ from the standpoint of psychiatrists, caregivers, ethicists, lawyers, neighbours, human rights activists and patients. There is little systematic research data on its use but it is quite certain that there is relatively widespread use. The veil of secrecy around the procedure is due to fear of professional censure. Whenever there is a veil of secrecy around anything, which is aided and abetted by vociferous opposition from some sections of society, the result is one of two: 1) either the activity goes underground or 2) it is reluctantly discarded, although most of those who used it earlier knew it was needed. Covert treatment has the dubious distinction of suffering both such secrecy and disapproval. Covert treatment has a number of advantages and disadvantages in psychotic disorders. The advantages are that it helps solve practical clinical problems; prevents delays in starting treatment, which is associated with clinical risks and substantial costs; prevents risk of self-destructive behaviour and/or physical assault by patient; prevents relapse; and prevents demoralization of staff. The disadvantages are that it maybe used with malafide intent by caregivers with or without the complicity of psychiatrists; it may be used to force conformity in dissenters; and the clinician may land himself in legal tangles even with its legitimate use. In addition, it may prevent insight, encourage denial, promote unhealthy practices in the treating staff and prevent understanding of why noncompliance occurs in the first place. Some support its use in dementia and learning disorders but oppose it in schizophrenia. The main reason is that uncooperative patients of schizophrenia (and related psychoses) are considered to be those who refuse treatment but retain capacity; while in dementia and severe learning disorder, uncooperative patients are those who lack capacity. This paper disputes this contention by arguing that although uncooperative patients of schizophrenia (and related psychoses) apparently retain capacity, it is limited, in fact distorted, since they lack insight. It presents the concept of insight-unconsciousness in a patient of psychosis. Just as an unconscious patient has to be given covert medical/surgical treatment, similarly an insight-unconscious patient with one of the different psychoses (in the acute phase or otherwise) may also have to be given covert treatment till he regains at least partial insight. It helps control psychotic symptoms and assists the patient in regaining enough insight to realize he needs treatment. Another argument against covert treatment is that people with schizophrenia have the capacity to learn and therefore can learn that they are required to take medications, but if medications are given covertly it may well fuel their paranoia. However, it should be noted that the patient who has lack of insight cannot learn unless he regains that insight, and he may need covert treatment to facilitate this process. Covert treatment can fuel the paranoia, true, but it can also control the psychotic symptoms sufficiently so that regular treatment can be initiated. In a patient who refuses to accept that he is sick and when involuntary commitment is not an option to be considered, covert treatment is the only option, apart from physical restraint. Ultimately, a choice has to be made between a larger beneficence (control of symptoms and start of therapy) and a smaller malevolence (necessary therapy, but without the patient's knowledge and consent). A number of practical clinical scenarios are outlined wherein the psychiatrist should adopt covert treatment in the best interests of the patient. Ethical issues of autonomy, power, secrecy and malafide intent arise; each of these can be countered only by non-malfeasance (above all, do no harm) under the overarch of beneficence (even above that, dare to care). An advance directive with health care proxy that sanctions covert treatment is presented. Questions raised b

Singh, Ajai R.

2008-01-01

320

Comparison of Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine with Buprenorphine as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine in Spinal Asnaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background: The supplementation of local anaesthetics with adjuvants to improve the efficacy of subarachnoid block has been recognised since long. The most preferred drug has been opioids, but newer drugs like dexmedetomidine has also been introduced and investigated as an effective adjuvant. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the characteristics of subarachnoid blockade, hemodynamic stability and adverse effects of intrathecal buprenorphine and intrathecal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for lower abdominal surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study included 60 patients aged between 18-60 years classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status (PS) I/II scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgeries. The patients were randomly allotted to two groups to receive intrathecal 3ml of 0.5% bupivacine with 60µg of buprenorphine (Group B; n=30) or 3ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with 5µg of dexmedetomidine (Group D; n=30). The onset time to peak sensory level, motor block, sedation, Haemodynamic variables, duration of motor block, analgesia and any adverse effects were noted. Results: There was no significant difference between groups regarding demographic characteristics and type of surgery. The motor, sensory blockade and time of rescue analgesia were significantly prolonged in Group D compared to Group B. The sedation level was higher in Group D compared to Group B. There was no significant difference in haemodynamic variables although Group B had lower Heart Rate (HR) than Group D. Conclusion: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine when compared to intrathecal buprenorphine causes prolonged anaesthesia and analgesia with reduced need for sedation and rescue analgesics. PMID:24701498

Gupta, Mahima; Shailaja, S.; Hegde, K. Sudhir

2014-01-01

321

Transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation (Limoge's currents) decreases early buprenorphine analgesic requirements after abdominal surgery.  

PubMed

Transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation with Limoge's currents (TCES) consists of high frequency, low intensity currents which decreased anesthetic requirements during elective surgery. This action is likely to be mediated by the release of central endogenous opioids. In the present study, we hypothesized that TCES applied intraoperatively may decrease early postoperative narcotic requirements. Thirty-nine ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Just before induction of anesthesia, patients were connected to the electrical stimulator and randomly allocated to be either stimulated (TCES group, n = 20) or not (control group, n = 19) during surgery. The managing anesthesiologist was unaware of which group the patient was assigned. Postoperatively, patients were given a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device delivering buprenorphine for the first four postoperative hours. The recorded variables included postoperative buprenorphine requirements, pain scores (0-10 visual analog scale [VAS]), sedation (0-4 scale), and intraoperative isoflurane requirements. Patients were comparable with respect to age, sex ratio, weight, duration of surgery, intraoperative hemodynamics, fentanyl requirements, and time from skin closure to tracheal extubation. Buprenorphine requirements were significantly reduced in the TCES group versus the control group (2.36 vs 3.43 micrograms.kg-1.h-1; P = 0.002). Intraoperative isoflurane anesthetic requirements, as well as hourly postoperative scores for pain and sedation, were the same for the two groups. These data indicate that TCES reduces narcotic requirements for early postoperative analgesia. This technique might have potential to facilitate early postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery. PMID:8831319

Mignon, A; Laudenbach, V; Guischard, F; Limoge, A; Desmonts, J M; Mantz, J

1996-10-01

322

Checklist for early recognition and treatment of acute illness: International collaboration to improve critical care practice  

PubMed Central

Processes to ensure world-wide best-practice for critical care delivery are likely to minimize preventable death, disability and costly complications for any healthcare system’s sickest patients, but no large-scale efforts have so far been undertaken towards these goals. The advances in medical informatics and human factors engineering have provided possibility for novel and user-friendly clinical decision support tools that can be applied in a complex and busy hospital setting. To facilitate timely and accurate best-practice delivery in critically ill patients international group of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and researchers developed a simple decision support tool: Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN). The tool has been refined and tested in high fidelity simulated clinical environment and has been shown to improve performance of clinical providers faced with simulated emergencies. The aim of this international educational intervention is to implement CERTAIN into clinical practice in hospital settings with variable resources (included those in low income countries) and evaluate the impact of the tool on the care processes and patient outcomes. To accomplish our aims, CERTAIN will be uniformly available on either mobile or fixed computing devices (as well as a backup paper version) and applied in a standardized manner in the ICUs of diverse hospitals. To ensure the effectiveness of the proposed intervention, access to CERTAIN is coupled with structured training of bedside ICU providers.

Vukoja, Marija; Kashyap, Rahul; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Dong, Yue; Kilickaya, Oguz; Gajic, Ognjen

2015-01-01

323

A Large-scale Dissemination and Implementation Model for Evidence-based Treatment and Continuing Care  

PubMed Central

Multiple evidence-based treatments for adolescents with substance use disorders are available; however, the diffusion of these treatments in practice remains minimal. A dissemination and implementation model incorporating research-based training components for simultaneous implementation across 33 dispersed sites and over 200 clinical staff is described. Key elements for the diffusion of the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach and Assertive Continuing Care were: (a) three years of funding to support local implementation; (b) comprehensive training, including a 3.5 day workshop, bi-weekly coaching calls, and ongoing performance feedback facilitated by a web tool; (c) a clinician certification process; (d) a supervisor certification process to promote long-term sustainability; and (e) random fidelity reviews after certification. Process data are summarized for 167 clinicians and 64 supervisors. PMID:21547241

Garner, Bryan R.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Meyers, Robert J.; Godley, Mark D.

