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Sample records for care workers focusing

  1. Information needs of health care workers in developing countries: a literature review with a focus on Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pakenham-Walsh, Neil; Bukachi, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Health care workers in developing countries continue to lack access to basic, practical information to enable them to deliver safe, effective care. This paper provides the first phase of a broader literature review of the information and learning needs of health care providers in developing countries. A Medline search revealed 1762 papers, of which 149 were identified as potentially relevant to the review. Thirty-five of these were found to be highly relevant. Eight of the 35 studies looked at information needs as perceived by health workers, patients and family/community members; 14 studies assessed the knowledge of health workers; and 8 looked at health care practice. The studies suggest a gross lack of knowledge about the basics on how to diagnose and manage common diseases, going right across the health workforce and often associated with suboptimal, ineffective and dangerous health care practices. If this level of knowledge and practice is representative, as it appears to be, it indicates that modern medicine, even at a basic level, has largely failed the majority of the world's population. The information and learning needs of family caregivers and primary and district health workers have been ignored for too long. Improving the availability and use of relevant, reliable health care information has enormous potential to radically improve health care worldwide. PMID:19356239

  2. Occupational closure in nursing work reconsidered: UK health care support workers and assistant practitioners: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Michael; Nissen, Nina; Lincoln, Carol; Buus, Niels

    2015-07-01

    In healthcare, occupational groups have adopted tactics to maintain autonomy and control over their areas of work. Witz described a credentialist approach to occupational closure adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the recent advancement of assistant, 'non-qualified' workers by governments and managers forms part of a reconfiguration of traditional professional work. This research used focus groups with three cohorts of healthcare support workers undertaking assistant practitioner training at a London university from 2011 to 13 (6 groups, n = 59). The aim was to examine how these workers positioned themselves as professionals and accounted for professional boundaries. A thematic analysis revealed a complex situation in which participants were divided between articulating an acceptance of a subordinate role within traditional occupational boundaries and a usurpatory stance towards these boundaries. Participants had usually been handpicked by managers and some were ambitious and confident in their abilities. Many aspired to train to be nurses claiming that they will gain recognition that they do not currently get but which they deserve. Their scope of practice is based upon their managers' or supervisors' perception of their individual aptitude rather than on a credentialist claim. They 'usurp' nurses claim to be the healthcare worker with privileged access to patients, saying they have taken over what nursing has considered its core work, while nurses abandon it for largely administrative roles. We conclude that the participants are the not unwilling agents of a managerially led project to reshape the workforce that cuts across existing occupational boundaries. PMID:25989001

  3. "Cloud" health-care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.

    2001-01-01

    Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715

  4. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  5. [Calculation of workers' health care costs].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference

  6. Measuring Group Care Worker Interventions in Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Kroes, Gert; Nijhof, Karin S.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Veerman, Jan Willem

    2012-01-01

    Background: By interacting with children, group care workers shape daily living environments to influence treatment. Current literature provides little knowledge about the content of youth residential care. Objective: In this study, a questionnaire called the Group care worker Intervention Checklist was developed. Method: Group care workers…

  7. The business of care: the moral labour of care workers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eleanor K

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a case study conducted in a private residential care home, this article examines the emotional labour of care workers in relation to the moral construction of care and the practical experiences of work. An examination of the company's discursive attempts to construct, manage and demarcate its employees' emotional labour was carried out alongside an exploration of the carers' own interpretations of, and enrolment in, the care-giving role. The potential economic and emotional consequences of these occurrences were a key focus of the inquiry. The study found that carers, encouraged by the company, naturalised their emotional labour, and that this had contradictory consequences. On the one hand it justified the economic devaluation of the carer's work and left her vulnerable to emotional over-involvement and client aggression. On the other, it allowed the worker to defend the moral interests of those within her care and to see when those interests were in conflict with the economic motivations of her employer. PMID:25601068

  8. Emotional Exhaustion in Day-Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Løvgren, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Although childcare workers have the second-worst occupation for work-related health problems and the number of professional day-care centers is growing throughout Europe, few studies have examined these workers' emotional well-being. This study investigates the effect of position, competence, work role, role clarity, and work tasks on emotional…

  9. Care workers, care drain, and care chains: reflections on care, migration, and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Helma; Palenga-Möllenbeck, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a case study that deals with the care chain phenomenon and focuses on the question of how Poland and the Ukraine as sending countries and Poland as a receiving country are affected and deal with female migrant domestic workers. We look at the ways in which these women organize care replacement for their families left behind and at those families’ care strategies. As public discourse in both countries is reacting to the feminization of migration in a form that specifically questions the social citizenship obligations of these women, we also look at the media portrayal of the situation of nonmigrating children. Finally, we explore how different aspects of citizenship matter in transnational care work migration movements. PMID:22611571

  10. Frontline Workers in Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Penny Hollander, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In this theme issue, 18 articles discuss the motivation for and benefits of working with old and dying people, nursing homes, ethical issues, and the training of home health care workers. Employee recruitment and retention and the economics of health care for the frail elderly are also addressed. (JOW)

  11. Help! A Handbook for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Sue; And Others

    Suggestions designed to aid those who work with young children, in particular, the day care workers, are provided. Following the booklet's introductory material, the following subjects are discussed: Language in the Day Care Center (Crib Babies--birth to six months; Six Months to 12 Months; Toddlers--one to two years old; and Over Two Years); Room…

  12. Quality of Physiotherapy Services for Injured Workers Compensated by Workers' Compensation in Quebec: A Focus Group Study of Physiotherapy Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the leading causes of work-related physical disability in the province of Quebec in Canada. The authors conducted a focus group study with physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation therapists working with patients whose treatments are compensated by the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board with the goal of exploring quality of care and ethical issues. Three main themes were identified: (1) systemic factors, (2) complexity in treatment decisions and (3) inequality of care. Although physiotherapy professionals strive to give these patients the best possible care, patients might not always be provided with optimal or equal treatment. When compared with other patients, there appear to be differences with respect to access to care and types of services offered to injured workers, raising equity concerns. Factors that shape and constrain quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers need to be addressed to improve care for these patients. PMID:25947032

  13. The development of Korea's new long-term care service infrastructure and its results: focusing on the market-friendly policy used for expansion of the numbers of service providers and personal care workers.

    PubMed

    Chon, Yongho

    2013-01-01

    One of the main reasons for reforming long-term care systems is a deficient existing service infrastructure for the elderly. This article provides an overview of why and how the Korean government expanded long-term care infrastructure through the introduction of a new compulsory insurance system, with a particular focus on the market-friendly policies used to expand the infrastructure. Then, the positive results of the expansion of the long-term care infrastructure and the challenges that have emerged are examined. Finally, it is argued that the Korean government should actively implement a range of practical policies and interventions within the new system. PMID:23548145

  14. Paraprofessional Social Workers in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Phylis Johnson

    1977-01-01

    Describes an 8-week, inservice, college-level course for paraprofessional social workers employed in day care centers. Bi-weekly classes, supplemented by on-site observation and consultation, covered child development, attitudes, systems, resources, roles and practice skills. Opportunities were also provided to test roles and techniques on the…

  15. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: Victorian Aged Care Workers Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  16. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  17. "Intent to stay" among paid home care workers in California.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Ruth E; Benjamin, A E

    2005-01-01

    The continuing shortage of entry-level healthcare workers highlights the need to understand worker retention and turnover. This study focuses on intent to stay among 618 paid home care workers in California, half from agencies, and half employed under a consumer-directed model that includes both relatives and non-relatives of the client. Most workers (63.3%) report that they will very likely be working as a caregiver in 12 months, but more family than non-family caregivers say so. Being related to the client, and having fewer clients, more training, more job satisfaction, and hopes for a raise, all predict intent to stay. However, when we analyze family caregivers separately, there are no significant predictors of intent to stay. PMID:16203689

  18. Firearm ownership and health care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, B W; Whitlock, E; Greenlick, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Health professionals have increasingly become aware of the public health hazards caused by firearms. This study was designed to determine the firearm ownership and storage practices of a group of health care workers. METHODS. All 6436 nonphysician employees of a large health maintenance organization were surveyed as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the organization's effectiveness. Two questions regarding firearm ownership and storage practices were included in the 85-question survey instrument. A total of 4999 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 78%. RESULTS. Forty-two percent of the health workers surveyed reported keeping a firearm in their home, and 35% of firearm owners stored that firearm loaded. Men were more likely than women to report having a firearm in the home. Firearm ownership and storage of a loaded firearm decreased with higher levels of education in both sexes. A measure of increased alcohol consumption was related to higher rates of firearm ownership and storage of loaded firearms in men. CONCLUSIONS. A substantial number of health care workers had firearms in their homes and did not store them safely. Counseling regarding the risks associated with easy access to firearms should be considered for inclusion in employee health programs as well as in employee assistance and alcohol treatment programs. PMID:8643818

  19. Home Care Workers' Skills in the Context of Task Shifting: Complexities in Care Work.

    PubMed

    Barken, Rachel; Denton, Margaret; Plenderleith, Jennifer; Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Brookman, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Task shifting, which involves the transfer of care work from regulated health-care professionals to home care workers (HCWs), is a strategy to ensure the efficient delivery of home care services in Canada and internationally. Using a feminist political economy approach, this paper explores the effects of task shifting on HCWs' skills. Task shifting may be understood as a form of downward substitution-and an effort to increase control over workers while minimizing costs-as some of health-care professionals' responsibilities are divided into simpler tasks and transferred to HCWs. Our interviews with 46 home health-care providers in Ontario, which focused explicitly on HCWs' role in care provision, problematize the belief that "low skilled" care workers have little control over their work. HCWs' skills become more complex when they do transferred tasks, and HCWs sometimes gain greater control over their work. This results in increased autonomy and mastery for many HCWs. In turn, this serves to reinforce the intrinsic rewards of care work, despite the fact that it is low paid and undervalued work. PMID:26286959

  20. Interactions and relationships in long term care: photography and narratives by direct care workers.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Dena

    2012-09-01

    The challenge of hiring and retaining well-trained caregivers for the growing numbers of elders in need of care is a global concern. This study was designed to understand the views of direct care workers and included 15 nurse aides and med techs working in an assisted living and special care assisted living community for people with dementia. Each participant was provided with a digital camera and asked to take photographs "to show what caregiving means to you." Analysis is based on group discussions about the full set of photographs created by the direct care workers and individual written and oral narratives about four photographs chosen by each participant. The categories generated from these data represent the direct care workers' perceptions of the approaches to quality caregiving and the relationships involved in doing their jobs well. By focusing on the essential relationships and interactions, rather than primarily on the required care, we can begin to imagine the caregiving experience in terms of a communal rather than an institutional experience. We can then productively turn our focus to the people involved rather than emphasize their roles as providers or recipients of care. PMID:22539061

  1. Death anxiety among emergency care workers.

    PubMed

    Brady, Mike

    2015-07-01

    Death anxiety, or 'thanatophobia', is a state in which people experience negative emotional reactions in recognition of their own mortality. Emergency and unscheduled healthcare workers, such as emergency nurses and paramedics, are constantly reminded of death and therefore of their own mortality, and this makes them susceptible to death anxiety. This article introduces the concept of death anxiety, and highlights the need for staff, employers and universities to recognise its signs and symptoms. It also suggests some interventions that could prevent the debilitating effects of death anxiety, to improve staff's mental health and the care they provide to patients. PMID:26159347

  2. Implementing the role of the primary care mental health worker: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    England, Elizabeth; Lester, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Background Primary care mental health workers are a new role recently introduced into primary care in England to help manage patients with common mental health problems. Aim To explore the views of GPs, primary care teams and patients on the value and development of the new role of primary care mental health workers in practice. Design of study Qualitative study. Setting The Heart of Birmingham Primary Care Teaching Trust in the West Midlands, UK. Method Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews involving seven primary care mental health workers, 21 patients and 11 focus groups involving 38 members of primary care teams were held with six teams with a worker. Two teams asked for the worker to be removed. Six practice managers also took part in the study. Results A number of different approaches were used to implement this new role. Strategies that incorporated the views of primary care trust senior management, primary care teams and workers' views appeared most successful. Rapid access to a healthcare professional at times of stress and the befriending role of the worker were also highly valued. Workers felt that their role left them professionally isolated at times. A number of workers described tension around ownership of the role. Conclusion Primary care mental health workers appear to provide a range of skills valued by patients and the primary care teams and can increase patient access and choice in this area of health care. Successful implementation strategies highlighted in this study may be generalisable to other new roles in primary care. PMID:17359607

  3. Literacy in the World of the Aged Care Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Linda; Casarotto, Nadia

    Australia's Aged Care Act of 1997 mandates a number of key reforms aimed at ensuring consistency in the quality of care and well-being for all residents of aged care facilities. The law required residential aged care facilities to provide high-quality care within a framework of continuous improvement which requires aged care workers to perform the…

  4. Health disparities among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field. PMID:19940090

  5. Toward Better Child Care Worker Compensation: Advocacy in Three States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vita, Carol J.; Twombly, Eric C.; Montilla, Maria D.

    Although the demand for child care in the United States has risen over the past 40 years, the supply of good quality child care remains both limited and costly, and the supply of well-trained and adequately compensated workers remains low. This study reviewed how advocates have moved the issue of child care worker compensation forward in the…

  6. Interprofessional collaboration and integration as experienced by social workers in health care.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Brooklyn; Suter, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration in health care is gaining popularity. This secondary analysis focuses on social workers' experiences on interprofessional teams. The data revealed that social workers perceived overall collaboration as positive. However, concerns were made apparent regarding not having the opportunity to work to full scope and a lack of understanding of social work ideology from other professionals. Both factors seem to impede integration of and collaboration with social workers on health care teams. This study confirms the need to encourage and support health care providers to more fully understand the foundation, role, and efficacy of social work on interprofessional teams. PMID:27007283

  7. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia. PMID:25935206

  8. Preserving workers' compensation benefits in a managed health care environment.

    PubMed

    Dembe, A E

    1998-01-01

    Managed care techniques are increasingly being applied in the workers' compensation setting. Many workers, labor representatives and public health advocates fear that the introduction of managed care into workers' compensation may reflect a broader employer-driven campaign to erode benefits, tighten eligibility criteria, and weaken employees' control over health care and compensation issues. The potential threats to workers can be mitigated by involving them in the design of the workers' compensation health plan and selection of provider organization, assuring access to appropriate specialists and diagnostic testing, minimizing delays, increasing accountability through contract provisions and government oversight, and enhancing communications through the use of ombudsmen and alternative dispute resolution approaches. Additional outcomes studies assessing the long-term impact of managed care in workers' compensation are needed. PMID:9670702

  9. State Initiatives To Increase Compensation for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Montilla, Maria D.; De Vita, Carol J.

    Noting that wages for child care workers are among the lowest in the U.S. labor force and that generally caregivers are offered few employee benefits, this paper summarizes proposals and programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia to raise child care worker compensation. The paper classifies state-level initiatives into two categories:…

  10. Understanding nursing home worker conceptualizations about good care.

    PubMed

    Chung, Gawon

    2013-04-01

    This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach, and the results revealed that direct care workers equated good care, such as resident cleanliness, comfort, and happiness as a desirable outcome of care activities. Good care also meant affectionate, respectful, and patient attitudes of direct care workers toward residents in care delivery processes. Nursing home workers internalized the perspectives of residents and other professionals about what constitutes good care, and then drew their own conclusions about how to balance, combine, and compromise those diverse demands. It is important to communicate accurate and consistent messages about what comprises good nursing home care to nursing home workers and build a working environment where workers' conceptualizations about good care can be executed without organizational barriers. PMID:22936538

  11. Informal payments and the quality of health care: Mechanisms revealed by Tanzanian health workers.

    PubMed

    Mæstad, Ottar; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2011-02-01

    Informal payments for health services are common in many transitional and developing countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of informal payments in the health sector of Tanzania and to identify mechanisms through which informal payments may affect the quality of health care. Our focus is on the effect of informal payments on health worker behaviours, in particular the interpersonal dynamics among health workers at their workplaces. We organised eight focus groups with 58 health workers representing different cadres and levels of care in one rural and one urban district in Tanzania. We found that health workers at all levels receive informal payments in a number of different contexts. Health workers sometimes share the payments received, but only partially, and more rarely within the cadre than across cadres. Our findings indicate that health workers are involved in 'rent-seeking' activities, such as creating artificial shortages and deliberately lowering the quality of service, in order to extract extra payments from patients or to bargain for a higher share of the payments received by their colleagues. The discussions revealed that many health workers think that the distribution of informal payments is grossly unfair. The findings suggest that informal payments can impact negatively on the quality of health care through rent-seeking behaviours and through frustrations created by the unfair allocation of payments. Interestingly, the presence of corruption may also induce non-corrupt workers to reduce the quality of care. Positive impacts can occur because informal payments may induce health workers to increase their efforts, and maybe more so if there is competition among health workers about receiving the payments. Moreover, informal payments add to health workers' incomes and might thus contribute to retention of health workers within the health sector. PMID:20709420

  12. Occupational hazards to health care workers: Diverse, ill-defined, and not fully appreciated

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M. Jr.; Kaczmarek, R.G. )

    1990-10-01

    Health care workers are challenged by an imposing group of occupational hazards. These hazards include exposure to ionizing radiation, stress, injury, infectious agents, and chemicals. The magnitude and diversity of these hazards are not fully appreciated. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic has created additional occupational hazards and has focused attention on the problem of occupational hazards to health care workers. Concern over the nosocomial transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus has contributed to efforts to implement universal infection control precautions and to decrease needlestick injuries. Health care organizations and providers, who have prompted health and safety campaigns for the general public, should not overlook the dangers associated with the health care setting.

  13. Understanding the concept of the key worker: do focus groups help?

    PubMed

    Hull, Ken; Turton, Pat

    2014-08-12

    The concept of the 'key-worker role' within paediatric haematology and oncology services is recognised in the UK through inclusion in published policies and guidance. Such guidance originates from both statutory and voluntary sector organisations. Within the policy direction itself, references are made to both 'designated' and 'non-designated' key workers, and there remains ongoing confusion within the professional field about the exact nature of the process of 'key-working' and how this should operate. This confusion therefore also exists for parents, carers and service users. The project described here aimed to examine the concept of the key-worker role through consultation with users as part of local service development. Focus group discussion was identified as the methodology of choice. Careful planning and delivery ensured that meaningful data emerged. Active participation by those attending the focus group discussion was observed. The focus group was in two sessions, both of which were digitally recorded and transcribed, with contemporaneous notes taken. These were subjected to thematic analysis and clear themes emerged regarding the importance of terminology, communication, skill mix and the use of technology. This local project achieved greater clarity about how to develop the key-worker role to best meet the needs of users through highlighting the need to include both the key-worker role, and the process of key-working. It is concluded that the use of focus groups is both a valid and valuable mechanism of consultation, as user consultation regarding service design and evaluation of care delivered is high on the wider agenda of the NHS. PMID:25119328

  14. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits. PMID:18669179

  15. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  16. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  17. Job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover in health care social workers.

    PubMed

    Siefert, K; Jayaratne, S; Chess, W A

    1991-08-01

    The findings of two consecutive surveys of job satisfaction and burnout in national samples of health care social workers are presented. Between 1979 and 1989, there were significant increases in the proportion of social workers employed in private versus public agencies, in quantitative workload, and in social workers' perceptions of the challenges presented by their jobs. Role conflict and role ambiguity, lack of comfort, and dissatisfaction with financial rewards emerged as significant predictors of depersonalization and burnout. However, a significant increase in social workers' feelings of personal accomplishment also occurred, and high challenge emerged as a significant predictor of sense of effectiveness. PMID:1894206

  18. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lewis L; Green, Nancy S; Donnell Ivy, E; Neunert, Cindy E; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R; Martin, Molly

    2016-07-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This paper outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of "best practices" for this area of community-based care. PMID:27320471

  19. Observations of Group Care Worker-Child Interaction in Residential Youth Care: Pedagogical Interventions and Child Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Geijsen, Luuk; Kroes, Gert; Veerman, Jan W.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care workers within residential…

  20. A Behavioral Approach to Training Day Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivy, Jonathan W.; Schreck, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    Day care workers are not only responsible for meeting the needs of the children they care for but creating an enriched and friendly environment as well. Few daycare centers require any specific inservice training for their staff members. When provided, training typically occurs as a didactic workshop. For this study a multiple baseline design…

  1. Social Workers in Home Care: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Baum, Nehami

    2010-01-01

    In Israel, the government partially supports personal home care services (grooming, feeding, assistance with transfers) as a means to maintain frail individuals in their home environment for as long as possible. Social workers capture a prominent position in these arrangements as initiators and supervisors of personal home care services. This…

  2. Understanding Nursing Home Worker Conceptualizations about Good Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gawon

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were…

  3. Child Care Workers' Knowledge about Reporting Suspected Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Schmitt, Ann

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the knowledgeability of child care workers (n=97) regarding their rights and responsibilities in reporting suspected child sexual abuse. Day care personnel knew significantly less about procedures for reporting suspected abuse and their protection under the law (when compared to child sexual abuse experts). (Author/DB)

  4. Measuring Worker Turnover in Long-Term Care: Lessons from the Better Jobs Better Care Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen Walsh, Ed.; Barry, Theresa; Kemper, Peter; Brannon, S. Diane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Turnover among direct-care workers (DCWs) continues to be a challenge in long-term care. Both policy makers and provider organizations recognize this issue as a major concern and are designing efforts to reduce turnover among these workers. However, there is currently no standardized method of measuring turnover to define the scope of the…

  5. Workplace Spanish for Health Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paula

    This syllabus and curriculum guide were developed for a 12-week course in workplace Spanish for clinical workers at the Claretian Medical Center on the south side of Chicago. The purpose of the class was to provide basic communicative abilities in Spanish to the medical staff---registered nurses, triage nurses, and laboratory technologists--such…

  6. Origin of a Musculoskeletal Guideline: Caring for Older Workers.

    PubMed

    Delloiacono, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    Today's employers are hiring a more age-diverse workforce. As Americans work longer, age-related changes often create activity limitations. Musculoskeletal disorders affect many older workers heightening their risk of workplace injury. Compounded by multiple comorbidities, older workers will need occupational health nurses with expert knowledge to maintain safe and productive workplaces. Older workers do not experience as many injuries as younger workers, but when they are injured, recovery is longer. The author developed and conducted a survey of New Jersey occupational health nurses. The results showed that overexertion injuries are the most frequently treated injuries in employee health offices. For occupational health nurses to keep employees safe, best practices must be delineated; this musculoskeletal safety guideline provides recommendations for evidence-based care of older workers. PMID:27154746

  7. Dissemination and Implementation of Function Focused Care for Assisted Living.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Vigne, Erin; Carew, Allison Payne

    2016-06-01

    Assisted living (AL) settings are residential settings that provide housing and supportive services for older and disabled adults. Although individuals in AL are less functionally impaired than those in nursing home settings, they engage in limited amounts of physical activity and experience more rapid functional decline than their peers in nursing homes. Function Focused Care for Assisted Living (FFC-AL) was developed to prevent decline, improve function, and increase physical activity among residents living in these settings. The purpose of this study was to disseminate and implement the previously established, effective FFC-AL approach to 100 AL settings. Evidence of our ability to successfully disseminate and implement FFC-AL across these settings was established using the Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance model. Settings were eligible to participate if they had more than eight beds and identified a nurse (i.e., registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, or direct care worker) champion to facilitate the implementation process. Setting recruitment was done via mailed invitations to 300 eligible ALs and e-mails to relevant AL organizations. Evidence of reach was based on our ability to recruit 99 ALs with adoption of the intervention in 78 (78%). There was a significant improvement in policies supporting function-focused care and in establishing environments that supported function-focused care, and there was evidence of enduring changes in settings indicative of maintenance. We were able to implement all aspects of the intervention although challenges were identified. Future work should focus on using more face-to-face interactions with champions along with identified stakeholders, evaluating characteristics of champions to establish those who are most successful, and recruiting residents to obtain resident-specific outcomes. PMID:27178495

  8. Teaching the Principles of Applied Behavior Modification to Direct-Care Workers in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brautman, Edwin Jay

    Intended for direct care workers at institutions for severely and profoundly retarded persons, the curriculum focuses on behavior modification skill instruction. Eight lesson plans are presented, with information on topic, content, and teaching methods. Topics include the following (sample subtopics in parentheses): 1) introduction; 2) observing…

  9. Caring for children, focusing on children.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ian; Guichon, Juliet R; Wong, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Two First Nations girls with leukemia received a significant amount of media attention in 2014 and 2015. In both cases, the parents refused to continue chemotherapy, the only proven effective treatment; they opted instead for a combination of traditional Aboriginal healing approaches and alternative therapies offered in a facility outside of the country. One child has died; the other relapsed and required chemotherapy to avoid death. Media reports were polarized, focusing either on the historical legacy of distrust felt by First Nations people when accessing health care, or the need for child protection services to intervene. One article in the Canadian Medical Association Journal focused on the legacy of mistrust and methods of countering it, but did not address the legal and ethical duties of physicians in such situations. The present commentary describes the events, responsibilities of professionals involved and a course of action for physicians when faced with similar circumstances. PMID:26435666

  10. Caring for children, focusing on children

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian; Guichon, Juliet R; Wong, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Two First Nations girls with leukemia received a significant amount of media attention in 2014 and 2015. In both cases, the parents refused to continue chemotherapy, the only proven effective treatment; they opted instead for a combination of traditional Aboriginal healing approaches and alternative therapies offered in a facility outside of the country. One child has died; the other relapsed and required chemotherapy to avoid death. Media reports were polarized, focusing either on the historical legacy of distrust felt by First Nations people when accessing health care, or the need for child protection services to intervene. One article in the Canadian Medical Association Journal focused on the legacy of mistrust and methods of countering it, but did not address the legal and ethical duties of physicians in such situations. The present commentary describes the events, responsibilities of professionals involved and a course of action for physicians when faced with similar circumstances. PMID:26435666

  11. Professional Talk: How Middle Managers Frame Care Workers as Professionals.

    PubMed

    Oldenhof, Lieke; Stoopendaal, Annemiek; Putters, Kim

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how middle managers in the long term care sector use the discourse of professionalism to create 'appropriate' work conduct of care workers. Using Watson's concept of professional talk, we study how managers in their daily work talk about professionalism of vocationally skilled care workers. Based on observations and recordings of mundane conversations by middle managers, we found four different professional talks that co-exist: (1) appropriate looks and conduct, (2) reflectivity about personal values and 'good' care, (3) methodical work methods, (4) competencies. Jointly, these professional talks constitute an important discursive resource for middle managers to facilitate change on the work floor. Change involves the reconfiguration of care work and different managerial-worker relations. Middle managers use professional talks in both enabling and disenabling ways vis-à-vis care workers. Based on these findings, we suggest a more nuanced portrayal of the relationship between managers and professionals. Rather than being based on an intrinsic opposition, i.e. 'managers versus professionals', this relationship is flexibly reconstructed via professional talk. PMID:24326776

  12. Maternal health care focus in Bolivian campaign.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    Maternal health care is one of the focuses of Bolivia's new reproductive health campaign. The campaign, which uses television, radio and print media to get its message across, has the slogan "Your health is in your hands." Prenatal and postnatal care, as well as safe delivery, form one of the campaign's target areas. Others are family planning, breast-feeding, and the prevention of illegal abortions. The Bolivian campaign, which has a logo showing a child's tiny hand grasping a parent's finger, is supported by the Population Communication Services project of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, US. Bolivia has the highest maternal mortality in the western hemisphere. "The need to create an awareness of reproductive health is vital, with the risk of a Bolivian woman dying during pregnancy or childbirth 60 times that for a woman in Europe or the US," according to Dr. Phyllis Piotrow, director of Johns Hopkins' Center for Communication Programs. Further, Bolivia has the second highest infant mortality rate in the western hemisphere after Haiti. PMID:12319470

  13. [Social representations on aging by primary care health workers].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cristina Katya Torres Teixeira; Alves, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Paredes, Maria Adelaide Silva; Rodrigues, Tatyanni Peixoto

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to get to know the social representations on aging developed by primary care health workers. This is an exploratory study involving 204 primary health care workers, in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview. The data obtained from 204 interviews was analyzed with the help of the Alceste software version 2010. The results indicated five classes or categories: vision of aging,psychosocial dimensions, a time of doubts, aging as a process, and aging versus disease, with positive content: joy, care, children, retirement, caregiver rights, maturity and wisdom, as well as negative factors: impairments, decadence, neglect, fragility, limitation, wrinkles, dependency and disease. It was observed that these meanings associated with aging express the need for total and humanized elderly care. PMID:23405821

  14. V-TECS Guide for Child Care Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Ronald T.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers responsible for instructing future child care workers. The competency-based course outline provided covers the following topics: planning activities or programs for young children, performing child guidance activities, performing food service activities, performing housekeeping activities, and performing…

  15. Cultural Support Workers and Long Day Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.; Knowles, Meg; Grieshaber, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, eligible long day care services may apply for support at the state level to assist with the transition of children from culturally or linguistically diverse backgrounds into childcare settings. For staff in childcare services, this support comes in the form of a cultural support worker (CSW). The primary role of a CSW is to build…

  16. Tracing patients exposed to health care workers with tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Zaza, S; Beck-Sagué, C M; Jarvis, W R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following an outbreak of tuberculosis (TB) among health care workers at a public hospital, the study was undertaken to (a) locate all exposed patients and administer tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) to them, (b) provide clinical treatment or prophylaxis to infected patients, and (c) ascertain the risk of M. tuberculosis transmission from health care workers to patients. METHODS: The authors identified all patients who had been hospitalized on floors where health care workers with symptomatic TB worked. The staff of the hospital's outpatient HIV/AIDS clinic notified and evaluated clinic patients who had been hospitalized on those floors. County health department personnel attempted to contact the remaining patients by letter and phone. RESULTS: The authors identified 586 patients hospitalized during the health care worker outbreak, of whom 503 were potentially susceptible. Of these, 172 (34.2%) could be contacted, and 138 (80.2%) completed tuberculin skin testing or other follow-up evaluation. Of 134 who completed testing, 28 (20.9%) had reactive TSTs. In all, 362 patients (72%) were lost to follow-up, including many HIV-positive and homeless patients, who are at high risk of developing active TB once infected with M. tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The reemergence of TB as a public health threat and the emergence of other infectious diseases make it imperative to elicit accurate addresses and contact information from hospitalized patients and to develop better methods of contacting patients after hospital discharge. PMID:9071278

  17. Understanding Burnout in Child and Youth Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barford, Sean W.; Whelton, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations as it has been linked to turnover, absenteeism, a reduction in the quality of services, numerous physical and psychological disorders, and a disruption in interpersonal relations (Maslach et al. "2001"). Child and youth care workers are especially susceptible to burnout as the inherent…

  18. Job Satisfaction for Child and Youth Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Mark A.

    Job satisfaction, which can be defined as a feeling of fulfillment or pleasure associated with one's work, comes from many personal sources but can be nourished by supportive agency practices, daily interactions, and long-term goals. Job satisfaction is important for child and youth care workers because (1) job satisfaction and competence are…

  19. Direct Care Workers' Recommendations for Training and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menne, Heather L.; Ejaz, Farida K.; Noelker, Linda S.; Jones, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Training of direct care workers (DCWs) varies depending upon the setting in which they work and the state in which they are trained. Evidence points to the importance of adequate training as critical to DCW job satisfaction and reduction in turnover. Several approaches have been taken to enhance the training of DCWs with the objective that as job…

  20. Radiation safety for health care workers in the bronchoscopy suite.

    PubMed

    Jain, P; Fleming, P; Mehta, A C

    1999-03-01

    Increased use of fluoroscopy during flexible bronchoscopy has raised concerns about radiation safety of health care workers in the bronchoscopy suite. We review the potential health risks associated with occupational radiation exposure, the monitoring devices available, and discuss the measures to reduce radiation exposure during flexible bronchoscopy. PMID:10205715

  1. Working conditions in home care: a survey of Washington state's home care workers.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, R; Gibson, J W; Weatherley, R A

    1994-01-01

    Home care services make it possible for millions of older Americans to continue living in the community. Such services may enhance the recipients' quality of life while providing essential respite to family caregivers. But while there has been increasing recognition of the burden borne by the predominantly female family caregivers, there has been less attention to the plight of the home care workforce. With the growth of the home care industry, the burden of care has to some extent shifted from one category of female caregivers to another. This paper, based on a survey of 16 agencies and 1,900 workers, examines the employment conditions of home care workers in Washington state. The study reveals a pattern of harsh working conditions, low wages, and few benefits. The findings raise questions about the ethics and efficacy of government policies that are based on the exploitation of home care workers. PMID:10134029

  2. How decentralisation influences the retention of primary health care workers in rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abimbola, Seye; Olanipekun, Titilope; Igbokwe, Uchenna; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Ihebuzor, Nnenna; Aina, Muyi

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, the shortage of health workers is worst at the primary health care (PHC) level, especially in rural communities. And the responsibility for PHC – usually the only form of formal health service available in rural communities – is shared among the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local governments). In addition, the responsibility for community engagement in PHC is delegated to community health committees. Objective This study examines how the decentralisation of health system governance influences retention of health workers in rural communities in Nigeria from the perspective of health managers, health workers, and people living in rural communities. Design The study adopted a qualitative approach, and data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The multi-stakeholder data were analysed for themes related to health system decentralisation. Results The results showed that decentralisation influences the retention of rural health workers in two ways: 1) The salary of PHC workers is often delayed and irregular as a result of delays in transfer of funds from the national to sub-national governments and because one tier of government can blame failure on another tier of government. Further, the primary responsibility for PHC is often left to the weakest tier of government (local governments). And the result is that rural PHC workers are attracted to working at levels of care where salaries are higher and more regular – in secondary care (run by state governments) and tertiary care (run by the federal government), which are also usually in urban areas. 2) Through community health committees, rural communities influence the retention of health workers by working to increase the uptake of PHC services. Community efforts to retain health workers also include providing social, financial, and accommodation support to health workers. To encourage health workers to stay, communities also

  3. Exploring the focus of prenatal information offered to pregnant mothers regarding newborn care in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal death accounts for one fifth of all under-five mortality in Uganda. Suboptimal newborn care practices resulting from hypothermia, poor hygiene and delayed initiation of breastfeeding are leading predisposing factors. Evidence suggests focused educational prenatal care messages to mitigate these problems. However, there is a paucity of data on the interaction between the service provider and the prenatal service user. This study aims to understand the scope of educational information and current practices on newborn care from the perspectives of prenatal mothers and health workers. Methods A qualitative descriptive methodology was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with lactating mothers (n = 31) of babies younger than five months old across Masindi in western Uganda. Additional interviews with health workers (n = 17) and their employers or trainers (n = 5) were conducted to strengthen our findings. Data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was performed using NVivo 8. Results Vertical programmes received more attention than education for newborn care during prenatal sessions. In addition, attitudinal and communication problems existed among health workers thereby largely ignoring the fundamental principles of patient autonomy and patient-centred care. The current newborn care practices were largely influenced by relatives’ cultural beliefs rather than by information provided during prenatal sessions. There is a variation in the training curriculum for health workers deployed to offer recommended prenatal and immediate newborn care in the different tiers of health care. Conclusions Findings revealed serious deficiencies in prenatal care organisations in Masindi. Pregnant mothers remain inadequately prepared for childbirth and newborn care, despite their initiative to follow prenatal sessions. These findings call for realignment of prenatal care by integrating education on newborn care

  4. Promoting the role of patients in improving hand hygiene compliance amongst health care workers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Awaji, Maryam; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the fundamental measures necessary for reducing healthcare-associated infections. The adherence of health care workers to safe hand hygiene practices is low worldwide, despite evidence showing compliance with hand hygiene guidelines decreases infection rate. This project focuses on the role of patients in promoting healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene practices. Several plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles were conducted to test interventions which aimed to empower patients and increase staff members' adherence to hand hygiene practices. The initial findings presented on the run chart demonstrate that compliance among healthcare workers increased with the interventions; there was an increase of 15% compliance during the 10 days of project testing. We will need to collect more data to show continued and sustained improvement. Patients can play an important role in promoting safe care and hand hygiene practices. PMID:27493752

  5. Promoting the role of patients in improving hand hygiene compliance amongst health care workers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Awaji, Maryam; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the fundamental measures necessary for reducing healthcare-associated infections. The adherence of health care workers to safe hand hygiene practices is low worldwide, despite evidence showing compliance with hand hygiene guidelines decreases infection rate. This project focuses on the role of patients in promoting healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene practices. Several plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles were conducted to test interventions which aimed to empower patients and increase staff members' adherence to hand hygiene practices. The initial findings presented on the run chart demonstrate that compliance among healthcare workers increased with the interventions; there was an increase of 15% compliance during the 10 days of project testing. We will need to collect more data to show continued and sustained improvement. Patients can play an important role in promoting safe care and hand hygiene practices. PMID:27493752

  6. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction: Home Care Workers in a Consumer-Directed Model of Care

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Linda; Wallace, Steven P; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate determinants of job satisfaction among home care workers in a consumer-directed model. Data Sources/Setting Analysis of data collected from telephone interviews with 1,614 Los Angeles home care workers on the state payroll in 2003. Data Collection and Analysis Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of job satisfaction using job stress model domains of demands, control, and support. Principal Findings Abuse from consumers, unpaid overtime hours, and caring for more than one consumer as well as work-health demands predict less satisfaction. Some physical and emotional demands of the dyadic care relationship are unexpectedly associated with greater job satisfaction. Social support and control, indicated by job security and union involvement, have a direct positive effect on job satisfaction. Conclusions Policies that enhance the relational component of care may improve workers' ability to transform the demands of their job into dignified and satisfying labor. Adequate benefits and sufficient authorized hours of care can minimize the stress of unpaid overtime work, caring for multiple consumers, job insecurity, and the financial constraints to seeking health care. Results have implications for the structure of consumer-directed models of care and efforts to retain long-term care workers. PMID:20403063

  7. Quarantine, Isolation, and Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Although Ebola virus disease and other hemorrhagic fevers are not generally considered infectious diseases of the nervous system, neurologists may be asked to participate in the management of patients with these and other dangerous communicable illnesses, including possible bioterrorism agents. It is essential for all health professionals to understand the public health, legal, and ethical frameworks behind autonomy-limiting interventions such as quarantine and isolation. Health care professionals represent the front line of defense during public health emergencies. They are often disproportionately affected by the illnesses themselves as well as by the public health interventions intended to prevent spread. The global health crisis caused by the spread of Ebola virus disease has been instructional for examining these ethical issues. PMID:26633787

  8. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  9. Medicaid eligibility workers discuss Medicaid estate planning for nursing home care.

    PubMed

    Walker, L; Gruman, C; Robison, J

    1999-04-01

    This study was part of a multiphase project examining the perceptions of elder law attorneys, certified financial planners, and Medicaid eligibility workers regarding Medicaid estate planning (MEP) for nursing home care. Focus group methodology (5 groups, N = 32 participants) was used to explore the perspectives and experiences of Medicaid eligibility workers, who are responsible for interpreting, administering, and enforcing federal and state regulations. Findings describe factors influencing MEP, enforcement of regulations, and potential policy responses to MEP. Participants identified numerous impediments to effective implementation of current regulations. Recommendations for improved policy include redefinition of spousal assessment policies, other valuable consideration determinations, and penalty period formulas. PMID:10224716

  10. Optimism of health care workers during a disaster: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Boldor, Noga; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa; Rosenbloom, Tova; Shemer, Joshua; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    Optimism has several orientations. One such outlook is a general tendency to regard the world as a positive place, accepting difficulties as mere challenges instead of impassable barriers. Among health care workers, optimism improves their level of functioning, their patients’ satisfaction, and their therapeutic results. Optimistic staff members report feeling less pressure, use fewer avoidance strategies, focus on practical problem solutions, seek social support, and have more trust in people and organizations. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the literature concerning the role of optimism, both in daily life and in crisis situations. An attempt was made to find the linkage between optimism among health care workers during disasters and their active response, with special emphasis on the relationship between optimism and knowledge, feelings or behavior. Based on the literature, optimism was found to be helpful both in daily medical work and in cases of medical emergencies. Optimism was also revealed one of the key components of resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to consider strengthening the optimism through initiative programs. Obtaining optimism can be included in toolkit preparedness for health care workers in order to confront the complications in the aftermath of disaster. These programs, together with appropriate information, social support, professional trust, and leaders modeling behavior, will raise the well-being and enhance coping skills of the health care workers during and aftermath of disaster scenarios. PMID:22461847

  11. Review of Pesticide Education Materials for Health Care Providers Providing Care to Agricultural Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…

  12. Focus on Preschool Aquatics: Child Care Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Nancy E.

    This paper proposes state regulations for the training of child care staff members in developmentally appropriate safe aquatic practices, outlines required features of any pools that children visit, and suggests safe practices for water-related activities at child care centers and swimming pools. The staff training regulation suggestions include…

  13. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future. PMID:16905991

  14. Is it racism? Skepticism and resistance towards ethnic minority care workers among older care recipients.

    PubMed

    Jönson, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the occurrence and character of skepticism and resistance towards ethnic minority care workers among older care recipients in a municipality in Sweden. Twelve representatives of caregiver organizations were interviewed about their experience of this phenomenon. Three additional interviews were conducted with ethnic minority care workers. Representatives described the problem as rare and mostly occurring as language difficulties or as a temporary problem characterized as a fear of the unknown among some care recipients. They tended to apply a pragmatic or pathologizing approach when talking about causes of and solutions to the problem. These approaches enabled care providers to comply with "potential racism" without challenging an official ideology of anti-racism. In contrast, staff of foreign descent described the problem as more frequent and severe, particularly for short-term employees who experience many first-time encounters with care recipients. PMID:17953063

  15. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy; Mtui, Tina; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male) and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only provides better financial

  16. Using the Focus Group in Assessing Training Needs: Empowering Child Welfare Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Janice D.; Verschelden, Cia

    1993-01-01

    Describes an assessment process in a public child welfare agency that included workers as a primary source of knowledge about their own needs. Argues that the use of focus groups (a marketing research technique) encourages high levels of direct input and helps engage workers in subsequent phases of the training process. (MM)

  17. Nurse-managed care for health care workers in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamba, P; Dlamini, M; Mallinson, R K; Williams, V

    2013-10-01

    In Swaziland, the health care system is experiencing severe scarcity of health care workers (HCWs) due to difficult working conditions, migration and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Nurses and other HCWs in Swaziland are personally as affected by communicable diseases as the general population. High levels of HIV and TB co-infection bring added complexity to care. The loss of skilled staff in key positions has had a particularly negative impact on the quality of care and service delivery. The Swaziland Nurses Association (SNA) has established a Centre for Comprehensive Wellness for HCWs in the public and private sector and their immediate families to support the health workforce. PMID:24020598