2010-01-01

324

Combined Ablation and Resection (CARe) as an Effective Parenchymal Sparing Treatment for Extensive Colorectal Liver Metastases  

PubMed Central

Background Combined intra-operative ablation and resection (CARe) is proposed to treat extensive colorectal liver metastases (CLM). This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), hepatic recurrence-free survival (HRFS) and progression-free survival (PFS), to identify factors associated with survival, and to report complications. Materials and Methods Four centers combined retropectively their clinical experiences regarding CLM treated by CARe. CLM characteristics, pre- and post-operative chemotherapy regimens, surgical procedures, complications and survivals were analyzed. Results Of the 288 patients who received CARe, 210 (73%) had synchronous and 255 (88%) had bilateral CLM. Twenty-two patients (8%) had extrahepatic disease. Median follow-up was 3.17 years (95%CI 2.83–4.08). Median OS was 3.33 years (95%CI 3.08–4.17) and 5-year OS was 37% (95%CI 29–45). One- and 5-year LRFS from ablated lesions were 87.9% (95%CI 83.3–91.2) and 78.0% (95%CI 71–83), respectively. Median HRFS and PFS were 14 months (95%CI 11–18) and 9 months (95%CI 8–11), respectively. One hundred patients experienced complications: 29 grade I, 68 grade II–III–IV, and three deaths. In the multivariate models adjusted for center, the occurrence of complications was confirmed as a major independent factor associated with 3-year OS (HR 1.80; P?=?0.008). Five-year OS was 25.6% (95%CI 14.9–37.6) for patients with complications and 45% (95%CI 33.3–53.4) for patients without. Conclusions Recent strategies facing advanced CLM include non-anatomic resections, portal-induced hypertrophy of the future remnant liver and aggressive medical preoperative treatments. CARe has the qualities of an approach that allows effective tumor clearance while maintaining good tolerance for the patient. PMID:25485541

Evrard, Serge; Poston, Graeme; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, Peter; Diallo, Abou; Desolneux, Grégoire; Brouste, Véronique; Lalet, Caroline; Mortensen, Frank; Stättner, Stefan; Fenwick, Stephen; Malik, Hassan; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; DeMatteo, Ronald; D'Angelica, Michael; Allen, Peter; Jarnagin, William; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Fong, Yuman

2014-01-01

325

Effectiveness of ebola treatment units and community care centers - liberia, september 23-october 31, 2014.  

PubMed

Previous reports have shown that an Ebola outbreak can be slowed, and eventually stopped, by placing Ebola patients into settings where there is reduced risk for onward Ebola transmission, such as Ebola treatment units (ETUs) and community care centers (CCCs) or equivalent community settings that encourage changes in human behaviors to reduce transmission risk, such as making burials safe and reducing contact with Ebola patients. Using cumulative case count data from Liberia up to August 28, 2014, the EbolaResponse model previously estimated that without any additional interventions or further changes in human behavior, there would have been approximately 23,000 reported Ebola cases by October 31, 2014. In actuality, there were 6,525 reported cases by that date. To estimate the effectiveness of ETUs and CCCs or equivalent community settings in preventing greater Ebola transmission, CDC applied the EbolaResponse model to the period September 23-October 31, 2014, in Liberia. The results showed that admitting Ebola patients to ETUs alone prevented an estimated 2,244 Ebola cases. Having patients receive care in CCCs or equivalent community settings with a reduced risk for Ebola transmission prevented an estimated 4,487 cases. Having patients receive care in either ETUs or CCCs or in equivalent community settings, prevented an estimated 9,100 cases, apparently as the result of a synergistic effect in which the impact of the combined interventions was greater than the sum of the two interventions. Caring for patients in ETUs, CCCs, or in equivalent community settings with reduced risk for transmission can be important components of a successful public health response to an Ebola epidemic. PMID:25632955

Washington, Michael L; Meltzer, Martin L

2015-01-30

326

Standards of care for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma—are we there yet?  

PubMed Central

Newly diagnosed glioblastoma is now commonly treated with surgery, if feasible, or biopsy, followed by radiation plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. The treatment of recurrent glioblastoma continues to be a moving target as new therapeutic principles enrich the standards of care for newly diagnosed disease. We reviewed PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology abstracts from January 2006 to January 2012 to identify clinical trials investigating the treatment of recurrent or progressive glioblastoma with nitrosoureas, temozolomide, bevacizumab, and/or combinations of these agents. At recurrence, a minority of patients are eligible for second surgery or reirradiation, based on appropriate patient selection. In temozolomide-pretreated patients, progression-free survival rates at 6 months of 20%–30% may be achieved either with nitrosoureas, temozolomide in various dosing regimens, or bevacizumab. Combination regimens among these agents or with other drugs have not produced evidence for superior activity but commonly produce more toxicity. More research is needed to better define patient profiles that predict benefit from the limited therapeutic options available after the current standard of care has failed. PMID:23136223

Weller, Michael; Cloughesy, Timothy; Perry, James R.; Wick, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

327

Implementing collaborative care for depression treatment in primary care: A cluster randomized evaluation of a quality improvement practice redesign  

PubMed Central

Background Meta-analyses show collaborative care models (CCMs) with nurse care management are effective for improving primary care for depression. This study aimed to develop CCM approaches that could be sustained and spread within Veterans Affairs (VA). Evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) uses QI approaches within a research/clinical partnership to redesign care. The study used EBQI methods for CCM redesign, tested the effectiveness of the locally adapted model as implemented, and assessed the contextual factors shaping intervention effectiveness. Methods The study intervention is EBQI as applied to CCM implementation. The study uses a cluster randomized design as a formative evaluation tool to test and improve the effectiveness of the redesign process, with seven intervention and three non-intervention VA primary care practices in five different states. The primary study outcome is patient antidepressant use. The context evaluation is descriptive and uses subgroup analysis. The primary context evaluation measure is naturalistic primary care clinician (PCC) predilection to adopt CCM. For the randomized evaluation, trained telephone research interviewers enrolled consecutive primary care patients with major depression in the evaluation, referred enrolled patients in intervention practices to the implemented CCM, and re-surveyed at seven months. Results Interviewers enrolled 288 CCM site and 258 non-CCM site patients. Enrolled intervention site patients were more likely to receive appropriate antidepressant care (66% versus 43%, p = 0.01), but showed no significant difference in symptom improvement compared to usual care. In terms of context, only 40% of enrolled patients received complete care management per protocol. PCC predilection to adopt CCM had substantial effects on patient participation, with patients belonging to early adopter clinicians completing adequate care manager follow-up significantly more often than patients of clinicians with low predilection to adopt CCM (74% versus 48%%, p = 0.003). Conclusions Depression CCM designed and implemented by primary care practices using EBQI improved antidepressant initiation. Combining QI methods with a randomized evaluation proved challenging, but enabled new insights into the process of translating research-based CCM into practice. Future research on the effects of PCC attitudes and skills on CCM results, as well as on enhancing the link between improved antidepressant use and symptom outcomes, is needed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00105820 PMID:22032247

2011-01-01

328

A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated…

Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

2007-01-01

329

MEDICAL TREATMENT OF MINOR STUDENTS MSU Student Health Services provides medical care for students during their enrollment at Michigan State  

E-print Network

MEDICAL TREATMENT OF MINOR STUDENTS MSU Student Health Services provides medical care for students refers students for specialty services with other physicians within the MSU HealthTeam (medical school generally seek parental consent prior to providing that treatment. (In certain circumstances, like medical

330

The health care cost of intravenous iron treatment in IBD patients depends on the economic evaluation perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimAnemia is common in IBD patients and intravenous iron treatment is preferred. The drug cost of intravenous iron carboxymaltose is approximately twice the cost of intravenous iron sucrose. The aim was to evaluate the health care costs of intravenous iron sucrose (Venofer®, Vifor) and intravenous iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject®, Vifor) treatment to IBD patients in an outpatient setting.