  18. The Impact of Primary Care: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leiyu

    2012-01-01

    Primary care serves as the cornerstone in a strong healthcare system. However, it has long been overlooked in the United States (USA), and an imbalance between specialty and primary care exists. The objective of this focused review paper is to identify research evidence on the value of primary care both in the USA and internationally, focusing on the importance of effective primary care services in delivering quality healthcare, improving health outcomes, and reducing disparities. Literature searches were performed in PubMed as well as “snowballing” based on the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. The areas reviewed included primary care definitions, primary care measurement, primary care practice, primary care and health, primary care and quality, primary care and cost, primary care and equity, primary care and health centers, and primary care and healthcare reform. In both developed and developing countries, primary care has been demonstrated to be associated with enhanced access to healthcare services, better health outcomes, and a decrease in hospitalization and use of emergency department visits. Primary care can also help counteract the negative impact of poor economic conditions on health. PMID:24278694

  19. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. Methods From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0–10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Results Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Conclusions Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and

  20. Risk factors for nosocomial tuberculosis transmission among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yutaka; Nagao, Miki; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Takakura, Shunji; Igawa, Junko; Yamanaka, Hiroe; Hashimoto, Akiko; Hirai, Toyohiro; Niimi, Akio; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-05-01

    We conducted hospital-based contact investigations of 55 serial sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients and 771 health care workers (HCWs) from 2006-2013. HCWs who made contact with TB patients in the absence of appropriate airborne precautions were evaluated using interferon gamma release assays to identify TB infection. Twenty-nine HCWs (3.8%) were newly diagnosed with TB infection. The 10 TB patients responsible for transmission had a duration of contact of >7 days by multivariate analysis. PMID:26777287

  1. Stakeholders’ Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Shaibu, Sheila; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-01-01

    Background An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana. Method Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data. Results There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service. Conclusions Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved. PMID:26284617

  2. 'We are despised in the hospitals': sex workers' experiences of accessing health care in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Scorgie, Fiona; Nakato, Daisy; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Maseko, Sian; Nare, Prince; Smit, Jenni; Chersich, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Sex workers in east and southern Africa are exposed to multiple occupational health and safety risks. Detailed understanding of barriers to accessing care would optimise design of improved services for this population. In this study, trained sex workers conducted 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with 106 female, 26 male and 4 transgender sex workers across 6 urban sites in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. Data were analysed thematically, following an interpretive framework. Participants cited numerous unmet health needs, including diagnosis and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and insufficient access to condoms and lubricant. Denial of treatment for injuries following physical assault or rape and general hostility from public-sector providers was common. Resources permitting, many sex workers attended private services, citing higher quality and respect for dignity and confidentiality. Sex workers in southern Africa accessed specialised sex worker clinics, reporting mostly positive experiences. Across sites, participants called for additional targeted services, but also sensitisation and training of public-sector providers. Criminalisation of sex workers and associated stigmatisation, particularly of transgender and male sex workers, hinder HIV-prevention efforts and render access to mainstream healthcare precarious. Alongside law reform, sex worker-led peer outreach work should be strengthened and calls by sex workers for additional targeted services heeded. PMID:23414116

  3. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  4. Older Workers: An Opportunity to Expand the Long-Term Care/Direct Care Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwalek, Melanie; Straub, Victoria; Kosniewski, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined issues related to using older workers in frontline jobs in long-term care from employers' and prospective employees' perspectives. Design and Methods: Telephone surveys were conducted with employers representing 615 nursing homes and 410 home health agencies, and 1,091 low-income participants aged 40+ in Operation ABLE…

  5. Five focus strategies to organize health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Linna, Miika; Malmström, Tomi; Torkki, Paulus; Lillrank, Paul Martin

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - The focused factory is one of the concepts that decision-makers have adopted for improving health care delivery. However, disorganized definitions of focus have led to findings that cannot be utilized systematically. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategic options to focus health care operations. Design/methodology/approach - First the literature on focus in health care is reviewed revealing conceptual challenges. Second, a definition of focus in terms of demand and requisite variety is defined, and the mechanisms of focus are explicated. A classification of five focus strategies that follow the original idea to reduce variety in products and markets is presented. Finally, the paper examines managerial possibilities linked to the focus strategies. Findings - The paper proposes a framework of five customer-oriented focus strategies which aim at reducing variety in different characteristics of care pathways: population; urgency and severity; illnesses and symptoms; care practices and processes; and care outcomes. Research limitations/implications - Empirical research is needed to evaluate the costs and benefits of the five strategies and about system-level effects of focused units on competition and coordination. Practical implications - Focus is an enabling condition that needs to be exploited using specific demand and supply management practices. It is essential to understand how focus mechanisms differ between strategies, and to select focus that fits with organization's strategy and key performance indicators. Originality/value - Compared to previous more resource-oriented approaches, this study provides theoretically solid and practically relevant customer-oriented framework for focusing in health care. PMID:26959897

  6. Improving the quality of workers' compensation health care delivery: the Washington State Occupational Health Services Project.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, T M; Franklin, G; Plaeger-Brockway, R; Mootz, R D

    2001-01-01

    This article has summarized research and policy activities undertaken in Washington State over the past several years to identify the key problems that result in poor quality and excessive disability among injured workers, and the types of system and delivery changes that could best address these problems in order to improve the quality of occupational health care provided through the workers' compensation system. Our investigations have consistently pointed to the lack of coordination and integration of occupational health services as having major adverse effects on quality and health outcomes for workers' compensation. The Managed Care Pilot Project, a delivery system intervention, focused on making changes in how care is organized and delivered to injured workers. That project demonstrated robust improvements in disability reduction; however, worker satisfaction suffered. Our current quality improvement initiative, developed through the Occupational Health Services Project, synthesizes what was learned from the MCP and other pilot studies to make delivery system improvements. This initiative seeks to develop provider incentives and clinical management processes that will improve outcomes and reduce the burden of disability on injured workers. Fundamental to this approach are simultaneously preserving workers' right to choose their own physician and maintaining flexibility in the provision of individualized care based on clinical need and progress. The OHS project then will be a "real world" test to determine if aligning provider incentives and giving physicians the tools they need to optimize occupational health delivery can demonstrate sustainable reduction in disability and improvements in patient and employer satisfaction. Critical to the success of this initiative will be our ability to: (1) enhance the occupational health care management skills and expertise of physicians who treat injured workers by establishing community-based Centers of Occupational

  7. 8 CFR 212.15 - Certificates for foreign health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Authorization to Issue Certification for Health Care Workers, with the appropriate fee contained in 8 CFR 103.7... occupational therapy or physical therapy. (ii) Registered nurses and other health care workers requiring the... perform labor in another health care occupation requiring a baccalaureate degree (other than...

  8. Exposure of health workers in primary health care to glutaraldehyde

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to avoid proliferation of microorganisms, cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation in health centres is of utmost importance hence reducing exposure of workers to biological agents and of clients that attend these health centres to potential infections. One of the most commonly-used chemical is glutaraldehyde. The effects of its exposure are well known in the hospital setting; however there is very little information available with regards to the primary health care domain. Objective To determine and measure the exposure of health workers in Primary Health Care Centres. Environmental to glutaraldehyde and staff concentration will be measured and compared with regulated Occupational Exposure Limits. Methods/Design Observational, cross-sectional and multi-centre study. The study population will be composed of any health professionals in contact with the chemical substance that work in the Primary Health Care Centres in the areas of Barcelonès Nord, Maresme, and Barcelona city belonging to the Catalan Institute of Health. Data will be collected from 1) Glutaraldhyde consumption from the previous 4 years in the health centres under study. 2) Semi-structured interviews and key informants to gather information related to glutaraldehyde exposure. 3) Sampling of the substance in the processes considered to be high exposure. Discussion Although glutaraldehyde is extensively used in health centres, scientific literature only deals with certain occupational hazards in the hospital setting. This study attempts to take an in-depth look into the risk factors and environmental conditions that exist in the primary care workplace with exposure to glutaraldehyde. PMID:24180250

  9. New care model targets high-utilizing, complex patients, frees up emergency providers to focus on acute care concerns.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis, MN, has developed a new model of care, designed to meet the needs of high-utilizing hospital and ED patients with complex medical, social, and behavioral needs.The Coordinated Care Center (CCC) provides easy access to patients with a history of high utilization, and delivers multidisciplinary care in a one-stop-shop format. In one year, the approach has slashed ED visits by 37%, freeing up emergency providers to focus on patients with acute needs. In-patient care stays are down by 25%. The CCC focuses on patients with diagnoses that are primarily medical, such as CHF [congestive heart failure], COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], or diabetes. ED-based clinical coordinators keep an eye out for patients who world be good candidates for the CCC, and facilitate quick transitions when their needs would be better served in that setting. Administrators describe CCC as an ambulatory intensive care unit, with an on-site pharmacist, social worker, psychologist, and chemical health counselor as well as physicians, nurse practitioners, LPNs, and patient navigators--enough personnel to comprise two full care teams. While the model does not pay for itself under current payment models, administrators anticipate that the approach will work well under future payment reforms that focus on total cost of care. PMID:24195142

  10. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life. PMID:24295099

  11. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. PMID:25441318

  12. Critical thinking: a foundation for consumer-focused care.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M

    1993-01-01

    Both providers and recipients of health care services are now focusing attention on not only what is provided but also how services are provided. The goal is consumer satisfaction, with pressure on the provider of services to meet customer demands. This shift in focus challenges the knowledge and skills of nurses, and their ability to solve problems in collaboration with their customers. To provide consumer-focused care, nurses will need to develop critical thinking skills that utilize logical/analytical and intuitive/creative approaches to solving problems. Critical thinking skills that integrate these two approaches will provide practitioners expertise in flexible, individualized, and situation-specific problem solving. Nursing staff who are able to focus on the consumer will be better prepared to meet the demands of today's competitive health care market. The challenge facing educators is to prepare nurses with a foundation from which to provide this care. PMID:7646589

  13. What Do Direct Care Workers Say Would Improve Their Jobs? Differences across Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Peter; Heier, Brigitt; Barry, Teta; Brannon, Diane; Angelelli, Joe; Vasey, Joe; Anderson-Knott, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study's goals were to understand what changes in management practices would most improve the jobs of frontline workers from the perspective of workers themselves and to analyze differences across settings. Design and Methods: The baseline survey of direct care workers (N = 3,468) conducted as part of the National Study of the Better…

  14. Work-Life Differences and Outcomes for Agency and Consumer-Directed Home-Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, A.E.; Matthias, Ruth E.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. Research on home-care outcomes has highlighted the promise of consumer-directed models that rely on recipients rather than agencies to arrange and direct services. However, there has been little research on workers employed directly by recipients. This study examined differences in work-life and worker outcomes between workers in…

  15. What Makes Migrant Live-in Home Care Workers in Elder Care Be Satisfied with Their Job?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine job satisfaction of migrant live-in home care workers who provide care to frail older adults and to examine the extent to which quality of relationships between the care provider and care recipient and workplace characteristics is associated with job satisfaction. Design and Methods: A convenience sample that…

  16. [Overview of sharps injuries among health-care workers].

    PubMed

    Gopar-Nieto, Rodrigo; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Cabello-López, Alejandro; Haro-García, Luis Cuauhtémoc; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Sharps injuries are one of the most frequent health-care related accidents. It is estimated globally that 35 million workers are at risk; in Mexico there is no data available for this type of injuries. They are associated with lack of training, instrument and procedure risk, fatigue and stress. The occupational distribution is nurses 45 %, technicians 20 %, doctors 20 % and maintenance workers 5 %. The most commonly associated procedures are injection, venipuncture, suture, and insertion and manipulation of IV catheters. Hepatitis B is the most commonly transmitted agent. Emotional distress is huge as well as the cost of prophylaxis and follow-up. More than half of the injuries are not notified. The most common reasons for not reporting are: the belief that the exposure has low risk of infection, the lack of knowledge of reporting systems and the assumption that it is difficult to notify. Many strategies have been created to reduce the incidence of sharps injuries, such as: identifying the risk of blood exposure, the creation of politics to minimize the risk, the education and training to create a safe workplace, the enhancing of the reporting system, the use of double-gloving and using safety-engineered sharps devices. In many countries these politics have reduced the incidence of sharps injuries as well as the economic burden. PMID:25984621

  17. Health Care Workers Skipped Hand Washing One-Third of The Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158291.html Health Care Workers Skipped Hand Washing One-Third of the ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Staff at many outpatient health care facilities in New Mexico failed to follow recommendations ...

  18. Occupational traumatic injuries among workers in health care facilities - United States, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ahmed E; Tapp, Loren C; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Vanoli, Kelly; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Raudabaugh, William M; Nowlin, Susan; Sprigg, Susan M

    2015-04-24

    In 2013, one in five reported nonfatal occupational injuries occurred among workers in the health care and social assistance industry, the highest number of such injuries reported for all private industries. In 2011, U.S. health care personnel experienced seven times the national rate of musculoskeletal disorders compared with all other private sector workers. To reduce the number of preventable injuries among health care personnel, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), with collaborating partners, created the Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) to collect detailed injury data to help target prevention efforts. OHSN, a free, voluntary surveillance system for health care facilities, enables prompt and secure tracking of occupational injuries by type, occupation, location, and risk factors. This report describes OHSN and reports on current findings for three types of injuries. A total of 112 U.S. facilities reported 10,680 OSHA-recordable* patient handling and movement (4,674 injuries); slips, trips, and falls (3,972 injuries); and workplace violence (2,034 injuries) injuries occurring from January 1, 2012-September 30, 2014. Incidence rates for patient handling; slips, trips, and falls; and workplace violence were 11.3, 9.6, and 4.9 incidents per 10,000 worker-months,† respectively. Nurse assistants and nurses had the highest injury rates of all occupations examined. Focused interventions could mitigate some injuries. Data analyzed through OHSN identify where resources, such as lifting equipment and training, can be directed to potentially reduce patient handling injuries. Using OHSN can guide institutional and national interventions to protect health care personnel from common, disabling, preventable injuries. PMID:25905893

  19. Learning to Facilitate Advance Care Planning: The Novice Social Worker's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla; Bowland, Sharon; Mueggenburg, Kay; Pederson, Margaret; Otten, Sheila; Renn, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Professional leaders have identified clear roles for social workers involved in advance care planning (ACP), a facilitated process whereby individuals identify their preferences for future medical care; yet information about effective teaching practices in this area is scant. This study reports on the experiences of 14 social workers who…

  20. Social Workers' Participation in the Resolution of Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.

    2004-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inherent in every health care setting. A sample of hospice social workers with no direct access to a hospice ethics committee (N = 110) was surveyed regarding ethical issues in hospice care, how the issues were managed, and the extent to which social workers participated in resolution of ethical dilemmas. Common issues…

  1. A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

  2. Substance abuse intervention for health care workers: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lapham, S C; Chang, I; Gregory, C

    2000-05-01

    The Workplace Managed Care Cooperative Agreement project targets 3,300 health care professionals in hospital, specialty clinic, and primary care settings located in metropolitan New Mexico communities. This project will evaluate whether enhancements to existing substance abuse prevention/early intervention programs can prevent the onset of risky drinking, reduce prevalence of risky drinking, better identify employees who abuse alcohol and drugs, and improve employee wellness. This article describes one such enhancement (Project WISE [Workplace Initiative in Substance Education]), implemented at Lovelace Health Systems. Project WISE includes relatively low-cost elements such as substance abuse awareness training, information on how to reduce drinking, and brief motivational counseling. Evaluation will consist of baseline comparisons of the intervention and comparison sites, a process evaluation, a qualitative analysis using focus groups, and an outcome evaluation using health and work records. Methodological challenges, solutions, and implications for researchers undertaking similar projects are presented. PMID:10795124

  3. What elements of the work environment are most responsible for health worker dissatisfaction in rural primary care clinics in Tanzania?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In countries with high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, reliable access to quality healthcare in rural areas is essential to save lives. Health workers who are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to remain in rural posts. Understanding what factors influence health workers’ satisfaction can help determine where resources should be focused. Although there is a growing body of research assessing health worker satisfaction in hospitals, less is known about health worker satisfaction in rural, primary health clinics. This study explores the workplace satisfaction of health workers in primary health clinics in rural Tanzania. Methods Overall, 70 health workers in rural Tanzania participated in a self-administered job satisfaction survey. We calculated mean ratings for 17 aspects of the work environment. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to identify groupings of these variables. We then examined the bivariate associations between health workers demographics and clinic characteristics and each of the satisfaction scales. Results Results showed that 73.9% of health workers strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their job; however, only 11.6% strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their level of pay and 2.9% with the availability of equipment and supplies. Two categories of factors emerged from the PCA: the tools and infrastructure to provide care, and supportive interpersonal environment. Nurses and medical attendants (compared to clinical officers) and older health workers had higher satisfaction scale ratings. Conclusions Two dimensions of health workers’ work environment, namely infrastructure and supportive interpersonal work environment, explained much of the variation in satisfaction among rural Tanzanian health workers in primary health clinics. Health workers were generally more satisfied with supportive interpersonal relationships than with the infrastructure. Human resource policies should consider how to

  4. Front-line worker engagement: greening health care, improving worker and patient health, and building better jobs.

    PubMed

    Chenven, Laura; Copeland, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Frontline workers have a great deal to contribute to improving environmental sustainability of their employers and the health of workers and patients. This article discusses a national project of the Healthcare Career Advancement Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Labor to support green jobs development. Implementation was accomplished through a labor/management collaboration between union locals and 11 employers in four regions throughout the United States. The project developed and implemented a model of training and education for environmental service workers and other frontline health-care workers in hospital settings that supported systems change and built new roles for these workers. It empowered them to contribute to triple bottom line outcomes in support of People (patients, workers, the community), Planet (environmental sustainability and a lower carbon footprint), and Profit (cost savings for the institutions). In the process workers more clearly articulated their important role as a part of the healthcare team and learned how they could contribute to improved patient and worker health and safety. PMID:23896075

  5. Assessing the skills of home care workers in helping older people take their prescribed medications.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Elizabeth E J

    2015-08-01

    The Southern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland applied a modified version of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the skills of home care workers in assisting older people taking prescribed medications. In Northern Ireland, home care workers are care workers employed by health and social care trusts or private agencies. The application of the model has developed the skills of this staff group, improved the relationship between the commissioner and provider, significantly reduced the time spent by community nurses in individual training and assessment, and enhanced the patient experience for those taking medication. Overall, the application of this model has provided assurances to the Trust board, the executive director of nursing, and operational directors that home care workers are competent in assisting older people in this high-risk activity. PMID:26252238

  6. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  7. A new neurological focus in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Sonia L; Glass, Hannah C; Peloquin, Susan; Ferriero, Donna M

    2011-09-01

    Advances in the care of high-risk newborn babies have contributed to reduced mortality rates for premature and term births, but the surviving neonates often have increased neurological morbidity. Therapies aimed at reducing the neurological sequelae of birth asphyxia at term have brought hypothermia treatment into the realm of standard care. However, this therapy does not provide complete protection from neurological complications and a need to develop adjunctive therapies for improved neurological outcomes remains. In addition, the care of neurologically impaired neonates, regardless of their gestational age, clearly requires a focused approach to avoid further injury to the brain and to optimize the neurodevelopmental status of the newborn baby at discharge from hospital. This focused approach includes, but is not limited to, monitoring of the patient's brain with amplitude-integrated and continuous video EEG, prevention of infection, developmentally appropriate care, and family support. Provision of dedicated neurocritical care to newborn babies requires a collaborative effort between neonatologists and neurologists, training in neonatal neurology for nurses and future generations of care providers, and the recognition that common neonatal medical problems and intensive care have an effect on the developing brain. PMID:21808297

  8. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment initiation

  9. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S.; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment

  10. Organizational change, patient-focused care: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, J

    1995-08-01

    Hospitals throughout the world are attempting to improve organizational performance through a variety of means. The focus in this paper is on a leading teaching hospital in Australia for a review of current management strategy. In a time of shrinking resources, management adopted a multi-faceted change management program including restructuring the organization, becoming more patient-focused via a product-line management approach and emphasising efficiency and cost-reduction measures. The next stage in management thinking is to place greater emphasis on patient-focused care. It is concluded this has the propensity to yield substantial further benefits, including improved financial and quality of care outcomes, in the Australian as well as the British and wider Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) context. 'Professionally, we have committed ourselves to creating caring environments that promote healing. We cannot meet this goal until we make a commitment to be patient-focused and give up being nurse-focused or facility-focused' (Kerfort and LeClair, 1991). 'In a customer-driven [organization], the distribution of roles is different. The organization is decentralized, with responsibility delegated to those who until now have comprised the order-obeying bottom level of the pyramid. The traditional, hierarchical corporate structure, in other words, is beginning to give way to a flattened, more horizontal structure' (Carlzon, 1987). PMID:10151089

  11. Intention to leave the job among live-in foreign home care workers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat

    2010-01-01

    In Israel, almost all around-the-clock home care services are provided by foreign workers. Despite the fact that these workers are considered temporary, the Israeli government has acknowledged the need for consistency in care and now allows workers to stay in the country for as long as their care recipient is alive. Nonetheless, there have been increasing concerns about the tendency of foreign home care workers to view Israel as a temporary station on their way to more attractive destinations, such as Canada or England. Using the job rewards and concerns model, this article evaluates determinants of foreign home care workers' intentions to leave their job. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 178 Filipino home care workers in Israel. Only 15 workers (8.4%) reported that they would be likely or very likely to leave their job within the next 3 months. The final model suggested that negative experiences within the home/work environment as well as within Israeli society at large contribute to depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, caring for an older adult with dementia was the only predictor of intention to leave the job. The majority of workers do not report an intention to leave their job. Nonetheless, greater supervision of this caregiving arrangement in an attempt to protect the rights of foreign home care workers within the home/work environment is an important step, which has to be followed up by attitudinal changes within society at large. Specific training in dementia care is also warranted. PMID:20544459

  12. Role of health-care workers in the future delivery of health care.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, L R

    1991-01-01

    There is no logical, linear way to approach a future in which knowledge and technology explode and new opportunities go hand-in-hand with rapid obsolescence. Teams and task groups will replace the vertical command structures of the past, making teamwork, flexibility, and imagination more important that absolute knowledge. Maximum downward task delegation and decentralization will empower workers at all levels while challenging the assumptions of licensure. As the health-care organization grows more ephemeral, management will become an increasingly subtle art. Visionary skills are essential in a dynamic, rapidly changing society where the past is no longer a guide for the future. PMID:1958819

  13. Community Health Workers as a Component of the Health Care Team.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Gunn, Veronica L

    2015-10-01

    In restructuring the delivery of primary care to improve the wellness of a community, every community must review its own circumstances for factors such as resources and capacities, health concerns, social and political perspectives, and competing priorities. Strengthening the health care team with community health workers to create a patient-centered medical home can enhance health care access and outcomes. Community health workers can serve as critical connectors between health systems and communities; they facilitate access to and improve quality and culturally sensitive medical care, emphasizing preventive and primary care. PMID:26318954

  14. Health services research in workers' compensation medical care: policy issues and research opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Buchanan, J L; Dembe, A E; Stevens, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the unique aspects of medical care offered under workers' compensation insurance systems and discuss the major policy considerations relevant to health services researchers undertaking investigations in this area. BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS: State-based workers' compensation (WC) insurance systems requiring employers to pay for medical care and wage replacement for workplace injuries and illnesses were first developed between 1910 and 1920 in the United States. Employers are generally required to purchase state-regulated workers' compensation insurance that includes first-dollar payment for all medical and rehabilitative services and payment of lost wages to workers with work-related illness or injury. Injured workers have variable but usually limited latitude in choosing their health care provider. Employers and workers' compensation insurers have incentives for controlling both the cost of medical care and lost wages. CONCLUSION: The major policy issues in WC medical care--the effect of patient choice of provider and delivery system structure, the ensuring of high-quality care, the effect of integrating benefits, and investigation of the interrelationships between work, health, and productivity--can be informed by current studies in health services research and by targeted future studies of workers' compensation populations. These studies must consider the extent of patient choice of physician, the regulatory environment, the unique role of the workplace as a risk and modifying factor, and the complex interaction between health and disability insurance benefits. PMID:10199686

  15. Attitudes and perceptions of health care workers in Northeastern Germany about multidrug-resistant organisms.

    PubMed

    Marschall, P; Hübner, N-O; Maletzki, S; Wilke, F; Dittmann, K; Kramer, A

    2016-06-01

    There were 256 health care workers in 39 facilities who were interviewed about their perceptions of the quality of care of patients with and without multidrug-resistant organisms based on a standardized questionnaire. There are remarkable differences in the responses between facility types (acute care hospitals, long-term care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, and home care services). Hygiene management must be specifically tailored to the requirements of each facility. PMID:26897700

  16. Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi. Methods A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention. Results The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors. Conclusions There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect

  17. Burnout and use of HIV services among health care workers in Lusaka District, Zambia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Gina R; Chapula, Bushimbwa Tambatamba; Ikeda, Scott; Nkhoma, Mavis; Quiterio, Nicole; Pankratz, Debra; Mataka, Kaluba; Chi, Benjamin H; Bond, Virginia; Reid, Stewart E

    2009-01-01

    Background Well-documented shortages of health care workers in sub-Saharan Africa are exacerbated by the increased human resource demands of rapidly expanding HIV care and treatment programmes. The successful continuation of existing programmes is threatened by health care worker burnout and HIV-related illness. Methods From March to June 2007, we studied occupational burnout and utilization of HIV services among health providers in the Lusaka public health sector. Providers from 13 public clinics were given a 36-item, self-administered questionnaire and invited for focus group discussions and key-informant interviews. Results Some 483 active clinical staff completed the questionnaire (84% response rate), 50 staff participated in six focus groups, and four individuals gave interviews. Focus group participants described burnout as feeling overworked, stressed and tired. In the survey, 51% reported occupational burnout. Risk factors were having another job (RR 1.4 95% CI 1.2–1.6) and knowing a co-worker who left in the last year (RR 1.6 95% CI 1.3–2.2). Reasons for co-worker attrition included: better pay (40%), feeling overworked or stressed (21%), moving away (16%), death (8%) and illness (5%). When asked about HIV testing, 370 of 456 (81%) reported having tested; 240 (50%) tested in the last year. In contrast, discussion groups perceived low testing rates. Both discussion groups and survey respondents identified confidentiality as the prime reason for not undergoing HIV testing. Conclusion In Lusaka primary care clinics, overwork, illness and death were common reasons for attrition. Programmes to improve access, acceptability and confidentiality of health care services for clinical providers and to reduce workplace stress could substantially affect workforce stability. PMID:19594917

  18. Evaluation Results & Final Report for the Preservice Training for Child Care Workers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah L.; Gramann, Jacqueline A.

    Recent changes such as declining economic status of families and large-scale employment of women have resulted in increased utilization of child care services and the need for qualified child care providers. This study evaluated the Preservice Training for Child Care Workers programs' ability to meet the training needs of rural Texas child care…

  19. 8 CFR 1212.15 - Certificates for foreign health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificates for foreign health care... CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.15 Certificates for foreign health care workers. (a... coming to the United States for the primary purpose of performing labor in a health care...

  20. Quality of care provided by mid-level health workers: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Zohra S; Cometto, Giorgio; Huicho, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers. Methods Experimental and observational studies comparing mid-level health workers and higher level health workers were identified by a systematic review of the scientific literature. The quality of the evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria and data were analysed using Review Manager. Findings Fifty-three studies, mostly from high-income countries and conducted at tertiary care facilities, were identified. In general, there was no difference between the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers in the areas of maternal and child health and communicable and noncommunicable diseases and that provided by higher level health workers. However, the rates of episiotomy and analgesia use were significantly lower in women giving birth who received care from midwives alone than in those who received care from doctors working in teams with midwives, and women were significantly more satisfied with care from midwives. Overall, the quality of the evidence was low or very low. The search also identified six observational studies, all from Africa, that compared care from clinical officers, surgical technicians or non-physician clinicians with care from doctors. Outcomes were generally similar. Conclusion No difference between the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers and that provided by higher level health workers was found. However, the quality of the evidence was low. There is a need for studies with a high methodological quality, particularly in Africa – the region with the greatest shortage of health workers. PMID:24347706

  1. An outbreak of hepatitis A among health care workers: risk factors for transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Doebbeling, B N; Li, N; Wenzel, R P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to investigate a nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in the burn treatment center of a referral hospital. METHODS. Retrospective cohort and case-control studies were performed to determine acquisition rates and risk factors for transmission. Adjusted infection rates were calculated by week of exposure. A case-control study was conducted to determine potential mechanisms for nosocomial acquisition. Recently infected health care workers were defined as case patients; exposed, serosusceptible health care workers without infection served as controls. RESULTS. The outbreak of hepatitis A affected 11 health care workers and 1 other burn patient (1 secondary patient case). All 11 health care workers became ill after the admission of a man and his 8-month-old son who developed hepatitis A while in the hospital. The cumulative incidence risk ratio was elevated for health care workers caring for either the infant or the father during the same week of exposure. The case-control study implicated the behavior of eating on the hospital ward as the single most important risk factor for infection. CONCLUSION. Inadequate hand-washing and subsequent oral contamination appear responsible for the outbreak. Hospitals may witness other institutional outbreaks if health care workers regularly eat on the wards. PMID:8259794

  2. A Survey of the Asthma Knowledge and Practices of Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramm, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the asthma knowledge and practices of 247 child-care workers in southwestern Sydney. Two hundred and twelve (86 percent) correctly identified a persistent cough as the predominant symptom of childhood asthma, with wheezing (98 percent) being the response chosen most often. Nearly 50 percent of workers had used a nebulizer and/or a…

  3. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  4. Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction among Residential Child Care Workers: The Role of Personality Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerach, Gadi

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed compassion fatigue (CF) and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli residential child-care workers (RCWs) working in residential treatment facilities for children and youth at risk (N = 147) as compared to educational boarding schools workers (BSWs; N = 74). Furthermore, we assessed the relationship of potential…

  5. Expanding the Role of Nurse Practitioners: Effects on Rural Access to Care for Injured Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jeanne M.; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Franklin, Gary M.; Cheadle, Allen D.; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2008-01-01

    Context: A 3-year pilot program to expand the role of nurse practitioners (NPs) in the Washington State workers' compensation system was implemented in 2004 (SHB 1691), amid concern about disparities in access to health care for injured workers in rural areas. SHB 1691 authorized NPs to independently perform most functions of an attending…

  6. Knowledge of Evidence-Based Urinary Catheter Care Practice Recommendations Among Healthcare Workers in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Saint, Sanjay; Galecki, Andrzej; Chen, Shu; Krein, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the knowledge of recommended urinary catheter care practices among nursing home (NH) healthcare workers (HCWs) in Southeast Michigan. Design A self-administered survey. Setting Seven nursing homes in Southeast Michigan. Participants Three hundred and fifty-six healthcare workers. Methods An anonymous, self-administered survey of HCWs (nurses & nurse aides) in seven NHs in 2006. The survey included questions about respondent characteristics and knowledge about indications, care, and personal hygiene pertaining to urinary catheters. The association of knowledge measures with occupation (nurses vs. aides) was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Results A total of 356 of 440 HCWs (81%) responded. Over 90% of HCWs were aware of measures such as cleaning around the catheter daily, glove use, and hand hygiene with catheter manipulation. They were less aware of research-proven recommendations of not disconnecting the catheter from its bag (59% nurses vs. 30% aides, P < .001), not routinely irrigating the catheter (48% nurses vs. 8% aides, P < .001), and hand hygiene even after casual contact (60% nurses vs. 69% aides, P = .07). HCWs were also unaware of recommendations regarding alcohol-based handrub (27% nurses & 32% aides with correct responses, P = .38). HCWs reported sources, both informal (such as nurse supervisors) and formal (in-services), of knowledge about catheter care. Conclusion Wide discrepancies remain between research-proven recommendations pertaining to urinary catheter care and HCWs' knowledge. Nurses and aides differ in their knowledge of recommendations against harmful practices, such as disconnecting the catheter from the bag and routinely irrigating catheters. Further research should focus on strategies to enhance dissemination of proven infection control practices in NHs. PMID:20662957

  7. Providing care for migrant farm worker families in their unique sociocultural context and environment.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Layne, Laura; Thomisee, Karen

    2010-04-01

    This article highlights the Farm Worker Family Health Program's (FWFHP) strategies for providing care to migrant farm workers residing within a unique social and cultural context. The care provided by health professions students from a variety of disciplines extends and augments the work of the local migrant farm worker clinic that is pushed beyond capacity during peak growing and harvest times. Nursing's social responsibility to care for underserved populations is a guiding principle of the FWFHP and shapes how the work is translated into action. The FWFHP is a community-academic partnership that began in the rural southeastern United States in 1993. Challenges facing migrant farm worker families include access to health care, language, health literacy, housing and sanitation, family and community integrity, and workplace safety. The nursing practice strategies used to address these health challenges may be adapted to strengthen health programs serving other populations who live in poverty or reside in low-resource settings. PMID:20301816

  8. Structural barriers to receiving health care services for female sex workers in Russia.

    PubMed

    King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne

    2013-08-01

    Female sex workers in Russia have been particularly vulnerable to recent social, political, and economic changes. In this article, we describe the facilitators and barriers for sex workers receiving health care services in St. Petersburg, Russia. We conducted observations at medical institutions and nongovernmental organizations and in-depth interviews with 29 female sex workers. We identified the following barriers: poverty, not having documents, lack of anonymity in testing, and the official registration system. We identified the following facilitators: intervention by family members, social connections within the health care system, and referral services from a nongovernmental organization. Our findings indicate a need for reassessing policies and designing programs that better facilitate the use of health care services for the most vulnerable populations. This should include the expansion of support systems and outreach services designed to help female sex workers navigate the health care system. PMID:23774627

  9. Reports of work related musculoskeletal injury among home care service workers compared with nursery school workers and the general population of employed women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Lindén, A; Malker, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To describe the nationwide occurrence of work related musculoskeletal injuries among all home care service workers in Sweden, and to identify relative risks and risk factors of the injuries. METHODS--The study was based on work related injuries reported to the Swedish occupational injury information system in 1990-1. The work related musculoskeletal injuries were divided into overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases. The incidence of the injuries in female home care service workers was compared with those in nursery school workers and all other employed women in Sweden. RESULTS--In home care service workers, the annual incidence of injury from overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases were 19.2 and 15.1 per 1000 workers, respectively, which was higher than those in nursery school workers and all employed women in Sweden. For five injury locations including the back, all the age standardised relative risks (SRR) of overexertion accidents exceeded 4.0, and most of those for musculoskeletal diseases were 1.5 or more in home care service workers compared with all other employed women in Sweden. Total duration of sick leave due to overexertion accidents was 7.7 times, and musculoskeletal diseases 3.5 times, longer than in nursery school workers. National loss due to sick leave resulting from only musculoskeletal injuries in home care service workers was about 8.2% of the total work related sick leave in all employed women in Sweden, although the number of home care service workers represented only some 5% of this population. Lifting other people was most frequently reported as the main risk cause of overexertion accidents in both kinds of workers. CONCLUSIONS--The results support the hypothesis that home care service workers have higher annual injury incidence of musculoskeletal injuries than nursery school workers due to physically stressful tasks that are far less common in nursery school workers. PMID:7489060

  10. Systematic Review of Control Measures to Reduce Hazardous Drug Exposure for Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Crickman, Rachael; Finnell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Because of their involvement in the transport, handling, preparation, administration, or disposal of hazardous medications, health care workers across multiple settings are at risk for adverse health consequences from exposure to these drugs. This review presents evidence-based strategies to mitigate the harmful exposures. These include engineering controls, full use of personal protective equipment, medical and environmental monitoring, hazard identification, and the need for a comprehensive hazardous drug control program that includes education and training for health care workers. PMID:26417920

  11. Reforming emergency care: Experts put focus on value, better alignment.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    While most healthcare reforms have thus far been focused outside of the ED, they nonetheless have big implications for emergency providers, according to a panel of experts who discussed the future of emergency care at a conference sponsored by the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC. Going forward, the experts noted that emergency providers need to engage on how to most-effectively deliver higher value while also achieving better alignment with primary care providers. And they highlighted reforms that are already delivering results in pioneering EDs. Through the use of high-risk care plans, a specialized protocol for chest pain, and other reforms, the ED at the University of Maryland Upper Chesapeake Health System, based in Bel Air, MD, has been able to prevent more than 500 hospital admissions in the past year. Working with partners, emergency physicians in Washington state have managed to save the state more than $32 million while also slashing narcotic prescribing to Medicaid recipients by 24%. Their interventions include a prescription drug monitoring program, a mechanism for information sharing on key data points, and the development of care plans for frequent ED utilizers. A program called Bridges to Care in Denver, CO, has thus far been able to reduce ED and hospital utilization among frequent utilizers by 40%, generating $2 million in cost-savings to the health care system. The program focuses on identifying the key drivers of utilization, and then addressing these drivers with interventions. Program developers say connecting with patients while they are still in the ED, as opposed to making follow-up phone calls, is key to the program's success. PMID:26131537

  12. Incentives and barriers regarding immunization against influenza and hepatitis of health care workers.

    PubMed

    FitzSimons, David; Hendrickx, Greet; Lernout, Tinne; Badur, Selim; Vorsters, Alex; Van Damme, Pierre

    2014-08-27

    A meeting of the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board in Barcelona in November 2012 brought together health care professionals concerned with viral hepatitis and those concerned with other vaccine-preventable diseases (especially influenza) in order to share experiences and find ways to increase the protection of health care workers through vaccination. Despite the existence of numerous intergovernmental and national resolutions, recommendations or published guidelines, vaccine uptake rates in health care workers are often shockingly low and campaigns to increase those rates have been generally unsuccessful. Participants reviewed the numerous incentives and barriers to vaccine uptake. Reasons for low uptake range from lack of commitment by senior management of health facilities and unclear policies to lack of knowledge, and denial of risk. Positive factors included leadership, involvement of all concerned parties, reminders and peer pressure. Innovative approaches, including the use of social media, are needed. It was concluded that strategies should be modified appropriately to reach specific health care worker populations at risk and that policies for preventing infection of health care workers could include obligatory health checks to determine vaccination status or immunity. Further, mandatory vaccination of health care workers may be the only effective means in order to achieve high vaccination coverage rates. Suggested possible future activities included: refurbishment of the image of the occupation health profession; resolving the logistical problems of administering vaccine; elaborating policy on managing health care workers who have been vaccinated against hepatitis B at birth or in early childhood and who are now starting to work in the health professions; and embedding and applying policies on vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases in all health care facilities and training institutions. Above all, national action plans need to be written, with the

  13. 75 FR 5147 - Corning, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Corning, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Pro..., Inc., including on-site leased workers from Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care, and Computer... follows: All workers of Corning, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Adecco, Pro...

  14. Outreach services to improve access to health care in South Africa: lessons from three community health worker programmes

    PubMed Central

    Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW) programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO), a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods The comparative case studies, located in Eastern Cape and Gauteng, were investigated using qualitative methods. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors that constrain and enable outreach services to improve access to care. Results The local satellite (of a national NGO), successful in addressing multi-dimensional barriers to care, provided CHWs with continuous training focused on the social determinants of ill-health, regular context-related supervision, and resources such as travel and cell-phone allowances. These workers engaged with, and linked their clients to, agencies in a wide range of sectors. Relationships with participatory structures at community level stimulated coordinated responses from service providers. In contrast, an absence of these elements curtailed the ability of CHWs in the small NGO and government-initiated service to provide effective outreach services or to improve access to care. Conclusion Significant investment in resources, training, and support can enable CHWs to address barriers to care by negotiating with poorly functioning government services and community participation structures. PMID:23364101

  15. Predictors of Ethical Stress, Moral Action and Job Satisfaction in Health Care Social Workers

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Patricia; Farrar, Adrienne; BrintzenhofeSzoc, Karlynn; Conrad, Ann Patrick; Danis, Marion; Grady, Christine; Taylor, Carol; Ulrich, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Value conflicts can be a source of ethical stress for social workers in health care settings. That stress, unless mediated by the availability of ethical resource services, can lead to social workers' dissatisfaction with their positions and careers, and possibly result in needed professionals leaving the field. This study explored social workers' experiences in dealing with ethical issues in health care settings. Findings showed the inter-relationship between selected individual and organizational factors and overall ethical stress, the ability to take moral actions, the impact of ethical stress on job satisfaction, and the intent to leave position. PMID:18551828

  16. Risk factors of tuberculosis among health care workers in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jelip, Jenarun; Mathew, George G; Yusin, Tanrang; Dony, Jiloris F; Singh, Nirmal; Ashaari, Musa; Lajanin, Noitie; Shanmuga Ratnam, C; Yusof Ibrahim, Mohd; Gopinath, Deyer

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main public health problems in Sabah; 30% of the total number of TB cases reported in Malaysia every year occur in Sabah. The average incidence of TB among health care workers over the past 5 years is 280.4 per 100,000 population (1, Annual Report of Sabah State TB Control Programme, 1998). At present, there are no specific measures for the prevention of TB transmission in health care facilities. A case-control study was conducted among health care workers in Sabah in 2000-2001. Cases were health care workers with TB diagnosed between January 1990 and June 2000. Controls were health care workers without TB and working in the same facility as cases during the disease episode. The study attempted to identify risk factors for TB among the study population. Data were collected through structured interviews and review of patients' records. The notification rate of TB among health care workers was significantly higher than that to the general population (Z=4.893, p<0.01). The average notification rate of TB among health care workers over the last 5 years was two times higher than in the general population (280.4/100,000 compared to 153.9/100,000). Regression results showed that ethnicity, designation, family contact and TB related knowledge did not significantly contribute to the risk of contracting TB in this study. However, after controlling for the above factors, age, gender, history of TB contact outside the workplace (other than family contact), duration of service and failure to use respiratory protection when performing high-risk procedures, were the main risk factors of TB among health care workers. This study succeeded in identifying some of the risk factors of TB among health care workers. We managed to include the large ratio of controls to case (3:1) and those cases spanned over a period of 10 years. However, the findings from the study have to be applied with caution due to the limitations of this study, which include recall

  17. Parallel payers and preferred access: how Canada's Workers' Compensation Boards expedite care for injured and ill workers.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Pasic, Dianna; Lavis, John N; Culyer, Anthony J; Mustard, Cameron; Gnam, William

    2008-01-01

    Canada's workers' compensation boards (WCBs) finance healthcare for injured and ill workers in parallel with provincial health insurance plans. Parallel systems of healthcare finance can create preferred access for some. WCBs have in recent years pursued a number of strategies to expedite or improve the quality of care for injured or ill workers, including in-house provision in WCB-owned facilities; contracting with private, for-profit clinics; contracting with publicly funded hospitals and clinics for use of facilities "off-hours"; and supporting specialized clinics within publicly funded hospitals. Many of these strategies incorporate incentive payments to physicians and facilities for treating WCB cases more quickly than patients covered by provincial plans. In this paper we document the development of these strategies and discuss their implications for physicians, patients, government and the provincial public insurance plans. PMID:18493170