Palle Bager; Jens F. Dahlerup

2010-01-01

331

What works for therapists conducting family meetings: treatment integrity in family-focused grief Therapy during palliative care and bereavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment integrity of Family-Focused Grief Therapy (FFGT), a preventive intervention designed for families at high risk of poor functioning during palliative care and bereavement. From the 81 families participating in a randomized controlled trial (53 assigned to therapy), 28 were randomly selected for this study of treatment fidelity using the FFGT

Eunice K. H. Chan; Imogen O'Neill; Maria McKenzie; Anthony Love; David W. Kissane

2004-01-01

332

Access to treatment and care associated with HIV infection among members of AIDS support groups in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the types and distributions of treatment received among persons living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) in Thailand, we analyzed data collected during 2000 from 412 members of PLWHA support organizations in Bangkok and three upcountry northern provinces. Most (74%) of the respondents report ever receiving modern medical care for their HIV-related symptoms; 31% report ever using herbal treatments.

M. Vanlandingham; W. Im-Em; F. Yokota

2006-01-01

333

Social franchising of TB care through private GPs in Myanmar: an assessment of treatment results, access, equity and financial protection.  

PubMed

This article assesses whether social franchising of tuberculosis (TB) services in Myanmar has succeeded in providing quality treatment while ensuring equity in access and financial protection for poor patients. Newly diagnosed TB patients receiving treatment from private general practitioners (GPs) belonging to the franchise were identified. They were interviewed about social conditions, health seeking and health care costs at the time of starting treatment and again after 6 months follow-up. Routine data were used to ascertain clinical outcomes as well as to monitor trends in case notification. The franchisees contributed 2097 (21%) of the total 9951 total new sputum smear-positive pulmonary cases notified to the national TB programme in the study townships. The treatment success rate for new smear-positive cases was 84%, close to the World Health Organization target of 85% and similar to the treatment success of 81% in the national TB programme in Myanmar. People from the lower socio-economic groups represented 68% of the TB patients who access care in the franchise. Financial burden related to direct and indirect health care costs for tuberculosis was high, especially among the poor. Patients belonging to lower socio-economic groups incurred on average costs equivalent to 68% of annual per capita household income, with a median of 28%. However, 83% of all costs were incurred before starting treatment in the franchise, while 'shopping' for care. During treatment in the franchise, the cost of care was relatively low, corresponding to a median proportion of annual per capita income of 3% for people from lower socio-economic groups. This study shows that highly subsidized TB care delivered through a social franchise scheme in the private sector in Myanmar helped reach the poor with quality services, while partly protecting them from high health care expenditure. Extended outreach to others parts of the private sector may reduce diagnostic delay and patient costs further. PMID:17434870

Lönnroth, Knut; Aung, Tin; Maung, Win; Kluge, Hans; Uplekar, Mukund

2007-05-01

334

[Adherence to pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment for arterial hypertension and associated factors in primary care].  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted with 385 hypertensive patients between 20 and 79 years of age in a family health unit in Londrina, State of Parana, Brazil, to determine the adherence to pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment for arterial hypertension in primary healthcare and identify associated factors. The adherence to pharmacological treatment was 59%. Regular physical activity was reported by 68 (17.7%) hypertensive patients and 266 (69.1%) mentioned dietary changes. In the multiple regression analysis, adherence to drug treatment was associated with: increased age (50 to 79), consulting with a physician at least once a year, no regular alcohol consumption and previous myocardial infarction. Hypertensive males, with education up to 4th grade and above, who had at least one consultation per year, with diabetes or no history of high cholesterol, were more adherent to physical activity. Dietary changes were associated with education below the 4th grade and consulting with a physician at least once a year. These results show variable levels of adherence to treatment and demonstrate the importance of comprehensive actions in the care for hypertensive patients. PMID:23752542

Girotto, Edmarlon; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Matsuo, Tiemi

2013-06-01

335

Adult day care centers and the treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients: A critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly adult day care services will provide transitional care for Alzheimer's disease patients in mild or moderate stages of the disease. The following small scale studyfinds that adult day care services as transitional care allows patients with Alzheimer's disease to remain in the community for a longer period of care, than would otherwise be possible. The quality of life of

Howard A. Palley; Barbara E. Hanley; Diana Watson

1994-01-01

336

Effectiveness of Alcohol Treatment Interventions Integrated into Routine Tuberculosis Care in Tomsk, Russia  

PubMed Central

Aims To test the feasibility and effectiveness of Brief Counseling Intervention (BCI) and Naltrexone integrated into tuberculosis (TB) care in Tomsk, Russia. Design Using factorial randomized controlled trial design, patients were randomized into: Naltrexone, Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Therapy (BBCET), treatment as usual (TAU); BCI, TAU; Naltrexone, BBCET, BCI, TAU; TAU. Setting and Participants In the Tomsk Oblast, hospitalized TB patients diagnosed with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) by the DSM-IV were referred upon the start of TB treatment. Of the 196 cohort, the mean age was 41 years and 82% were male. Severe TB (84.7% had cavitary disease), and smoking (92.9%) were common. The majority had a diagnosis of an AUD (63.0%). 27.6% reported nearly daily drinking and consumed a median of 16 standard drinks per day. Measurements Primary outcomes were “favorable” TB outcome (cured, completed treatment) and change in mean number of abstinent days in the last month of study compared with baseline. Change in mean number of heavy drinking days, defined as 4 drinks per day and 5 drinks per day for women and men respectively, and TB adherence, measured as percent of doses taken as prescribed under direct observation, were secondary outcomes. Analysis based on “intention to treat” was performed for multivariable analysis. Findings Primary TB and alcohol endpoints between naltrexone and no-naltrexone or BCI and no-BCI groups did not differ significantly. TB treatment adherence and change in number of heavy drinking days also did not differ significantly among treatment arms. Among individuals with a prior quitting attempt (n=111), naltrexone use was associated with an increased likelihood of favorable TB outcomes (92.3% versus 75.9%, P=0.02). Conclusions In Tomsk Oblast, Russia, tuberculosis patients with severe Alcohol Use Disorders who were not seeking alcohol treatment did not respond to naltrexone or behavioral counselling integrated into tuberculosis care; however, those patients with past attempts to quit drinking had improved tuberculosis outcomes. PMID:23490304

Shin, Sonya; Livchits, Viktoria; Connery, Hilary Smith; Shields, Alan; Yanov, Sergei; Yanova, Galina; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Nelson, Adrianne K.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

2013-01-01

337

Hemodynamic and Behavioral Differences after Administration of Meloxicam, Buprenorphine, or Tramadol as Analgesics for Telemeter Implantation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cannulation of the common carotid artery for chronic, continuous radiotelemetric recording of aortic hemodynamic properties in mice is a highly invasive recovery surgery. Radiotelemetric recording, by its continuous nature, gives the most accurate measurements of hemodynamic variables in experimental animals, and is widely used in the study of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The American Heart Association has recommended data acquisition by radiotelemetric recording but did not provide guidelines regarding postoperative analgesic support. We assessed hemodynamic parameters, locomotor activity, food intake, and weight loss in radiotransmitter-implanted CD1 female mice receiving analgesic support during the first 48 h after surgery. The efficacy of analgesic support from the NSAID meloxicam was compared with that of the widely used opioid agonist buprenorphine and the related compound, tramadol. Meloxicam-treated mice recovered lost body weight more rapidly than did tramadol- or buprenorphine-treated mice. Furthermore, meloxicam-treated mice maintained circadian rhythm after surgery and had tighter regulation of mean arterial pressure than did tramadol- or buprenorphine-treated mice. Meloxicam was also superior with regard to food intake, locomotor activity, and limiting variance in hemodynamic parameters. This study indicates that when compared with buprenorphine and tramadol, meloxicam should be the postoperative analgesic of choice for radiotelemeter implantation in mice. PMID:24041211

Rätsep, Matthew T; Barrette, Valerie F; Winterborn, Andrew; Adams, Michael A; Croy, B Anne

2013-01-01

338

Short-term cognitive-behavioral treatment in multicultural primary care of patients with longstanding backache.  

PubMed

The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in multi-cultural primary care patients with longstanding backache is not evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of a four weekly-treatment given by primary care physicians regarding pain-related worry, depression and severe pain and to determine which social, clinical or gender factors were associated with outcome.The study group consisted of 245 patients in consecutive order from 19 countries, 18 to 45 years, entering rehabilitation program because of longstanding backache. Prevalences of pain-related worry and depression and severe pain was counted and compared before and after. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds (OR; 95% CI) for persistent pain-related worry and/or persistent depression and severe pain (VAS ? 50). The prevalences of pain-related worry and depression were both significantly lower after treatment (pain-related worry 83% before vs. 38% after; depression 43% before vs. 31% after). Also the number of patients scoring ? 50 VAS was a little, but significantly, fewer (68% vs. 61%). Use of interpreter doubled the risk of having persistent pain-related worry (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.1) but the risk was not significant regarding persistent depression (OR 1.8; 0.6-5.4). The rating of VAS rating ? 50 after treatment was twice as high, OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1-4.6) in the 38-45 year old age group. To conclude, a focus on pain ideas reduced pain-related worry and depression in these patients with various sociocultural backgrounds and longstanding backache. PMID:23742650

Taloyan, Marina; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Löfvander, Monica

2013-10-01

339

Executive function in preschool children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Although an increasing number of children are born with prenatal methadone or buprenorphine exposure, little is still known about the potential long-term effects of these opioids. The aim of this study was to investigate executive function (EF) in children of women in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT). A total of 66 children (aged 48-57 months) participated in the study, 35 of which had histories of prenatal methadone or buprenorphine exposure. EF was measured using a battery of neuropsychological tests and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Results showed that children of women in OMT perform lower on tasks of short-term memory and inhibition compared to nonexposed children, which was mainly associated with lower maternal education and employment rate. The OMT group scored significantly lower on all EF tasks compared to the nonexposed group, although scores fell within the average range on all measures. The development of these children should be monitored to assess for the possible problem behaviors and to promote optimal outcomes. PMID:25354916

Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

2014-10-30

340

Treatment of mental disorder in the primary care setting in the Netherlands in the light of the new reimbursement system: a challenge?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Different professionals provide health care for mental disorder in the primary care setting. In view of the changing reimbursement system in the Netherlands, information is needed on their specific expertise. Method This study attempts to describe this by literature study, by assessment of expert opinions, and by consulting Associations of the relevant professions. Results There is no clear differentiation of expertise and tasks amongst these professionals in primary care. Notably, distinction between different psychotherapeutic treatment modes provided by psychologists is unclear. Discussion Research is needed to assess actual treatment modules in correlation with patient diagnostic classification for the different professions in primary care. An alternative way of classifying patients, that takes into account not only mental disorder or problems but especially the level of functioning, is proposed to discern which patients can be treated in primary care, and which patients should not. Integrated care models are promising, because many professionals can be involved in treatment of mental disorder in the primary care setting; especially for collaborative care models, evidence favours the treatment of common mental disorders in this setting. Conclusion Integrated care models, such as collaborative care, provide a basis for multidisciplinary care for mental disorder in the primary care setting. Professional responsibilities should be clearly differentiated in order to facilitate integrated care. The level of functioning of patients with mental disorder can be used as indication criterion for treatment in the primary care setting or in Mental Health Institutions. Research to establish the feasibility of this model is needed. PMID:18695748

van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Knispel, Aafje; Elfeddali, Iman

2008-01-01

341

Simulating Patterns of Patient Engagement, Treatment Adherence, and Viral Suppression: A System Dynamics Approach to Evaluating HIV Care Management.  

PubMed

Abstract System dynamics (SD) modeling belongs to the rapidly evolving, interdisciplinary field of system science research. This field adds value to more traditional health research by contributing to the design and testing of complex integrated models of change, to examine health system performance and patient outcomes. Using selected milestones in HIV care management to frame our simulation research, we created a SD model to examine three patient subgroups of women of color (WOC) represented in our multi-site cohort, classified by their health care seeking status at baseline. Asked to reflect on their circumstance 6 months prior to enrollment in the MSE cohort, 53% noted they were receiving some care (In Care, n=341), 31% that they had been seeking care (Seeking Care, n=201), and 16% that they were undecided about seeking care (i.e., answered that they may or may not look for care) for treatment of their HIV (May or May Not Seek Care, n=103). Our SD model compared simulated patterns of patient retention over 24 months in relation to: (1) access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), (2) adherence to ART, and (3) viral suppression. Assessed patterns yielded insights about system capacities and constraints in the context of the SPNS initiative under evaluation. PMID:25561309

Lounsbury, David W; Schwartz, Brian; Palma, Anton; Blank, Arthur

2015-01-01

342

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

PubMed Central

Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%). Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92). Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408 PMID:23150927

2012-01-01

343

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Ninety-nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed in influent, final effluent, and biosolids samples from a wastewater treatment plant employing a membrane bioreactor (MBR). High concentrations in influent were found for acetaminophen, caffeine, metformin, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, paraxanthine, ibuprofen, and naproxen (10(4)-10(5) ng/L). Final effluents contained clarithromycin, metformin, atenolol, carbamazepine, and trimethoprim (>500 ng/L) at the highest concentrations, while triclosan, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, triclocarban, metformin, caffeine, ofloxacin, and paraxanthine were found at high concentrations in biosolids (>10(3) ng/g dry weight). PPCP removals varied from -34% to >99% and 23 PPCPs had ?90% removal. Of the studied PPCPs, 26 compounds have been rarely or never studied in previous membrane bioreactor (MBR) investigations. The removal pathway showed that acetaminophen, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, codeine, metformin, enalapril, atorvastatin, caffeine, paraxanthine, and cotinine exhibited high degradation/transformation. PPCPs showing strong sorption to solids included triclocarban, triclosan, miconazole, tetracycline, 4-epitetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, paroxetine, and ofloxacin. Trimethoprim, oxycodone, clarithromycin, thiabendazole, hydrochlorothiazide, erythromycin-H2O, carbamazepine, meprobamate, and propranolol were not removed during treatment, and clarithromycin was even formed during treatment. This investigation extended our understanding of the occurrence and fate of PPCPs in an MBR process through the analysis of the largest number of compounds in an MBR study to date. PMID:24901615

Kim, M; Guerra, P; Shah, A; Parsa, M; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-01-01

344

Controlled comparison of pharmacological and psychological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in primary care.  

PubMed Central

A sample of 101 patients with generalized anxiety disorder were randomly allocated to one of five groups--diazepam, placebo, cognitive-behaviour therapy, diazepam plus cognitive-behaviour therapy, or placebo plus cognitive-behaviour therapy--and treated over 10 weeks in a primary care setting. All groups received a similar amount of contact with the psychologist and general practitioner. The greatest improvement in ratings of severity of symptoms and overall change in symptoms occurred with cognitive-behaviour therapy combined with diazepam; cognitive-behaviour therapy alone also performed well and cognitive-behaviour therapy plus placebo performed slightly less well. Diazepam alone showed improvement relative to placebo alone. There was a high level of agreement between ratings by the general practitioners, psychologist, and the patients of the response to treatment. At six months follow-up there was no difference between treatment groups in the proportion of patients receiving psychotropic medication after the end of the study. However, cognitive-behaviour therapy, either alone or in combination with drug or placebo, showed the lowest incidence of referral for psychological or psychiatric treatment at six months follow-up. PMID:2081065

Power, K G; Simpson, R J; Swanson, V; Wallace, L A

1990-01-01

345

Cultural Beliefs and Mental Health Treatment Preferences of Ethnically Diverse Older Adult Consumers in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Background Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study applies the Cultural Influences on Mental Health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in: (1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness; (2) preferences for type of treatment; and (3) provider characteristics. Method Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the Cultural Attitudes toward Healthcare and Mental Illness Questionnaire, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1257 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared to Non-Latino Whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Conclusions This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services. PMID:21992942

Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Daliwal, Sanam S.; Alegría, Margarita

2011-01-01

346

Treatment costs and priority setting in health care: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate whether the public believes high cost patients should be a lower priority for public health care than low cost patients, other things being equal, in order to maximise health gains from the health budget. Semi-structured group discussions were used to help participants reflect critically upon their own views and gain exposure to alternative views, and in this way elicit underlying values rather than unreflective preferences. Participants were given two main tasks: first, to select from among three general principles for setting health care priorities the one that comes closest to their own views; second, to allocate a limited hospital budget between two groups of imaginary patients. Forty-one people, varying in age, occupation, income and education level, participated in a total of six group discussions with each group comprising between six and eight people. Results After discussion and deliberation, 30 participants rejected the most cost-effective principle for setting priorities, citing reasons such as 'moral values' and 'a personal belief that we shouldn't discriminate'. Only three participants chose to allocate the entire hospital budget to the low cost patients. Reasons for allocating some money to inefficient (high cost) patients included 'fairness' and the desire to give all patients a 'chance'. Conclusion Participants rejected a single-minded focus on efficiency – maximising health gains – when setting priorities in health care. There was a concern to avoid strategies that deny patients all hope of treatment, and a willingness to sacrifice health gains for a 'fair' public health system. PMID:19416546