  18. Nonfatal Occupational Falls Among U.S. Health Care Workers, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Han T.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Wu, Xuefang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antecedents and characteristics of nonfatal fall-related injuries among health care workers in the United States. A special request was made for the Bureau of Labor Statistics to obtain nonfatal fall-related injury data from 2008 to 2010. Overall, workers in the nursing-related profession had the highest percentages of workplace fall-related injuries. Ninety-one percent of these injured workers were female, and more than 50% were between the ages of 45 and 64 years. More than 25% of fall injuries resulted in 31 or more workdays being lost. This study indicated that the most affected body parts were the lower extremities, with most injuries resulting in sprains, strains, and tears. Accordingly, this 3-year study revealed that a high number of fall injuries occurred at night for health care workers compared to other workers in the U.S. private sector. PMID:23281604

  19. The experiences of risk managers in providing emotional support for health care workers after adverse events.

    PubMed

    Edrees, Hanan; Brock, Douglas M; Wu, Albert W; McCotter, Patricia I; Hofeldt, Ron; Shannon, Sarah E; Gallagher, Thomas H; White, Andrew A

    2016-04-01

    Risk managers often meet with health care workers who are emotionally traumatized following adverse events. We surveyed members of the American Society for Health care Risk Management (ASHRM) about their training, experience, competence, and comfort with providing emotional support to health care workers. Although risk managers reported feeling comfortable and competent in providing support, nearly all respondents prefer to receive additional training. Risk managers who were comfortable listening to and supporting health care workers were more likely to report prior training. Health care organizations implementing second victim support programs should not rely solely on risk managers to provide support, rather engage and train interested risk managers and provide them with opportunities to practice. PMID:27088771

  20. Influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, Mary G.; Zembower, Teresa R.; Trick, William E.; Hacek, Donna M.; Noskin, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the effect of medical staff role models and the number of health-care worker sinks on hand-hygiene compliance before and after construction of a new hospital designed for increased access to handwashing sinks. We observed health-care worker hand hygiene in four nursing units that provided similar patient care in both the old and new hospitals: medical and surgical intensive care, hematology/oncology, and solid organ transplant units. Of 721 hand-hygiene opportunities, 304 (42%) were observed in the old hospital and 417 (58%) in the new hospital. Hand-hygiene compliance was significantly better in the old hospital (161/304; 53%) compared to the new hospital (97/417; 23.3%) (p<0.001). Health-care workers in a room with a senior (e.g., higher ranking) medical staff person or peer who did not wash hands were significantly less likely to wash their own hands (odds ratio 0.2; confidence interval 0.1 to 0.5); p<0.001). Our results suggest that health-care worker hand-hygiene compliance is influenced significantly by the behavior of other health-care workers. An increased number of hand-washing sinks, as a sole measure, did not increase hand-hygiene compliance. PMID:12603993

  1. The First Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in an Animal Care Worker in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    CARHAN, Ahmet; OZKAN, Ozcan; OZKAYA, Ethem

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a zoonotic pathogen, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of serious disease in animals and people. The present study was to evaluate the health status examination of this seropositive animal care worker in our previous study. Methods: Blood samples were taken from five workers. CIA test was applied to detect antibodies against E. cuniculi in blood serum. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody test was used as confirmation test. Seropositive worker had a complete medical examination. Results: Only one worker was found to be seropositive according to the results of the serological test. Sera positive to E. cuniculi was confirmed with IFAT and spores were detected in the urine sample of the worker. The worker was treated with albendazole. Conclusion: Rabbits should be examined routinely for the presence of anti-E. cuniculi antibody. People working with laboratory animal should avoid contact with urine and faeces of infected or pay attention to personal hygiene. PMID:26246827

  2. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States. PMID:26267591

  3. Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991

  4. Ending neglect: providing effective childhood tuberculosis training for health care workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, R.; Talbot, E. A.; Cronin, B. J.; Christopher, R.; Mkomwa, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Health care facilities in Dar es Salaam, Pwani, and Arusha, Tanzania. Objective: To assess health care worker (HCW) knowledge and practices 1 year after specialized training in childhood tuberculosis (TB). Design: Using a standardized survey, we interviewed a convenience sample of HCWs providing both general and specialized care to children. Results: We interviewed 117 HCWs in TB clinics, maternal and child health clinics, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics, out-patient departments, and pediatric in-patient wards at 12 facilities. A total of 81 HCWs (62% of nurses, 74% of clinicians) reported having attended the national childhood TB training course. Most HCWs responded correctly to questions on childhood TB diagnosis, treatment, and TB-HIV co-management, regardless of training history. Most HCWs reported that they routinely obtain chest radiographs, HIV testing, and a TB contact history when evaluating children for TB. Less than half of HCWs reported routinely obtaining sputum for mycobacterial culture or performing a tuberculin skin test. Three times as many trained as untrained HCWs reported having ever prescribed isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to a child (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In general, levels of childhood TB knowledge were high and practices were in accordance with national guidance. Specific gaps in diagnosis, treatment and use of IPT were identified for future focused training. PMID:26400701

  5. Slip, trip, and fall injuries among nursing care facility workers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Tiesman, Hope M; Ridenour, Marilyn; Konda, Srinivas; Wolf, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the slip, trip, and fall injury experience and trends in a population of nursing home workers, identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries, and develop prevention strategies for slip, trip, and fall hazards. Workers' compensation injury claims data and payroll data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained from six nursing homes and used to calculate injury incidence rates. Narrative information was used to describe details of slip, trip, and fall events. A total of 86 slip, trip, and fall-related workers' compensation claims were filed during the 8-year period. Slip, trip, and fall claim rates showed a nonsignificant increase during the 8-year period. Most slips, trips, and falls were attributed to hazards that can be mitigated (e.g., water on the floor or loose cords in a walkway). Nursing home workers experience more slip, trip, and fall-related injury claims than workers in other industries. Preventive programs should be implemented and evaluated in this industry. PMID:23521142

  6. Assessing Interventions To Improve Influenza Vaccine Uptake Among Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Harunor; Yin, Jiehui Kevin; Ward, Kirsten; King, Catherine; Seale, Holly; Booy, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Despite official recommendations for health care workers to receive the influenza vaccine, uptake remains low. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted to understand the evidence about interventions to improve influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers. We identified twelve randomized controlled trials that, collectively, assessed six major categories of interventions involving 193,924 health care workers in high-income countries. The categories were educational materials and training sessions, improved access to the vaccine, rewards following vaccination, organized efforts to raise vaccine awareness, reminders to get vaccinated, and the use of lead advocates for vaccination. Only one of the four studies that evaluated the effect of a single intervention in isolation demonstrated a significantly higher vaccine uptake rate in the intervention group, compared to controls. However, five of the eight studies that evaluated a combination of strategies showed significantly higher vaccine uptake. Despite the low quality of the studies identified, the data suggest that combined interventions can moderately increase vaccine uptake among health care workers. Further methodologically appropriate trials of combined interventions tailored to individual health care settings and incorporating less-studied strategies would enhance the evidence about interventions to improve immunization uptake among health care workers. PMID:26858382

  7. The Impact of Stress and Support on Direct Care Workers' Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejaz, Farida K.; Noelker, Linda S.; Menne, Heather L.; Bagaka's, Joshua G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research applies a stress and support conceptual model to investigate the effects of background characteristics, personal and job-related stressors, and workplace support on direct care workers' (DCW) job satisfaction. Design and Methods: Researchers collected survey data from 644 DCWs in 49 long-term care (LTC) organizations. The…

  8. Who's Minding the Child Care Workers? A Look at Staff Burn-out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Howes, Carollee

    This study investigates "burn-out" and turnover among workers in child care settings. A total of 95 persons working in 32 child care centers in San Francisco were interviewed by telephone. One-fifth of the centers in the city were represented and both public and private centers were included. Each category of center was proportinately represented…

  9. A Health Care Worker with Ebola Virus Disease and Adverse Prognostic Factors Treated in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Clay, Katherine A; Craig, Darren G; Moore, Alastair J; Lewis, Stephen; Espina, Melanie; Praught, Jeff; Horne, Simon; Kao, Raymond; Johnston, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    We describe the management of a Sierra Leonean health care worker with severe Ebola virus disease complicated by diarrhea, significant electrolyte disturbances, and falciparum malaria coinfection. With additional resources and staffing, high quality care can be provided to patients with Ebola infection and adverse prognostic factors in west Africa. PMID:26903609

  10. Orientation Manual for Child Care Centres Involved in the Recognition of Overseas Trained Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    l'Anson, Christine, Comp.; Harris, Liz, Comp.

    This manual has been primarily developed to assist child care center staff who are involved in the process of the recognition of the qualifications of overseas workers within the child care industry in Western Australia. The information and practical exercises provided aim to increase staff's level of awareness and acceptance of cultural…

  11. A framework for outcome-level evaluation of in-service training of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In-service training is a key strategic approach to addressing the severe shortage of health care workers in many countries. However, there is a lack of evidence linking these health care worker trainings to improved health outcomes. In response, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief’s Human Resources for Health Technical Working Group initiated a project to develop an outcome-focused training evaluation framework. This paper presents the methods and results of that project. Methods A general inductive methodology was used for the conceptualization and development of the framework. Fifteen key informant interviews were conducted to explore contextual factors, perceived needs, barriers and facilitators affecting the evaluation of training outcomes. In addition, a thematic analysis of 70 published articles reporting health care worker training outcomes identified key themes and categories. These were integrated, synthesized and compared to several existing training evaluation models. This formed an overall typology which was used to draft a new framework. Finally, the framework was refined and validated through an iterative process of feedback, pilot testing and revision. Results The inductive process resulted in identification of themes and categories, as well as relationships among several levels and types of outcomes. The resulting framework includes nine distinct types of outcomes that can be evaluated, which are organized within three nested levels: individual, organizational and health system/population. The outcome types are: (1) individual knowledge, attitudes and skills; (2) individual performance; (3) individual patient health; (4) organizational systems; (5) organizational performance; (6) organizational-level patient health; (7) health systems; (8) population-level performance; and (9) population-level health. The framework also addresses contextual factors which may influence the outcomes of training, as well as the

  12. Assessing the implementation of performance management of health care workers in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The performance management concept is relatively new to the Ugandan health sector. Uganda has been implementing health sector reforms for nearly two decades. The reforms included the introduction of the results-oriented management in the public sector and the decentralisation of the management of health care workers from central to local governments. This study examined the implementation of performance management of health care workers in order to propose strategies for improvement. Methods The study was a descriptive survey carried out in the Kumi, Mbale, Sironko and Tororo districts and utilising mixed research methodology. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from the health care workers. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from the health service managers. The sample for the quantitative method was selected using stratified random sampling. Purposive sampling was used to select health service managers. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). Qualitative data were categorised according to the themes and analysed manually. Results The findings show that to some extent performance management is implemented in the health sector; however, there were loopholes in its implementation. There were inadequacies in setting performance targets and performance management planning was hardly done. Although many health care workers had job descriptions, the performance indicators and standards were not clearly defined and known to all workers and managers. Additionally the schedules for performance assessments were not always adhered to. There were limited prospects for career progression, inadequate performance feedback and poor rewarding mechanisms. Conclusions Performance management of health care workers is inadequately done in the districts. Performance management is a key component of attempts to improve health sector outcomes. As a

  13. Quits and Job Changes among Home Care Workers in Maine: The Role of Wages, Hours, and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Figuring out how to make home care jobs more attractive has become a top policy priority. This study investigates the impact of wages, hours, and benefits on the retention of home care workers. Design and Methods: Using a 2-wave survey design and a sample of home care workers from Maine, the factors associated with turnover intentions,…

  14. Professional competencies and training needs of professional social workers in integrated behavioral health in primary care.

    PubMed

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Manoleas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act has led to a widespread movement to integrate behavioral health services into primary care settings. Integrated behavioral health (IBH) holds promise for treating mild to moderate psychiatric disorders in a manner that more fully addresses the biopsychosocial spectrum of needs of individuals and families in primary care, and for reducing disparities in accessing behavioral health care. For behavioral health practitioners, IBH requires a shift to a brief, outcome-driven, and team-based model of care. Despite the fact that social workers comprise the majority of behavioral health providers in IBH settings, little research has been done to assess the extent to which social workers are prepared for effective practice in fast-paced primary care. We conducted a survey of social workers (N = 84) in IBH settings to assess the following: (1) Key competency areas for social work practice in IBH settings and (2) Self-rated preparedness for effective practice in IBH settings. Online snowball sampling methods were used over a period of 1 month. Results indicate that social workers feel prepared for general practice in IBH settings, but would benefit from additional training in IBH-specific competency areas identified in the survey. Findings can help guide social work training to improve workforce preparedness for practice in IBH settings in the wake of health care reform. PMID:24028739

  15. Work-Family Conflict, Psychological Distress and Sleep Deficiency Among Patient Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik Børsting; Reme, Silje Endresen; Sembajwe, Grace; Hopcia, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M.; Kenwood, Christopher; Stiles, Tore C.; Sorensen, Glorian; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is a well-established link between psychological distress, work-related stress and sleep. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that work-family conflict was associated with sleep deficiency both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while controlling for potential covariates. Methods In this two-phase study, a workplace health survey was collected from a cohort of patient care workers (n=1,572) at two large hospitals. Follow-up was collected nearly two years later in a subsample (n=102). Self-reported measures included work-family conflict, socio-demographics, workplace factors, psychological distress, and outcomes of sleep duration, sleep insufficiency, and sleep maintenance. Bivariate associations (P<0.2) from the baseline sample were used to build multivariable logistic regression models. Results The participants were 90 % women with a mean age of 41 (±11.7) years. At baseline, after adjusting for covariates, higher levels of work-family conflict were significantly associated with sleep deficiency, short sleep duration and perceived sleep insufficiency, but not with sleep maintenance problems. Higher levels of work-family conflict also predicted sleep insufficiency at follow-up nearly two years later. None of the other variables were associated with sleep outcomes longitudinally. Conclusion This is the first study to determine the predictive and cross-sectional associations of work-family conflict on sleep deficiency, also controlling for other measures of job stress and psychological distress. The results indicate that future interventions on sleep deficiency in patient care workers should include a specific focus on work-family conflict. PMID:25000547

  16. Family medicine model in Turkey: a qualitative assessment from the perspectives of primary care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A person-list-based family medicine model was introduced in Turkey during health care reforms. This study aimed to explore from primary care workers’ perspectives whether this model could achieve the cardinal functions of primary care and have an integrative position in the health care system. Methods Four groups of primary care workers were included in this exploratory-descriptive study. The first two groups were family physicians (FP) (n = 51) and their ancillary personnel (n = 22). The other two groups were physicians (n = 44) and midwives/nurses (n = 11) working in community health centres. Participants were selected for maximum variation and 102 in-depth interviews and six focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured form. Results Data analysis yielded five themes: accessibility, first-contact care, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. Most participants stated that many people are not registered with any FP and that the majority of these belong to the most disadvantaged groups in society. FPs reported that 40-60% of patients on their lists have never received a service from them and the majority of those who use their services do not use FPs as the first point of contact. According to most participants, the list-based system improved the longitudinality of the relationship between FPs and patients. However, based on other statements, this improvement only applies to one quarter of the population. Whereas there was an improvement limited to a quantitative increase in services (immunisation, monitoring of pregnant women and infants) included in the performance-based contracting system, participants stated that services not among the performance targets, such as family planning, postpartum follow-ups, and chronic disease management, could be neglected. FPs admitted not being able to keep informed of services their patients had received at other health institutions. Half of the participants stated that the list

  17. Knowledge of Maternal and Newborn Care Among Primary Level Health Workers in Kapilvastu District of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R; Gautam, K; Gautam, S; Upadhyaya, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher maternal and neonatal deaths are common in low- and middle-income countries; due to less access to skilled help. Adequate knowledge and skills on maternal and newborn care (MNC) of community health workers can improve maternal and newborn health. Aims: To identify the knowledge of primary level health workers on some components of MNC. Subjects and Methods: Respondents were selected using simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, enumerators visited health institutions for 2 months from 1st October to 31st November 2012, and structured interview schedule was used to gather the information. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of one hundred and thirty-seven primary level health workers in Kapilvastu district, Nepal. The Chi-square test was employed to examine the association between the knowledge of health workers on MNC and designation and work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: In a total of 137 primary level health workers, more than half 53.2% (73/137) were senior auxiliary health workers/health assistant. Health workers having correct knowledge on contents of MNC were-registration 32.1% (44/137), major components of antenatal care 57.7% (79/137), danger signs of pregnancy 39.4% (54/137), five cleans 59.1% (81/137), postnatal health problems 54.0% (74/137), majority to health action to newborn care, newborn bath and meaning of exclusive breastfeeding. There was a statistical association between designation of health workers and above-mentioned components of MNC (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The differentials in the knowledge of MNC among primary level health suggest improving knowledge of the grass root level health workers with appropriate training and development programs. PMID:27144073

  18. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center

    PubMed Central

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to “wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity” before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of “gum disease”. Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers’ response in relation to their specific job. Conclusion: The special health care workers in the disabled children’s center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices. PMID:25878636

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Eye Care: Patient Response to a Medical Social Worker in a Glaucoma Service.

    PubMed

    Fudemberg, Scott J; Amarasekera, Dilru C; Silverstein, Marlee H; Linder, Kathryn M; Heffner, Paul; Hark, Lisa A; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the patient response to a medical social worker in a glaucoma clinic. The literature suggests that medical social workers are effective in a variety of health care settings, yet the efficacy of a medical social worker in an adult ophthalmic setting has not been studied. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of 50 patients with glaucoma referred to a medical social worker between January 5, 2015 and June 31, 2015 in an outpatient clinic of an urban eye hospital. Clinical and demographic data, as well as the data from a quality of care questionnaire, were collected for each patient. Patients rated their interaction with the medical social worker as highly positive (mean = 4.75, 5-point Likert scale), and nearly 90 % of patients expressed interest in future contact with the social worker. Additionally, most patients reported that the social worker resolved the issues they were facing (61.1 %), supported them in seeing their ophthalmologist (70.6 %), and helped them to manage their glaucoma (69.7 %). Reported barriers to glaucoma care were emotional distress; cost of office visits and medications; lack of medical insurance; transportation; poor medication adherence; impairment of daily activities; follow-up adherence; and language. As vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible, it is important to detect and treat patients at early stages of the disease. Therefore, it is imperative for patients to regularly visit their eye care providers and adhere to treatment and follow-up recommendations. This study suggests that a medical social worker could play a pivotal role in helping patients with glaucoma overcome barriers to treatment and facilitate disease management. PMID:26860278

  20. Risks to health care workers from nano-enabled medical products.

    PubMed

    Murashov, Vladimir; Howard, John

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly expanding into the health care industry. However, occupational safety and health risks of nano-enabled medical products have not been thoroughly assessed. This manuscript highlights occupational risk mitigation practices for nano-enabled medical products throughout their life cycle for all major workplace settings including (1) medical research laboratories, (2) pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, (3) clinical dispensing pharmacies, (4) health care delivery facilities, (5) home health care, (6) health care support, and (7) medical waste management. It further identifies critical research needs for ensuring worker protection in the health care industry. PMID:25950806

  1. [Ways of improving health care of industrial workers of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Petrov, P P; Asylbekova, G O; Zhakashov, N Zh; Kul'zhanov, M K

    1992-01-01

    The health of industrial workers should be considered from the point of view of broad social positions and primarily from the working and living conditions and the state of health services. Environmental factors should also be taken into consideration. Periodic medical check-ups of industrial workers indicate that their health is improving. Despite the success achieved, this problem in Kazakhstan is not being adequately solved, there are only 61 health units. Hospital beds in these institutions do not have necessary specialization corresponding to the profile of industrial enterprises. Numerous industrial enterprises, oil-and-gas extracting works pollute the environment, which has been confirmed by respective examples. The authors provide evidence for the necessity of economic education for the population. Preliminary results of experimental introduction of a new economic mechanism and medical insurance in Kazakhstan are being considered as factors contributing to the improvement of public health financing resources. PMID:1470989

  2. Role and outcomes of community health workers in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Grace W; Mburu, Gitau; Torpey, Kwasi; Frost, Peter; Ford, Nathan; Seeley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The provision of HIV treatment and care in sub-Saharan Africa faces multiple challenges, including weak health systems and attrition of trained health workers. One potential response to overcome these challenges has been to engage community health workers (CHWs). Methodology A systematic literature search for quantitative and qualitative studies describing the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care between inception and December 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa was performed in the following databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science, JSTOR, WHOLIS, Google Scholar and SAGE journals online. Bibliographies of included articles were also searched. A narrative synthesis approach was used to analyze common emerging themes on the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Results In total, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria, documenting a range of tasks performed by CHWs. These included patient support (counselling, home-based care, education, adherence support and livelihood support) and health service support (screening, referral and health service organization and surveillance). CHWs were reported to enhance the reach, uptake and quality of HIV services, as well as the dignity, quality of life and retention in care of people living with HIV. The presence of CHWs in clinics was reported to reduce waiting times, streamline patient flow and reduce the workload of health workers. Clinical outcomes appeared not to be compromised, with no differences in virologic failure and mortality comparing patients under community-based and those under facility-based care. Despite these benefits, CHWs faced challenges related to lack of recognition, remuneration and involvement in decision making. Conclusions CHWs can clearly contribute to HIV services delivery and strengthen human resource capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. For their contribution to be sustained, CHWs need to be recognized, remunerated and integrated in wider health systems. Further

  3. Perspectives of Parents and Health Care Workers on Early Infant Male Circumcision Conducted Using Devices: Qualitative Findings From Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mavhu, Webster; Hatzold, Karin; Ncube, Getrude; Fernando, Shamiso; Mangenah, Collin; Chatora, Kumbirai; Mugurungi, Owen; Ticklay, Ismail; Cowan, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommend early infant male circumcision (EIMC) for prevention of HIV. Here, we present findings from a qualitative study in Zimbabwe that assessed parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices. Methods: This qualitative study was nested within a trial of EIMC devices. Between January and May 2013, we held 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 12 in-depth interviews with parents and 12 in-depth interviews with clinicians (7 trial clinicians and 5 non-trial clinicians). We also conducted 95 short telephone interviews with parents who had arranged to bring their sons for EIMC but then defaulted. Results: Parents who had adopted EIMC spoke of their initial anxieties about the procedure. Additionally, they commented on both the procedure and outcome. Parents who decided against EIMC cited fear of harm, specifically the infant's death, penile injury, and excessive pain. Misperceptions about male circumcision in general and EIMC specifically were a significant barrier to EIMC adoption and were prevalent among health care workers as well as parents. In particular, the findings suggest strong parental concerns about the fate of the discarded foreskin. Parents who chose EIMC for their newborn sons felt that the procedure was safe and expressed satisfaction with the outcome. For their part, health care workers largely thought that EIMC was safe and that the outcome was aesthetically pleasing. They also felt that it would be feasible to offer wide-scale EIMC for HIV prevention in the public sector; they recommended strategies to increase EIMC uptake, in addition to highlighting a few concerns. Conclusions: The qualitative study enables us to better understand parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices, especially their perspectives on EIMC safety, feasibility, acceptability, and barriers. These findings

  4. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  5. Evaluating a Hygiene Education Program for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.

    Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…

  6. The HIV-positive dentist: balancing the rights of the health care worker and the patient.

    PubMed

    Gardam, M A; Flanagan, W F; Salit, I E

    2001-06-12

    We describe a hypothetical case of an HIV-positive dentist without cognitive impairment who uses proper infection control procedures. The dentist's physician notifies the medical officer of health without the dentist's consent. Although HIV-positive health care workers, including dentists, have been identified in the past, proven HIV transmission to patients is very rare. Most authorities recommend that an HIV-positive health care worker be monitored by an expert panel, which could then, if necessary, refer to the regulatory body to revoke or restrict the person's license to practice. Mandatory HIV testing is not required for health care workers because they generally do not pose a risk for infecting their patients; they are, however, ethically and legally obligated to report their HIV status to their profession's regulatory body. PMID:11450216

  7. Workplace stress, job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention of health care workers in rural Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ming-Che; Jou, Rong-Chang; Liao, Cing-Chu; Kuo, Chung-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Workplace stress (WS) has been found to affect job satisfaction (JS), performance, and turnover intentions (TIs) in developed countries, but there is little evidence from other countries and especially rural areas. In rural Taiwan, especially, there is an insufficient health care workforce, and the situation is getting worse. To demonstrate the relationship, we used a cross-sectional structured questionnaire, and data from 344 licensed professionals in 1 rural regional hospital were analyzed using the structural equation model. The results showed that WS had a positive effect on both TI and job performance (JP) but a negative effect on satisfaction. JS did improve performance. For the staff with an external locus of control, stress affected JP and satisfaction significantly. For the staff with lower perceived job characteristics, JS affected performance significantly. The strategies to decrease stress relating to work load, role conflict, family factors, and working environment should be focused and implemented urgently to lower the turnover rate of health care workers in rural Taiwan. PMID:24174390

  8. Responding to the Affordable Care Act: a leadership opportunity for social workers in employee assistance programs.

    PubMed

    Frauenholtz, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Until recently, estimates indicated that more than half of Americans obtain health insurance through their employers. Yet the employer-based system leaves many vulnerable populations, such as low-wage and part-time workers, without coverage. The changes authorized by the Affordable Care Act (2010), and in particular the Health Insurance Marketplace (also known as health insurance exchanges), which became operational in 2014, are projected to have a substantial impact on the provision of employer-based health care coverage. Because health insurance is so intricately woven with employment, social workers in employee assistance programs (EAPs) are positioned to assume an active leadership role in guiding and developing the needed changes to employer-based health care that will occur as the result of health care reform. This article describes the key features and functions of the Health Insurance Marketplace and proposes an innovative role for EAP social workers in implementing the exchanges within their respective workplaces and communities. How EAP social workers can act as educators, advocates, and brokers of the exchanges, and the challenges they may face in their new roles, are discussed, and the next steps EAP social workers can take to prepare for health reform-related workplace changes are delineated. PMID:25095628

  9. A Focus on Literacy in Home Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Susan W.

    Although about 15 percent of young children are cared for in a home day care setting, there is little information available on literacy experiences provided for children in home day care. This study examined literacy environments in home day care centers in St. Joseph County, Indiana. Sixty-one family day care providers responded to a mail survey…

  10. Parenting the Poorly Attached Teenager. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Faust, Timothy Philip

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module explores the attachment process and the long-term effects of attachment difficulties in the first years of a child's life. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of identifying the basic concepts…

  11. Drinking, Drugs & Youth: Use and Abuse. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; And Others

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module examines substance abuse by children aged 10 years and above. The module's learning objectives address: (1) family rules and coping mechanisms relevant to substance-abusing youth; (2) characteristics of adolescent…

  12. Neglecting the Importance of the Decision Making and Care Regimes of Personal Support Workers: A Critique of Standardization of Care Planning Through the RAI/MDS

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Pia C.; Miller, Karen-Lee; Mitchell, Gail J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Resident Assessment Instrument–Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is an interdisciplinary standardized process that informs care plan development in nursing homes. This standardized process has failed to consistently result in individualized care planning, which may suggest problems with content and planning integrity. We examined the decision making and care practices of personal support workers (PSWs) in relation to the RAI/MDS standardized process. Design and Methods: This qualitative study utilized focus groups and semi-structured interviews with PSWs (n = 26) and supervisors (n = 9) in two nursing homes in central Canada. Results: PSWs evidenced unique occupational contributions to assessment via proximal familiarity and biographical information as well as to individualizing care by empathetically linking their own bodily experiences and forging bonds of fictive kinship with residents. These contributions were neither captured by RAI/MDS categories nor relayed to the interdisciplinary team. Causal factors for PSW exclusion included computerized records, low status, and poor interprofessional collaboration. Intraprofessional collaboration by PSWs aimed to compensate for exclusion and to individualize care. Implications: Exclusive institutional reliance on the RAI/MDS undermines quality care because it fails to capture residents’ preferences and excludes input by PSWs. Recommendations include incorporating PSW knowledge in care planning and documentation and examining PSWs’ nascent occupational identity and their role as interprofessional brokers in long-term care. PMID:20026525

  13. Preparing BSN Students for Population-Focused Nursing Care.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Schenita; Evans, Charlotte; Bacon, Cynthia T

    2016-01-01

    A baccalaureate nursing program in central North Carolina, in partnership with a local homeless shelter and community clinic, serves a vulnerable, underserved population while helping students gain hands-on experience in population-focused nursing. Students assess health needs, issues in access to care, and other health challenges using health assessment tools, surveys, and one-on-one dialogue. They then prioritize the top three health challenges and issues for the population and plan and implement educational sessions. After this experience, students report greater understanding of the concepts of community health and are able to apply them in practice. It is recommended that others considering this approach collect data to document the effectiveness of services to the population served and for funding of such initiatives. PMID:27209874

  14. Methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus species among health care and nonhealth care workers undergoing cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Randall; Donnenfeld, Eric; Bucci, Frank A; Price, Francis W; Raizman, Michael; Solomon, Kerry; Devgan, Uday; Trattler, William; Dell, Steven; Wallace, R Bruce; Callegan, Michelle; Brown, Heather; McDonnell, Peter J; Conway, Taryn; Schiffman, Rhett M; Hollander, David A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize the bacterial flora of the ocular and periocular surface in cataract surgery patients and to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistance among staphylococcal isolates obtained from health care workers (HCWs) and non-HCWs. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, case series study, eyelid and conjunctival cultures were obtained from the nonoperative eye of 399 consecutive cataract patients on the day of surgery prior to application of topical anesthetics, antibiotics, or antiseptics. Speciation and susceptibility testing were performed at the Dean A. McGee Eye Institute. Logistic regression was utilized to evaluate whether any factors were significant in predicting the presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates. Results: Staphylococcus epidermidis (62.9%), followed by S. aureus (14.0%), was the most frequently isolated organism. Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis accounted for 47.1% (178/378) of S. epidermidis isolates, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus accounted for 29.5% (26/88) of S. aureus isolates. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were found in 157 of 399 (39.3%) patients, the majority (89.2%) of whom were non-HCWs. The likelihood of being colonized with methicillin-resistant organisms increased with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.58; P = 0.04) but decreased with diabetes (OR, 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29–0.89; P = 0.02). Being a HCW (OR, 1.25; 95% CI: 0.61–2.58; P = 0.54) was not a risk factor for colonization with methicillin-resistant organisms. Conclusion: Patients without exposure to health care environments are as likely as HCWs to be colonized with methicillin-resistant organisms. Increasing methicillin resistance with age may partially explain the increased risk of endophthalmitis reported with older age. PMID:21191448

  15. Ethical Behaviours in Clinical Practice Among Mexican Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Lavielle, Pilar; Bedolla, Miguel; Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cultural domain of ethical behaviours in clinical practice as defined by health care providers in Mexico. Structured interviews were carried out with 500 health professionals employed at the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The Smith Salience Index was used to evaluate the relevance of concepts gathered from the free listings of the interviewees. Cluster analysis and factor analysis facilitated construction of the conceptual categories, which the authors refer to as ‘dimensions of ethical practice’. Six dimensions emerged from the analysis to define the qualities that comprise ethical clinical practice for Mexican health care providers: overall quality of clinical performance; working conditions that favour quality of care; use of ethical considerations as prerequisites for any health care intervention; values favouring teamwork in the health professional–patient relationship; patient satisfaction scores; and communication between health care providers and patients. The findings suggest that improved working conditions and management practices that promote the values identified by the study’s participants would help to improve quality of care. PMID:18849364

  16. Burnout as a clinical entity--its importance in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Felton, J S

    1998-05-01

    Burnout, viewed as the exhaustion of physical or emotional strength as a result of prolonged stress or frustration, was added to the mental health lexicon in the 1970s, and has been detected in a wide variety of health care providers. A study of 600 American workers indicated that burnout resulted in lowered production, and increases in absenteeism, health care costs, and personnel turnover. Many employees are vulnerable, particularly as the American job scene changes through industrial downsizing, corporate buyouts and mergers, and lengthened work time. Burnout produces both physical and behavioural changes, in some instances leading to chemical abuse. The health professionals at risk include physicians, nurses, social workers, dentists, care providers in oncology and AIDS-patient care personnel, emergency service staff members, mental health workers, and speech and language pathologists, among others. Early identification of this emotional slippage is needed to prevent the depersonalization of the provider-patient relationship. Prevention and treatment are essentially parallel efforts, including greater job control by the individual worker, group meetings, better up-and-down communication, more recognition of individual worth, job redesign, flexible work hours, full orientation to job requirements, available employee assistance programmes, and adjuvant activity. Burnout is a health care professional's occupational disease which must be recognized early and treated. PMID:9800422

  17. Decolonization of patients and health care workers to control nosocomial spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission has been unsuccessful in many hospitals. Recommended control measures include isolation of colonized patients, rather than decolonization of carriage among patients and/or health care workers. Yet, the potential effects of such measures are poorly understood. Methods We use a stochastic simulation model in which health care workers can transmit MRSA through short-lived hand contamination, or through persistent colonization. Hand hygiene interrupts the first mode, decolonization strategies the latter. We quantified the effectiveness of decolonization of patients and health care workers, relative to patient isolation in settings where MRSA carriage is endemic (rather than sporadic outbreaks in non-endemic settings caused by health care workers). Results Patient decolonization is the most effective intervention and outperforms patient isolation, even with low decolonization efficacy and when decolonization is not achieved immediately. The potential role of persistently colonized health care workers in MRSA transmission depends on the proportion of persistently colonized health care workers and the likelihood per colonized health care worker to transmit. As stand-alone intervention, universal screening and decolonization of persistently colonized health care workers is generally the least effective intervention, especially in high endemicity settings. When added to patient isolation, such a strategy would have maximum benefits if few health care workers cause a large proportion of the acquisitions. Conclusions In high-endemicity settings regular screening of health care workers followed by decolonization of MRSA-carriers is unlikely to reduce nosocomial spread of MRSA unless there are few persistently colonized health care workers who are responsible for a large fraction of the MRSA acquisitions by patients. In contrast, decolonization of patients can be very effective. PMID:23151152

  18. Children's Mental Health in Child Welfare: A Child-Focused Curriculum for Child Welfare Workers and Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiesen, Sally; Cash, Scottye; Barbanell Johnson, Lisa D.; Smith, Thomas E.; Graham, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a child-focused curriculum developed for child welfare workers and social work students. The results from a focus group evaluation are also provided that highlight how the content areas in the curriculum were perceived by participants in terms of interest, practicality, and importance. The major goal of the curriculum was to…

  19. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction among Health-Care Workers of Endoscopy Units in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung-Joo; Chun, Hoon Jai; Moon, Jeong Seop; Park, Sung Chul; Hwang, Young-Jae; Yoo, In Kyung; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The management of job-related stress among health-care workers is critical for the improvement of healthcare services; however, there is no existing research on endoscopy unit workers as a team. Korea has a unique health-care system for endoscopy unit workers. In this study, we aimed to estimate job stress and job satisfaction among health-care providers in endoscopy units in Korea. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey of health-care providers in the endoscopy units of three university-affiliated hospitals in Korea. We analyzed the job stress levels by using the Korean occupational stress scale, contributing factors, and job satisfaction. Results: Fifty-nine workers completed the self-administered questionnaires. The job stress scores for the endoscopy unit workers (46.39±7.81) were relatively lower compared to those of the national sample of Korean workers (51.23±8.83). Job stress differed across job positions, with nurses showing significantly higher levels of stress (48.92±7.97) compared to doctors (42.59±6.37). Job stress and job satisfaction were negatively correlated with each other (R2=0.340, p<0.001). Conclusions: An endoscopy unit is composed of a heterogeneous group of health-care professionals (i.e., nurses, fellows, and professors), and job stress and job satisfaction significantly differ according to job positions. Job demand, insufficient job control, and job insecurity are the most important stressors in the endoscopy unit. PMID:26898513

  20. Developing the Child Care Workforce: Understanding "Fight" or "Flight" Amongst Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care sector in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one only on child care. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This report examines workforce development…

  1. A Model for Art Therapy-Based Supervision for End-of-Life Care Workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Potash, Jordan S; Chan, Faye; Ho, Andy H Y; Wang, Xiao Lu; Cheng, Carol

    2015-01-01

    End-of-life care workers and volunteers are particularly prone to burnout given the intense emotional and existential nature of their work. Supervision is one important way to provide adequate support that focuses on both professional and personal competencies. The inclusion of art therapy principles and practices within supervision further creates a dynamic platform for sustained self-reflection. A 6-week art therapy-based supervision group provided opportunities for developing emotional awareness, recognizing professional strengths, securing collegial relationships, and reflecting on death-related memories. The structure, rationale, and feedback are discussed. PMID:24870589

  2. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Filovirus Disease: A Rapid Review

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Pauline; Hamel, Candyce; Thavorn, Kednapa; Garritty, Chantelle; Skidmore, Becky; Vallenas, Constanza; Norris, Susan L.; Egger, Matthias; Eremin, Sergey; Ferri, Mauricio; Shindo, Nahoko; Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Background A rapid review, guided by a protocol, was conducted to inform development of the World Health Organization’s guideline on personal protective equipment in the context of the ongoing (2013–present) Western African filovirus disease outbreak, with a focus on health care workers directly caring for patients with Ebola or Marburg virus diseases. Methods Electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched. Eligibility criteria initially included comparative studies on Ebola and Marburg virus diseases reported in English or French, but criteria were expanded to studies on other viral hemorrhagic fevers and non-comparative designs due to the paucity of studies. After title and abstract screening (two people to exclude), full-text reports of potentially relevant articles were assessed in duplicate. Fifty-seven percent of extraction information was verified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework was used to inform the quality of evidence assessments. Results Thirty non-comparative studies (8 related to Ebola virus disease) were located, and 27 provided data on viral transmission. Reporting of personal protective equipment components and infection prevention and control protocols was generally poor. Conclusions Insufficient evidence exists to draw conclusions regarding the comparative effectiveness of various types of personal protective equipment. Additional research is urgently needed to determine optimal PPE for health care workers caring for patients with filovirus. PMID:26451847

  3. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

  4. Challenges Faced by Social Workers as Members of Interprofessional Collaborative Health Care Teams.

    PubMed

    Ambrose-Miller, Wayne; Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2016-05-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is increasingly being seen as an important factor in the work of social workers. A focus group was conducted with Canadian social work educators, practitioners, and students to identify barriers and facilitators to collaboration from the perspective of social work. Participants identified six themes that can act as barriers and facilitators to collaboration: culture, self-identity, role clarification, decision making, communication, and power dynamics. These findings carry important implications for interprofessional collaboration with social workers in health practice. PMID:27263200

  5. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations. PMID:26720584

  6. Peer support workers: an untapped resource in primary mental health care.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Juan J; Perez, Juan; Kidd, Jacquie

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of moderate to severe mental illness in a primary health care setting is an area under development and can be contentious. The capacity, capability, resourcing and willingness of staff and organisations all feature in the discussions among specialist services and primary health care providers about the opportunities and barriers associated with primary mental health care. This paper presents the peer support worker as an untapped resource that has the potential to support the patient, primary health care staff, and general practitioner in the care of people who fall outside the current understanding of "mild" mental health problems, but who would nonetheless benefit from receiving their care in a primary health care setting. PMID:25770722

  7. Child Care Training Needs Assessment: A Report on the Training Needs of Child Care Workers in Seventeen Agencies in the SUNYA Catchment Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary; And Others

    An assessment study was conducted to compile a comprehensive view of the training needs of child care workers in eastern upstate New York. A Needs Assessment Questionnaire was distributed to 539 child care workers, and 65% were returned. The questionnaires concerned demographic, specific job-related, and training-related information. In addition,…

  8. Health and Safety Resources for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Employee Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Organized into three sections, these resource materials provide basic information for child caregivers about occupational hazards associated with child care work; personnel policies, staff burnout and environmental stressors; and employee rights. Contents of the first section include a general discussion of health and safety hazards in child care…

  9. Home care workers: injury prevention through risk factor reduction.

    PubMed

    Jarrell, R B

    1997-01-01

    Home health care professionals work in a nonstandard and unpredictable environment for which few controls are available. The professional must cope with a residence's existing access, cleanliness, facilities, and other occupants (including pets), among other factors, and these vary between homes. This chapter suggests interventions that can reduce risks to employees, patients, and family members. PMID:9353822

  10. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  11. Suicidal and depressive symptoms in Filipino home care workers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat

    2012-03-01

    The study consisted of a cross sectional sample of 178 Filipino home care workers who completed the Paykel Suicide Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Respondents also completed questionnaires about exposure to abuse and perceived social support. Overall, 35% of the sample reported exposure to some type of abuse within their home/work environment. For those reporting low levels of satisfaction with care recipient, higher exposure to major lifetime discrimination was associated with higher SIA, whereas for those reporting high levels of satisfaction with care recipient, there was no relationship between exposure to major lifetime discrimination and SIA. Abuse within the home/work environment was the only predictor of depressive symptoms, with greater abuse being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Filipino home care workers in Israel likely are exposed to moderate levels of abuse and discrimination within the home/work environment as well as within society at large. Because live-in home care workers spend the majority of their time within the home/work environment, their relationship with their care recipients have protective qualities that can serve as a buffer against discrimination. Nevertheless, abusive working conditions within their home/work environment have detrimental effects on their mental health. PMID:22124622

  12. Work Stress, Burnout, and Social and Personal Resources among Direct Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…

  13. 22 CFR 40.53 - Uncertified foreign health-care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uncertified foreign health-care workers. 40.53 Section 40.53 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Labor Certification and Qualification for Certain Immigrants §...

  14. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. 1245.14 Section 1245.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status...

  15. Fear of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Kwong-Lo, Rosalie S. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Wong, Joe S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined fear related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among 2 samples of hospital staff in Hong Kong. Sample 1 included health care workers (n = 82) and was assessed during the peak of the SARS epidemic. Sample 2 included hospital staff who recovered from SARS (n = 97). The results show that participants in…

  16. Modeling Dental Health Care Workers' Risk of Occupational Infection from Bloodborne Pathogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capilouto, Eli; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The brief paper offers a model which permits quantification of the dental health care workers' risk of occupationally acquiring infection from bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. The model incorporates five parameters such as the probability that any individual patient is infected and number of patients…

  17. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome of Greek Child Care Workers and Kindergarten Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2015-01-01

    The present study, employing the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey, aims to compare and explore possible differences to the levels of burnout reported by the two main professional groups working in the early childhood education and care sector in Greece, that is kindergarten teachers and childcare workers. The correlation between the…

  18. Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

  19. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. 1245.14 Section 1245.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status...

  20. When the Job Has Lost Its Appeal: Intentions to Quit among Direct Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research indicates that work stress contributes to intentions to quit among direct care workers (DCWs) who provide services to people with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). Though resources can help DCWs cope and remain in a job, little is known about how various dimensions of work stress and resources (social…

  1. Transfer of Learning: A Guide for Strengthening the Performance of Health Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David, Ed.; Dufour, Wendy, Ed.