McKie, John; Shrimpton, Bradley; Richardson, Jeff; Hurworth, Rosalind

2009-01-01

347

Enhancing and Adapting Treatment Foster Care: Lessons Learned in Trying to Change Practice  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based practices to improve outcomes for children with severe behavioral and emotional problems have received a great deal of attention in children's mental health. Therapeutic Foster Care (TFC), a residential intervention for youth with emotional or behavioral problems, is one of the few community-based programs that is considered to be evidence-based. However, as for most treatment approaches, the vast majority of existing programs do not deliver the evidence-based version. In an attempt to fill this gap and improve practice across a wide range of TFC agencies, we developed an enhanced model of TFC based on input from both practice and research. It includes elements associated with improved outcomes for youth in “usual care” TFC agencies as well as key elements from Chamberlain's evidence-based model. The current manuscript describes this “hybrid” intervention - Together Facing the Challenge - and discusses key issues in implementation. We describe the sample and settings, highlight key implementation strategies, and provide “lessons learned” to help guide others who may wish to change practice in existing agencies. PMID:20664709

Murray, Maureen M.; Southerland, Dannia; Farmer, Elizabeth M.; Ballentine, Kess

2009-01-01

348

Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.  

PubMed

In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile. PMID:23183564

Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

2012-09-01

349

Optimizing treatment outcomes with regorafenib: personalized dosing and other strategies to support patient care.  

PubMed

Regorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that inhibits several kinases relevant to tumor biology in several cancers, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). In phase III trials, regorafenib significantly improved overall survival versus placebo in patients with metastatic CRC progressing after all available standard therapies, and significantly prolonged progression-free survival in patients with advanced GIST in whom at least imatinib and sunitinib had failed. Thus, this agent holds promise as a new standard of care for CRC and GIST patients after disease progression following all other approved therapies. The clinical trials reported to date show that this new treatment has a consistent adverse event profile that is quite different from that of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies. The most common adverse events of regorafenib include dermatologic and mucosal toxicities (especially hand-foot skin reaction, rash, and oral mucositis), constitutional symptoms (e.g., fatigue, nausea, and weight loss), vascular effects (especially hypertension), and gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., diarrhea). To help health care professionals anticipate and manage the adverse events associated with regorafenib, we describe our experiences in clinical trials and show that such toxicities can be effectively managed with close observation of patients from initiation of dosing, along with prompt appropriate interventions, including dose modifications, if necessary. PMID:24821824

Grothey, Axel; George, Suzanne; van Cutsem, Eric; Blay, Jean-Yves; Sobrero, Alberto; Demetri, George D

2014-06-01

350

Human influenza A H5N1 in Indonesia: health care service-associated delays in treatment initiation  

PubMed Central

Background Indonesia has had more recorded human cases of influenza A H5N1 than any other country, with one of the world’s highest case fatality rates. Understanding barriers to treatment may help ensure life-saving influenza-specific treatment is provided early enough to meaningfully improve clinical outcomes. Methods Data for this observational study of humans infected with influenza A H5N1 were obtained primarily from Ministry of Health, Provincial and District Health Office clinical records. Data included time from symptom onset to presentation for medical care, source of medical care provided, influenza virology, time to initiation of influenza-specific treatment with antiviral drugs, and survival. Results Data on 124 human cases of virologically confirmed avian influenza were collected between September 2005 and December 2010, representing 73% of all reported Indonesia cases. The median time from health service presentation to antiviral drug initiation was 7.0 days. Time to viral testing was highly correlated with starting antiviral treatment (p?care provider. Antivirals were started promptly after diagnosis (median 0 days). Conclusions Delays in the delivery of appropriate care to human cases of avian influenza H5N1 in Indonesia appear related to delays in diagnosis rather than presentation to health care settings. Either cases are not suspected of being H5N1 cases until nearly one week after presenting for medical care, or viral testing and/or antiviral treatment is not available where patients are presenting for care. Health system delays have increased since 2007. PMID:23786882

2013-01-01

351

Patient-centered care in cancer treatment programs: the future of integrative oncology through psychoeducation.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT? The reciprocal relationship between the mind and body has been a neglected process for improving the psychosocial care of cancer patients. Emotions form an important link between the mind and body. They play a fundamental role in the cognitive functions of decision-making and symptom control. Recognizing this relationship is important for integrative oncology. We define psychoeducation as the teaching of self-evaluation and self-regulation of the mind-body process. A gap exists between research evidence and implementation into clinical practice. The patients' search for self-empowerment through the pursuit of complementary therapies may be a surrogate for inadequate psychoeducation. Integrative oncology programs should implement psychoeducation that helps patients to improve both emotional and cognitive intelligence, enabling them to better negotiate cancer treatment systems. PMID:25531048

Garchinski, Christina M; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Wong, Raimond K; Sagar, Stephen M

2014-12-01

352

“Stepped Care”: A Health Technology Solution for Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a First Line Insomnia Treatment  

PubMed Central

There is a large body of evidence that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia (CBT) is an effective treatment for persistent insomnia. However, despite two decades of research it is still not readily available, and there are no immediate signs that this situation is about to change. This paper proposes that a service delivery model, based on “stepped care” principles, would enable this relatively scarce healthcare expertise to be applied in a cost-effective way to achieve optimal development of CBT services and best clinical care. The research evidence on methods of delivering CBT, and the associated clinical leadership roles, is reviewed. On this basis, self-administered CBT is posited as the “entry level” treatment for stepped care, with manualized, small group, CBT delivered by nurses, at the next level. Overall, a hierarchy comprising five levels of CBT stepped care is suggested. Allocation to a particular level should reflect assessed need, which in turn represents increased resource requirement in terms of time, cost and expertise. Stepped care models must also be capable of “referring” people upstream where there is an incomplete therapeutic response to a lower level intervention. Ultimately, the challenge is for CBT to be delivered competently and effectively in diversified formats on a whole population basis. That is, it needs to become “scalable”. This will require a robust approach to clinical governance. Citation: Espie CA. “Stepped care”: A health technology solution for delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a first line insomnia treatment. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1549-1558. PMID:20041590

Espie, Colin A.

2009-01-01

353

Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program.  

PubMed

In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2007. Follow-up surveys documented a sustained increase in WaterGuard use three years after the initial intervention. In 2010, PATH (www.path.org) conducted qualitative research on the factors motivating women to adopt, sustain, or discontinue use. To provide context, interviews were also conducted with their friends, relatives, and husbands. Interviews revealed that sustained use of WaterGuard does not necessarily imply consistent use. Most respondents reported switching back and forth between WaterGuard and stock chlorine distributed for free by the government, and many treated water seasonally rather than year-round. Qualitative findings suggest that two program strategies strongly influenced women's decisions to adopt, purchase, and continue using WaterGuard. First, positive, ongoing contacts with health care workers, especially during home visits, raised awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use. Second, an extended free trial of the product overcame initial cost barriers and allowed women and their families to experience the health benefits of WaterGuard, appreciate its value and relevance to their lives, and get used to its taste. Social support-from like-minded relatives, friends, neighbors, health care workers, husbands, and children-was also a critical factor that promoted consistent, ongoing use of WaterGuard. The findings confirm the importance of interpersonal communication in prompting adoption of household water treatment and suggest that consumers assess the perceived value of a product, not simply its cost. Further research is planned to investigate questions raised about patterns of ongoing use. PMID:22051403

Wood, Siri; Foster, Jennifer; Kols, Adrienne

2012-08-01

354

Rectal absorption and mucosal irritation of rectal gels containing buprenorphine hydrochloride prepared with water-soluble dietary fibers, xanthan gum and locust bean gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectal gels prepared with water-soluble dietary fibers, xanthan gum and locust bean gum, were evaluated as a vehicle for the rectal administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride (BN-HCI) in rabbits. The maximum plasma concentration of buprenorphine (BN) gradually decreased with increase in the gum concentration. The values of the mean residence time (MRT0–2) increased in proportion to increasing gum concentration. The absorption