    This document shares strategies and techniques that can facilitate transfer of learning among health care workers. The guide begins with a discussion of reasons why "good" training fails and lists possible interventions for addressing the following performance factors: job expectations; performance feedback; physical environment and tools;…

  2. Comparison of the 1996 and 2001 census data for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal workers in health care occupations.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emily; Baril, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    To meet the unique health needs of Aboriginal peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis), it is important to increase and encourage Aboriginal representation in health care. One Federal initiative, the Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative (AHHRI) at Health Canada, focuses on: (1) increasing the number of Aboriginal people working in health careers; (2) adapting health care educational curricula to support the development of cultural competencies; and (3) improving the retention of health care workers in Aboriginal communities. A health care system that focuses on understanding the unique challenges, concerns, and needs of Aboriginal people can better respond to this specific population, which suffers disproportionately from ill health in comparison to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. This report examines the supply of Aboriginal health care providers in Canada, based on geographic region, area of residence, Aboriginal identity, and occupation. Findings are drawn from the 1996 and 2001 censuses from Statistics Canada. Quantitative results provide a greater understanding of labour force characteristics of First Nation, Inuit, Métis, and non-Aboriginal health providers. PMID:18447068

  3. [Oncofertility: a new focus in women health-care...].

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N; Dewailly, Didier; Fenichel, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Although treatment and survival are the primary focus of health-care patients, with cancer survivors living longer it is now appropriate to consider their quality of life after treatment, including the possibility of becoming parents. There are several options for fertility preservation in cancer patients. Even though most of them are still experimental and their efficacy and reliability have not been determined, especially in women. The most successful alternative for female survivors is embryo cryopreservation, an approach not suitable for many single or virgin women or even possible for prepubertal girls. Reports of live birth after transplantation of human ovarian tissue have reinforced the clinical potential of ovarian tissue banking for fertility preservation. Many exciting studies are underway to improve the efficacy and solve the problems with current fertility preservation strategies, especially for in vitro culture of cryopreserved tissue or follicles. Continuous efforts to improve current strategies and to develop new strategies will benefit many women and children who are facing premature ovarian failure and sterility. PMID:19878767

  4. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others. PMID:22317644

  5. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of

  6. The Critical Role of Social Workers in Home Based Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Reckrey, Jennifer M.; Gettenberg, Gabrielle; Ross, Helena; Kopke, Victoria; Soriano, Theresa; Ornstein, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The growing homebound population has many complex biomedical and psychosocial needs and requires a team based approach to care (Smith, Ornstein, Soriano, Muller, & Boal, 2006). The [XX] Visiting Doctors Program (MSVD), a large interdisciplinary home based primary care program in [XX], has a vibrant social work program that is integrated into the routine care of homebound patients. We describe the assessment process used by MSVD social workers, highlight examples of successful social work care, and discuss why social workers’ individualized care plans are essential for keeping patients with chronic illness living safely in the community. Despite barriers to widespread implementation, such social work involvement within similar home based clinical programs is essential in the interdisciplinary care of our most needy patients. PMID:24717182

  7. The Impact of a Participatory Care Model on Work Satisfaction of Care Workers and the Functionality, Connectedness, and Mental Health of Community-Dwelling Older People.

    PubMed

    Bernoth, Maree; Burmeister, Oliver K; Morrison, Mark; Islam, Md Zahidul; Onslow, Fiona; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    This study describes and evaluates an innovative program designed to reduce functional decline among seniors, using a participatory care approach and integrated health teams. The evaluation provides older people and community support workers (CSWs) with the opportunity to share their experiences of being involved with an innovative program to reduce functional decline (mobility, skin integrity, nutrition, mental health, continence) of older, community dwelling adults implemented by a Nursing Service in a major capital city in Australia. As part of the program, CSWs were trained to provide care that aimed to reduce functional decline, and improve the quality of life for the care recipients. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with older people receiving care and a focus group (FG) was conducted with CSWs. Seven themes emerged during data analysis: 1) functionality/independence; 2) prevention; 3) confidence; 4) connection; 5) the approach; 6) care plans; and 7) the role of the CSWs. The relationship built between care giver and receiver and the mutual respect facilitated through adopting a participatory care approach was crucial. This relationship-focused care contributed to improved functionality and consequently quality of life for the older person, and for the CSW professional it contributed to their development, improved satisfaction with their role, and increased pride in the difference they make in the lives of their clients. Opportunities for improvement of the program included ensuring that participants understood the rationale for all aspects of the program, including regular reminders, as well as the use of regular reviews of individual outcomes. PMID:27070378

  8. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    PubMed

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  9. Workforce Development Innovations with Direct Care Workers: Better Jobs, Better Services, Better Business.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Wayne F; Morris, John A; Hoge, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    This study describes findings from a national search to identify innovative workforce practices designed to improve the lives of direct care workers serving individuals with mental health and substance use conditions, while simultaneously improving client care, and the business vitality of the employer. The search process, conducted by The Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce, resulted in the selection of five programs to receive the Pacesetter Award from among 51 nominations received. Awardees understood the value of investing in direct care workers, who constitute an essential, but often overlooked, group within the behavioral health workforce. A review of these innovations yielded six cross-cutting principles that should inform future workforce efforts (a) supporting educational and career development (b) increasing wages and benefits PMID:25535046

  10. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  11. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  12. [Guidelines for the prevention and control of tuberculosis in health care workers].

    PubMed

    Casas, Irma; Dominguez, Jose; Rodríguez, Soledad; Matllo, Joan; Altet, Neus

    2015-12-21

    Tuberculosis remains one of the communicable diseases that cause increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With an incidence rate of 13,04 per 100,000 population, Spain ranks third among the most affected European countries. These data show a tendency to decrease meaning that it may go unnoticed with the potential to miss the appropriate preventive measures in a suspected case. In centers where patients are treated with tuberculosis, health care worker presents risk of transmission. This risk is higher in some areas or work units. The Occupational health physicians' services, which monitorize the health of health care workers, use different strategies in order to prevent and detect tuberculosis infection. The national guidelines include the tuberculin skin test as a screening test for tuberculosis infection with mention of new diagnostic tests based on the in vitro detection of gamma interferon (IGRA) for certain cases. The purpose of this guide is to establish common criteria for IGRA tests, as a supplementary aid to the tuberculin skin test in health care workers, from the evidence available today. Recommendations for its use have been adapted to the different situations faced by the professionals involved in monitoring the health of health workers. PMID:26520610

  13. We care don't we? Social workers, the profession and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has impacted all levels of society from the individual to the macro-economic. The continuing spread of infection around the world means that traditional methods of care and support are put under extreme pressure and many families lose their capacity to cope. Social workers are involved in providing care, counseling and support to those affected, and in developing programmes and other interventions to prevent the spread of the disease. Prevention and behaviour change are vital, but access to treatment is an ethical imperative, particularly in developing countries where the epidemic is most prevalent. Social work is a profession uniquely situated to demonstrate leadership in multi-sectoral collaboration in responding to this pandemic. Consequently this paper briefly reviews the scale and current nature of the epidemic and then considers how social workers can help build more compassionate policies at an international level. Social workers can help to create awareness of the negative effects of poverty, tackle gender inequity, help build more effective coalitions and partnerships, and work with other concerned groups and organisations to end stigma and discrimination. Using case examples the paper considers how social workers can help develop caring strategies that improve the lives of those living with HIV and AIDS. PMID:17521984

  14. Evaluation of a stroke family care worker: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M.; O'Rourke, S.; Slattery, J.; Staniforth, T.; Warlow, C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of contact with a stroke family care worker on the physical, social, and psychological status of stroke patients and their carers. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with broad entry criteria and blinded outcome assessment six months after randomisation. SETTING: A well organised stroke service in an Edinburgh teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 417 patients with an acute stroke in the previous 30 days randomly allocated to be contacted by a stroke family care worker (210) or to receive standard care (207). The patients represented 67% of all stroke patients assessed at the hospital during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient completed Barthel index, Frenchay activities index, general health questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, social adjustment scale, mental adjustment to stroke scale, and patient satisfaction questionnaire; carer completed Frenchay activities index, general health questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, social adjustment scale, caregiving bassles scale, and carer satisfaction questionnaire. RESULTS: The groups were balanced for all important baseline variables. There were no significant differences in physical outcomes in patients or carers, though patients in the treatment group were possibly more helpless less well adjusted socially, and more depressed, whereas carers in the treatment group were possibly less hassled and anxious. However, both patients and carers in the group contacted by the stroke family care worker expressed significantly greater satisfaction with certain aspects of their care, in particular those related to communication and support. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a stroke family care worker improved patients' and their carers' satisfaction with services and may have had some effect on psychological and social outcomes but did not improve measures of patients' physical wellbeing. PMID:9133884

  15. Predicting Health Care Utilization in Marginalized Populations: Black, Female, Street-based Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Leah M.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patterns of social and structural factors experienced by vulnerable populations may negatively affect willingness and ability to seek out health care services, and ultimately, their health. Methods The outcome variable was utilization of health care services in the previous 12 months. Using Andersen’s Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, we examined self-reported data on utilization of health care services among a sample of 546 Black, street-based female sex workers in Miami, Florida. To evaluate the impact of each domain of the model on predicting health care utilization, domains were included in the logistic regression analysis by blocks using the traditional variables first and then adding the vulnerable domain variables. Findings The most consistent variables predicting health care utilization were having a regular source of care and self-rated health. The model that included only enabling variables was the most efficient model in predicting health care utilization. Conclusions Any type of resource, link, or connection to or with an institution, or any consistent point of care contributes significantly to health care utilization behaviors. A consistent and reliable source for health care may increase health care utilization and subsequently decrease health disparities among vulnerable and marginalized populations, as well as contribute to public health efforts that encourage preventive health. PMID:24657047

  16. Traditional health practitioners as primary health care workers.

    PubMed

    Hoff, W

    1997-01-01

    The author conducted a field study in 1993 to evaluate the effectiveness of four projects that were training traditional health practitioners (THPs) to provide primary health care (PHC) services in Ghana, Mexico, and Bangladesh. The study, funded by a grant from the World Health Organization, Division of Strengthening Health Services, concluded that incorporating trained THPs in PHC programmes can be cost effective in providing essential and culturally relevant health services to communities. The main objective of the study was to evaluate how effective the training projects were and to determine what impacts they might have upon the communities served. A qualitative field evaluation was performed using data collected from project documents, observations, and field interviews with a selection of health agency staff, THPs, and community members. A summary of results is presented from the four field studies. For details refer to the full report. PMID:9204727

  17. The Role of Community Health Workers in the Re-Engineering of Primary Health Care in Rural Eastern Cape

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Karl; le Roux, Ingrid; Mbewu, Nokwanele; Davis, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary Health Care in South Africa is being re-engineered to create a model of integrated care across different levels of the health care system. From hospitals to clinics, in the community and in the home, health care will focus more on prevention, health-promotion and advocacy for healthy lifestyles and wellbeing, in addition to clinical services. We provide a best practise model of integrating community health workers (CHWs) trained as generalists into a multi-level health system in the Oliver Tambo district of the rural Eastern Cape. Methods Based at Zithulele Hospital, a health care network between the hospital, 13 clinics, and 50 CHWs has been created. The functions of each tier of care are different and complementary. This article describes the recruitment, training, supervision, monitoring, and outcomes when CHWs who deliver maternal, child health, nutrition and general care through home visits. Results CHWs, especially in rural settings, can find and refer new TB/HIV cases, ill children and at-risk pregnant women; rehabilitate malnourished children at home; support TB and HIV treatment adherence; treat diarrhoea, worm infestation and skin problems; and, distribute Vitamin A. CHWs provide follow-up after clinic and hospital care, support families to apply health information, problem-solve the health and social challenges of daily living, and assist in accessing social grants. Case examples of how this model functions are provided. Conclusion This generalist CHW home intervention is a potential model for the re-engineering of the primary health care system in South Africa. PMID:26279948

  18. Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Risk of Burnout in Child Care Workers — A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Peter; Stranzinger, Johanna; Nienhaus, Albert; Kozak, Agnessa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives German child care workers' job satisfaction is influenced by the consequences of unfavourable underlying conditions. Child care workers tend to suffer from psychosocial stress, as they feel that their work is undervalued. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the psychosocial factors of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model influence musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and the risk of burnout. To our knowledge this is the first study investigating the association between the factors of the ERI model and MS in child care workers. Methods and Findings Data from 199 child care workers were examined in a cross-sectional study. Psychosocial factors were recorded with the ERI questionnaire. MS was recorded with the Nordic Questionnaire and risk of burnout with the Personal Burnout scale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Multivariate analysis was performed using linear and logistic regression models. The response rate was 57%. In most of the sample (65%), an effort-reward imbalance was observed. 56% of the child care workers were at risk of burnout and 58% reported MS. Factors associated with risk of burnout were subjective noise exposure (OR: 4.4, 95%CI: 1.55–12.29) and overcommitment (OR: 3.4; 95%CI: 1.46–7.75). There were statistically significant associations between MS and overcommitment (low back pain—OR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.04–4.51), low control (overall MS OR: 3.8; 95%CI: 1.68–3.37) and risk of burnout (overall MS OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.01–5.28). For ERI no statistically significant associations were found with reference to risk of burnout or MS. Conclusion Overcommitment in child care workers is related to MS and risk of burnout. There is also evidence that low control is associated with MS and subjective noise exposure with risk of burnout. Effort-reward imbalance is not related to either outcome. This occupational health risk assessment identifies changeable working factors in different types of facilities. PMID:26488770

  19. Push, pull, and reverse: self-interest, responsibility, and the global health care worker shortage.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Katherine E; Siplon, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    The world is suffering from a dearth of health care workers, and sub-Saharan Africa, an area of great need, is experiencing the worst shortage. Developed countries are making the problem worse by luring health care workers away from the countries that need them most, while developing countries do not have the resources to stem the flow or even replace those lost. Postmodern philosopher Emmanuel Levinas offers a unique ethical framework that is helpful in assessing both the irresponsibility inherent in the current global health care situation and the responsibility and obligation held by the stakeholders involved in this global crisis. Drawing on Levinas' exploration of individual freedom and self-pursuit, infinite responsibility for the Other, and the potential emergence of a just community, we demonstrate its effectiveness in explaining the health care worker crisis, and we argue in favor of a variety of policy and development assistance measures that are grounded in an orientation of non-indifference toward Others. PMID:21744290

  20. Risk and management of blood-borne infections in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Beltrami, E M; Williams, I T; Shapiro, C N; Chamberland, M E

    2000-07-01

    Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. In the health care setting, blood-borne pathogen transmission occurs predominantly by percutaneous or mucosal exposure of workers to the blood or body fluids of infected patients. Prospective studies of HCWs have estimated that the average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure is approximately 0.3%, the risk of HBV transmission is 6 to 30%, and the risk of HCV transmission is approximately 1.8%. To minimize the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission from HCWs to patients, all HCWs should adhere to standard precautions, including the appropriate use of hand washing, protective barriers, and care in the use and disposal of needles and other sharp instruments. Employers should have in place a system that includes written protocols for prompt reporting, evaluation, counseling, treatment, and follow-up of occupational exposures that may place a worker at risk of blood-borne pathogen infection. A sustained commitment to the occupational health of all HCWs will ensure maximum protection for HCWs and patients and the availability of optimal medical care for all who need it. PMID:10885983

  1. Risk and Management of Blood-Borne Infections in Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Elise M.; Williams, Ian T.; Shapiro, Craig N.; Chamberland, Mary E.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. In the health care setting, blood-borne pathogen transmission occurs predominantly by percutaneous or mucosal exposure of workers to the blood or body fluids of infected patients. Prospective studies of HCWs have estimated that the average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure is approximately 0.3%, the risk of HBV transmission is 6 to 30%, and the risk of HCV transmission is approximately 1.8%. To minimize the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission from HCWs to patients, all HCWs should adhere to standard precautions, including the appropriate use of hand washing, protective barriers, and care in the use and disposal of needles and other sharp instruments. Employers should have in place a system that includes written protocols for prompt reporting, evaluation, counseling, treatment, and follow-up of occupational exposures that may place a worker at risk of blood-borne pathogen infection. A sustained commitment to the occupational health of all HCWs will ensure maximum protection for HCWs and patients and the availability of optimal medical care for all who need it. PMID:10885983

  2. FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION (FSD) IN WOMEN HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Margariti, Maria; Nousi, Eftichia; Mistrioti, Dimitra; Lacroix, Richard; Saridi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence and severity of FSD in women working in tertiary hospitals. Material and methods: The study sample was drawn from health care women between the ages of 20 and 65 years, working in two hospitals in Greece. This descriptive study used a structured Greek questionnaire and sexual function screener and quality of life sectors were consisted of rated scale questions. Eighty eight questionnaires were returned properly completed. The statistical analysis used the SPSS statistical program. Results: Female sexual dysfunction is a highly prevalent health issue whose exact incidence is not well defined. Factors that can contribute to female sexual dysfunction may be psychogenic, physical, mixed or unknown. Each of these factors consists of individual components that influence the sexual response; however their precise impact in FSD development and progression is unknown. Moreover, the role of circadian rhythm disorders (especially that of shift work sleep disorder) to the development and progression of FSD has been poorly investigated. Conclusion: Working environment and patterns of work schedules may play a role in FSD however it has been difficult to specify in what extent they contribute to FSD development. PMID:27482157

  3. Test of the Fishbein and Ajzen models as predictors of health care workers' glove use.

    PubMed

    Levin, P F

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of health care workers' glove use when there is a potential for blood exposure. The study hypothesis was that an extension of the theory of planned behavior would explain more of the variance in glove use behavior than the theory of reasoned action or theory of planned behavior. A random sample of nurses and laboratory workers (N = 527) completed a 26-item questionnaire with acceptable content validity and reliability estimates. Using structural equation modeling techniques, intention, attitude, and perceived risk were significant predictors of behavior. Perceived control and attitude were the significant determinants of intention. The theory of reasoned action was the most parsimonious model, explaining 70% of the variance in glove use behavior. The theory of planned behavior extension was a viable model to study behavior related to glove use and reducing workers' risks to bloodborne diseases. PMID:10435547

  4. Pre-event Smallpox Vaccination for Healthcare Workers Revisited – the Need for a Carefully Screened Multidisciplinary Cadre

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, JD D.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract As healthcare institutions are a focus of smallpox transmission early in an epidemic, several mathematical models support pre-event smallpox vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs). The deciding factor for HCW voluntary vaccination is the risk of disease exposure versus the risk of vaccine adverse events. In a United States military population, with careful screening to exclude atopic dermatitis/eczema and immunosuppression, over 1 million vaccinia vaccinations were delivered with 1 fatality attributed to vaccination. Among 37,901 U.S. civilian volunteer healthcare workers vaccinated, 100 serious adverse events were reported including 10 ischemic cardiac episodes and six myocardial infarctions – 2 were fatal. This older population had a higher rate of adverse events due to age related coronary artery disease. T-cell mediated inflammatory processes, induced by live vaccinia vaccination, may have a role in the observed acute coronary artery events. With exclusion of individuals at risk for coronary artery disease, atopic dermatitis/eczema, and immunosuppression, HCWs can be smallpox vaccinated with minimal risk. A smallpox pre-vaccinated multidisciplinary cadre (physician, nurse, infection control practitioner, technician) will supply leadership to deal with fear and uncertainty while limiting spread and initial mortality of smallpox. Stochastic – from the Greek meaning “skillful in aiming” – is currently interpreted as arising from chance and involving probability. This issue’s article “Containing a large bioterrorist smallpox attack: a computer simulation approach” by Longini et al. is a discrete time, stochastic computer simulation model that offers additional planning guidance for a smallpox (variola virus) outbreak (1). Although interpretation of the model’s information may differ, Longini’s article concludes “Given that surveillance and containment measures are in place, preemptive vaccination of hospital workers would further

  5. Examining cultural competence in health care: implications for social workers.

    PubMed

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Lawson, Jennifer; Chow, Julian C C

    2013-08-01

    This article examines and unpacks the "black box" of cultural competence in health interventions with racial and ethnic minority populations. The analysis builds on several recent reviews of evidence-based efforts to reduce health disparities, with a focus on how cultural competence is defined and operationalized. It finds that the use of multiple similar and indistinct terms related to cultural competence, as well as the lack of a mutually agreeable definition for cultural competence itself, has resulted in an imprecise concept that is often invoked but rarely defined and only marginally empirically validated as an effective health intervention. This article affirms the centrality of cultural competence as an essential values-based component of optimal social work practice, while also suggesting future directions for operationalizing, measuring, and testing cultural competence to build an evidence base on whether and how it works to reduce health disparities. PMID:24437019

  6. Perceptions of health and risk management among home care workers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, A; Karlqvist, L; Westerberg, M; Gard, G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Municipal home care workers provide high-quality services to an increasing proportion of elderly people living in private homes. The work environments and working conditions of these workers vary to a great extent, implying rapid priority-making among both employers and employees to ensure that the work can be performed in a safe way. Objectives: This study aims to examine home care workers’ perceptions of health, risks, working conditions, and risk management within their organization. Method: The study was based on cross-sectional data collected from home care service staff in a municipality in the north of Sweden. Nursing assistants and care aides (n = 133) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and between-group differences were analysed. Results: Home care work was perceived to require high levels of professional skill and ingenuity, a good psychosocial work situation, but required a high physical workload. The general health, the capacity and self-efficacy of the staff in relation to work were good. Difficulty in performing risk assessments and following safety regulations due to lack of time, equipment, and information were identified. Conclusion: There is a need to increase participation in risk assessments among the staff, improve management support, structures, and cooperation with other divisions of the social services and the medical care organizations. PMID:24078781

  7. The "brain drain" of health care workers: causes, solutions and the example of Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K

    2012-01-01

    Despite much media attention being given to the physician shortage in Canada in recent years, this shortage pales in comparison to that seen in many middle- and low-income countries. A major cause of the shortage in these countries is the migration of health care workers from developing to developed nations, a phenomenon known as the "brain drain". The loss of these workers is having devastating impacts globally, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Causes of the "brain drain" are numerous and include poor working conditions in poorer countries and active recruitment by richer countries. Jamaica has been one of the countries in the Caribbean hardest hit by mass migration of health care workers. The multiple dimensions of Jamaica's health worker "brain drain" illustrate both the complexity of the issues reviewed in this commentary, and the net loss for low- and middle-income countries. Creative and sustainable solutions to the problem are actively being sought globally, but will require commitment and support from all nations as well as from international funding bodies if meaningful impacts on health are to be realized. PMID:23617992

  8. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the ‘dirty work’. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers’ family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men’s experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity. PMID:27041775

  9. Data on the migration of health-care workers: sources, uses, and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Khassoum

    2004-01-01

    The migration of health workers within and between countries is a growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing and developed countries alike. Policy decisions need to be made at the national, regional and international levels to manage more effectively this phenomenon, but those decisions will be effective and correctly implemented and evaluated only if they are based on adequate statistical data. Most statistics on the migration of health-care workers are neither complete nor fully comparable, and they are often underused, limited (because they often give only a broad description of the phenomena) and not as timely as required. There is also a conflict between the wide range of potential sources of data and the poor statistical evidence on the migration of health personnel. There are two major problems facing researchers who wish to provide evidence on this migration: the problems commonly faced when studying migration in general, such as definitional and comparability problems of "worker migrations" and those related to the specific movements of the health workforce. This paper presents information on the uses of statistics and those who use them, the strengths and limitations of the main data sources, and other challenges that need to be met to obtain good evidence on the migration of health workers. This paper also proposes methods to improve the collection, analysis, sharing, and use of statistics on the migration of health workers. PMID:15375450

  10. The challenges in providing services to clients with mental illness: managed care, burnout and somatic symptoms among social workers.