Kazunori Watanabe; Shigeru Yakou; Kozo Takayama; Koichi Isowa; Tsuneji Nagai

1996-01-01

355

Thrice-weekly supervised dosing with the combination buprenorphine-naloxone tablet is preferred to daily supervised dosing by opioid-dependent humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sublingual tablet formulation of buprenorphine combining 8 mg of buprenorphine with 2 mg of naloxone is being targeted for use in settings where less than daily dosing strategies and\\/or prescription-based dispensing will likely be employed. This study determined patient preferences for, and clinical outcomes during, daily and 3-day per week supervised dosing schedules using the combination tablet. Twenty-four opioid-dependent

Leslie Amass; Jonathan B Kamien; Susan K Mikulich

2001-01-01

356

Integrating individual and public health perspectives for treatment of tobacco dependence under managed health care: A combined stepped-care and matching model  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing momentum to integrate prevention into mainstream health care. Three decades of research on tobacco\\u000a dependence can provide insights into the conceptual, clinical, economic, and service delivery challenges to such an integration.\\u000a Biological sciences, cognitive-behavioral, clinical treatment outcome, and public health arenas are selectively reviewed.\\u000a The key conceptual issues are explored relevant to the optimal delivery of

David B. Abrams; C. Tracy Orleans; Raymond S. Niaura; Michael G. Goldstein; James O. Prochaska; Wayne Velicer

1996-01-01

357

Careful adjustment of Epo non-viral gene therapy for ?-thalassemic anaemia treatment  

PubMed Central

Background In situ production of a secreted therapeutic protein is one of the major gene therapy applications. Nevertheless, the plasmatic secretion peak of transgenic protein may be deleterious in many gene therapy applications including Epo gene therapy. Epo gene transfer appears to be a promising alternative to recombinant Epo therapy for severe anaemia treatment despite polycythemia was reached in many previous studies. Therefore, an accurate level of transgene expression is required for Epo application safety. The aim of this study was to adapt posology and administration schedule of a chosen therapeutic gene to avoid this potentially toxic plasmatic peak and maintain treatment efficiency. The therapeutic potential of repeated muscular electrotransfer of light Epo-plasmid doses was evaluated for anaemia treatment in ?-thalassemic mice. Methods Muscular electrotransfer of 1 ?g, 1.5 ?g, 2 ?g 4 ?g or 6 ?g of Epo-plasmid was performed in ?-thalassemic mice. Electrotransfer was repeated first after 3.5 or 5 weeks first as a initiating dose and then according to hematocrit evolution. Results Muscular electrotransfer of the 1.5 ?g Epo-plasmid dose repeated first after 5 weeks and then every 3 months was sufficient to restore a subnormal hematrocrit in ?-thalassemic mice for more than 9 months. Conclusion This strategy led to efficient, long-lasting and non-toxic treatment of ?-thalassemic mouse anaemia avoiding the deleterious initial hematocrit peak and maintaining a normal hematocrit with small fluctuation amplitude. This repeat delivery protocol of light doses of therapeutic gene could be applied to a wide variety of candidate genes as it leads to therapeutic effect reiterations and increases safety by allowing careful therapeutic adjustments. PMID:18334017

Fabre, Emmanuelle E; Bigey, Pascal; Beuzard, Yves; Scherman, Daniel; Payen, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

358

The effectiveness of opioid substitution treatments for patients with opioid dependence: a systematic review and multiple treatment comparison protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Opioids are psychoactive analgesic drugs prescribed for pain relief and palliative care. Due to their addictive potential, effort and vigilance in controlling prescriptions is needed to avoid misuse and dependence. Despite the effort, the prevalence of opioid use disorder continues to rise. Opioid substitution therapies are commonly used to treat opioid dependence; however, there is minimal consensus as to which therapy is most effective. Available treatments include methadone, heroin, buprenorphine, as well as naltrexone. This systematic review aims to assess and compare the effect of all available opioid substitution therapies on the treatment of opioid dependence. Methods/Design The authors will search Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and the National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry. The title, abstract, and full-text screening will be completed in duplicate. When appropriate, multiple treatment comparison Bayesian meta-analytic methods will be performed to deduce summary statistics estimating the effectiveness of all opioid substitution therapies in terms of retention and response to treatment (as measured through continued opioid abuse). Discussion Using evidence gained from this systematic review, we anticipate disseminating an objective review of the current available literature on the effectiveness of all opioid substitution therapies for the treatment of opioid use disorder. The results of this systematic review are imperative to the further enhancement of clinical practice in addiction medicine. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42013006507. PMID:25239213

2014-01-01

359

Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.  

PubMed

Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2013-07-01

360

Direct Care Workers in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: Characteristics, Opinions, and Beliefs  

PubMed Central

Objective Individuals with direct care responsibilities in 348 drug abuse treatment units were surveyed to obtain a description of the workforce and to assess support for evidence-based therapies. Methods Surveys were distributed to 112 programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Descriptive analyses characterized the workforce. Analyses of covariance tested the effects of job category (counselors, medical staff, manager-supervisors, and support staff) on opinions about evidence-based practices and controlled for the effects of education, modality (outpatient or residential), race, and gender. Results Women made up two-thirds of the CTN workforce. One-third of the workforce had a master’s or doctoral degree. Responses from 1,757 counselors, 908 support staff, 522 managers-supervisors, and 511 medical staff (71% of eligible participants) suggested that the variables that most consistently influenced responses were job category (19 of 22 items) and education (20 of 22 items). Managers-supervisors were the most supportive of evidence-based therapies, and support staff were the least supportive. Generally, individuals with graduate degrees had more positive opinions about evidence-based therapies. Support for using medications and contingency management was modest across job categories. Conclusions The relatively traditional beliefs of support staff could inhibit the introduction of evidence-based practices. Programs initiating changes in therapeutic approaches may benefit from including all employees in change efforts. PMID:17287373

McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret E.; Arfken, Cynthia; Miller, Michael; Nunes, Edward V.; Edmundson, Eldon; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Forman, Robert; Laws, Reesa; Magruder, Kathy M.; Oyama, Mark; Sindelar, Jody; Wendt, William W.

2010-01-01

361

Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Sustained-Release and Standard Buprenorphine in Mice  

PubMed Central

Effective pain medication is important for animal stewardship and valid research results. We compared the pharmacokinetic assessments of standard, immediate-release buprenorphine (Bup IR) and a sustained-release buprenorphine formulation (Bup SR Lab) in male C57BL/6J mice, a mouse strain commonly used in biomedical research. We postulated that the administration of Bup SR Lab would achieve a more persistent blood drug concentration (>1 ng/mL) compared with single-dose Bup IR. The study assumed a blood buprenorphine concentration of 1 ng/mL as the minimum that may result in adequate analgesia, as previously reported. The 7 experimental groups included Bup IR (0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 2 mg/kg), Bup SR Lab (0.3 and 1.2 mg/kg), and saline placebo (0.7 mL/100 g). Blood sampling occurred at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h for evaluation by using a forensic ELISA. Bup IR at 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg and Bup SR Lab at 0.3 mg/kg failed to obtain maximal blood concentrations (Cmax) above 1 ng/mL. All other doses (0.1 and 2 mg/kg Bup IR and 1.2 mg/kg Bup SR Lab) reached a Cmax above 1 ng/mL within 3 h after injection. In addition, 1.2 mg/kg Bup SR Lab and 2 mg/kg Bup IR provided blood concentrations above 1 ng/mL for up to 12 h, and 0.1 mg/kg Bup IR achieved this criterion for as long as 3 h. In conclusion, Bup SR Lab at 1.2 mg/kg and Bup IR at 0.1 or 2.0 mg/kg achieve or surpass the published threshold for adequate analgesia in mice. PMID:25199095

Clark, Tannia S; Clark, David D; Jr, Robert F Hoyt

2014-01-01

362

Ertapenem versus cefepime for initial empirical treatment of pneumonia acquired in skilled-care facilities or in hospitals outside the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

The study presented here compared the efficacy and safety of ertapenem and cefepime as initial treatment for adults with pneumonia acquired in skilled-care facilities or in hospital environments outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-ventilated patients developing pneumonia in hospital environments outside the ICU, in nursing homes, or in other skilled-care facilities were enrolled in this double-blind non-inferiority study, stratified by APACHE II score (15) and randomized (1:1) to receive cefepime (2 g every 12 h with optional metronidazole 500 mg every 12 h) or ertapenem (1 g daily). After 3 days of parenteral therapy, participants demonstrating clinical improvement could be switched to oral ciprofloxacin or another appropriate oral agent. Probable pathogens were identified in 162 (53.5%) of the 303 randomized participants. The most common pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from 59 (19.5%), 39 (12.9%), and 35 (11.6%) participants, respectively. At the test-of-cure assessment 7-14 days after completion of all study therapy, pneumonia had resolved or substantially improved in 89 (87.3%) of 102 clinically evaluable ertapenem recipients and 80 (86%) of 93 clinically evaluable cefepime recipients (95% confidence interval for the difference, -9.4 to 11.8%), fulfilling pre-specified criteria for statistical non-inferiority. The frequency and severity of drug-related adverse events were generally similar in both treatment groups. In this study population, ertapenem was as well-tolerated and efficacious as cefepime for the initial treatment of pneumonia acquired in skilled-care facilities or in hospital environments outside the ICU. PMID:17024505

Yakovlev, S V; Stratchounski, L S; Woods, G L; Adeyi, B; McCarroll, K A; Ginanni, J A; Friedland, I R; Wood, C A; DiNubile, M J

2006-10-01

363

Primary Care Providers’ Initial Treatment Decisions and Antidepressant Prescribing for Adolescent Depression  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Adolescent depression is a serious and undertreated public health problem. Nonetheless, pediatric primary care providers (PCPs) may have low rates of antidepressant prescribing due to structural and training barriers. We examined the impact of symptom severity and provider characteristics on initial depression treatment decisions in a setting with fewer structural barriers, an integrated behavioral health network. METHOD We administered a cross sectional survey to 58 PCPs within a large pediatric practice network. We compared PCP reports of initial treatment decisions in response to two vignettes describing depressed adolescents with either moderate or severe symptoms. We measured PCP depression knowledge, attitudes toward addressing psychosocial concerns, demographics, and practice characteristics. RESULTS Few PCPs (25% for moderate, 32% for severe) recommended an antidepressant. Compared with treatment recommendations for moderate depression, severe depression was associated with a greater likelihood of child psychiatry referral (OR 5.50[95% CI 2.47-12.2] p<.001). Depression severity did not affect the likelihood of antidepressant recommendation (OR 1.58[95% CI 0.80-3.11] p=.19). Antidepressants were more likely to be recommended by PCPs with greater depression knowledge (OR 1.72[95% CI 1.14-2.59] p=.009) and access to an on-site mental health provider (OR 5.13[95% CI 1.24-21.2] p=.02) and less likely to be recommended by PCPs who reported higher provider burden when addressing psychosocial concerns (OR 0.85[95% CI 0.75-0.98] p=.02). CONCLUSION PCPs infrequently recommended antidepressants for adolescents, regardless of depression severity. Continued PCP support through experiential training, accounting for provider burden when addressing psychosocial concerns, and co-management with mental health providers may increase PCPs’ antidepressant prescribing. PMID:24336091

Radovic, Ana; Farris, Coreen; Reynolds, Kerry; Reis, Evelyn C.; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.

2014-01-01

364

Supportive care during treatment for breast cancer: resource allocations in low- and middle-income countries. A Breast Health Global Initiative 2013 consensus statement.  

PubMed

Breast cancer patients may have unmet supportive care needs during treatment, including symptom management of treatment-related toxicities, and educational, psychosocial, and spiritual needs. Delivery of supportive care is often a low priority in low- and middle-income settings, and is also dependent on resources available. This consensus statement describes twelve key recommendations for supportive care during treatment in low- and middle-income countries, identified by an expert international panel as part of the 5th Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) Global Summit for Supportive Care, which was held in October 2012, in Vienna, Austria. Panel recommendations are presented in a 4-tier resource-stratified table to illustrate how health systems can provide supportive care services during treatment to breast cancer patients, starting at a basic level of resource allocation and incrementally adding program resources as they become available. These recommendations include: health professional and patient and family education; management of treatment related toxicities, management of treatment-related symptoms of fatigue, insomnia and non-specific pain, and management of psychosocial and spiritual issues related to breast cancer treatment. Establishing supportive care during breast cancer treatment will help ensure that breast cancer patients receive comprehensive care that can help 1) improve adherence to treatment recommendations, 2) manage treatment-related toxicities and other treatment related symptoms, and 3) address the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of breast cancer and breast cancer treatments. PMID:24001709

Cardoso, Fatima; Bese, Nuran; Distelhorst, Sandra R; Bevilacqua, Jose Luiz B; Ginsburg, Ophira; Grunberg, Steven M; Gralla, Richard J; Steyn, Ann; Pagani, Olivia; Partridge, Ann H; Knaul, Felicia Marie; Aapro, Matti S; Andersen, Barbara L; Thompson, Beti; Gralow, Julie R; Anderson, Benjamin O

2013-10-01

365

Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 3. Management and treatment with phototherapy and systemic agents.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory dermatosis that affects up to 25% of children and 2% to 3% of adults. This guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in atopic dermatitis management and care, providing recommendations based on the available evidence. In this third of 4 sections, treatment of atopic dermatitis with phototherapy and systemic immunomodulators, antimicrobials, and antihistamines is reviewed, including indications for use and the risk-benefit profile of each treatment option. PMID:24813298

Sidbury, Robert; Davis, Dawn M; Cohen, David E; Cordoro, Kelly M; Berger, Timothy G; Bergman, James N; Chamlin, Sarah L; Cooper, Kevin D; Feldman, Steven R; Hanifin, Jon M; Krol, Alfons; Margolis, David J; Paller, Amy S; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Robert A; Simpson, Eric L; Tom, Wynnis L; Williams, Hywel C; Elmets, Craig A; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

2014-08-01

366

[The need for palliative care treatment in pneumology in non-malignant diseases--a case report].  

PubMed

A 70-year-old pneumological patient with a COLD for many years, who was using long-term oxygen therapy, developed a complex clinical presentation. During his inpatient course over several weeks we treated severe physical symptoms such as shortness of breath, anxiety and pain. After the transfer to the palliative care ward only an inpatient final accompaniment was possible. In this case the palliative care expertise was integrated too late into the process of the therapy. The delay led to a poorer control of severe physical symptoms such as those named above. Also, the patients request for comprehensive ambulant care could not be realised because the severity of the disease was not detected soon enough. Instruments for the evaluation of the need for an additional palliative care treatment in patients with a non-malignant pneumological disease have not been established sufficiently. PMID:22477484

Nehls, W; Delis, S; Black, N; Gabrijel, S; Albrecht, H; Bauer, T T

2012-04-01

367

Quality Adjustment for Health Care Spending on Chronic Disease: Evidence from Diabetes Treatment, 1999–2009  

E-print Network

Although US health care expenditures reached 17.6 percent of GDP in 2009, quality measurement in this important service sector remains limited. Studying quality changes associated with 11 years of health care for patients ...

Eggleston, Karen N

368

45 CFR 156.245 - Treatment of direct primary care medical homes.  

...Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Qualified Health Plan Minimum...

2014-10-01

369

Placement and Permanency Outcomes for Children in Out-of-Home Care by Prior Inpatient Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This longitudinal study followed 5,978 children in out-of-home care to examine whether placement and permanency outcomes differ between children with and without a history of inpatient mental health treatment. Method: Data were drawn from child welfare and Medicaid records from the state of Illinois. Logistic regression and survival…

Park, Jung Min; Ryan, Joseph P.