    PubMed

    Acker, Gila M

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between social workers' experiences when interfacing with managed care organizations and burnout. A total of 591 social workers completed questionnaires that included several measures: Self-perceived competence in the context of managed care, professional involvement with clients with severe mental illness, and burnout. Results showed that self-perceived competence in the context of managed care had statistically significant correlations with burnout dimensions. The author discusses the role of social work schools in preparing students for the realistic aspects of mental health work, and recommends a partnership between managed care organizations and professionals for best care giving. PMID:19946797

  11. Home-Based Direct Care Workers: Their Reported Injuries and Perceived Training Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hamadi, Hanadi; Probst, Janice C; Khan, M Mahmud; Bellinger, Jessica; Porter, Candace

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to profile occupational injury patterns across home health and hospice care (HHC), organization characteristics, and home health aides' (HHAs) individual characteristics, and examine how worker training affects HHAs' risk of reporting an injury using the model of human factors of health care in the home. The authors measured training knowledge using an 11-item scale and conducted univariate and bivariate analyses to describe injury patterns across individual, occupational, and organizational factors using STATA 12.0. The researchers found that work-related injuries and type of injury were associated with increased likelihood of reporting one or more injuries, full-time employment, high hourly pay, and working in an inpatient or mixed setting. Overall, HHAs perceived that they received "excellent" and "good" training on key topics that promoted safety and job knowledge. Furthermore, the results suggested linkages between worker's complex personal, occupational, and organizational characteristics. PMID:27026275

  12. The Role of the Work Context in Multiple Wellness Outcomes for Hospital Patient Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Glorian; Stoddard, Anne M.; Stoffel, Sonja; Buxton, Orfeu; Sembajwe, Grace; Hashimoto, Dean; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Hopcia, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships among low back pain (LBP), inadequate physical activity, and sleep deficiency among patient care workers, and of these outcomes to work context. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patient care workers (N=1572, response rate=79%). Results 53% reported LBP, 46%, inadequate physical activity, and 59%, sleep deficiency. Inadequate physical activity and sleep deficiency were associated (p=0.02), but LBP was not significantly related to either. Increased risk of LBP was significantly related to job demands, harassment at work, decreased supervisor support, and job title. Inadequate physical activity was significantly associated with low decision latitude. Sleep deficiency was significantly related to low supervisor support, harassment at work, low ergonomic practices, people-oriented culture, and job title. Conclusions These findings point to shared pathways in the work environment that jointly influence multiple health and wellbeing outcomes. PMID:21775897

  13. Managing HIV/hepatitis positive patients: present approach of dental health care workers and students.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Nagesh; Baad, Rajendra; Nagpal, Deepak Kumar J; Prabhu, Prashant R; Surekha, L Chavan; Karande, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    People with HIV/HBsAg in India frequently encounter discrimination while seeking and receiving health care services. The knowledge and attitudes of health care workers (HCWs) influences the willingness and ability of people with HIV/HBsAg to access care, and the quality of the care they receive. The objective of this study was to asses HIV/HBsAg-related knowledge, attitudes and risk perception among students and dental HCWs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 250 students and 120 dental HCWs in the form of objective questionnaire. Information was gathered regarding demographic details (age, sex, duration of employment, job category); HIV/ HBsAg-related knowledge and attitudes; risk perception; and previous experience caring for HIV-positive patients. The HCWs in this study generally had a positive attitude to care for the people with HIV/HBsAg. However, this was tempered by substantial concerns about providing care, and the fear of occupational infection with HIV/HBsAg. A continuing dental education program was conducted to resolve all the queries found interfering to provide care to HIV/HBsAg patients. But even after the queries were resolved the care providing capability was not attained. These findings show that even with advanced knowledge and facilities the attitude of dental HCWs and students require more strategic training with regards to the ethics and moral stigma associated with the dreaded infectious diseases (HIV/HBsAg). PMID:23404020

  14. Challenges of Transcultural Caring Among Health Workers in Mashhad-Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Rana; Heydari, Abbas; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Vedadhir, Abou Ali; Kareshki, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the consequences of migration is cultural diversity in various communities. This has created challenges for healthcare systems. Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore the health care staffs’ experience of caring for Immigrants in Mashhad- Iran. Setting: This study is done in Tollab area (wherein most immigrants live) of Mashhad. Clinics and hospitals that immigrants had more referral were selected. Participants: Data were collected through in-depth interviews with medical and nursing staffs. 15 participants (7 Doctors and 8 Nurses) who worked in the more referred immigrants’ clinics and hospitals were entered to the study. Design: This is a qualitative study with content analysis approach. Sampling method was purposive. The accuracy and consistency of data were confirmed. Interviews were conducted until no new data were emerged. Data were analyzed by using latent qualitative content analysis. Results: The data analysis consisted of four main categories; (1) communication barrier, (2) irregular follow- up, (3) lack of trust, (4) cultural- personal trait. Conclusion: Result revealed that health workers are confronting with some trans- cultural issues in caring of immigrants. Some of these issues are related to immigration status and some related to cultural difference between health workers and immigrants. These issues indicate that there is transcultural care challenges in care of immigrants among health workers. Due to the fact that Iran is the context of various cultures, it is necessary to consider the transcultural care in medical staffs. The study indicates that training and development in the area of cultural competence is necessary. PMID:26925887

  15. Dental Care Knowledge and Practice of a Group of Health Workers in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amuh, VO; Okojie, OH; Ehizele, AO

    2014-01-01

    Background: The correlation between knowledge of dental care knowledge and its practice varies among the different health professionals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the knowledge and practice of health workers in a private medical health facility on dental care. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on the health workers in Faith Medical Center, Benin City, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire, containing 31 open and closed questions was used for data collection to assess their knowledge and practice of dental care. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) and WIN PEPI software version 11.15. Results: None of the respondents had a poor knowledge of dental care, but majority had poor practice. The pattern of distribution of knowledge and practice of dental care observed in this study was not significantly affected by age, gender, occupation and working experience. The entire respondents knew that bleeding from the gum is not normal and 96.2% (75/78) gave correct causes of bleeding gums. Majority 88.5% (69/78) also knew that tooth decay is not normal, but fewer 66.6% (52/78) knew the correct causes of tooth decay. Only 37.2% (29/75) of the respondents took correct action after experiencing a toothache (i.e., consulting a dentist for proper management) and majority 80.8% (63/78) and 76.1% (60/78) still make use of toothpicks, which is considered as potentially harmful and frequently consume cariogenic diet respectively. Conclusion: There is a good knowledge of dental care, but poor oral health practices among the studied health workers. Oral health education to correct their improper practices is therefore highly advocated. PMID:25364607

  16. Knowledge of community care workers about key family practices in a rural community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, Marjorie; Eygelaar, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions by community care workers within the context of community-based integrated management of childhood illness (CIMCI) may have a positive effect on child health if the health workers have adequate knowledge about key family practices. Setting The study was conducted in rural areas of the West Coast district in the Western Cape, South Africa. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of community care workers about five of the 16 key family practices of CIMCI. Methods A descriptive survey collected a self-administered questionnaire from 257 community care workers out of a possible total of 270 (95.2% response rate). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied. Results Only 25 of the respondents (10%) obtained a score higher than 70% on the knowledge-based items of the questionnaire. Less than 25% of respondents answered questions in these key areas correctly (pneumonia [17%], tuberculosis [13%], HIV/AIDS [9%] immunisation [3%] and recommendations for a child with fever [21%]). Statistically significant correlations were found between the total score a respondent achieved and the highest level of education obtained (p < 0.01), the level of in-service training (p < 0.01), attendance of a CIMCI five-day training course (p < 0.01), and completing a subsequent refresher course (p < 0.01). Conclusion The knowledge of CCWs was inadequate to provide safe, quality CIMCI. CIMCI refresher courses should be offered annually to improve CCWs’ knowledge and the quality of care that they render. Regular update courses could contribute to building competence. PMID:26842523

  17. Clinical mentorship to improve pediatric quality of care at the health centers in rural Rwanda: a qualitative study of perceptions and acceptability of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence supporting Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) as a strategy to improve pediatric care in countries with high child mortality, its implementation faces challenges related to lack of or poor post-didactic training supervision and gaps in necessary supporting systems. These constraints lead to health care workers’ inability to consistently translate IMCI knowledge and skills into practice. A program providing mentoring and enhanced supervision at health centers (MESH), focusing on clinical and systems improvement was implemented in rural Rwanda as a strategy to address these issues, with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of pediatric care at rural health centers. We explored perceptions of MESH from the perspective of IMCI clinical mentors, mentees, and district clinical leadership. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with 40 health care workers from 21 MESH-supported health centers. Two FGDs in each district were carried out, including one for nurses and one for director of health centers. District medical directors and clinical mentors had individual in-depth interviews. We performed a hermeneutic analysis using Atlas.ti v5.2. Results Study participants highlighted program components in five key areas that contributed to acceptability and impact, including: 1) Interactive, collaborative capacity-building, 2) active listening and relationships, 3) supporting not policing, 4) systems improvement, and 5) real-time feedback. Staff turn-over, stock-outs, and other facility/systems gaps were identified as barriers to MESH and IMCI implementation. Conclusion Health care workers reported high acceptance and positive perceptions of the MESH model as an effective strategy to build their capacity, bridge the gap between knowledge and practice in pediatric care, and address facility and systems issues. This approach also improved relationships between the district supervisory team and health center-based care

  18. [Blood-borne infections and the pregnant health care worker. Risks and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Wicker, S; Rabenau, H F; Haberl, A E; Bühren, A; Bechstein, W O; Sarrazin, C M

    2012-02-01

    Due to the increasing proportion of women in health care, as well as changes in working conditions (implementation of safety devices, minimally invasive/endoscopic procedures) the question arises whether the applicable laws and regulations for the protection of working mothers are outdated and should be updated.Individual risk analysis, as well as the inclusion of the pregnant health care worker in the decision-making process with regard to continuation or modification of the work practice serves as a protection of the expectant mother and unborn child and allows a continuation of the occupational activities. PMID:21901466

  19. Social Capital Theory: Another Lens for School Social Workers to Use to Support Students Living in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…

  20. A Time Series Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Attrition of Older Adult Child-Care Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally; Engel, Rafael; Ward, Christopher; Karip, Emin; Faux, Robert

    The work-related and personal factors associated with the willingness and ability of older adults to remain as child care workers and the factors associated with leaving child care work were studied in a time-series design. Subjects were 534 persons aged 50 years and older who were working for pay as child care providers. Of these, 341 replied to…

  1. Proceedings of the Annual National Conference for Child Care Workers (2nd, Valley Forge, PA, October 9-12, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Norman W., Jr., Ed.

    The speeches, papers, and workshops descriptions presented at the second annual National Conference for Child Care Workers are presented. Several issues relating to child care supervision, child care work, and child development are considered along with the management of group living environments and various aspects of supervision. Job…

  2. Gamma delta T cell responses associated with the development of tuberculosis in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane J; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Leonor; Martins, Marta; Leandro, Clara; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Arroz, Maria J; Ventura, Fernando A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluated T cell immune responses to purified protein derivative (PPD) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in health care workers who remained free of active tuberculosis (HCWs w/o TB), health care workers who went on to develop active TB (HCWs w/TB), non-health care workers who were TB free (Non-HCWs) and tuberculosis patients presenting with minimal (Min TB) or advanced (Adv TB) disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with Mtb and PPD and the expression of T cell activation markers CD25+ and HLA-DR+, intracellular IL-4 and IFN-gamma production and cytotoxic responses were evaluated. PBMC from HCWs who developed TB showed decreased percentages of cells expressing CD8+CD25+ in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. HCWs who developed TB showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cell cytotoxicity and decreased CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. PBMC from TB patients with advanced disease showed decreased percentages of CD25+CD4+ and CD25+CD8+ T cells that were associated with increased IL-4 production in CD8+ and gammadelta TCR+ phenotypes, in comparison with TB patients presenting minimal disease. TB patients with advanced disease showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cytotoxicity and reduced CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that HCWs who developed TB show an early compensatory mechanism involving an increase in lytic responses of gammadelta TCR+ cells which did not prevent TB. PMID:15708307

  3. Field experiment of a very brief worksite intervention to improve nutrition among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Despite the potential of worksite interventions to boost productivity and save insurance costs, they tend to be costly and tested in nonrandomized trials. The aim of the present study was to test the ability of a very brief worksite intervention based on implementation intentions to improve nutrition among health care workers. Seventy-nine health care workers were randomly allocated to a control condition or to form implementation intentions using standard instructions or with a supporting tool. Fruit intake and metacognitive processing (operationalized as awareness of standards, self-monitoring and self-regulatory effort) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Participants who formed implementation intentions ate significantly more fruit and engaged in significantly more metacognitive processing at follow-up than did participants in the control condition (ds > .70). The findings support the efficacy of implementation intentions for increasing fruit intake in health care workers and preliminary support for the utility of a tool to support implementation intention formation. PMID:25822117

  4. Effects of a psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana; Marques, Alda; Sousa, Liliana; Nolan, Mike; Figueiredo, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a person-centered care-based psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with people with dementia living in aged-care facilities. An experimental study with a pretest-posttest control-group design was conducted in four aged-care facilities. Two experimental facilities received an 8-week psycho-educational intervention aiming to develop workers' knowledge about dementia, person-centered care competences, and tools for stress management. Control facilities received education only, with no support to deal with stress. In total, 332 morning care sessions, involving 56 direct care workers (female, mean age 44.72 ± 9.02 years), were video-recorded before and 2 weeks after the intervention. The frequency and duration of a list of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors were analyzed. Within the experimental group there was a positive change from pre- to posttest on the frequency of all workers' communicative behaviors. Significant treatment effects in favor of the experimental group were obtained for the frequency of inform (p < .01, η(2)partial = 0.09) and laugh (p < .01, η(2)partial = 0.18). Differences between groups emerged mainly in nonverbal communicative behaviors. The findings suggest that a person-centered care-based psycho-educational intervention can positively affect direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia. Further research is required to determine the extent of the benefits of this approach. PMID:26400182

  5. Patient focused care team design. Critical aspects of a cost-effective design strategy.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    It is the critical, yet largely unknown aspects of Patient Focused care team design--the "how" of a design process--which make LRMC's "Care Pairs" a ground-breaking innovation rather than just a distinctive-sounding name. Unfortunately, many hospital leaders of Patient Focused Care programs know the "what" of LRMC's "Care Pairs" but very little, if anything, about this "how." To create Patient Focused care teams which are "right" for your own institution, you must quantify the Costs of Continuity, Competency and Compartmentalization and their associated benefits. Without these informed trade-offs, you and your hospital will be forced to live with someone else's Patient Focused care team design. In summary, it is what you don't know about LRMC's "Care Pairs," not what you do know, that is important to your Patient Focused Care program. Hospitals just beginning to implement Patient Focused Care must understand this "how" if they are to design effective care teams which optimize the performance of their initial unit(s) within their unique environments. Hospitals like LRMC with established Patient Focused Care units must also periodically draw upon this "how" or they face the very real danger of having their Patient Focused care team design(s) become outdated, less effective and eventually detrimental. Or, said another way: "The man who does not read good books has no advantage over those who cannot." Mark Twain. "An out-of-date Patient Focused hospital has no advantage over those which remain unrestructured." The PFCA. The three critical aspects of Patient Focused care team design explored in this article are just the tip of the iceberg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10133389

  6. Community Care Workers, Poor Referral Networks and Consumption of Personal Resources in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa

    2014-01-01

    Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data – CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers. PMID:24781696

  7. Community care workers, poor referral networks and consumption of personal resources in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa

    2014-01-01

    Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers. PMID:24781696

  8. Pre‐pandemic planning survey of healthcare workers at a tertiary care children’s hospital: ethical and workforce issues

    PubMed Central

    Cowden, Jessica; Crane, Lori; Lezotte, Dennis; Glover, Jacqueline; Nyquist, Ann‐Christine

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Cowden et al. (2010). Pre‐pandemic planning survey of healthcare workers at a tertiary care children’s hospital: ethical and workforce issues. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(4), 213–222. Background  Prior to the development of written policies and procedures for pandemic influenza, worker perceptions of ethical and workforce issues must be identified. Objective  To determine the relationship between healthcare worker (HCW) reporting willingness to work during a pandemic and perception of job importance, belief that one will be asked to work, and sense of professionalism and to assess HCW’s opinions regarding specific policy issues as well as barriers and motivators to work during a pandemic. Methods  A survey was conducted in HCWs at The Children’s Hospital in Denver, Colorado, from February to June 2007. Characteristics of workers reporting willingness to work during a pandemic were compared with those who were unwilling or unsure. Importance of barriers and motivators was compared by gender and willingness to work. Results Sixty percent of respondents reported willingness to work (overall response rate of 31%). Belief one will be asked to work (OR 4·6, P < 0·0001) and having a high level of professionalism (OR 8·6, P < 0·0001) were associated with reporting willingness to work. Hospital infrastructure support staffs were less likely to report willingness to work during a pandemic than clinical healthcare professionals (OR 0·39, P < 0·001). Concern for personal safety, concern for safety of family, family’s concern for safety, and childcare issues were all important barriers to coming to work. Conclusions  Educational programs should focus on professional responsibility and the importance of staying home when ill. Targeted programs toward hospital infrastructure support and patient and family support staff stressing the essential nature of these jobs may improve willingness to work. PMID

  9. Inverse roles of emotional labour on health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Erika; Abe, Takeru; Ono, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    Emotional labour increases among long-term care workers because providing care and services to impaired elders causes conflicting interpersonal emotions. Thus, we investigated the associations between emotional labour, general health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 132 established, private day care centres in Tokyo using a mail survey. The outcome variables included two health-related variables and four job satisfaction variables: physical and psychological health, satisfaction with wages, interpersonal relationships, work environment and job satisfaction. We performed multiple regression analyses to identify significant factors. Directors from 36 facilities agreed to participate. A total of 123 responses from long-term care workers were analysed. Greater emotional dissonance was associated with better physical and psychological health and worse work environment satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -2.93, p = .0389; -3.32, p = .0299; -1.92, p = .0314, respectively). Fewer negative emotions were associated with more job satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -1.87, p = .0163). We found that emotional labour was significantly inversely associated with health and job satisfaction. Our findings indicated that the emotional labour of long-term care workers has a negative and positive influence on health and workplace satisfaction, and suggests that care quality and stable employment among long-term care workers might affect their emotional labour. Therefore, we think a programme to support emotional labour among long-term care workers in an organized manner and a self-care programme to educate workers regarding emotional labour would be beneficial. PMID:25263457

  10. Racial disparities in job strain among American and immigrant long-term care workers

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, David A.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Ertel, Karen A.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Cabot, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing homes are occupational settings, with an increasing minority and immigrant workforce where several psychosocial stressors intersect. Aim To examine racial/ethnic differences in job strain between Black (n=127) and White (n=110) immigrant and American direct-care workers at nursing homes (total n=237). Methods Cross-sectional study with data collected at four nursing homes in Massachusetts, during 2006-2007. We contrasted Black and White workers within higher-skilled occupations such as Registered Nurses (RNs) or Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs, n=82) and lower-skilled staff such as Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs, n=155). Results Almost all Black workers (96 percent) were immigrants. After adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics, Black employees were more likely to report job strain, compared to Whites (Relative Risk [RR]: 2.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 6.6). Analyses stratified by occupation showed that Black CNAs were more likely to report job strain, compared to White CNAs (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.0 to 9.4). Black workers were also more likely to report low control (RR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.0). Additionally, Black workers earned $2.58 less per hour and worked 7.1 more hours per week on average, controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Black immigrant workers were 2.9 times more likely to report job strain than Whites, with greater differences among CNAs. These differences may reflect organizational and job characteristics, individual characteristics, or potentially interpersonal or institutional racial or ethnic discrimination. Further research should consider the role of race/ethnicity in shaping patterns of occupational stress. PMID:22591096