2009-01-01

370

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children after paediatric intensive care treatment compared to children who survived a major fire disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The goals were to determine the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children after paediatric intensive care treatment, to identify risk factors for PTSD, and to compare this data with data from a major fire disaster in the Netherlands. METHODS: Children completed the Dutch Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory at three and nine months after discharge from the

Madelon B Bronner; Hendrika Knoester; Albert P Bos; Bob F Last; Martha A Grootenhuis

2008-01-01

371

Affiliation with Delinquent Peers as a Mediator of the Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Delinquent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study evaluated the ability of delinquent peer affiliation to mediate the effects of multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC; Chamberlain, 2003) on girls' delinquent behavior. Method: This study used a sample of girls from 2 cohorts (N = 166; M = 15.31 years old at baseline, range 13-17 years; 74% European American, 2% African…

Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

2012-01-01

372

Validation of the Cancer Care Monitor Items for Physical Symptoms and Treatment Side Effects Using Expert Oncology Nurse Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cancer Care Monitor (CCM) is a tablet computer-based multidimensional measure of symptom burden and quality of life. This study examined individual item validity for 42 items measuring general physical symptoms and treatment side effects. Patients (40 females and 20 males) completed the CCM and a blinded nurse interview. In general, patient self-reported symptoms on the CCM corresponded well to

Barry Fortner; Scott Baldwin; Lee Schwartzberg; Arthur C. Houts

2006-01-01

373

Trop Med Int Health. Author manuscript Implementing family-focused HIV care and treatment: the first 2 years'  

E-print Network

and postpartum women identified as HIV-infected to initiate comprehensive HIV care and treatment for the woman and her family. Main outcomes Between August 2003 and August 2005, 605 HIV-infected pregnant or post-partum. Amongst these partners, 88 (53 ) were found to be HIV-infected and 69 (78 ) were enrolled into the

Boyer, Edmond

374

Oral health status, treatment needs, and obstacles to dental care among noninstitutionalized children with severe mental disabilities in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the oral health status, treatment needs, and barriers to dental care of noninstitutionalized children in The Netherlands who have severe disabilities. The oral health status of 61 children (38% female; 4-12 years of age; M = 7.7, SD = 2.2), randomly selected from seven different daycare centers, was evaluated. Caretakers (n =

Ad de Jongh; Caroline van Houtem; Mariëlle van der Schoof; Gail Resida; Dyonne Broers

2008-01-01

375

Perspectives on Obesity and Its Treatment: Health Care Providers and the General Public in Rural West Virginia and Urban Baltimore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine and compare the perspectives of the general public and health care providers (HCPs) on obesity and its treatment in rural West Virginia (WV) and Baltimore, MD. Method: Surveys were completed in both locations by the general public (WV: "n" = 200; Baltimore: "n" = 171) and HCPs (WV: "n" = 25;…

Menez, Steven; Cheskin, Lawrence; Geller, Gail

2013-01-01

376

Exploring the Effect of Therapists’ Treatment Practices on Client Attendance in Community-Based Care for Children  

PubMed Central

Sustained treatment attendance has been reported to be poor in publicly-funded community-based clinic settings serving children and families. Several child and family characteristics have been shown to predict attendance in community-based care, but virtually no research has been conducted to examine how experiences in care, including psychotherapists’ within-session practices, influence client attendance. The goal of this exploratory study was to examine how observed practice within sessions, in particular the extent to which therapists delivered elements consistent with evidence-based practices, impacts total number of sessions attended, while accounting for an array of other potential predictors. Participants include 181 children ages 4–13 and their parents entering a new episode of care for disruptive behavior problems in publicly-funded clinics. Data sources include administrative billing records on treatment attendance, coded videotaped treatment sessions, and self-reports from children, parents, and therapists. Results indicate that parent education, service funding source, parent alliance with therapist, and therapist experience predicted number of sessions attended; intensity of evidence-based treatment techniques delivered to children was marginally associated with attendance (p=.059). Implications for improving engagement in community-based care are discussed. PMID:22449089

Garland, Ann F.; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Accurso, Erin C.; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

2012-01-01

377

Developing and Implementing Monitoring and Evaluation Methods in the New Era of Expanded Care and Treatment of HIV/AIDS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sharp rise in the HIV/AIDS burden worldwide has elicited calls for increased efforts to combat the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Efforts must continue with the aim to decrease new infections. At the same time, care and treatment services for those already infected can lead to longer, productive lives, thereby minimizing negative effects on…

Wolf, R. Cameron; Bicego, George; Marconi, Katherine; Bessinger, Ruth; van Praag, Eric; Noriega-Minichiello, Shanti; Pappas, Gregory; Fronczak, Nancy; Peersman, Greet; Fiorentino, Renee K.; Rugg, Deborah; Novak, John

2004-01-01

378

Substance abuse treatment and receipt of liver specialty care among persons coinfected with HIV\\/HCV who have alcohol problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association of substance abuse treatment with access to liver specialty care among 231 persons coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with a history of alcohol problems who were recruited and followed up in the HIV-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol cohort study from 2001 to 2004. Variables regarding demographics, substance use, health service use, clinical

Anita Palepu; Debbie M. Cheng; Theresa Kim; David Nunes; John Vidaver; Julie Alperen; Richard Saitz; Jeffrey H. Samet

2006-01-01

379

Predictors and Correlates of Completing Behavioral Parent Training for the Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of pretreatment demographic and clinical predictors of attendance as well as barriers to treatment and consumer satisfaction on attendance at therapist-led parent training with 86 families of children ages 3 to 6 years conducted in pediatric primary care settings. Only socioeconomic status (SES) and minority group…

Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.; Keller, Jennifer; Pate, Lindsay

2010-01-01

380

The History, Technology and Care of Globes: Case Study on the Technology and Conservation Treatment of Two Nineteenth-  

E-print Network

The History, Technology and Care of Globes: Case Study on the Technology and Conservation Treatment the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS HISTORY and smooth as a sheet of steel, being made of an entirely new material, which is unaffected by moisture

Mathis, Wayne N.

381

Rifampin reduces oral morphine absorption: a case of transdermal buprenorphine selection based on morphine pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old male was referred to the Stratton Veterans Affairs Medical Center Pain Service after hospital admission for endocarditis with a history of heroin use and chronic low back pain. During his hospital stay he experienced a reduction in his serum morphine level ostensibly as a result of concomitant rifampin administration. We hypothesize that diminished absorption was from rifampin-mediated intestinal P-glycoprotein induction, ultimately decreasing serum free morphine and metabolites. The case became more complex in an attempt to balance managed pain, history of substance abuse, completion of antibiotic therapy, and a reasonable pain regimen upon discharge. Ultimately, the patient was titrated onto a buprenorphine transdermal patch, the initiation of which was based on serum free morphine and an extrapolated oral morphine dose by calculation. PMID:23216174

Fudin, Jeffrey; Fontenelle, Dania Vanesta; Payne, Annette

2012-12-01

382

Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 5. Guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with phototherapy and photochemotherapy.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory, multisystem disease with predominantly skin and joint manifestations affecting approximately 2% of the population. In this fifth of 6 sections of the guidelines of care for psoriasis, we discuss the use of ultraviolet (UV) light therapy for the treatment of patients with psoriasis. Treatment should be tailored to meet individual patients' needs. We will discuss in detail the efficacy and safety as well as offer recommendations for the use of phototherapy, including narrowband and broadband UVB and photochemotherapy using psoralen plus UVA, alone and in combination with topical and systemic agents. We will also discuss the available data for the use of the excimer laser in the targeted treatment of psoriasis. Finally, where available, we will summarize the available data that compare the safety and efficacy of the different forms of UV light therapy. PMID:19811850

Menter, Alan; Korman, Neil J; Elmets, Craig A; Feldman, Steven R; Gelfand, Joel M; Gordon, Kenneth B; Gottlieb, Alice; Koo, John Y M; Lebwohl, Mark; Lim, Henry W; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Beutner, Karl R; Bhushan, Reva

2010-01-01

383

78 FR 62506 - TRICARE; Coverage of Care Related to Non-Covered Initial Surgery or Treatment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 0720-AB61 TRICARE; Coverage of Care Related to Non-Covered Initial Surgery...medically necessary and appropriate follow-on care, resulting from a non-covered incident...a properly granted Supplemental Health Care Program waiver. This proposed rule...

2013-10-22

384

Provider Perspectives about Latino Patients: Determinants of Care and Implications for Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary care settings are the gateway through which the majority of Latinos access care for their physical and mental health concerns. This study explored the perspectives of primary care providers concerning their Latino patients, in particular issues affecting their patients' access to and utilization of services. Interviews were conducted with…

Valdez, Carmen R.; Dvorscek, Michael J.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Esmond, Sarah

2011-01-01

385

Generalist care managers for the treatment of depressed medicaid patients in North Carolina: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In most states, mental illness costs are an increasing share of Medicaid expenditures. Specialized depression care managers (CM) have consistently demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes relative to usual primary care (UC), but are costly and may not be fully utilized in smaller practices. A generalist care manager (GCM) could manage multiple chronic conditions and be more accepted and cost-effective